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In This Issue
Productivity Perspectives 4 Oxygen-generation power costs cut 65% with VPSA system 6
Control panels, with complex wiring and multiple control stations, replaced by shoe box-size PLC

Geography is truth when it comes to water issues 20

Chicago, Western Australia, Singapore and San Francisco share WEFTEC stage and many challenges

All water problems are local 21

Culligan guy now appears on plant oors software in hand

Answers to common questions about media-bed ltration 10

Opening size, construction materials, PVC internals and wirecloth versus wedge-ow among issues

News in brief 22 New Product Spotlight 24 Advertiser Index 24

Determining adequate dissolved oxygen concentrations 14

Someone recently asked, What are process controls for dissolved oxygen during biological treatment?

Pumping advances address wastewater treatment basics 16

From oc formation to clump strengthening, sludge removal and disposal

Cover photo credits: noomcpk2528/iStockphoto/Thinkstock; think4photop/iStockphoto/Thinkstock; James Martin/iStockphoto/Thinkstock

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Administrative Team: General Manager, Barry Lovette Vice President of Operations, Brent Kizzire Vice President of Finance, Brad Youngblood

Water Waste Processing

Group Director of Circulation & Fulllment, Delicia Poole Circulation Manager, Anna Hicks
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2 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

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Productivity Perspectives
Clean-in-Place is a big deal in the food & beverage industries. Once a processor has its CIP down pat and we mean pat managers will be extremely loath to change it. So when an industry giant like Coca-Cola talks about major changes to the way it cleans and sanitizes, it may pay to listen. Something of the business case for using electrolyzed water for process cleaning and sanitation was presented at Process Expo 2013 by Pete Duessel, a director of quality assurance at Coca-Cola Refreshments, in Chicago in early November. Coca-Cola itself refers to the process as electro-chemically activated water, or ECA. Were always looking at leaner and cleaner ways to do things, says Duessel. We rst heard of electrolyzed water about ve years ago. In lean, exible production environments we need to quickly clean and sanitize product changeovers at any time. It turns out all you have to do is combine potable water with a little bit of salt and apply an electrical current to get a cleaning solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), as well as an hypochlorous acid (HOCL) sanitizer. energy use and safety risk in CIP . Thorough cleaning and sanitizing of process equipment is possible with increased productivity and reduced costs. Afterwards, cleaning uid is quickly neutralized upon contact with organic materials, making its disposal environmentally friendly, and, as they say, sustainable. To develop the technology Coca-Cola partnered with EAU, specialists in the use of electrolyzed water in its varied industrial and commercial applications. EAU started working with SPX in 2011 to supply ECA equipment to the food & beverage industry.

Coca-Cola talks electrolyzed water sanitation for CIP

various applications including sauces and dressings, for example. We have a great trial program that allows interested customers the chance to use the technology for their specic process to see the benets rst-hand before deciding on additional investment. The entire CIP market has been estimated at $2 billion.

Obtained approvals
Today, ECA is an available technology, known as SafeWater, from SPXs APV brand. The biggest challenge keeping ECA from becoming SOP for CIP , claims Sporer, is the conservative nature of the market in wanting to change out of traditional CIP practices. You need to be passionate about proving that the new technology is going to help to improve plant safety and save on costs and environmental impact which is why giving customers access to a trial program is so critical. We also have the needed approvals from the FDA, USDA and EPA. As for the business case, depending on the size of the operations involved, savings can be, Sporer says, anywhere from $100,000 to $1 million per year, with typical return on investment of about two years. Reductions in wastewater can be from 20% to 40%. Its exciting because the missionary work has been done and were now seeing the potential this really has.

Managing probes
Coca-Cola is using the technology in the production of its sparkling and preserve non-carbonated drinks, i.e., both sodas and more trendy tea and other type drinks. We are replacing a hot, caustic CIP with an ECA-based process that is effective in a carbon-dioxide environment, and replacing a pungent change-over process, says Duessel. The biggest challenge in doing this is around automation of ECA CIP , including measurement gear for chlorine and pH, with probes being a task to manage. The chlorine-based sanitizer is ushed after use and is delivered at such low concentrations that any residual chlorine is not such as to lead to corrosion. Its not yet clear how big the market is for for ECA. We feel this is a real game changing CIP technology for food and beverage processors, says Jeff Sporer, director, product and aftermarket sales, SPX Flow Technology. To date, weve done trials in

As simple as that?
Well, to actually apply it in industry it gets a bit more complicated. But its already used in carpet cleaning, vegetable washing and horticulture and in restaurants in Japan. For CIP , the big differences from the way its usually done are that heat neednt be applied and harsh chemicals are absent. The two uid streams are instead used at ambient temperature. That alone reduces

Kevin Parker, Editorial Director

4 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

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Oxygen-generation power costs cut 65% with VPSA system

Control panels, with complex wiring and multiple control stations,
replaced by shoe box-size PLC
By Cliff Lebowitz
system was manufactured by AirSep Corp., Buffalo, N.Y ., working closely with plant management and staff on oxygen-generated versus oxygen-needed. As a result, the system includes a 22-second idle feature. It is equipped for fully automatic and unattended operation, including turndown capability from 100% to zero ow capacity, and remote monitoring by AirSep engineers. Idle time and turndown is automatic for the new systems motor, and can be changed as needed, Bass says. The system also stores
Replacing a cryogenic plant with a custom-engineered vacuum pressure swing absorption (VPSA) system saved electric power costs for oxygen production at a wastewater treatment plant. Buffer tank (left) holds oxygen, produced via indoor and outdoor equipment, prior to delivery into plants activated sludge treatment process.

data for a three-day period. If we have any problem, we can download it for evaluation ourselves, or jointly with the system manufacturer. They helped us through construction and startup, and sent a trainer to spend two days with us. He did a very good job teaching us troubleshooting. Its a real user-friendly system, and easy to go in and make changes, Bass said. When we had an episode where our dissolved oxygen dropped and we needed a little more, we called on them for help, and they were back to us in an hour. They told us to simply lower the idle time to 20 seconds, and our DO was back to normal within a day.

A custom-engineered vacuum-pressure swing-absorption (VPSA) system, used to replace a cryogenic plant, cut electric power costs for oxygen production 65%, report managers at a 21 MGD wastewater treatment plant in Rocky Mount, N.C. The VPSA-system investment was spurred by the waste and increasing power costs associated with the plants pure oxygen, biological nutrient removal (BNR)-type activated sludge system. The new VPSA system costs us only $345 per day for electricity, compared to over $1,000 per day with the cryo plant, Kirk Bass, wastewater treatment superintendent says. When you go with a new process, you always hope for the best. This one has not

only paid off, but has done so as quickly as was promised. Bass says key to power savings with the 27-ton per day VPSA unit, installed last February, are idle-time and turndown options not available with the cryogenic plant. In addition, the unit is customized to the tonnage needed, rather than having been chosen from available capacity increments. The cryo not only had no idle, it didnt offer a turndown, he recalls. You had to run its motor wide open, with no way to cut back. One-half to two-thirds of the oxygen discharged as excess to the atmosphere. We had the benet of power at a very reasonable price, but eventually we had to look at shutting it down. The custom-engineered VPSA oxygen

A need to breathe
Oxygen is needed for the 21 MGD, Grade 4 WWTPs pure oxygen, BNR-type activated sludge system, which is followed by tertiary

6 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

ltration, chlorine disinfection, dechlorination and post-aeration. Removed solids are processed by dissolved air otation and anaerobic digestion before pasture-land application. While the population served has increased since the plants 1983 startup, ow has decreased due to the closing of most of the local textile plants, and it now averages only 10-12 MGD. We used to average over 15 MGD, and high ows would approach the permitted 21 MGD. We pumped as much oxygen as possible into the basins. Pressure transducers showed one inch of water, with the vents wide open. Now the vents are pretty much closed off and the pressure is 0.1 inch or less, Bass recalls. We were successful lowering oxygen costs by 15% by switching to LOX for awhile,

but when energy costs started going up, our director of water resources, Wayne Hollowell, had us engage a local consulting engineering rm, The Wooten Company, to work with myself and our wastewater engineer, Jim Connolly, to evaluate alternatives, including VPSA, and follow through to implementation. We originally thought the payback on the VPSA would be seven years, and we are on track to see it at least that fast. Charles Davis, project manager at Wooten, based in Raleigh, N.C., notes that the projected energy savings via the VPSA option helped to fund the project. We were able to get a $500,000 grant from our North Carolina Energy Ofce that was tied to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), he recalls. The remaining funding
Custom-engineered VPSA system, available in actual tonnage requirement, offers automatic turndown and idle for 700 HP motor (center). High speed turbines and compressors are replaced by low-speed blowers, including vacuum blower (left) and feed air blower (right).

was from our states Infrastructure Finance Section, a revolving loan at 0% interest.

Savings and support

Davis says that following an RFP vendor selection process the choice of AirSep was based on more than just cost. Proposals had

Write In 104 | Water/Waste Processing | December 2013 7

tors for other tasks, and Im looking forward to seeing further savings result from that. Dan Gays DWG Associates of Cumming, Ga., was the high-purity oxygen consultant to the City of Rocky Mount. His company assisted Wooten with the preparation of specications for replacement of the old cryo plant with the stateof-the-art VPSA oxygen generator. tems operate at speeds measured in milliseconds, which allows for very precise analyses. We support VPSA plants around the world, and are able to identify the source of any operational issues in the time that it takes to receive and send an email.

Custom-engineered VPSA
The treatment plant was running off of LOX
Silencers for vacuum blower discharge (left front), feed air intake (right front), vacuum blower suction inlet (left rear), and feed air blower discharge (right rear) complement a user-friendly operator interface.

for quite some time since the cryo plant had been down, but that didnt present any special challenge, notes AirSeps project manager, Jim Hitro. With our own plant design philosophy calling for minimizing complexity, and our extensive and diversied VPSA installation experience available to us, including replacing cryo plants, we were readily able to provide what their consulting engineer referred to as a seamless transition. What once took 20 foot-long control panels, with hundreds of wires and multiple control stations, has been replaced by a shoe boxsize PLC. Simple low-speed blowers replace the cryo plants high speed turbines and compressors. AirSeps VPSA engineering manager, Terry Daniels, says the companys design philosophy lends itself to an easy understanding of the entire VPSA operation by the plant personnel now responsible for the new system. The entire VPSA plant is turned on or off with the touch of a button, and the operator interface graphically displays real-time plant operation information in a user-friendly display format, he says. The interface also collects and stores all operating data for trending, as well as for ease of troubleshooting if required. Operators easily identify potential issues before they become a problem. If a plant operator needs additional assistance, AirSep is available to assist. Our data collection sysAirSep Corp., a division of Chart Industries, offers custom-engineered VPSA oxygen systems, with capacities ranging from 3,000 SCFH (79 Nm3/ hr) to 115,000 SCFH (3,023 Nm3/hr), and has installations around the world representing a variety of applications. For further information, contact Lawrence Hughes, AirSep Corp., Commercial Products Division, 260 Creekside Drive, Buffalo, N.Y. 14228, Tel. 716-691-0202, ext. 6253, Fax 716-691-1255,, cpd@ After our equipment is installed and turned over to our customer, AirSep Vice President Lawrence Hughes says, we continue to provide engineering support on an ongoing basis, at no charge, working to increase the customers expertise and comfort level with our equipment.
A design philosophy that calls for minimizing complexity, as well as easy understanding of the entire VPSA operation, allows engineering support on an ongoing basis.

to show benchmarks for system turndowns of 40-50%, and they were able to produce that. As it turned out, they were able to perform even greater than expected in that regard. Equipment and fabrication drawings were provided up front, with assistance later in training plant operators in maintenance and troubleshooting, as well as with plant startup, Davis says. And we worked together closely to achieve a seamless transition from the former oxygen system to the new one. Shankar Mistry, Wootens senior process engineer, provided valuable insight in preparation of detail design plans and specications around AirSeps proposal. Ralph Mobley was the construction contract administrator. H.G. Reynolds Company of Henderson, N.C., was the construction contractor for the installation. We also knew Dan Gay from previous projects as an oxygen generation expert, and were very glad to have him available to our team as a consultant, including input on drawings and on site, Davis says. The former system had large motors and considerable instrumentation and controls, and operators had to attend to it daily, babysitting it during multiple shifts each day, he says. The new system has freed up opera-

AirSep Corp.
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8 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

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Solids removal

Answers to common questions about media-bed ltration

Opening size, construction materials, PVC internals and wire-cloth
versus wedge-ow among issues
By E. Marvin Greenstein Excessive pressure drop Filter screen clogging Excessive backwash requirements These complaints can be relieved by the use of properly designed and specied equipment and equipment internals (arguably the most important investment in media bed ltration). Unfortunately, most new equipment and retrot inquiries do not include enough hard and specic data to ensure the proper product selection.

The nonspecic inquiry

A typical inquiry to the ltration product manufacturer might ask for a set of header laterals to form a distribution system for an activated carbon column or demineralizer tank. The manufacturer may be supplied with:
In any process where a fluid is being distributed through media, it is important to retain uniform cross-sectional velocity forcing the fluid to flow uniformly and contact all media in the bed.

Request for the lateral system Overall size and coniguration of desired system Flow rate This data can certainly be used to produce a set of header laterals. In fact, a great variety of header laterals might be produced, all conforming to these rather nonspecic specications. The question is: Which design would do the best job for the specier? In the ideal situation, the manufacturers application engineers will return to their customers with a set of questions designed to elicit more specic information about the customers over-

Filtration is used in addition to regular coagulation and sedimentation for removal of solids from surface water or wastewater. Wastewater ltration helps users meet more stringent efuent discharge permit requirements, for example. Filtration, usually considered a simple mechanical process, actually involves the mechanisms of adsorption, straining, sedimentation, interception, diffusion and inertial compaction. Many industries utilize media-bed ltration.

This use may take the form of ion exchange for water softening/demineralization, sand ltration, activated carbon or other uid treatment processes. However, whether the application is in a water utility, a power utility, pulp and paper, steel, or any of the process industries, chemicals or pharmaceuticals, problems tend to be very similar. Time and again, the same common complaints arise in the media bed ltration process: Leaking resin or media

10 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

all requirements. For example, they may want to discuss ramications of the ltration process to make certain the process is fully understood and the problem is pinned down. These engineers may also suggest specic upgrades. Wedge ow is often recommended instead of wire-cloth mesh for its characteristics of strength and cleaning ease. Wedge ow can also be installed over drilled pipe. This design offers improved support and better ow into the lateral, ensuring uniform distribution so that all media is used throughout the bed. Of course, this design costs more than an off-the-shelf quick-x.

ever, considerations like these are all part of obtaining an optimum product for the desired application. In fact, it is because such questions are addressed that a retrot may often be an improvement over the original design.

The silent problem

The pulp and paper industry tends to employ large, horizontal sand ilters, gravityfed tanks and river water. Efcient, uniform collection is important because channeling leads to liquid concentration and a premature

Ask the right questions

In order to make sure that the product being ordered for the system is suitable for the process, the plant engineer should ask, or make sure that his purchasing agent asks, questions like: Will the product withstand system pressures? Is it designed to avoid clogging? If it does clog, will it withstand the strain or is it likely to collapse and lose the media? Is it sized to retain the particles in normal use? Will it pass the desired low? Is it designed to minimize pressure loss? Has corrosion been considered? Are proper alloys available and specied? Will the product it the system without necessity for eld modication? Can it be successfully back-washed, or must it be removed for cleaning? If it must be removed, is it easy to take out and put in again? What is its expected life? Obviously, this is a lot to consider. HowWrite In 106 | Water/Waste Processing | December 2013 11

Solids removal
regeneration need. This is a problem not recognized by many plant operators. The result is a system that demands excessive downtime and wastes backwash water. In any process where a uid is being distributed through media, it is important to retain uniform cross-sectional velocity forcing the uid to ow uniformly and contact all media in the bed. Channeling is always the enemy. If the uid is allowed to run into channels, the media will be exhausted in the neighborhood of the channels while it is still fresh and unused (essentially wasted) in other areas. Channeling leads to the premature need for regeneration. Vessel internals determine ow characteristics and therefore its ultimate performance. This has been demonstrated in many retrot applications, where operating time has been increased 15% to 30% before backwash is required. However, uniform ow and a channeling tendency are difcult to predict on the basis of experience alone. Technology-oriented manufacturers use electronic design automation (EDA) to supply the answers. For example, nite element analysis (FEA) is used to computer create the specic working environment of any existing or projected ltration unit. The FEA software package allows application engineers, working with customersupplied process data like ow rates and pressures, to perform a full analysis of the specic situation and/or problems, and suggest optimal solutions. beads of a very uniform size. If the specication calls for 12/l000ths openings, it is important to maintain that size. An opening 15/1000ths is too large, allowing the resin to leak out. On the other hand, 8/l000ths is too restrictive, impeding ow and leading to clogging. Either concession will involve a noticeable performance drop. Materials of construction: The typical liquid seen by a ltration system is water. It can be waste water or boiler feed water, river water, brackish water, sea water or ultrapure water. In the process industries, ltration may also involve a variety of chemicals. Fortunately, most of these uids can be handled by elements made of the appropriate stainless steel, nickel alloy or titanium. The customer should make sure the supplier can provide a material that functions well with the specic system uid used. PVC internals: Some older ltration systems were supplied with PVC (polyvinyl chloride plastic) laterals slotted to retain the media. PVC offers good corrosion resistance but poor structural stability. Flow velocity tends to cause the plastic to ex, altering slot size and conguration and resulting in pressure drop, media loss or sometimes both. Nevertheless, meshwrapped PVC rods can sometimes be applied successfully. Wire cloth vs. wedge ow: Wire-cloth screening is often used with good results in ltration applications, but does not provide the reliability of wedge ow. Since the wires that make up the cloth are round in crosssection, there is always a tendency for it to clog. Triangular cross-section wedge-ow is easier to backwash. In addition, water pressures, system stresses and careless handling can cause abrasions or tears in the wire cloth. Clifton, N.J.-based Newark Wire Co., established in 1911, is a recognized leader in the wire cloth industry to markets including aerospace, pharmaceutical, food, chemical, automotive, medical, environmental and others. The company is uniquely positioned to offer industry a broad selection of reliable, high quality wire cloth products and services, whether roll goods, cut pieces, custom-woven wire cloth or custom fabricated parts. E. Marvin Greenstein is director of engineering with Newark Wire Co. For these reasons, many engineers prefer the strength, clog resistance, ease of backwashing and dimensional stability of wedge ow. These considerations make it clear that the manufacturing of lter internals is as important as the design of the equipment itself.

Final words
In todays plants, ltration products are just one component among many but very important to plant functioning. In some circumstances, the failure of just one element can bring down an entire operation. For long-term, reliable operation, it is important to obtain the optimum product. It is also wise to obtain that product from a supplier who can offer engineering and application assistance, including the latest computer aided design analysis, to ensure the best possible match with the customers own conditions of service.

Specic considerations
Opening size: In water treatment processes like ion exchange, the function of the screen is to keep the resin beads in place, while facilitating uid ow through the bed. Ion exchange resins are tiny

Newark Wire Co.
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12 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |


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The wastewater wizard

Determining adequate dissolved oxygen concentrations

Someone recently asked, What are process controls for dissolved
oxygen during biological treatment?
By Daniel L. Theobald
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is dened in biological treatment as the relative measure of oxygen dissolved in wastewater available to sustain life, including living bacteria. Biological treatment is dened as an aerobic activated-sludge process in the aeration system for treating sewage and industrial wastewater, using air to supply dissolved oxygen and a biological oc composed of organisms, which are living bacteria. Oxygen is needed by living organisms as they oxidize wastes to obtain energy for growth. Therefore controlling oxygen is required for secondary or biological treatment of wastewater. Dissolved oxygen control processes for activated sludge in the aeration system and also efuent discharge, reclamation & reuse include the following: Ambient conditions, as well as wastewater conditions, entering activated sludge affect dissolved oxygen control processes in the aeration system. Proper aeration provides a supply of oxygen, a means of dissolving the oxygen into the activated sludge, and a means of keeping microorganisms from settling out of the mixed liquor. Mixing can be accomplished in many cases with just the action of adding air to the process if adequately distributed. Note that in high-purity oxygen processes, however, the oxygen ow rate is insufcient for adequate mixing and some type of mechanical mixing is also required. When low Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) wastewater is treated, the minimum air ow rate is often based on mixing rather than dissolved oxygen requirements. This is true for both mechanically aerated and diffused air systems. Typically, oxygen requirements are met when the mixed-liquor dissolved oxygen is at 2 mg/L or more. However, optimal dissolved-oxygen ranges can vary signicantly from facility to facility. Low dissolved-oxygen conditions have been observed in high-purity oxygen processes, with dissolved-oxygen levels as high as 10 to 12 mg/L. It is best to experiment with your system to determine what dissolvedoxygen concentration is adequate. important to recognize these early warning signs and make corrections to dissolvedoxygen levels before the quality of the efuent deteriorates. If dissolved oxygen continues to drop, even low dissolved-oxygen lamentous microorganisms will not be present in the mixed liquor, and treatment efciencies will be seriously affected. At this point, efuent turbidity will increase and treatment will deteriorate rapidly. Under severe conditions, mixed liquor may turn a dark gray or even black color and putrid odors may also be present. Visual observations are good as indicators, but actual measurements of both activated sludge dissolved oxygen and efuent water quality should be taken before a determination of cause is made; for example, the black color may be the result of a dye from an industrial discharger. The key to avoiding low dissolved-oxygen conditions is to properly monitor your aeration system. A properly monitored aeration system includes a dissolved-oxygen prole of the entire aeration system. A prole merely means measuring the dissolved oxygen in different locations and at different depths throughout the aeration system. Good airow not only ensures good dissolved-oxygen concentration, but also good mixing. Reactors should be checked periodically to ensure that all portions of

Substantial presences
Indicators of low dissolved-oxygen conditions include substantial presence of low dissolved-oxygen lamentous bacteria in the activated sludge, turbid efuent, or dark gray or black-colored mixed liquor (often with a putrid odor). The rst indicator of low dissolved-oxygen conditions will be the growth of low dissolved-oxygen lamentous microorganisms. As the dissolved oxygen drops, the quantity of these lamentous microorganisms increases, adversely affecting the settle-ability of the activated sludge. As an operator, it is

14 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

the reactor are being adequately mixed and that there are no dead spots that can produce anaerobic conditions. A procedure to do this is to take mixed-liquor grab samples at different locations and depths in the biological reactors and check for consistent suspended solids levels.

matter actually are effective as long as they have any oxygen but you risk dead zones at the low levels. Most treatment organisms survive but persist in the more inefcient anaerobic mode, i.e., facultative organisms can live in either condition. Higher dissolved oxygen is often a target but in reality this is for assurance of mixing. If dissolved oxygen is 5.0 or higher there is good comfort that dead zones are minimal since normal currents and mixing will transport the oxygenated mixed liquor throughout the equipment. But if the higher Dissolved Oxygen is by excessive mechanical or less likely excessive blowers then there could be a settling problem due to shearing of oc and re-suspension of inert materials.

Dissolved-oxygen efuent at the secondary clarier is primarily affected by the dissolved-oxygen control processes during the activated-sludge process. Certain general steps for controlling dissolved oxygen have been described above. However, if you have specic dissolved oxygen or other wastewater queries, please submit a question.

Additional considerations
The dissolved-oxygen level for aeration is dependent on type of treatment and risk of low dissolved oxygen impairing performance of aerobic microorganisms. To know that a system is fully mixed and aerobic, dissolved oxygen of 2.0 is a good target the lower the dissolved oxygen, the more efcient is oxygen transfer. The aerobic organisms which remove more organic

Submit your questions on wastewater treatment issues to Dan. View the answers in Water/ Waste Processing magazine and its associated newsletters and website. Ask-the-Wastewater-Expert

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Industrial water treatment

Pumping advances address wastewater treatment basics

From oc formation to clump strengthening, sludge
removal and disposal
By Greg Kriebel

While most peoples first thought when considering water treatment is the municipal variety, there is also a huge amount of industrial water and wastewater treatment. To help optimize their water-treatment operations, facility managers must identify and incorporate the proper pumping technology.

Since the beginning of recorded time, societies have found ways to properly treat and dispose of water fouled through the course of its use. Meeting these needs has made the water/wastewater-treatment industry grow to $136 billion in revenues in 2011 in the United States, with an annual growth rate between 3.0% and 4.5%.

When people hear the phrase water treatment, however, what comes to mind is taking water that will be used in domestic settings and removing any impurities, making it safe to drink, cook with, bathe in and wash clothes with; in other words, municipal water treatment. From a broader perspective, water treatment can have a number of

completely different meanings. In industry, for instance, water taken from a nearby river is used for boiler or cooling-tower makeups. In the oileld, water used or produced during drilling and recovery is treated and sold to farmers for use in eld-irrigation activities. In other words, theres a whole lot of water being treated at all times, and not just

16 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

so a loving parent can whip up a pitcher of lemonade for the kids. To this point, an integrated wastewatertreatment system, with many different types of equipment working hand-in-hand including metering and peristaltic (hose) pumps, and polymer make-down systems can be used in a straight-line treatment process. This will deliver the most cost-effective and efcient way to treat industrial wastewater, all while making it safe for disposal or reuse in any number of additional activities.

tiny particles clump together in a mass that is called a oc, which is easier to remove. Two of the more popular types of coagulants/ occulants that are used in water/wastewater treatment are alum and ferric chloride. Alum is an economical way to say hydrat-

ed potassium aluminum sulfate, which has been used since Roman times to aid drinking and industrial-process water purication. Alum coaxes negatively charged colloidal particles to clump together so they will be able to be more easily removed from settling basins.

Compact, cost effective, and multi-functional

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Challenges, produced and used

Most water used or produced in industrial applications contains some level of solid particles. These particles are never consumed, of course, but particle-laden water also cant be used, for example, in a boiler that provides steam to a turbine during power generation, lest the turbine become fouled and damaged. Recognizing the presence of particulates in water and successfully removing them, however, are two different things. Some particles which can be anything from bacteria and plant material to dirt or minuscule pieces of crushed stone are so small that their response to gravity is very low. In other words, they dont fall through water at a consistent rate because their mass is not much impacted by gravity. This means that it may take many hours, days or even weeks for the particles to settle as little as a foot. This is an unacceptable, and unpredictable, settling rate for a water or wastewater-treatment system, so the particles need some help in settling or clumping. To speed along the settling or clumping process, the water-treatment facility introduces a coagulant or occulant that helps the

Tested and certied Integrates various functions in a single block: ltering, pressure sensoring, temperature measurement Fewer ttings, welds and cemented joints means increased plant reliability Compact, space-saving designs Perfect for Chemical, Environmental, Water Treatment, and Power Generation industries

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Industrial water treatment

Liquid polymer blending systems feature a non-mechanical mixing chamber that allows reliability when activating all types of liquid polymer for use in water or wastewater treatment.

Ferric chloride is another name for Iron (III) chloride. It undergoes hydrolysis when dissolved in water, which gives it the ability to sufciently form suspended solid particles into ocs.

lected and sent to a centrifuge, or just piled up on the ground outside the water-treatment facility, allowed to dry and then removed via front-end loader and dump truck. Removing sludge from water requires a pump that can run dry and wont be bothered by abrasive materials. In other words, a pump that has the capability to take whatever ows into it no matter its makeup and deliver it out the discharge side in that same form.

ferric chloride. Mechanically actuated pumps eliminate use of contour plates on the liquid side of the diaphragm, resulting in a simple, straight-through valve and head design that allows improved ow characteristics. These pumps handle clear liquids with viscosities ranging from water-like to 5,000 cPs, appropriate for use in industrial water and wastewater-treatment applications. Capacity is manually adjustable via micrometer dial while the pump is running. This allows the pump to produce ow rates ranging from 10 gph to 450 gph at head pressures up to 150 psi. The pumps liquid ends are constructed of PVC, 316 stainless steel or Kynar. Washdownduty and explosion-proof motors, as well as variable frequency drive options, are also available. The pumps are also self-priming.

The ocs we form

The ocs formed by alum and ferric chloride are held together rather loosely, which means that they can break apart if agitated as they settle in the clarier or settling basin. Eliminating this break-up potential requires the introduction of a polymer solution that helps form more efcient ocs. The polymer takes the neutralized solid particle clumps and binds them together more tightly. The clumps that settle in the basin form a material that is called sludge. The use of alum by itself leads to the generation of a large amount of sludge; the introduction of polymer helps further coagulate the sludge. However, the sludge requires removal and disposal. Accumulated sludge can be col-

Inevitable three stages

Industrial water or wastewater treatment, then, is a three-stage integrated process: initial oc formation with alum and ferric chloride, clump strengthening with polymer and removal and disposal of the sludge. Not all makers of wastewater-treatment equipment offer full lines of pumping and polymerblending technology for water-treatment applications. Mechanical metering pumps, such as the Neptune 7000 Series are for dosing alum and

Blending systems
Liquid polymer blending systems, such as Fluid Dynamics dynaBLEND, can have nonmechanical mixing chambers that allow reli-

18 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

construction lets the pump produce discharge pressures as high as 16 bar. Industry uses untold millions of gallons of water and produces untold millions of gallons of wastewater each and every day. Properly handling and disposal or reuse of this wastewater requires process stages that must work together seamlessly, from alum and ferric chloride introduction, to polymer injection, to sludge removal. Each stage requires different technologies, which can often have the
Pre-wired and pre-piped skid-mounted arrangement of pumping and polymer makedown equipment needed for a water-treatment system.

wastewater-plant operator moving in many different directions to identify a solution. A one-stop shop for industrial wastewater treatment, with a ready supply of metering pumps, polymer make-down systems and peristaltic pumps, all of which work hand-in-hand, can be an efcient and cost-effective approach to industrial wastewater treatment. Finally, look for pre-piped and wired skid-mounted systems for installation ease. Greg Kriebel is with Fluid Dynamics, a division of Neptune Chemical Pump Co., North Wales, Pa. Contact him at greg.kriebel@dynablend. com or 215-699-8700, ext. 3361.

able delivery when activating all types of liquid polymer for use in water or wastewater treatment. The systems injection check valve is made with easy disassembly and inspection in mind, eliminating a maintenance concern that troubles other systems. These features allow application of ultra-high mixing energy at the point of initial polymer and water contact to prevent polymer gelling and agglomeration. The prolonged turbulence created allows completion of the blending process gently and fully. Finally, after the polymer is initially activated, gentle mixing energy does not break the fragile long polymer chains formed.

Peristaltic (hose) pumps, such as the Abaque Series, ensure that whatever goes into the pump comes out of the pump. Applied to sludge removal, these pumps can handle solid particles up to 18 mm and soft particles as large as 31 mm. A seal-free design eliminates leaks, to handle anything from abrasive and aggressive uids to shear-sensitive and viscous materials. Pumps can run in either forward or reverse, are self-priming, dry-running and offer suction-lift capabilities to 9 meters, as well as the ability to run dry continuously without adversely affecting the pumps performance. Ductile-iron and steel

Neptune is an operating company within Pump Solutions Group (PSG), Oakbrook Terrace, Ill., PSG is comprised of several leading pump companies, including Abaque, Almatec, Blackmer, Ebsray, Finder, Griswold, Maag, Mouvex, Neptune, Quattroow and Wilden. Find more information on PSG at

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The word on water

Geography is truth when it comes to water issues

Chicago, Western Australia, Singapore and San Francisco share
WEFTEC stage
The mayor of Chicago was running late. Therefore, those attending WEFTECs plenary session, and not the previous keynote session, ended up getting to listen to
Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel

City that works

Chicago is blessed to have 20 miles of publicly accessible lakefront and, given the Chicago River, 20 miles of riverfront as well, the mayor pointed out. But as with other large cities in the northern United States, Chicago is looking at huge costs for renewing infrastructure. In the second year of its current investment program, the city is looking to replace or rebuild 900 water lines, 160,000 catch basins and 12 pumping stations. By programs end, we will gain two years of water supply currently lost through breakage, the mayor said. By means of this investment we put 18,000 people to work. The panel members included Harlan Kelly, general manager of the San Francisco public utilities commission; Chew Men Leong, chief executive, PUB Singapore; Sue Murphy, CEO, Water Corp. of Western Australia; and Heiner Markoff, president & CEO, GE Water + Process Technologies. As is well known, Singapore about the same size as Chicago, but with twice as many people is intent on maintaining its independence from Malaysia. Yet it is dependent on that neighbor for about one-half of its water supply. For security reasons, says Men Long, We need to change that. Therefore, he adds, Singapore looks to innovative technology, including desalination and recycling as the best opportunity for increasing independence.

Way out west

In Western Australia the situation is something else again, says Murphy. Western Australia is a lot like Texas, she says, but big. Only 2.5 million people inhabit the huge area, which includes desert in the south and jungle in the north. Even then, a full two million of those live in the city of Perth, which itself is built on sand. A change in prevailing weather patterns, assumed to be caused by rising average annual temperatures, has reduced rainfall by about 20% annually. For all these reasons, use of water needs to change drastically in Western Australia, including use of desalination plants as a source for drinking water; wastewater renewal for reinjection into water reservoirs; and a further 8% reduction in water use. San Francisco gets its water by piping it in under force of gravity from a source about 200 miles away. That movement can be a source of energy. The city has a single combined water system, with three treatment centers. Like Chicago, its biggest current challenge is aging infrastructure. About 60% of its water pipes are more than 70 years old. What all the localities had in common was that population growth, aging infrastructure and changing climate were pushing them to nd more sustainable solutions on a global scale, whether by means of technology, good management practices or innovative nancing.

his Honor Rahm

Emanuel brag on his city repeatedly being recognized for having the best-tasting water in the United States. The 86th annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference took place at McCormick Place South along Chicagos lakefront, Oct. 7-9. The plenary was the most appropriate session for the mayors appearance because his remarks could easily be compared with what was top of mind for those on the regularly scheduled panel, folks coming out of Singapore, San Francisco and Western Australia. Most striking were the diverse challenges faced by the different geographies involved, and also the panel members conviction that critical water issues and climate change were real. Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes totally within the borders of the United States. From being in a dire state, the Great Lakes were brought back to health based on a 1909 international treaty.

20 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

All water problems are local

Culligan guy now appears on plant oors software in hand
Almost everyone knows Hey, Culligan man, from the radio and television commercials that have spanned decades and are part of American culture. That raucous voice and that phrase are a big part of why Culligan, the provider of home water softeners and ltration systems, is such a recognizable brand name to consumers. Perhaps less well known is the companys approach to the industrial sector and the existence of Culligan Matrix Solutions, a division of Rosemont, Ill.-based Culligan International Co. As you might expect, Culligan Matrix Solutions looks to take advantage of the economies of scale in design, manufacturing and distribution Culligan has to offer based on its more than 800 dealers in 90 countries, as well as its technologies and best practices. The company says processors partnering with it can expect to achieve return-on-investment savings including energy consumption, labor and maintenance costs and compliance with EPA regulations in less than one year. The Culligan man is relevant here too. Because hes the local guy, and meant to emphasize that all, or at least the vast majority, of water problems are specic to a locality. And thats true whether the context is residential or industrial. are easily connected together to address the customers specic situation. Regardless whether the issue is feed water or product water, says Rod McNelly, VP C&I sales, Americas and Asia-Pacic, his company looks to small municipalities, food & beverage, oil & gas and energy & power as our key markets because all are concerned with water ltering and clean and treat. These markets arent interested in a standardized approach or in highly customized projects. Our software-based approach is the right one. Product lines include multi-media lters, softeners, de-alkalizers and chemicals for pre-treatment; membranes; portableexchange, continuous electro and automatic deionization; storage tanks; and the distribution and polishing of water, including pumps and disinfection technologies. Finally, a mobile-water-treatment eet can deliver multi-level water purication, monitoring and control for peaking plants and base-loaded plants in energy, power, oil & gas and chemical-processing industries. In a time when venerable brands dont always make the cut, Culligan this summer opened a facility expansion in Libertyville, Ill., that tripled its manufacturing capacity to 75,000 square feet, and in total added more than 200,000 square feet, combined manufacturing, assembly, warehousing and ofce space to the facility. nologies for industrial markets. In addition, Culligan can assemble as many as ve mobile water-treatment containers at one time. Design and application engineers and project managers now work in one location. Processors depend on quality water for such things as boiler feed water make-up, recycling back to cooling towers, improved process run times and overall quality and consistency of production, Culligan notes. Some even reuse grey water in other parts of the business. Complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge requirements is also a constant driver of quality water treatment.

Why bother?
Its at the point where companies now want to reduce discharges and reuse water. Well see our business on the industrial side triple this year, says McNally. Were excited about the projects we have in the municipal and industrial markets. Culligan says its best practices are based on decades of experience engineering industrial water-treatment systems that minimize waste, extend equipment performance, reduce maintenance costs and improve operational efciency. Electronic controls for reverse osmosis and water softening technologies are part of a custom-designed system. Water reuse and brine reclamation help improve environmental compliance and sustainability. Remote monitoring and telemetry options help avert system failures.

Singular sources
Therefore, for industry, Culligan says it has a single-source, comprehensive water treatment technology platform, based on which its application engineers develop customized solutions to specic challenges. These preengineered, modular treatment technologies

Expanding capacity
The expansion supports executing large, complex capital projects that include tech- | Water/Waste Processing | December 2013 21

News in brief
harbors will allow larger ships to enter the ports and will give them access to the energy hub at the Gulf Coast. The money will be authorized to the Army Corps of Engineers, which already has a and will also introduce more stringent reporting requirements. As part of the proposed updates to the rules, permit holders will be expected to submit a summary of the routine inspections and assessments conducted at the facility throughout the previous year.

Study explores impact of climate change on water demand

The Water Research Foundations (WRF) latest study examines the impact of climate change on water demand and the implications for water utilities. With the help of six member utilities, the WRF examined various climate change scenarios and water demand and usage patterns under them. These were divided into categories on the basis of customer class and industry sector, the aim being to help water utilities respond and plan better. The WRF report offers specic recommendations and highlights key regional concerns, as well as areas that need further analysis. The most important conclusion reached by the WRF is that climate change will vary across different U.S. regions, in magnitude as well as seasonally, Executive Director Rob Renner says. These changes will have a different impact on water demand due to varying geographical demand sensitivities to climate and weather. In some areas, demand could experience a minor or moderate impact but other areas may be signicantly affected. Analyses such as those employed in the WRF study will be crucial for identifying the potential level of inuence, Renner adds. As for recommendations, the key one is that water utilities should invest more time in exploring and modeling water demand patterns in relation to climate change. Through the use of analytical techniques, utilities will be able to understand better how climate af-

Congress passes $8.2 billion waterways improvement bill

A water infrastructure improvement bill worth a total of $8.2 billion to be allocated to various projects across the United States was passed in Congress on Oct. 23, the Associated Press reports. In an overwhelmingly positive bipartisan vote, 224 Republicans and 193 Democrats supported the bill that will see the national water infrastructure vastly improved. Money will be allocated to projects for dams, harbor dredging and river navigation, among others, over the next 10 years. The bill, known as Water Resources Reform and Development Act, will benet approximately half of the country. Some of the largest projects include a restoration plan for the Everglades and improving the ports of Canaveral and Jacksonville in Florida and an expansion of Georgias Savannah Harbor, as well as a dredging plan for the Sabine-Neches Waterway shared between Texas and Louisiana, which will add a further eight feet of depth to the channel to enable it to accommodate bigger ships. Various projects have been listed in the Great Lakes region, the Mississippi Coast, North Carolina, California, Maryland, Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, Reuters says. Senators from Georgia and Texas are convinced that the projects will benet their respective states, as bigger and improved

construction backlog worth $60 billion.

EPA proposes updates to stormwater permit rules

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has presented its draft proposal on stormwater permitting regulation and has opened the proposed rules for public comment. Issuing stormwater permits is currently managed by each individual state by applying its own stormwater permitting system, explains Stephen Richmond, environmental lawyer at Beveridge & Diamond, in a new analysis. However, four states Idaho, New Hampshire, New Mexico and Massachusetts have no stormwater management programs in place and dischargers from these states apply to the federal agency for their permit. The nalized version of the regulation will not be ready before the second quarter of 2014 or even later. Despite the fact that they will directly affect just four states, the rules are likely to set a model for all other jurisdictions, Richmond comments. The EPA proposes that each permit holder should make available a copy of its Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan where any member of the public could have access to it, the Water Online website says. According to the analysis, the new rules are expected to substantially tighten up language associated with the conduct of corrective actions

22 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

fects water demand in relation to longer-term socioeconomic factors. They will also gain a better insight into the inuence of actual weather on shorter-term demand variability, Renner notes.

to its 9.2 million cubic meters a day capacity. Another country that boasts a well-developed desalination system is the United Arab Emirates, with a capacity of 8.4 million cubic meters a day, followed by Spain, with 3.8 million, the report reveals.

is essential to prevent this and reduce risks for the families living in Chicago.

Increasing water stress threatens US, study warns

The United States is facing a serious water supply problem, researchers from the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado Boulder warn. A new study conducted by the team of scientists has found that in about 10% of U.S. watersheds the demand for water exceeds natural supply, putting them in the category of stressed watersheds. Researchers predict that because of climate change low water-ow seasons will become more common over the coming years, causing more stress to watersheds. Leader of the study Kristen Averyt, associate director for science at CIRES, commented that by 2050 several regions across the United States will have less reliable surface water supplies, which will cause serious problems for agriculture and municipalities. For their study, the researchers analyzed a large set of data related to supplies and demand for freshwater in 2,103 watersheds across the United States. They isolated instances of severe water stress between 1999 and 2007 and projected future water stress for each watershed based on a climate change database. Researchers identied the western U.S. as particularly vulnerable to water stress for two main reasons: There is very little gap between supply and demand in the region, so any change in balance could cause stress, and water supplies in the west have been secured by the use of imported or stored water to be able to meet the demand.

Demand for desalinated water drives capacity expansion

Chicago to launch major stormwater management system upgrade

Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel has announced the launch of a $50 million fund that will support infrastructural projects designed to improve systems to capture, store and lter stormwater. The implementation of the program is set

The use of desalination has increased dramatically over the last year, leading to a 50% hike in capacity in 2013 compared to 2012, according to a new report by the International Desalination Association. Figures included in the DesalData report show that 59 percent of water going through desalination comes from seas and oceans, while 22% is brackish water. River water accounts for nine percent and wastewater represents three percent of desalinated water, Bloomberg reported. At the other end of the process, cities consume 61% of desalinated water, followed by industry, which uses 26%, and power stations, taking 7%. Desalination plants commissioned in 2013 alone have the combined capacity to produce six million cubic meters per day. This amount equals the fresh water that pours down on London over 28 months of rain, the report calculated. This brings the total capacity of all 17,277 operational desalination plants worldwide to 80.9 million cubic meters. The biggest producer of desalinated water in the world is Saudi Arabia, meeting a large proportion of its needs for fresh water thanks

to start this fall and will see the citys water and sewer systems upgraded over the next ve years. An annual fund of $10 million will be allocated to reduce the pollution owing into the Chicago River and Lake Michigan, thanks to tested measures including permeable pavement and the planting of more plants and trees. According to the mayors ofce, this is among the biggest voluntary investments in a U.S. city ever made. The implementation of these projects will lead to an extra 10 million gallons of natural stormwater being stored by Chicagos water system and eventually will cut runoffs by 250 million gallons annually. The scheme will consist of two main parts. The rst one will see the implementation of projects that include green stormwater infrastructure. A committee will review the proposals and will select priority areas. The second stage will be researching the impact of climate change on the city and will include projections and plans for the future. Mayor Emanuel commented that ooding can have a terrible impact on cities and their residents, so investing in green infrastructure | Water/Waste Processing | December 2013 23

New Product Spotlight

Flowmeter for Large Channels
Monitor ow through large open channels and partially lled pipes with the new Greyline AVMS 5.1 Multi-Sensor AreaVelocity Flowmeter. Designed for municipal stormwater, combined efuent, raw sewage and irrigation water, the owmeter uses three submerged ultrasonic sensors to continuously measure velocity at different points in the channel and provide an average velocity reading for ow monitoring. One of the three sensors can also monitor the water level or a separate non-contacting ultrasonic level sensor can be used in the system. The AVMS 5.1 can be calibrated to channels of any shape. The sensors are resistant to fouling and corrosion.

Electromagnetic Flowmeter for

Water-based and Sludge-ow Applications
The PolarisTM electromagnetic owmeter from Magnetrol is capable of measuring liquids with a conductivity as low as 5 S/cm in closed pipes. The accurate and repeatable owmeter is suitable for a variety of water-based and sludge-ow applications. The Polaris transmitter is backlit and rotatable with the capability of measuring forward and reverse ow rates, as well as total volume. HART protocol allows the use of PACTwareTM for conguration and diagnostics. The sensor can be anged or wafer-style and is available with an assortment of standard liners and electrode materials.

Greyline Instruments, Inc.
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Magnetrol International, Inc.
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Advertiser Index
BDP Industries ................................................................................11 Boerger ..............................................................................................9 Endress + Hauser, Inc. ................................................... Back Cover Global Processing...........................................................................13 Greyline Instruments ......................................................................15 Gem Valves....................................................................................17 Halogen Valve..................................................................................15 Inlco Degremont ................................................ Inside Back Cover Keller America, Inc. ...........................................................................3 Magnetrol International .......................................Inside Front Cover PRABFluid Filtration Div. ................................................................5 SPX Flow Technology .......................................................................1 Watson-Marlow Pumps Group .........................................................7

24 December 2013 | Water/Waste Processing |

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Delivering data when and where you need it.

It is as simple as that! Liquiline Multichannel Transmitter
The Liquiline CM44 accepts inputs from up to eight Endress+Hauser Memosens digital sensors including nitrate, spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, free-chlorine and ion selective electrode sensors. Mix and match as needed the device recognizes any combination of Memosens sensors and starts operating immediately. This makes the exchange of sensors fast and maximizes the uptime of the measuring point. Simple to commission: Open communication standards make the integration into your process much easier

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Sales: 888-ENDRESS Service: 800-642-8737 Fax: 317-535-8498 Write In 112