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There are different kinds of texts and in this unit we are going to check their main characteristics

Narrative Texts
The purpose of narrative text is to entertain, to tell a story, or to provide an aesthetic literary experience. Narrative text is based on life experiences and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language. Its structure uses that of stories. The genres that fit the narrative text structure are: folktales e.g. wonder tales, fables, legends, myths, realistic tales!, contemporary fiction, mysteries, "#, realistic fiction, historical fiction $e need to know how narrative texts work and how to read them because stories are used for many important purposes in our world. %dvertisers and politicians use stories to persuade and win us over. $riters of novels and memoirs weave often complicated stories through which they examine ideas and events. Narrative texts, which include both non-fiction e.g., memoirs! and fiction e.g., novels!, also help us to understand how other texts work by contrasting the different types through the study of different texts and how they work and are made. #inally, narrative fiction often provides the only encounter with the imagination during the course of the school day& in this one respect, teaching such texts is vital.

Descriptive texts
% descriptive text is a text that wants you to picture what they are describing. % novel might want you to imagine the characters and see them in your mind. % travel book will want you to see the country it is describing
Descriptive texts usually: make use of ad'ectives and adverbs use comparisons to help picture it - something is like something employ your five senses - how it feels, smells, looks, sounds and tastes Examples: The morning air was crisp and sharp as Sean walked down the road. The pavement was slippery and cold beneath his feet like a slimy wet fish.

Instructive texts
%n instructive text is a text that instructs or tells you how to do something
% recipe wants to instruct you how to cook something. % leaflet with a piece of furniture wants to tell you how to put it together or take care of it. are written as though the reader is being spoken to although the word (you( is not usually used! language is direct and unnecessary words are left out often use (must( and (must not( sometimes use diagrams or pictures to help understanding

Put all ingredients into bowl together. Whisk until fully mixed. Go to the end of the road and turn left past the pub on the corner. Keep walking until you come to a park and then turn right into awker Street.

Informative texts

%n informative text is a text that wants to advise or tell you about something.
% newspaper article might give you information about a health issue like giving up smoking. % website might give you information about a movie, band or something that you are interested in. % handout from school might be advising you about what your child will be doing during the next term. Informative texts usually: avoid repetition contain facts give information in a clear way - introducing the sub'ect and then developing it Examples: !ake a plan to help you try and give up smoking. Plan the date you"ll give up# how you"ll try to deal with temptations and a list of the reasons why you are giving up to keep motivated. $utumn term% &our child will be covering simple fractions during weeks '() .

Persuasive texts
% persuasive text is a text that really wants you to do something
%n advert might want you to buy something. )ou might write a letter to persuade a friend to go on holiday with you, or to try and get off a parking ticket .

Persuasive texts might use:

repeated words text in capital letters exclamation marks rhetorical *uestions *uestions where no answer is needed! an emotional one-sided argument humour Examples: SP*+,$- .//*01 2uy today1 Would you want to miss this SP*+,$- offer3 Phone 4.W... 5, really think that you need this holiday. &ou have been working very hard lately and are so worn out. 6ust think of how nice it will be to lie on the beach in the sunshine

Inference & Reference Inference


An assumption or conclusion that is rationally and logically made, based on the given facts or circumstances. An inference is based off of facts, so the reasoning for the conclusion is often logical.

DEFINI I!N % reference, or a reference point, is the intentional use of one thing, a point of reference or reference state, to indicate something else. $hen reference is intended, what the reference points to is called the referent +eferences are indicated by sounds like onomatopoeia!, pictures like road signs!, text like bibliographies!, indexes by number! and ob'ects a wedding ring!& but endless concrete and abstract methods can be used intentionally. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography

"NI #

P$EFI%E& ' &"FFI%E&

(ost words used in the English language today were not originally English) hese words were borrowed *taken+ from other languages) he ma,ority of English words have -atin or .reek origins) /hen taking the !EF-0 * est of English as a Foreign -anguage+1 it is helpful to know some of these origins or 2roots2 of English vocabulary) It may be possible to guess the meaning of an unknown word when one knows the meaning of its root) 3nowing prefixes and suffixes can also assist in the process) 4s you know1 prefixes and suffixes are like pu55le pieces which are added to roots in order to create new words1 in a process morphologically known as word6formation1 and that also includes compound words) In linguistics1 word formation is the creation of a new word)) /ord formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change1 which is a change in a single word7s meaning) 4n English word can consist of three parts: the root1 a prefix and a suffix) he root is the part of the word that contains the basic meaning *definition+ of the word: he root is the base element of the word1 which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents) 4 prefix is a word element that is placed in front of a root) 4 prefix changes the word7s meaning or makes a new word) 4 prefix can be a group of letters added before a word or base to alter its meaning and form a new word) In contrast1 a suffix is a group of letters added after a word or base) Prefixes and suffixes are called affixes because they are attached to a root) Example: $oot: act root *act+: means 2do2 or 2perform2 Prefix: rePrefix *re6+: &uffix: -ion means 2back2 or 2again2 &uffix *6ion+: indicates that the word has become a noun

act *root+:


react *prefix 8 root+:

2do back2

reaction *prefix 8 root 8 suffix+:

something done back


verb9 to perform1 behave noun9 a definition: performance1 a thing done

verb9 to act in response to something1 to act in opposition to something ;ow will she react when she hears the news<


noun9 a response to something1 an opposing action ;er reaction to the news was childish)


:ou act like a child)



"&EF"- P$EFI%E& 4ND &"FFI%E&

P$EFI%E& Group 1 contains the more common prefixes like RE- and UNGroup ! contains less common ones - often those found in compound words like "##R$E%%

.roup = *>?+
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