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INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY

ARCL G195 The Aegean from First Farmers to Minoan States


2012-2013 MA option, 15 Credits Co-ordinator: Borja Legarra Herrero b.legarra@ucl.ac.uk, Room 207; tel 7679 (2)7534

OVERVIEW

Introduction
This course provides an in-depth survey of Aegean prehistory from the Neolithic to the first phases of the Late Bronze Age (c. 7000-1450 BC), focusing on the developmental dynamics of early Aegean societies, and especially those of the Minoan palatial period. Drawing on the regions exceptional wealth of archaeological data, and set within a theoretically informed, problem-oriented framework, the course explores alternative paradigms and aims to introduce students to current interpretations, debates and avenues for future research. It locates the Aegean relative to contemporary Mediterranean and Near Eastern societies, and so generates a link between traditionally separate fields. Themes of recurrent importance include social, political and economic structures, the significance of material culture, local and longer-range interaction, the archaeologies of ideology, cult and death, and the integration of undeciphered textual evidence with material data.

Course summary
January 10th January 17th January 24th January 31st February 7th Reading week February 21st February 28th March 7th March 14th March 21st 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: Paradigms for the Aegean Bronze Age (BLH) Changing perspectives on the Aegean Neolithic (BLH) The transition to the Early Bronze Age: models and evidence (BLH) Social dynamics in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean (BLH) Islands, trade and the end of the Early Bronze Age (CB) British Museum hands-on session

(February 15th) 6: 7: 8: 9:

The emergence of the Minoan palace-states (BLH) Protopalatial Crete: society, economy and ideology (BLH) Neopalatial Crete: political and cultural dynamics (BLH) Art, ritual and power in palatial Crete (BLH)

10: Minoan Crete in its Aegean and Mediterranean context (BLH)

Basic Texts
Warren, P.M. 1989. The Aegean Civilisations (revised edition; short book-length introduction). Issue desk WAR; DAG 10 Qto WAR; YATES Qto A 22 WAR Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age (long the standard textbook, divided by themes rather than periods). IoA Issue Desk DIC; DAE 100 DIC. Fitton, J.L. 2002. Minoans. London: British Museum. DAG 14 FIT.

Methods of assessment
This course is assessed by means of a total of 4000 words of coursework. This is divided into (i) a 1,000 word written version of an oral presentation to the group plus the Course Coordinator and Andrew Shapland on an object selected by you (subject to approval) from the British Museum collections (25%), and (ii) a 3,000 word essay (75%).
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Submission dates: Written version of oral presentation: Monday 4th March 2013 Essay: Monday 22nd April 2013

Teaching methods
The course is taught as a series of 10 weekly seminars in Term 2 (Thursdays 4-6 PM, Room 410), whose purpose is to discuss and debate the issues defined for that week. Seminars have weekly essential readings, which students will be expected to have read in order to be able to follow and actively contribute to the discussion. There will also be a presentation in the British Museum in association with the first piece of assessed coursework (co-taught with Andrew Shapland, Curator of the Aegean Bronze Age collections at Department of Greek and Roman Antiquties), and an additional optional British Museum visit to study Aegean material in the galleries.

Workload
There are 20 hours of seminars for this course, plus the British Museum presentation (c. 4-5 hours for the entire group). Students will be expected to undertake around 80 hours of reading for the course, plus 45 hours preparing for and producing the assessed work. This adds up to a total workload of some 150 required hours.

Prerequisites
This course does not have a formal prerequisite. However, students should ideally have some familiarity with Aegean prehistory through previous study or field experience, so as to ensure that they have the background to get the most out of Masters level seminars.

AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND ASSESSMENT

Aims
To provide advanced, well-rounded, inter-disciplinary training in the archaeology of the earlier prehistoric Aegean. To encourage students in critical analysis of current research (problems, methods and theory, the quality of evidence, and substantive results). To familiarise students with major elements and examples of Aegean material culture relevant to the period, and analytical approaches to them. To introduce students to important current research projects. To prepare students to undertake original research in Aegean archaeology.

Objectives
On successful completion of this course a student should: Have a solid overview of major developments and interpretative issues in Aegean prehistory, with greater in-depth knowledge of topics on which coursework has been written, and a general understanding of how the Aegean region fits into a wider East Mediterranean and European context. Understand the main interpretative paradigms that have dominated the field, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, enabling assessment and criticism of the structure or rationale of arguments in the current literature. Recognise a broad range of the material culture from the period, and understand its social, cultural or other significance as well as its interpretive potential.
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Be able to explore data from the prehistoric Aegean using a wide range of theoretical approaches current in archaeology.

Learning outcomes
On completion of the course, students will have enhanced their skills in critical reading and reflection, be aware of how to apply ideas and methods to bodies of data, and improved their peer-debating skills. They will have gained the background required to define and pursue original research in early Aegean prehistory.

Coursework
Assessment tasks This course is assessed by means of a total of 4,000 words of coursework. This is divided into (i) a 1,000-word written version of an oral presentation to the group plus the Course Coordinator and Andrew Shapland on an object selected by you (subject to approval) from the British Museum collections (25%), and (ii) a 3,000-word essay (75%). Together these comprise 100% of the mark awarded for the course. Topics and specific titles for the essay are defined by each student to suit their specific interests, in consultation with (and with the approval of) the Course Co-ordinator, who will give guidance to ensure that you are focusing on a question that it is answerable, neither too narrow nor broad, and that you are tackling it in an effective way; he will also direct you to appropriate reading from the seminar lists, plus any additional reading that may be appropriate. It is also important that your topic does not overlap unduly with coursework for other parts of your degree. If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should contact the Course Co-ordinator, who will also be willing to discuss an outline of their approach to the assessment, provided this is planned suitably in advance of the submission date.
Written version of oral presentation: Monday 4th March 2013 Essay: Monday 29th April 2013

Word-length Strict regulations with regard to word-length apply throughout. If your work is found to be 5% longer than the official limit your mark will be reduced by 10%, subject to a minimum mark of a minimum pass, assuming that the work merited a pass. If your work is more than 10% over-length, a mark of zero will be recorded. The following should not be included in the word-count: bibliography, appendices, and tables, graphs and illustrations and their captions. Submission procedures Students are required to submit hard copy of all coursework to the Course coordinators pigeon hole via the Red Essay Box at Reception by the appropriate deadline. The coursework must be stapled to a completed coversheet (available from the web, from outside Room 411A or from the library). With effect from 2012-13 students should put their Candidate Number, not their name, on all coursework. They should also put the Candidate Number and course code on each page of their work (in the header or footer).. Please note that new, stringent penalties for late submission are being introduced UCLwide from 2012-13. These are given below. Late submission will be penalized in accordance with these regulations unless permission has been granted and an Extension Request Form (ERF) completed and approved. If students have a serious difficulty meeting a submission deadline, they must complete an ERF, which must be approved and signed by their Degree coordinator as well as the course coordinator. The following are considered grounds for an extension: illness, personal/domestic problems; pressures relating to caring responsibilities (e.g. child,
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parent, other dependant); documented dyslexia for which extra time has been granted for examinations; other documented disability (e.g. repetitive strain injury); inability to access necessary resources (unavailability of key texts in the library must be notified to the relevant course coordinator at least one week before the deadline); or unanticipated pressures arising from paid employment. Pressure from clustered deadlines is not sufficient, since these can be anticipated in advance and work scheduled to accommodate them. Date-stamping will be via Turnitin (see below), so in addition to submitting hard copy, students must also submit their work to Turnitin by midnight on the day of the deadline. Students who encounter technical problems submitting their work to Turnitin should email the nature of the problem to ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk in advance of the deadline in order that the Turnitin Advisers can notify the Course Co-ordinator that it may be appropriate to waive the late submission penalty. If there is any other unexpected crisis on the submission day, students should telephone or (preferably) e-mail the Course Co-ordinator, and follow this up with a completed ERF. Please see the Coursework Guidelines on the IoA website (or your Degree Handbook) for further details of penalties. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook/submission The Turnitin 'Class ID' is 202668 and the 'Class Enrolment Password' is IoA1213 Further information is given on the IoA website. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook/turnitin Turnitin advisers will be available to help you via email: ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk if needed.
HOW TO UPLOAD YOUR WORK TO TURNITIN

Note that Turnitin uses the term class for what we normally call a course. 1. Ensure that your essay or other item of coursework has been saved properly, and that you have the Class ID for the course, (available from the course handbook or here: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/studying/undergraduate/courses http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/studying/masters/courses and enrolment password (this is IoA1213 for all courses this session - note that this is capital letter I, lower case letter o, upper case A, number 1, number 2, number 1, number 3) 2. Click on http://www.submit.ac.uk/en_gb/home (NB Not www.turnitin.com, which is the US site) or copy this URL into your favourite web browser. 3. Click on New user. 4. Click on Enrol as a student. 5. Create an account using your UCL or other email address. Note that you will be asked to specify a new password for your account - do not use your UCL password or the enrolment password, but invent one of your own (Turnitin will permanently associate this with your account, so you will not have to change it every 3 months unlike your UCL password). Once you have created an account you can just log in at http://www.submit.ac.uk and enrol for your other classes without going through the new user process again. 6. You will then be prompted for the Class ID and enrolment password. 7. Click on the course to which you wish to submit your work. 8. Click on the correct assignment. 9. Double-check that you are in the correct course and assignment and then click Submit. 10. Enter your name (NB staff will not be able to see this until after they have graded your work). 11. Enter the submission title. It is essential that the first word in the title is your examination candidate number (eg YGBR8 In what sense can culture be said to evolve?).
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12.

Attach document.

If you have problems, please email the Turnitin Advisers on ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk, explaining the nature of the problem and the exact course and assignment involved. One of the Turnitin Advisers will normally respond within 24 hours, Monday-Friday during term. Please be sure to email the Turnitin Advisers if technical problems prevent you from uploading work in time to meet a submission deadline - even if you do not obtain an immediate response from one of the Advisers they will be able to notify the relevant Course Coordinator that you had attempted to submit the work before the deadline. The full allocated mark should be reduced by 5 percentage points for the first working day after the deadline for the submission of the coursework or dissertation. The mark will be reduced by a further 10 percentage points if the coursework or dissertation is submitted during the following six calendar days. Providing the coursework is submitted before the end of the first week of term 3 (for undergraduate courses) or by a date during term 3 defined in advance by the relevant Masters Board of Examiners (for postgraduate taught programmes), but had not been submitted within seven days of the deadline for the submission of the coursework, it will be recorded as zero but the assessment would be considered to be complete. Where there are extenuating circumstances that have been recognised by the Board of Examiners or its representative, these penalties will not apply until the agreed extension period has been exceeded. Timescale for return of marked coursework to students. You can expect to receive your marked work within four calendar weeks of the official submission deadline. If you do not receive your work within this period, or a written explanation from the marker, you should notify the IoAs Academic Administrator, Judy Medrington. Keeping copies Please note that it is an Institute requirement that you retain a copy (this can be electronic) of all coursework submitted. When your marked essay is returned to you, you should return it to the marker within two weeks. Citing of sources Coursework should be expressed in a students own words giving the exact source of any ideas, information, diagrams, etc. that are taken from the work of others. Any direct quotations from the work of others must be indicated as such by being placed between quotations marks. Plagiarism is regarded as a very serious examination irregularity which can carry very heavy penalties. It is your responsibility to read and abide by the requirements for presentation, referencing and avoidance of plagiarism to be found in the IoA Coursework Guidelines on the IoA website http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook Strict new penalties for plagiarism are being introduced from the 2012-13 session. You will receive details separately.
UCL-WIDE PENALTIES FOR LATE SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK

SCHEDULE AND SYLLABUS

Teaching schedule
The regular weekly sessions will be held 4-6 pm on Thursdays in Room 410. The object presentation seminar in the British Museum is provisionally scheduled for reading week, at a time to be mutually agreed. Lecturers: BLH: Borja Legarra Herrero; CB: Cyprian Broodbank.

Syllabus
January 10th January 17th January 24th January 31st February 7th Reading week February 21st February 28th March 7th March 14th March 21st 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: Paradigms for the Aegean Bronze Age (BLH) Changing perspectives on the Aegean Neolithic (BLH) The transition to the Early Bronze Age: models and evidence (BLH) Social dynamics in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean (BLH) Islands, trade and the end of the Early Bronze Age (CB) British Museum hands-on session

(February 15th) 6: 7: 8: 9:

The emergence of the Minoan palace-states (BLH) Protopalatial Crete: society, economy and ideology (BLH) Neopalatial Crete: political and cultural dynamics (BLH) Art, ritual and power in palatial Crete (BLH)

10: Minoan Crete in its Aegean and Mediterranean context (BLH)

The following pages contain information on preliminary reading and other resources, plus a session-by-session outline that identifies the essential and a wider range of additional readings relevant to each topic. The essential readings are necessary to keep up with the topics covered in the seminars, and it is expected that students will have read these prior to the relevant session. These have been kept to about five readings for each topic, and additional recommended readings are given for those with a particular interest in the topic. Numerous additional readings are provided in an extended thematic reading list, which is available on the web. This is intended to allow students to follow their interests, and as a place to begin when researching for essays.

Introductory reading list


This list is intended to help you to become familiar with the scope of the subject, its wider setting and major issues and sites. Readings for specific topics are listed for each seminar. Introductory overviews Bennet, J. 2007. The Aegean Bronze Age. In W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller (eds.) The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, 175-210. Cline, E. (ed.) 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean. DAG 100 CLI. Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age (the standard text-book, divided by themes rather than periods). IoA Issue Desk DIC; DAE 100 DIC. Fitton, J.L. 2002. Minoans. London: British Museum. DAG 14 FIT. Wardle, K.A. 1994. The palace civilisations of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece 2000-1200 B, in B. Cunliffe (ed.) The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe, 202-43. DA 100 CUN. Warren, P.M. 1989. The Aegean Civilisations (revised edition; short book-length introduction). Issue desk WAR; DAG 10 Qto WAR; YATES Qto A 22 WAR Shelmerdine, C. (ed.) 2008. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age (new collection with introductory chapters of variable quality on most major topics). Tartaron, T. 2008. Aegean prehistory as world archaeology: recent trends in the archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 83-161. Much of this course asks why palatial societies arose in the Aegean. A pioneering analysis was Colin Renfrews The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC (1972). This massive work of theory and synthesis, while 40 years old and open to criticism, remains one of the most challenging books in the field. Start with chapters 1-4 (TC 498). IoA Issue Desk REN 7; DAG 100 REN; YATES A22 REN. Historiographical surveys Fitton, J.L. 1995. The Discovery of the Greek Bronze Age. DAE 100 FIT. McDonald, W.A. and C. Thomas 1990. Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization (2nd edition). DAG 100 MAC. Runnels, C. and P. Murray. 2001. Greece Before History: An Archaeological Companion and Guide. DAE 100 RUN. Collections of high-quality photographs of Aegean material culture Buchholz, H.-G. and V. Karageorghis 1973. Prehistoric Greece and Cyprus An Archaeological Handbook. DAG 100 BUC. Doumas, C. 1992. The Wall Paintings of Thera. Issue Desk THE. Marinatos, S. and M. Hirmer 1960. Crete and Mycenae. DAG 100 Qto MAR. Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. DAG 14 Qto MYE; YATES Qto E 10 MYE. Papathanassopoulos, G. 1996. Neolithic Culture in Greece. DAE 100 PAP. Surveys of Aegean art and related areas Betancourt, P. 2007. Introduction to Aegean Art. DAG 300 BET. Higgins, R. 1997. Minoan and Mycenaean Art. YATES A 22 HIG. Krzyszkowska, O. 2005. Aegean Seals: An Introduction. Pottery handbooks Betancourt, P.P. 1985. The History of Minoan Pottery. DAG 14 BET; YATES Qtos P 20 BET. Momigliano, N. (ed.) 2007. Knossos Pottery Handbook. Neolithic and Bronze Age (Minoan). DAG 14 Qto MOM The following UK museums have substantial holdings of prehistoric Aegean material British Museum: the Aegean gallery to the right of the main entrance.
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Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: currently closed for renovation. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge: more modest but useful if you are in the area. In addition, there is a small teaching collection of material held within the Institute.

Useful background on Aegean environment and chronology


Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age, chapters 1-2 for chronology and the basics on the environment. IoA Issue Desk DIC; DAE 100 DIC. Environment Forbes, H. 1992. The ethnoarchaeological approach to Greek agriculture, in B. Wells (ed.) Agriculture in Ancient Greece, 87-104. Gallant, T.W. 1991. Risk and Survival in Ancient Greece, Chapter 1. Grove, A.T. and O. Rackham 2001. The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History. Browse, especially chapters 1-6, 9-11. IoA Issue Desk GRO; DAG 100 Qto GRO. Halstead, P. 1987. Traditional and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus a change?, Journal of Hellenic Studies 107: 77-87. Halstead, P. and OShea, J. (eds.) 1989. Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty. Halstead, P. & C. Frederick 2000. Landscape and Land Use in Postglacial Greece (especially papers by Moody, Frederick & Krachtopoulou, Forbes, Halstead). Higgins, M. & R. Higgins 1996. A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean. Horden, P. & N. Purcell 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study in Mediterranean History, especially Chapter VI, and III-V if time allows. Osborne, R.G. 1987. Classical Landscape with Figures: The Ancient Greek City and its Countryside, Chapters 2-3 (post-Bronze Age but many of the same factors still apply). Rackham, O. and J. Moody 1996. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Woodward, J. (ed.) 2009. The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean. Chronology Renfrew, A.C. 1973/1999. Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe. chapters 5-10. IoA Issue Desk REN 1; DA 100 REN Warren, P.M. 1996. The Aegean and the limits of radiocarbon dating. In, K. Randsborg (ed.) Absolute Chronology: Archaeological Europe 500-500 BC. (Acta Archaeologica 67) 283-90. INST ARCH Periodicals. Randsborg, K. (ed.) 1996. Absolute Chronology: Archaeological Europe 500-500 BC (Acta Archaeologica 67), especially papers by Kuniholm (also TC 2162), Manning and Warren. INST ARCH Periodicals. Manning, S.W. 1994. The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Early Bronze Age: Archaeology, Radiocarbon and History. Manning, S.W. 1996. Dating the Aegean Bronze Age: without, with and beyond, radiocarbon. In, K. Randsborg (ed.) Absolute Chronology: Archaeological Europe 500-500 BC. (Acta Archaeologica 67) 15-37. INST ARCH Periodicals. Manning, S. 2010a. Chronology and terminology. In E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC). Oxford:11-28. [ISSUE DESK IoA CLI 2]. Manning, S. 2010b. 'Eruption of Thera/Santorini.' In E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC). Oxford:457-74. [ISSUE DESK IoA CLI 2]. Warren, P.M. & V. Hankey 1989. Aegean Bronze Age Chronology. Wiener, M.H. 2003. Time out: the current impasse in Bronze Age archaeological dating, in K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds.) METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age (Aegaeum 24), 363-99. Lige. IoA Issue Desk FOS. Wiener, M. 2007. 'Times change: the current state of the debate in Old World chronology.' In M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:25-47. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto BIE.
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For anyone who feels unfamiliar with overall dating techniques in archaeology, A.C. Renfrew and P. Bahns standard textbook Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice has a good summary of the key principles. Synthetic analyses of the wider dynamics of Mediterranean history Braudel, F. 1972. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (English translation of 1949 original). DAG 100 BRA. Broodbank, C. 2008. The Mediterranean and its hinterland, in B. Cunliffe, C. Gosden and R. Joyce (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology, 677-722. Horden, P. and N. Purcell 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. DAG 200 HOR.

A guide to some resources for information


The American Journal of Archaeology has published seven reviews of Aegean prehistory, region-by-region. These are excellent sources of information (all INST ARCH Periodicals, all available on-line), and have been brought together and importantly, each up-dated with an addendum, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001 Aegean Prehistory: A Review (AJA Supplement 1) (Issue Desk CUL 4; DAG 100 CUL) The original individual reviews are listed below, and can be accessed in the journal, or on the web. Davis, J.L. 1992. Review of Aegean Prehistory I: The islands of the Aegean, American Journal of Archaeology 96: 699-756. TC 500. Rutter, J.B. 1993. Review of Aegean Prehistory II: The prepalatial Bronze Age of the southern and central Greek mainland, American Journal of Archaeology 97: 74597. TC 538. Watrous, L.V. 1994. Review of Aegean Prehistory III: Crete from earliest prehistory through the Protopalatial period, American Journal of Archaeology 98: 695-753. TC 547. Runnels, C. 1995. Review of Aegean Prehistory IV: The Stone Age of Greece from the Palaeolithic to the advent of the Neolithic, American Journal of Archaeology, 99: 699-728. TC 2117. Andreou, S., M. Fotiadis and K. Kotsakis 1996. Review of Aegean Prehistory V: The Neolithic and Bronze Age of Northern Greece, American Journal of Archaeology 100: 537-97. Shelmerdine, C.W. 1997. Review of Aegean Prehistory VI: The palatial Bronze Age of the southern and central Greek mainland, American Journal of Archaeology 101: 537-85. Rehak, P. and J.G. Younger 1998. Review of Aegean Prehistory VII: Neopalatial, Final Palatial, and Postpalatial Crete, American Journal of Archaeology 102: 91-173. Overall bibliographies with topic-oriented subdivisions Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age. Issue desk DIC; DAE 100 DIC. Feuer, B. 2004. Mycenaean Civilization: A Research Guide (Second edition). INST ARCH DAE 100 FEU. Nestor publishes a monthly list of publications in Aegean prehistory and related areas; it is available as a cumulative index (see below) on the internet for 1959-2010. Also Aegeus society publishes notices of new published articles and books. Site gazetteers Hope Simpson, R. and O.T.P.K. Dickinson 1979. A Gazetteer of Aegean Civilisation in the Bronze Age: Volume 1, The Mainland and Islands. DAG Qto STU 52. Leekley, D. and Noyes, R. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in Southern Greece. DAE 10 LEE Leekley, D. and Noyes, R. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in the Greek Islands. DAE 10 LEE Leekley, D. and Efstratiou, N. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in Central and Northern Greece. DAE 10 LEE
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Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. DAG 14 Qto MYE; YATES Qto E 10 MYE. Simantoni-Bourina, E and L. Mendoni 1999. Archaeological Atlas of the Aegean: From Prehistory to Late Antiquity. DAG 100 DOU.

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Session 1: 10th January 2013 (BLH) Introduction: Paradigms for Aegean prehistory The session will briefly outline the aims of the course, its organisation, assessments and resources. The discussion will look at how the Aegeans significance in the wider world has been understood by a series of archaeologists writing over the last fifty years. They should ideally be read in the order listed, so as to appreciate the succession of paradigms, and significance of changes in perspectives. Essential Renfrew, A.C. 1972. The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC. Chapters 1-4. TC 498; IoA Issue Desk REN 7; DAG 100 REN; YATES A22 REN; Science ANTHROPOLOGY C7 REN. In reaction to Childe, Renfrew stresses the cultural and developmental autonomy of Aegean civilisation, using a systems approach to explain the rise of palace societies as an endogenous process. Sherratt, A.G. 1993. What would a Bronze Age world-system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in late prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology 1.2:1-58. TC 499; INST ARCH Periodicals. Sherratt emphasises the insufficiencies of Renfrews model, and returns to connections with the East and the location of the Aegean relative to Europe. Hamilakis, Y. 2002. What future for the Minoan past? Rethinking Minoan archaeology. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:2-28. TC 2743; IoA Issue Desk HAM; DAG 14 HAM. Draws on a range of post-processual approaches for the study of Aegean prehistory, its role in the present, and the agendas of modern archaeologists. Recommended Andreou, S. 2005. The landscapes of modern Greek Aegean archaeology. In, J. Cherry, D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds) Prehistorians Round the Pond. Reflections on Aegean prehistory as a discipline. (Kelsey Museum Publication 2) Ann Arbor, Michigan: 73-92. Barrett, J. and Halstead, P. (eds) 2004. The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. Oxford. (Particularly Preface, chapters by Cherry, Halstead, Renfrew.) Bintliff, J.L. 1984. Structuralism and the Minoan myth. Antiquity 58:33-8. Cherry, J.F. , D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds.) 2005. Prehistorians Round the Pond: reflections on Aegean prehistory as a discipline. Ann Arbor: Kelsey Museum. Childe, V.G. 1957. The Dawn of European Civilisation (6th edition). Chapters 2-5. TC 545; DA 100 CHI. The diffusionist approach; although Childe is still insightful, in most respects the details and dates have changed (in many cases radically) since he wrote, so read these chapters for the way in which he is seeing the Aegean within its wider context, rather than for archaeological details. Cullen, T. 2001. Voices and visions of Aegean Prehistory. In, T. Cullen (ed.) Aegean Prehistory. A Review. (AJA, Supplement 1):1-18. IoA Issue Desk CUL 4; DAG 100 CUL Fotiadis, M. 1993. Regions of the Imagination: Archaeologists, Local People, and the Archaeological Record in Fieldwork, Greece. Journal of European Archaeology 1 (2)151-168. Kardulias, P.N. 1994. Paradigms of the Past in Greek Archaeology. In, P.N. Kardulias (ed.) Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. London: University Press of America:1-23. DAG 100 KAR. Kotsakis, K. 1991. The powerful past: theoretical trends in Greek archaeology. In, I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory in Europe: The Last Three Decades. London:65-90. AG HOD MacEnroe, J. 1995. Sir Arthur Evans and Edwardian archaeology. Classical Bulletin 71:3-18. ICS Periodicals. McNeal, R.A. 1972. The Greeks in history and prehistory. Antiquity 46:19-28. INST ARCH Periodicals. McNeal, R.A. 1973. The legacy of Arthur Evans. California Studies in Classical Antiquity 6:205-20. STORE
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McNeal, R.A. 1975. Helladic prehistory through the looking-glass. Historia 24:3:385401. Main CLASSICS Periodicals Morris, S.P. 1990. Greece and the East. JMA 3:57-66. INST ARCH Periodicals. Papadopoulos, J. 2005. Inventing the Minoans: archaeology, modernity and the quest for European identity. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18:87-149. Renfrew, A.C. 1980. The great tradition versus the great divide: archaeology as anthropology? AJA 84:287-98. TC 491; INST ARCH Periodicals Snodgrass, A.M. 1985. The new archaeology and the classical archaeologist. AJA 89:31-7. TC 489; INST ARCH Periodicals Tartaron, Thomas F. 2008. Aegean Prehistory as World Archaeology: Recent Trends in the Archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16.2. p. 83-161. INST ARCH Periodicals

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Seminar 2: 17th January 2013 (BLH) Changing perspectives on the Aegean Neolithic The Neolithic period starts with the establishment of permanent agricultural communities in the Aegean, ca. 7000 BC. While extending over ca. 4,000 years, the Neolithic cannot be seen as a static period, but is characterised by diversity in space and considerable changes through time. Issues to be considered in the seminar will include: situating the Neolithic of the Aegean within its broader regional context, the degree to which these communities can be seen as developing out of the earlier Mesolithic societies in the region, or are best viewed as a novel and intrusive way of life, introduced by agricultural colonists from the Near East; the pattern and process of expansion of the Neolithic across the region; changes in society through time; and the nature of Neolithic communities and their interactions. Essential Halstead, P. 1995. From sharing to hoarding: the Neolithic foundations of Aegean Bronze Age society. In, R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier (eds.) POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 12) Lige:I:11-22. IoA Issue Desk LAF 3. Available in electronic form: http://www2.ulg.ac.be/archgrec/aegaeum12.html. Halstead, P. 1996. The development of agriculture and pastoralism in Greece: when, how, who and what. In, D. Harris (ed.) The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. London: UCL Press:296-309. IoA Issue Desk HA HAR; AH HAR. Kotsakis, K. 1999 What tells can tell: social space and settlement in the Greek Neolithic. In, P. Halstead (ed.) Neolithic Society in Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press: 66-76. Perles, C. 2003. An alternate (and old-fashioned) view of Neolithisation in Greece. Documenta Praehistorica 30:99-114. INST ARCH Periodicals. Tomkins, P.D. 2008. "Time, Space and the Reinvention of the Cretan Neolithic." In Escaping the Labyrinth. The Cretan Neolithic in Context, edited by V. Isaakidou and P. D. Tomkins, 21-49. Oxfod: Oxbow Books. INST ARCH DAG 14 ISA. Recommended Andreou, S., M. Fotiadis, and K. Kotsakis 1996 Review of Aegean prehistory V: the Neolithic and Bronze Age of northern Greece. AJA 100:537-97. INST ARCH Periodicals; Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1) ) INST ARCH Issue desk IOA CUL 4; INST ARCH DAG 100 CUL Broodbank. C. 1999. Colonization and configuration in the insular Neolithic of the Aegean. In, P. Halstead (ed.) Neolithic Society in Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 2) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:15-41. IoA Issue Desk DAE 100 HAL. Broodbank, C. 2006. The origins and early development of Mediterranean maritime activity, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 19: 199-230. Inst Arch Pers. Cavanagh, W. 2004. WYSIWYG: settlement and territoriality in southern Greece during the Early and Middle Neolithic periods. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 17: 165-89. Cherry, J. 1990. The first colonization of the Mediterranean islands: a review of recent research, JMA 3:145-221. Demoule, J.-P. and C. Perls 1993. The Greek Neolithic: a new review. Journal of World Prehistory 7:355-416. TC 3079; INST ARCH Periodicals. Galanidou, N. and C. Perls 2003. An introduction to the Greek Mesolithic. In, N. Galanidou and C. Perls (eds). The Greek Mesolithic. Problems and Perspectives. (BSA Studies 10) London: The British School at Athens:27-32. DAE Qto GAL Halstead, P. 1989. The economy has a normal surplus: economic stability and social change among early farming communities of Thessaly, Greece. In, P. Halstead and J. O'Shea (eds) Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:68-80. IoA Issue Desk IOA HAL 5.
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Halstead, P. 1999. Neighbours from Hell? The household in Neolithic Greece. In, P. Halstead (ed.) Neolithic Society in Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 2) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:77-95. IoA Issue Desk DAE 100 HAL. Isaakidou, V. and P. Tomkins (eds.) Escaping the Labyrinth (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology). Oxford: Oxbow. Jacobsen, T. 1981 Franchthi cave and the beginning of settled village life in Greece. Hesperia 50:303-19. Johnson, M. and Perls, C. 2004. An overview of Neolithic settlement patterns in eastern Thessaly. In, J.F. Cherry, C. Scarre and S. Shennan (eds.) Explaining Social Change: studies in honour of Colin Renfrew. Cambridge: McDonald Institute:65-79. TC 3078; Issue Desk IOA CHE 3 Kotsakis, K. 2001. Mesolithic to Neolithic in Greece. Continuity, discontinuity or change of course? Documenta Praehistorica 28:63-74. INST ARCH Periodicals. Nanoglou, S. 2001. Social and monumental space in Neolithic Thessaly, Greece, Journal of European Archaeology 4:303-22. zdogan, M. 1997. The Beginning of Neolithic Economies in Southeastern Europe: An Anatolian Perspective. Journal of European Archaeology 5.2:1-33. Papathanassopoulos, G. (ed.) 1996. Neolithic Culture in Greece. Athens, Goulandris. Pappa, M., Halstead, P., Kotsakis, K. and Urem-Kotsou, D. 2004. Evidence for largescale feasting at Late Neolithic Makriyalos, northern Greece. In, P. Halstead and J, Barrett (eds) Food, Cuisine and Society in Prehistoric Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 5) Oxbow Books, Oxford:16-44. Perls, C. 1992 Systems of exchange and organization of production in Neolithic Greece. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 5: 115-64. Perls, C. 2001. The Early Neolithic in Greece: The First Farming Communities in Europe. Perles, C. 2005. From the Near East to Greece: lets reverse the focus - cultural elements that didnt transfer. In, C. Lichter (ed.) How did farming reach Europe? (BYZAS 2) Deutsches Archaologisches Institut Abteilung Istanbul:275-90. Perls, C. and K.D. Vitelli. 1999 Craft specialization in the Neolithic of Greece. In, P. Halstead (ed.) Neolithic Society in Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 2) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:96-107. IoA Issue Desk DAE 100 HAL. Robb, J.E. 2007. The Early Mediterranean Village: Agency, Material Culture, and Social Change in Neolithic Italy. Robb, J. E. and Farr, R. H. 2005. Substances in motion: Neolithic Mediterranean trade, in Blake and Knapp (eds.), The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory, 24-45. Issue desk BLA 9; DAG 100 BLA. Sherratt, A.G. 2007. Diverse origins: regional contributions to the genesis of farming, in S. Colledge and J. Conolly (eds.), The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe, 1-20. HA COL. Souvatzi, S. 2007. 'Social complexity is not the same as hierarchy.' In S. Kohring and S. Wynne-Jones (eds) Socialising Complexity: structure, interaction and power in archaeological discourse. Oxford:37-59. Souvatzi, S. 2008. A Social Archaeology of Households in Neolithic Greece: An Anthropological Approach. Cambridge. Strasser, T. et al. 2010. Stone Age seafaring in the Mediterranean: evidence from the Plakias region for Lower Palaeolithic and Mesolithic habitation of Crete. Hesperia 79:145-90. Tomkins, P.D. 2004. "Filling in the 'Neolithic Background': Social Life and Social Transformation in the Aegean Before the Bronze Age." In The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited, edited by J. C. Barrett and P. Halstead, 38-63. Oxford: Oxbow Books. van Andel, T.J. and C. Runnels 1995. The earliest farmers in Europe, Antiquity 69:481-98.

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Seminar 3: 24th January 2013 (BLH) The transition to the Early Bronze Age: models and evidence The Early Bronze Age, roughly the 3rd millennium BC, saw widespread changes in Aegean societies and economies. These are commonly seen as an essential back-drop to the rise of the first palatial societies in the 2nd millennium BC, though exactly how and through what mechanisms remains a matter of intense debate. Explanation of these changes is therefore crucial. Two weeks ago we looked at paradigms for change. This seminar explores some influential models for the EBA and looks at supporting or refuting evidence. Essential Halstead, P. 2004. Life after Mediterranean polyculture: the subsistence subsystem and the emergence of civilization revisited. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:189-206. TC in progress. Nakou, G. 1995. The cutting edge; a new look at early Aegean metallurgy, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8: 1-32. TC 993; INST ARCH Periodicals Renfrew, A.C. 1972. The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC. IoA Issue Desk REN 7; DAG 100 REN; YATES A22 REN; Science ANTHROPOLOGY C7 REN. (Part II, Chapters 14-21, where each chapter covers a major theme, culminating in Chapter 21 with Renfrews systemic model for the rise of Aegean complex society; work your way gradually through. Note that Chapters 5-13 are now significantly dated). Robb, J.E. 1999. Great persons and big men in the Italian Neolithic, in R.H. Tykot, J. Morter and J.E. Robb (eds.), Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean (Accordia Specialist Studies on the Mediterranean 3), 111-21. TC 3597. Sherratt, A.G. 1981. Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution, in I. Hodder, G. Isaac and N. Hammond (eds.) Pattern of the Past, 261305. TC 523. Recommended Barrett, J. & P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books, especially chapters by Barrett & Damilati, Renfrew, and Whitelaw. Day, P. and Wilson, D. 2004. Ceramic change and the practice of eating and drinking in Early Bronze Age Crete, In, P. Halstead and J. Barrett (eds.) Food, Cuisine and Society in Prehistoric Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:45-62. Halstead, P. 1994. The north-south divide: regional paths to complexity in prehistoric Greece. In, C. Mathers and S. Stoddart (eds.) Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:195-219. IoA Issue Desk DA 150 MAT; DA 150 MAT Halstead, P. 1995. Plough and power: the economic and social significance of cultivation with the ox-drawn ard in the Mediterranean, Bulletin of Sumerian Agriculture 8:11-21. Halstead, P. 1996. Pastoralism or household herding? Problems of scale and specialisation in early Greek animal husbandry. World Archaeology 28:20-42. INST ARCH Periodicals Halstead, P. 2006. Sheep in the garden: the integration of crop and livestock husbandry in early farming regimes of Greece and southern Europe. In, D. Serjentson and D. Field (eds) Animals in the Neolithic of Britain and Europe. Oxford: Oxbow Books:42-55. Halstead, P., and V. Isaakidou. 2011. "Political Cuisine: Rituals of Commensality in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean." In Guess Who's Coming To Dinner: Feasting rituals in the Prehistoric Societies of Europe and the Near East edited by G. Aranda Jimnez, S. Montn Subas and M. Snchez Romero. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Hamilakis, Y. 1996. Wine, oil and the dialectics of power in Bronze Age Crete: a review of the evidence. OJA 15:1-32.
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Hamilakis, Y. 1999. Food technologies/technologies of the body: the social context of wine and oil production and consumption in Bronze Age Crete. World Archaeology 31:38-52. Hansen, J. 1988. Agriculture in the prehistoric Aegean: data versus speculation. AJA 92:39-52. Isaakidou, V. 2006. Ploughing with cows: Knossos and the secondary products revolution. In, D. Serjentson and D. Field (eds) Animals in the Neolithic of Britain and Europe. Oxford: Oxbow Books:95-112. Muhly, J.D. 2004. Chrysokamino and the beginnings of metal technology on Crete and in the Aegean. In, L.P. Day, M. Mook and J.D. Muhly (eds) Crete beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 conference. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:283-90. Muhly, J. 2002. Early metallurgy in Greece and Cyprus. In, U. Yalcin (ed.) Anatolian Metal II. (Der Anschnitt 15) Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau-Museum:77-82. Nakou, G. 1997. The role of Poliochni and the north Aegean in the development of Aegean metallurgy. In, C.G. Doumas and V. La Rosa (eds.) I Poliochni kai i Proimi Epochi tou Chalkou sto Voreio Aigaio:634-48. TC 1956. Pullen, D.J. 1992. Ox and plow in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. AJA 96:45-54. INST ARCH Periodicals Pullen, D. 2011. 'Before the palaces: redistribution and chiefdoms in mainland Greece.' American Journal of Archaeology 115:185-95. Pullen, D. J. 2011. "Measuring Levels of Integration and Social Change in Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean Societies: From Chiefdoms to Proto-States" in Terrenato and Haggis, eds., State formation in Italy and Greece : questioning the neoevolutionist paradigm, pp 18-31. Rohling, E. et al. 2002. Rapid Holocene climate changes in the eastern Mediterranean, in F. A. Hassan (ed.), Droughts, Food and Culture: Ecological Change and Food Security in Africas Later Prehistory, 35-46. Sherratt, A. 1987. Cups that cheered: the introduction of alcohol to prehistoric Europe. In, W. Waldren and R. Kennard (eds.) Bell Beakers of the Western Mediterranean: The Oxford International Conference 1986 (British Archaeological Reports International Series 331):81-106 (reprinted in his Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe: Changing Perspectives (1997)). Sherratt, A.G. 1983. The Secondary Exploitation of Animals in the Old World. World Archaeology 15:90-104. Terral, J.-F. et al. 2004. Historical biogeography of olive domestication (Olea europaea l.) as revealed by geometrical morphology applied to biological and archaeological material, Journal of Biogeography, 31: 63-77. Van Andel, T.H. and C.N. Runnels 1988. An essay on the emergence of civilisation in the Aegean world. Antiquity 62:234-47. TC 268; INST ARCH Periodicals Zachos, K and Douzougli, A. 1999. Aegean metallurgy: how early and how independent? In, P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur and W.-D. Niemeier (eds.) Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener (Aegaeum 20):959-68. Zachos, K. 2007. The Neolithic background: a reassessment. In, P. Day and R. Doonan (eds) Metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Oxbow Books:168-206. DAG 100 DAY.

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Seminar 4: 31st January 2013 (BLH) Social dynamics in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean The general picture of EBA proto-urban societies in the Aegean was constructed by Renfrew by drawing on different types of evidence from across the entire region. Despite another 40 years of research, the different regions of the Aegean have steadfastly resisted falling into such a neat homogenized pattern. This seminar will try to identify some of these contrasts, while aiming to define the different nature of societies in different parts of the broader region. A number of articles usefully sum up most of the arguments currently being discussed for Crete, the Cyclades and the southern Mainland. Essential Broodbank, C. 2008. The Early Bronze Age in the Cyclades, in C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 47-76. Legarra Herrero, B. 2009. The Minoan fallacy: cultural diversity and mortunary behaviour on Crete at the beginning of the Bronze Age, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28: 29-57. Pullen, D. 2008. The Early Bronze Age in Greece, in C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 19-46. Sbonias, K. 1999. Social development, management of production, and symbolic representation in Prepalatial Crete, in A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete, 25-51. TC 2169; DAG 14 CHA Whitelaw, T.M. 1983. The settlement at Fournou Korifi, Myrtos and aspects of Early Minoan social organization. In, O. Krzyszkowska & L. Nixon (eds.) Minoan Society, 323-45. TC 526; DAG 14 MIN; Yates A 22 MIN Recommended Alexiou, S. and P. Warren 2004. The Early Minoan Tombs of Lebena, Southern Crete. SIMA 30. Branigan, K. 1992. Dancing with Death: Life and Death in Southern Crete ca. 30002000 BC. Amsterdam. DAG 14 BRA (An update and re-write of: K. Branigan 1970. The Tombs of Mesara. London. DAG 14 BRA) Broodbank, C. 2000. An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. chapters 3, 6, 7. IoA Issue Desk BRO 9; DAG 10 BRO Chapman, R. 2005. Changing social relations in the Mediterranean Copper and Bronze Ages, in E. Blake and A.B. Knapp (eds.) The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell, 77-101. Davis, J.L. 1992. The islands of the Aegean, American Journal of Archaeology 96: 699756. TC 500 (the best survey of the Bronze Age in the Aegean islands). Day, P.M. and D.E. Wilson 2002. Landscapes of memory, craft and power in Prepalatial and Protopalatial Knossos. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:143-66. DAG 14 HAM; IoA Issue Desk HAM Doumas, C. 1977. Early Bronze Age Burial Habits in the Cyclades. (SIMA 48). Gteborg: Paul strms Frlag. Forsen, J. 2010. 'Early Bronze Age: Mainland Greece.' In E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC). Oxford:53-65. Gill, D. & C. Chippindale 1993. Material and intellectual consequences of esteem for Cycladic figures, AJA 97: 601-659. TC 13; Inst Arch Pers. Haggis, D. 2002. Integration and complexity in the late Prepalatial period: a view from the countryside in Eastern Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:120-42. DAG 14 HAM; IoA Issue Desk HAM Hamilakis, Y. 1998. Eating the Dead: Mortuary Feasting and the Politics of Memory in the Aegean Bronze Age Societies. In, K. Branigan (eds.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:115-32. IoA Issue Desk BRA 5; DAG 100 BRA
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Murphy, J. 1998. Ideology, Rites and Rituals: A View of Prepalatial Minoan Tholoi. In, K. Branigan, (ed.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:27-40. IoA Issue Desk BRA 5; DAG 100 BRA Peperaki, O. 2004. The House of the Tiles at Lerna: dimensions of social complexity. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:214-31. Pullen, D.J. 1994. Modeling Mortuary Behavior on a Regional Scale: A Case Study from Mainland Greece in the Early Bronze Age. In, P.N. Kardulias (ed.) Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. London: University Press of America:113136. DAG 100 KAR Pullen, D.J. 2003. Site size, territory, and hierarchy: measuring levels of integration and social change in Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean societies. In, K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds.) METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 24) Lige:29-36. IoA Issue Desk FOS. Pullen, D.J. 1994. A lead seal from Tsoungiza, ancient Nemea, and Early Bronze Age sealing systems. American Journal of Archaeology 98:35-52. INST ARCH Periodicals Rutter, J.B. 1993. Review of Aegean Prehistory II: the prepalatial Bronze Age of the southern and central Greek mainland, American Journal of Archaeology 97: 74597 (focus on 758-74 for the EBA). TC 538; Inst Arch Pers. Sahoglu, V. 2005. The Anatolian trade network and the Izmir region during the Early Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24:339-61 Sagona, A. and P. Zimansky 2009. Ancient Turkey, chapter 5, especally 191-8. Schoep, I., P. Tomkins and J. Driessen. (eds.) 2011. Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapters 2, 4, 9, 11. Shaw, J. 1987. The Early Helladic corridor house: development and form, AJA 91: 5979. Watrous, L.V. 1993 Review of Aegean prehistory III: Crete from earliest prehistory through the Protopalatial period. AJA 98:695-753. INST ARCH Periodicals; Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1). Issue desk CUL 4; INST ARCH DAG 100 CUL Weiberg, E. 2007. Thinking the Bronze Age: Life and Death in Early Helladic Greece (Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilisations 29). Weingarten, J. 2000. Lerna: Sealings in a Landscape. In, M. Perna (ed.) Administrative Documents in the Aegean and Their Near Eastern Counterparts. Torino: Centro internazionale di ricerche archeologiche antropologiche e storiche:103-123. Whitelaw, T., P.M. Day, E. Kiriatzi, V. Kilikoglou and D.E. Wilson. 1997. Ceramic Traditions at EM IIB Myrtos, Fournou Korifi. In, R. Laffineur and P.P. Betancourt (eds.) TEHNI: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 16) Lige:II.265-74. IoA Issue Desk LAF 7. Wilson, D. 2007. Early Prepalatial Crete. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP:77-104. Wiencke, M.H. 1989. Change in Early Helladic II. AJA 93:495-509. TC 270; INST ARCH Periodicals.

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Seminar 5: 7th February 2013 (CB) Islands, trade and the end of the Early Bronze Age Islands have been central to the medium-range networks that linked regions within the Aegean together. Movement of metals around and into the Aegean was one feature of such networks, and scientific analysis has made major contributions here. Claims of EBA colonies, Cycladic on Crete and Cretan on Kythera, require further exploration in this light, as do Aegean links with the wider world. Late in the EBA, trajectories in the Aegean diverge, with collapse horizons evident in several regions. Invasionist, environmental and climatic causes have been invoked, and will be considered. Essential Broodbank, C. 2000. An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge. (chapters 7 to 9 for trade, chapters 10 and 11 cover the end of the EBA). IoA Issue Desk BRO; DAG 10 BRO. Broodbank, C. and E. Kiriatzi 2007. The First Minoans of Kythera Revisited: Technology, Demography, and Landscape in the Prepalatial Aegean. AJA 111: 24174. INST ARCH Periodicals. Manning, S.W. 1997. Cultural Change in the Aegean c. 2200 BC. In, H.N. Dalfes, G. Kukla, and H. Weiss (eds.) Third Millennium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. (NATO Scientific Affairs Division ASI Series Volume I.49) Berlin: Springer:149-71. TC 2182; BA 40 DAL. Nakou, G. 1997. The role of Poliochni and the north Aegean in the development of Aegean metallurgy. In, C.G. Doumas and V. La Rosa (eds.) I Poliochni kai i Proimi Epochi tou Chalkou sto Voreio Aigaio. Athens:634-48. TC 1956; DAE Qto DOU Papadatos, Y. 2007. Beyond cultures and ethnicity: a new look at material culture distribution and inter-regional interaction in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean. In, S. Antoniadou and A. Pace (eds) Mediterranean Crossroads. Athens: Pierides Foundation:419-51. TC 3717. Metal hoards: Antonova, I., V. Tolstikov and M. Triester 1996. The Gold of Troy: Searching for Homers Fabled City. Recommended Agourides, C. 1997. Sea routes and navigation in the third millennium Aegean. OJA 16:1-24. INST ARCH Periodicals Bevan, A. 2004. Emerging civilized values? The consumption and imitation of Egyptian stone vessels in EMII-MMI Crete and its wider Eastern Mediterranean context. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:107-26. Branigan, K. 1991. Mochlos and early Aegean gateway community?, in R. Laffineur and L. Basch (eds.) Thalassa: LEge prhistorique et al mer (Aegaeum 7), 97-105. Carter, T. 2004. Mochlos and Melos: a special relationship? Creating identity and status in Minoan Crete. In, L. Day, M. Mook and J. Muhly (eds) Crete Beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 Conference. (Prehistory Monographs 10) INSTAP Academic Press, Philadelphia:291-307. Chapman, R. 2005. Changing social relations in the Mediterranean Copper and Bronze Ages, in Blake and Knapp (eds.), The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory, 77-101. Issue desk BLA 9; DAG 100 BLA. Day, P.M., D.E. Wilson and E. Kiriatzi 1998. Pots, labels and people: burying ethnicity in the cemetery at Aghia Photia, Siteias. In, K. Branigan, (ed.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:133-49. IoA Issue Desk BRA 5; DAG 100 BRA. Dimopoulou-Rethemiotaki, N. D. Wilson and P. Day. 2007. The earlier Prepalatial settlement of Poros-Katsambas: craft production and exchange at the harbour town of Knossos. In, P. Day and R. Doonan (eds). Metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Oxbow:84-97. Forsen, J. 1992. The Twilight of the Early Helladics: A Study of the Disturbances in Eastcentral and Southern Greece towards the End of the Early Bronze Age.
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Kardulias, P.N. 1992. The Ecology of Bronze Age Flaked Stone Tool Production in Southern Greece: Evidence from Agios Stephanos and the Southern Argolid. AJA 96:421-42. Kassianidou, V. and A. B. Knapp 2005. Archaeometallurgy in the Mediterranean: the social context of mining, technology, and trade. In Blake and Knapp (eds.) The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory, 215-51. Maran J. 2007. Seaborne contacts between the Aegean, the Balkans and the Central Mediterranean in the 3rd millennium BC: The unfolding of the Mediterranean world, in I. Galanaki, H. Tomas, Y. Galanakis and R. Laffineur (eds.), Between the Aegean and the Baltic Seas: Prehistory Without Borders (Aegaeum 27). Lige and Austin (TX): University of Lige and University of Texas at Austin, 3-21. Muhly, J.D. 2004. Chrysokamino and the beginnings of metal technology on Crete and in the Aegean. In, L.P. Day, M. Mook and J.D. Muhly (eds) Crete beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 conference. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:283-90. Muhly, J.D. and E. Pernicka. 1992. Early Trojan Metallurgy and Metals Trade. In, J. Herrmann (ed.) Heinrich Schliemann. Grundlagen und Ergebnisse moderner Archologie 100 Jahre nach Schliemanns Tod. Berlin: Akademie Verlag:309-18. STORE 04-0616. Nakou, G. 2007. Absent presences: metal vessels in the Aegean at the end of the third millennium. In, P. Day and R. Doonan (eds) Metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Oxbow Books:224-44. DAG 100 DAY. Rahmstorf, L. 2010. The concept of weighing during the Bronze Age in the Aegean, the Near east and Europe, in I. Morley and C. Renfrew (eds.) The Archaeology of Measurement: Comprehending Heaven, Earth and Time in Ancient Societies. Reinholt, C. 2003. The Aegean and Western Anatolia: social forms and cultural relationships, in J. Aruz (ed.) Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, Aruz. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press: 255-9. Renfrew, A.C. 1972. The Emergence of Civilisation. London. (chapter 20) IoA Issue Desk REN 7; DAG 100 REN; YATES A22 REN; Science ANTHROPOLOGY C7 REN. Rosen, A. M. 2007. Civilizing Climate: Social Responses to Climate Change in the Ancient Near East, Chapters 1, 2 and 7. Rutter, J.B. 1993. Early Helladic pottery: inferences about exchange and production from style and clay composition. In, C. Zerner, P. Zerner and J. Winder (eds.) Wace and Blegen: Pottery as Evidence for Trade in the Aegean Bronze Age 19391989. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben:19-37. DAG 100 WAC Sahoglu, V. 2005. The Anatolian trade network and the Izmir region during the Early Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24:339-61. Sherratt, A.G. 1993. What would a Bronze Age world-system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in late prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology 1.2:1-58. TC 499; INST ARCH Periodicals. Sherratt emphasises the insufficiencies of Renfrews model, and returns to connections with the East and the location of the Aegean relative to Europe. Sherratt, A.G. and E.S. Sherratt 1991. From luxuries to commodities: the nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age trading systems, in N. Gale (ed.) Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 90), 351-86. TC 507; Issue desk DAG Qto STU 90. Stos-Gale, Z.-A. 1993 The Origin of Metal Used for Making Weapons in Early and Middle Minoan Crete. In, C. Scarre and F. Healey (eds.) Trade and Exchange in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford: Oxbow Books:115-129. TC 1036; IoA Issue Desk HE SCA Wengrow, D. 2010. "The voyages of Europa: ritual and trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, c.2300-1850 BC." In Putting Aegean States in Context: Interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeastern Europe during the Bronze Age, edited by W. A. Parkinson and M. Galaty. Santa Fe: School of American Research. Whitelaw, T. 2000. Settlement instability and landscape degradation in the southern Aegean in the third millennium BC. In, P. Halstead and C. Frederick (eds.) Landscape and Landuse in Postglacial Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 3) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:135-61. DAE 100 HAL.
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Seminar 6: 21st Ferbruary 2013 (BLH) The emergence of the Minoan palace-states This topic is central to understanding the Aegean Bronze Age. Building on the earlier analysis of paradigms and EBA societies, we now focus on the evidence for the emergence of the first Cretan palace-states. Key issues are the importance of indigenous versus exogenous factors, the time-scale of change (revolutionary, or evolutionary, from whose perspective?), and the social processes that led to palaces-states and the elites inferred from them. Essential Cherry, J.F. 1984. The emergence of the state in the prehistoric Aegean. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 30:18-48. TC 11; Main LINGUISTICS Periodicals Legarra Herrero, B. 2011. "New kid on the block: the nature of the first systemic contacts between Crete and the eastern Mediterranean around 2000 BC." In Interweaving worlds: systemic interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st millennia BC. Papers from a conference in memory of Professor Andew Sherratt. What Would a Bronze Age World System Look Like? World systems approaches to Europe and western Asia 4th to 1st millennia BC, edited by T. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt and J. Bennet, 266-281. Oxford: Oxbow books. (Pdf will be provided through Moodle). Manning, S. 2007. Protopalatial Crete. Formation of the palaces. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 105-20. Whitelaw, T. 2004. Alternative pathways to complexity in the southern Aegean. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:232-56. INST ARCH DAG 100 BAR. TC 2974. Watrous, L.V. 1998. 'Egypt and Crete in the Early Middle Bronze Age: A Case of Trade and Cultural Diffusion.' In E. Cline and D. Harris-Cline (eds) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Lige:19-28. [ISSUE DESK IoA CLI] Recommended Bevan, A. 2004. Emerging civilized values? The consumption and imitation of Egyptian stone vessels in EMII-MMI Crete and its wider Eastern Mediterranean context. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:107-26. Cherry, J.F. 1983. Evolution, revolution and the origins of complex society in Minoan Crete. In, O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds.) Minoan Society: 33-45. TC 515; IoA Issue Desk INST ARCH MIN; DAG 14 MIN Cherry, J. F. 2010. "Sorting Out Crete's Prepalatial Off-Island Interactions." In Archaic State Interaction. The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age, edited by W. A. Parkinson and M. L. Galaty, 107-140. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press. Colburn, C. 2008. Exotica and the Early Minoan elite: eastern imports in Prepalatial Crete. AJA 112:203-24. Day, P.M. and D.E. Wilson 2002. Landscapes of memory, craft and power in Prepalatial and Protopalatial Knossos. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:143-66. DAG 14 HAM; IoA Issue Desk HAM Haggis, D. 1999. Staple finance, peak sanctuaries and economic complexity in late Prepalatial Crete. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag:5385. TC 2286; DAG 14 CHA. Haggis, D. 2002. Integration and complexity in the late Prepalatial period: a view from the countryside in Eastern Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:120-42. DAG 14 HAM; IoA Issue Desk HAM Halstead, P. 1988. On redistribution and the origin of Minoan-Mycenaean palatial economies. In, E.B. French and K.A. Wardle (eds.) Problems in Greek Prehistory.
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Bristol: Bristol Classical Press:519-30. IoA Issue Desk DAE 100 FRE; YATES A 22 BRI Halstead, Paul. 2011. 'Redistribution in Aegean Palatial Societies: Terminology, Scale, and Significance.' American Journal of Archaeology 115:229-35. Hamilakis, Y. 1998. Eating the Dead: Mortuary Feasting and the Politics of Memory in the Aegean Bronze Age Societies. In, K. Branigan (eds.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:115-32. IoA Issue Desk BRA 5; DAG 100 BRA Legarra Herrero, B. 2011. "The Construction, Deconstruction and Non-construction of Hierarchies in the Funerary Record of Prepalatial Crete." In Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 325-357. Oxford: Oxbow Books Lewthwaite, J. 1983 Why did civilisation not emerge more often? A comparative approach to the development of Minoan Crete. In, O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds.) Minoan Society : 171-83. INST ARCH DAG 14 MIN; INST ARCH Yates A 22 MIN Marfoe, L. 1985. Cedar forest to silver mountain: social change and the development of long-distance trade in early Near Eastern societies, in M. Rowlands, M. Larsen and K. Kristiansen (eds.) Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, 25-35. Parkinson, W. A., and M. L. Galaty. 2007. "Secondary States in Prespective: An Integrated Approach to State Formation in the Prehistoric Aegean." American Anthropologist no. 109 (1):113-129. Phillips, J. 2005. "A question of reception." In Archaeological perspectives on the transmission and transformation of culture in the eastern Mediterranean, edited by J. Clarke, 39-47. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Sbonias, K. 1999. Social development, management of production and symbolic representation in Prepalatial Crete. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag:25-51. TC 2169; DAG 14 CHA Schoep, I. 1999. The origins of writing and administration on Crete. OJA 18:265-76. TC 2208; INST ARCH Periodicals Schoep, I. 2011. "Bridging the divide between the 'Prepalatial' and the 'Protopalatial' periods?" In Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 403-428. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Schoep, I. and C. Knappett. 2004. Dual emergence: evolving heterarchy, exploding hierarchy. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:21-37. INST ARCH DAG 100 BAR Warren, P.M. 1987 The genesis of the Minoan palace. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces: 47-56. INST ARCH Teaching Collection 53; INST ARCH Yates Qtos A6 FUN Watrous, L.V. 2005. Cretan international relations during the Middle Minoan IA period and the chronology of Seagers finds from the Mochlos tombs. In, R. Laffineur and E. Greco (eds) 2005. Emporia. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 25) Lige:107-16. Watrous, L.V., Hadzi-Vallianou, D. and Blitzer, H. 2004. The Plain of Phaistos. Cycles of complexity in the Mesara region of Crete. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology: chs 8 & 9. INST ARCH DAG 14 Qto WAT Wengrow, D. 2010. The voyages of Europa: ritual and trade in the eastern Mediterranean, circa 23001850 BC, in W. Parkinson and M. Galaty (eds.) Archaic State Interaction: the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. DAG 100 PAR Yoffee, N. 2005. Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States and Civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Seminar 7: 28th February 2013 (BLH) Protopalatial Crete: society, economy and ideology Recent advances have improved our understanding of Protopalatial societies on Crete, not least excavations at Mallia Quartier Mu, Monastiraki and Atsipadhes. This seminar explores what kind of early states the Minoan palaces controlled and how they related to communities in their hinterlands, and the development of the ritual landscape in the early palatial period, as evidenced in particular by the phenomenon of peak sanctuaries. Essential Cherry, J.F. 1986 Polities and palaces: some problems in Minoan state formation. In, C. Renfrew and J.F. Cherry (eds.) Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-Political Change : 19-45. INST ARCH Teaching Collection 483; Issue desk REN 10. Knappett, C. 1999. Assessing a polity in Protopalatial Crete: the Malia-Lasithi state. American Journal of Archaeology 103:615-39. TC 2159; INST ARCH Periodicals Peatfield, A.A.D. 1992. Rural ritual in Bronze Age Crete: the peak sanctuary at Atsipadhes. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2:59-87. TC 2186; IoA Pers Schoep, I. 2002. Social and political organization in Crete in the Proto-Palatial period: the case of Middle Minoan II Malia. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15:10132. INST ARCH Periodicals Schoep, I. 2006. Looking beyond the first palaces: elites and the agency of power in EMIII-MMII Crete. American Journal of Archaeology 110:37-64. INST ARCH periodicals Recommended Betancourt, P.P. 1998. Middle Minoan Objects in the Near East. In, EH. Cline and D. Harris-Cline (eds.) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Lige:5-11. IoA Issue Desk CLI Bevan, A. 2003. Reconstructing the role of Egyptian culture in the value regimes of the Bronze Age Aegean: stone vessels and their social contexts. In, R. Matthews and C. Roemer (eds) Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London: UCL Press:57-74. IoA Issue Desk IOA MAT 7; EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MAT Branigan, K. 1987. The economic role of the first palaces. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:245-9. IoA Issue Desk YATES Qto A6 FUN Cadogan, G. 1994. An Old Palace period Knossos state?. In, D. Evely, H. Hughes-Brock and N. Momigliano (eds.) Knossos: A Labyrinth of History. Papers Presented in Honour of Sinclair Hood:57-69. DAG 14 HOO Carinci, F. 2000. Western Mesara and Egypt during the Protopalatial period: a minimalist view. In, A. Karetsou (ed.) Kriti - Aigyptos. Politismikoi thesmoi triov chietion. Athens: Archaeological Museum of Heraklion:31-7. Day, P., M. Relaki and E. Faber. 2006. Pottery making and social reproduction in the Bronze Age Mesara. In, M. Wiener et al. (eds) Pottery and Society. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:22-72. Driessen, J. 2011. "A Matrilocal House Society in Pre- and Protopalatial Crete?" In Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 358383. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Kanta, A. 1999. Monasteraki and Phaistos, elements of Protopalatial history. In, P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur and W.-D. Niemeier (eds) Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as he enters his 65th year. Liege:II:387-93. IoA Issue Desk IOA BET 2. Knappett, C. 2002. Mind the gap: between pots and politics in Minoan studies. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:167-88. Knappett, C. 2004. Technological innovation and social diversity at Middle Minoan Knossos. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:257-66. Olivier, J.-P. 1986. Cretan writing in the second millennium BC. World Archaeology 17:377-89. TC 519; INST ARCH Periodicals.
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Peatfield, A.A.D. 1987. Palace and peak: the political and religious relationship between palaces and peak sanctuaries. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:89-93. TC 510; IoA Issue Desk YATES Qto A6 FUN. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1990. Minoan peak sanctuaries: history and society: Opuscula Atheniensa 17:117-31. TC 533; ICS Periodicals. Poursat, J. Cl. 2011. "The Emergence of Elite Groups at Protopalatial Malia. A Biography of Quartier Mu." In Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 177-183. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Schoep, I. 2004. Assessing the role of architecture in conspicuous consumption in the Middle Minoan I-II periods. OJA 23:243-69. INST ARCH Periodicals Schoep, I. 2010. "Making Elites: Political Economy and Elite Culture(s) in Middle Minoan Crete." In Political Economies of the Aegean Bronze Age. Papers from the Langford Conference, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 22-24 February 2007, edited by D. J. Pullen, 66-85. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Watrous, L.V. 1993 Review of Aegean prehistory III: Crete from earliest prehistory through the Protopalatial period. AJA 98:695-753. INST ARCH Periodicals; Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1) ) INST ARCH Issue desk IOA CUL 4; INST ARCH DAG 100 CUL Watrous, L.V. 1998. Egypt and Crete in the Early Middle Bronze Age: A Case of trade and cultural diffusion. In, EH. Cline and D. Harris-Cline (eds.) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Lige:19-28. IoA Issue Desk CLI To familiarise yourselves with the main sites you might also look at: Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. YATES Qto E10 MYE.

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Seminar 8: 7th March 2013 (BLH) Neopalatial Crete: political and cultural dynamics The Protopalatial centres of Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia approximate to the peer polity model of equal, politically independent yet culturally inter-related entities. After the Neopalatial period, in the LM II-III (Mycenaean phase) on the island, the Linear B tablets reveal that much of the island was controlled from one centre, Knossos. But what of the intervening Neopalatial period, archaeologically one of the most prominent phases on Crete? Here, opinions are strongly divided. We explore alternative perspectives, involving analyses of settlement and architecture in regional context, as well as administrative practices. Essential Adams, E. 2006. Social strategies and spatial dynamics in Neopalatial Crete: an analysis of the north-central area. AJA 110:1-36. INST ARCH Periodicals Bevan, A. 2010. Political Geography and Palatial Crete, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23: 27-54. Hamilakis, Y. 2002. Too many chiefs? Factional competition in Neopalatial Crete, in J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Lige:179-99. IoA Issue Desk DRI 4 Schoep, I. 1999. Tablets and territories? Reconstructing Late Minoan IB political geography through undeciphered documents. AJA 103:201-21. TC 2164; INST ARCH Periodicals Whitelaw, T. 2001. From sites to communities: defining the human dimensions of Minoan urbanism. In, K. Branigan (ed.) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 4) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:15-37. TC 2771; IoA Issue Desk BRA; DAE 100 BRA. Recommended Adams, E. 2004. Power relations in Minoan palatial towns: an analysis of Neopalatial Knossos and Malia. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 17:191-222. INST ARCH Periodicals Adams, E. 2007. 'Approaching monuments in the prehistoric built environment: new light on the Minoan palaces.' Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26:359-94. <www> Adams, E. 2007. ''Time and Chance': Unraveling Temporality in North-Central Neopalatial Crete.' American Journal of Archaeology 111:391-421.Bennet, D.J.L. 1990. Knossos in context: comparative perspectives on the Linear B administration of LM II-III Crete. AJA 94:193-211. INST ARCH Periodicals Betts, J. 1967. New light on Minoan bureaucracy, Kadmos 6: 15-40. Cherry, J.F. 1986. Polities and palaces. In, A.C. Renfrew and J.F. Cherry (eds.) Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political change:19-45. TC 483; IoA Issue Desk REN 10; AH REN Dimopoulou, N. 1987. Workshops and craftsmen in the harbour-town of Knossos at Poros-Katsambas. In, R. Laffineur and P.P. Betancourt (eds.) TEHNI: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 16) Lige:II.433-8. IoA Issue Desk LAF 7. Hgg, R. (ed.) 1997. The Function of the Minoan villa (especially papers by J. Driessen & J. Sakellarakis, P. Betancourt & N. Marinatos, tsipopoulou & Papacostopoulou, and comments in the discussions by T. Whitelaw). Hgg, R. & N. Marinatos (eds.) 1987.The Function of the Minoan Palaces (especially papers by Chrysoulaki & Platon, Davis, Moody, Niemeier and Palyvou). Hallager, B.P. and E. Hallager 1995. The Knossian Bull - Political Propaganda in NeoPalatial Crete?. In, R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier (eds.) POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 12) Lige:II.547-56. IoA Issue Desk LAF 4. Knappett, C. and I. Schoep 2000. Continuity and change in Minoan palatial power. Antiquity 74:365-71. TC 2181; INST ARCH Periodicals Macdonald, C.F. 2002. The Neopalatial palaces of Knossos. In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Lige:35-54. IoA Issue Desk DRI 4.
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Rehak, P. & J.G. Younger 1998. Neopalatial, Final Palatial, and Postpalatial Crete, American Journal of Archaeology 102: 91-173. Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1) ) INST ARCH Issue desk IOA CUL 4; INST ARCH DAG 100 CUL. Schoep, I. 2001. Managing the hinterland: the rural concerns of urban administration. In, K. Branigan (ed.) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 4) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:87-102. IoA Issue Desk BRA; DAE 100 BRA. Schoep, I. 2002. The state of the Minoan palaces or the Minoan palace-state? In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Lige:15-33. IoA Issue Desk DRI 4 Shaw, J. 2003. Palatial proportions: a study of the relative proportions between Minoan palaces and their settlements. In, K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds.) METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 24) Lige:239-46. IoA Issue Desk FOS. Tsipopoulou, M. 1999. From Local Centre to Palace: the Role of Fortification in the Economic Transformation of the Siteia Bay Area, East Crete. In, R. Laffineur (ed.) POLEMOS: Le contexte guerrier en ge l'ge du Bronze. (Aegaeum 19) Lige:I.179-89. IoA Issue Desk IOA LAF 1 Tsipopoulou, M. 2002. Petras, Siteia: the palace, the town, the hinterland and the Protopalatial background. In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Lige:13344. IoA Issue Desk DRI 4. Van de Moortel, A. 2002. Pottery as a barometer of economic change from the Protopalatial to the Neopalatial society in central Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking Minoan archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:189211. DAG 14 HAM; IoA Issue Desk HAM. Warren, P.M. 2004. Terra cognita The territory and boundaries of the early Neopalatial Knossian state. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:159-68. Wiener, M. 2007. Neopalatial Knossos: rule and role. In, P. Betancourt, M. Nelson and H. Williams (eds) Krinoi kai Limenes. Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:231-42. Weingarten, J. 1987. Seal-use at Late Minoan IB Ayia Triada: a Minoan elite in action. I. adminstrative considerations, Kadmos 26: 1-38. Weingarten, J. 1990. Three upheavals in Minoan sealing administration: evidence for radical change, in T.G. Palaima (ed.) Aegean Seals, Sealing and Administration (Aegaeum 5), 106-20 (with discussion). TC 2223; Issue desk PAL; DAG Qto PA Whitelaw, T. 2004. Estimating the population of Neopalatial Knossos. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:147-58. TC 297.

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Seminar 9: 14th March 2013 (BLH) Art, ritual and power in palatial Crete This seminar asks how we can use evidence from images and archaeological remains of cult to understand ritual action, religion and its relationship to the exercise of social and political power in palatial Crete. Critical to this is developing a systematic methodology for interpreting images that allows us to make inferences about Cretan politics, elite ideology and religious life without becoming wildly speculative. Essential Cain, C.D. 2001. Dancing in the dark: deconstructing a narrative of epiphany on the Isopata ring. AJA 105:27-49. TC 2595; INST ARCH Periodicals Davis, E.N. 1995. Art and politics in the Aegean: the missing ruler. In, P. Rehak (ed.) The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean. (Aegaeum 11) Lige:11-19. TC 2189; DAE Qto REH. Morgan, L. 1985. Idea, idiom and iconography. In, P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat (eds.) L'Iconographie Minoenne. (BCH Supplment 11) Athens: cole franaise d'Athnes:5-19. TC 93; YATES A 22 DAR. Shapland, A. 2010. Wild nature? Human-animal relations in Neopalatial Crete, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20: 109-127. Driessen, J. 2002. 'The King must die.' Some observations on the use of Minoan court compounds.' In J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Lige:1-13. [ISSUE DESK IoA DRI 4] Recommended Alberti, B. 2002. Gender and the figurative art of Late Bronze Age Knossos, in Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Re-visited: Rethinking Minoan Archaeology, 98-117. Adams, E. 2004. Power and ritual in Neopalatial Crete: a regional comparison. World Archaeology 36:26-42. Bennet, J. 2008. 'Now You See It; Now You Don't! The Disappearance of the Linear A Script on Crete.' In J. Baines, J. Bennet and S. Houston (eds) The Disappearance of Writing Systems. Perspectives on Literacy and Communication. London:1-29. [TC 3656] Bevan, A. 2007. Stone Vessels and Values in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Cambridge. Briault, C. 2007. Making mountains out of molehills in the Bronze Age Aegean: visibility, ritual kits and the idea of a peak sanctuary. World Archaeology 39:12241. Briault, C. 2007. High fidelity or Chinese whispers? Cult symbols and ritual transmission in the Bronze Age Aegean. JMA 20:239-65. Cameron, M.A.S. 1987. The palatial thematic system in the Knossos murals. Last notes on Knossos frescoes. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:3208. Chapin, A. 2007. 'A Man's World? Gender and Male Coalitions in the West House Miniature Frescoes.' In P. Betancourt, M. Nelson and H. Williams, (eds) Krinoi kai Limenes: Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw. (Prehistory Monographs 22.) Philadelphia:139-44. Chapin, A. 2008. 'The Lady of the Landscape: An Investigation of Aegean Costuming and the Xeste 3 Frescoes.' In C. Colburn and M. Heyn (eds) Reading a Dynamic Canvas: Adornment in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Newcastle:48-83. [Main ANCIENT HISTORY A 65 COL] Chapin, A. 2009. 'Constructions of male youth and gender in Aegean art: the evidence from Late Bronze Age Crete and Thera.' In K. Kopaka (ed.) Fylo: Engendering Prehistoric 'Stratigraphies' in the Aegean and the Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 30.) Lige:175-82.Davis, E.N. 1987. The Knossos miniature frescoes and the function of the central courts. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:15761.
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Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. Comments on a popular model of Minoan religion. OJA 13:173-84. TC 2184; INST ARCH Periodicals Hgg, R. 1985. Pictorial programmes in the Minoan palaces and villas. In, P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat (eds.) L'Iconographie Minoenne. (BCH Supplment 11) Athens: cole franaise d'Athnes:219-42. YATES A 22 DAR. Hallager, E. 1985. The Master Impression (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 69). Hallager, B.P. and E. Hallager 1995. The Knossian Bull - Political Propaganda in NeoPalatial Crete?. In, R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier (eds.) POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 12) Lige:II.547-56. IoA Issue Desk LAF 4. Haysom, M. 2010. The double-axe: a contextual approach to the interpretation of a Cretan symbol in the Neopalatial period, in Oxford Journal of Archaeology 29, 3555. Herva, V.-P. 2006. Flower lovers, after all? Rethinking religion and humanenvironment relations in Minoan Crete. World Archaeology 38:586-98. Koehl, R.B. 1986. The chieftain cup and a Minoan rite of passage. JHS 106:99-110. Main CLASSICS Periodicals Logue, W. 2004. Set in stone: the role of relief-carved stone vessels in Neopalatial Minoan elite propaganda. BSA 99:149-72. Lupack, S. 2010. 'Minoan religion.' In E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC). Oxford:251-62.Niemeier, W.-D. 1987. On the function of the throne room in the palace at Knossos. In, R. Hgg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:163-8. Marinatos, N. 2010. Minoan kingship and the solar goddess: a Near Eastern koine. Urbana.Niemeier, W.-D. 1988. The priest-king fresco from Knossos: a new reconstruction and interpretation, in E. French & K.A. Wardle (eds.) Problems in Greek Prehistory. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1987. Palace and peak: the political and religious relationship between palaces and peak sanctuaries, in R. Hgg & N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces 89-93.TC 510; Yates Qto A6 FUN. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1990. Minoan peak sanctuaries: history and society. Opuscula Atheniensa 17:117-31. TC 533; ICS Periodicals. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1992. Rural ritual in Bronze Age Crete: the peak sanctuary at Atsipadhes. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2:59-87. TC 2186; INST ARCH Periodicals Peatfield, A.A.D. 2000. Minoan Religion. In, D. Huxley (ed.) Cretan Quests: British Explorers, Excavators and Historians. London: British School at Athens:138-50. Renfrew, A.C. 1985. The Archaeology of Cult: The Sanctuary at Phylakopi, Preface and introduction 1-4, 11-26 only. TC 266; DAG 10 REN; Yates Qto E12 PHY. Rutkowski, B. 1986. Cult Places of the Aegean (Chapter 4 for caves and 5 for peak sanctuaries (the latter less good, compared with Peatfields work). Schoep, I. 1994. Ritual, politics and script on Minoan Crete. Aegean Archaeology 1:725. TC 2170; INST ARCH Periodicals Tyree, E.L. 2001. Diachronic changes in Minoan cave cult. In, R. Laffineur and R. Hgg (eds) POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 22) Lige:39-50. IoA Issue Desk LAF 5. Warren, P.M. 1985. The fresco of the garlands from Knossos, in P. Darcque & J.-J. Poursat (eds.) L'iconographie Minoenne 187-208. Younger, J.F. 1976. Bronze Age representations of Aegean bull-leaping, AJA 80: 12537. Younger, J. and P. Rehak. 2007. Minoan culture: religion, burial customs and administration. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP:165-85.

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Seminar 10: 21st March 2013 (BLH) Minoan Crete in its Aegean and Mediterranean context During the Neopalatial period, strong Cretan influence is seen on a range of social and material behaviour in much of the southern Aegean island and coastal world, giving rise to much debate about the role of Cretans in developments elsewhere in the later Bronze Age Aegean. Recent years have also seen a marked increase in the quantity and variety of evidence for interactions between palatial Crete and the Near East, generating renewed speculation as to the forms of exchange that were involved and the economic, social and political scenarios that may lie behind the material remains of interaction in both regions. Increasingly questioned are simplistic assumptions about the impact and significance of such contacts, moving beyond the simple diffusionist assumptions of most earlier research. Essential Broodbank, C. 2004. Minoanisation, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 50:46-91. TC in progress. Main CLASSICS Periodicals Davis, J and E. Gorogianni. 2007. Potsherds from the edge: the construction of identities and the limits of Minoanized areas of the Aegean, in N. Brodie et al. (eds.) Horizon. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs:339-48. TC 3719. Warren, P.M. 1995. Minoan Crete and pharaonic Egypt. In, W.V. Davies and L. Schofield (eds.) Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant: Interconnections in the Second Millennium BC. London:1-18. TC 2188; IoA Issue Desk DAV 5; Egyptology Qto A6 DAV. Bevan, A. 2003. Reconstructing the role of Egyptian culture in the value regimes of the Bronze Age Aegean: stone vessels and their social contexts. In, R. Matthews and C. Roemer (eds) Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London: UCL Press:57-74. IoA Issue Desk IOA MAT 7; EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MAT Sherratt, A.G. and E.S. Sherratt 1991. From luxuries to commodities: the nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age trading systems, in N. Gale (ed.) Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 90), 351-86. TC 507; Issue desk DAG Qto STU 90. Recommended Barber, E.J.W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles (a good book, but a long one, so read Chapter 15). Bevan, A. 2002. The rural landscape of Neopalatial Kythera: A GIS perspective. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15: 217-56. INST ARCH Periodicals Bietak, M. 1996. Avaris: The Capital of the Hyksos: Recent Excavations at Tell ed. Daba. Broodbank, C. 2010. Ships a-sail from over the rim of the sea: voyaging, sailing and the making of Mediterranean societies c. 3500-500 BC, in A. Anderson, J.H. Barrett and K. Boyle (eds.) The Global Origins of Seafaring (McDonald Institute Monographs), 249-64. Cline, E.H. 1994. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the late Bronze Age Aegean, (BAR International Series 591). Cline, E.H. 1999. The Nature of the Economic Relations of Crete with Egypt and the Near East during the Late Bronze Age. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders: Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag:115-44. Cline, E. 2005. The multivalent nature of imported objects in the ancient Mediterranean world. In, R. Laffineur and E. Greco (eds) 2005. Emporia. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 25) Lige:45-52. Davis, J. 2007. Minoan Crete and the Aegean islands. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP:186-208. Davis, J.L. and J.F. Cherry 1990. Spatial and temporal uniformitarianism in Late Cycladic I: perspectives from Kea and Milos on the prehistory of Akrotiri, in D.A. Hardy (ed.) Thera and the Aegean World III, 185-200. TC 501; DAG 10 THE Feldman, M. 2007. Frescoes, exotica, and the reinvention of the northern Levantine kingdoms during the second millennium BCE. In, M. Heinz and M. Feldman (eds) Representations of political power. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns:39-65.
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Gale, N. (ed.) 1991. Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterraean Archaeology 90), especially papers by Sherratt & Sherratt (above), Snodgrass, Knapp, Gale, Stos-Gale & McDonald and Wiener. Hgg, R and N. Marinatos (eds.) 1984. The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (ICS 102B, X102B. I have a photocopy for consultation; the papers by Branigan, Coldstream & Huxley, Davis and Warren are particularly useful). Kardulias, P.N. 1999. Multiple Levels in the Aegean Bronze Age World-System. In P.N. Kardulias (ed.) World-Systems Theory in Practice: Leadership, Production and Exchange. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers:179-201. BD KAR; Science ANTHROPOLOGY C 6 KAR Kemp, B. and R.S. Merrillees 1980. Minoan Pottery in Second Millennium Egypt. Knapp, A.B. 1993. Thalassocracies in Bronze Age East Mediterranean trade: making and breaking a myth. World Archaeology 24:332-47. Knappett, C. and Nikolakopoulou, I. 2005. Exchange and affiliation networks in the MBA southern Aegean: Crete, Akrotiri and Miletus. In, R. Laffineur and E. Greco (eds) 2005. Emporia. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 25) Lige:175-84. Macdonald, C., E. Halllager and W.-D. Niemeier (eds) 2009. The Minoans in the central, eastern and northern Aegean - new evidence. (Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 8.) Aarhus.Marcus, E. 2006. Venice on the Nile? On the maritime character of Tell Daba/ Avaris, in E. Czerny, I. Hein, H. Hunger, D. Melman and A. Schwab (eds.), Timelines: Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak, Volume 2 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 149), 185-8. TC processing. Niemeier, B. and W.-D. Niemeier. 2000. Aegean Frescoes in Syria-Palestine: Alalakh and Tel Kabri. In, E.S. Sherratt (ed.) The Wall Paintings of Thera. Athens: Thera Foundation:2.763-802. Panagiotopoulos, D. 2001. Keftiu in context: Theban tomb-paintings as a historical source. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 20:263-83. Renfrew, A.C. 1998. Word of Minos: the Minoan contribution to Mycenaean Greek and the linguistic geography of the Bronze Age Aegean. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8:239-64. TC 2185; INST ARCH Periodicals Renfrew, A.C. & M. Wagstaff (eds.) 1982. An Island Polity: The Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos (Chapters 4, 16). Sakellarakis, Y. 1996. Minoan religious influence in the Aegean: the case of Kythera, Annual of the British School at Athens 91: 81-99. Sherratt, A.G. and E.S. Sherratt. 2001. Technological change in the East Mediterranean Late Bronze Age: capital, resources and marketing. In, A.J. Shortland (ed.) The Social Context of Technological Change: Egypt and the Near East 1650-1550 BC. Oxford: Oxbow Books:15-38. TC 2772; DBA 100 SHO Wachsmann, S. 1998. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. Wiener, M. 1990. The isles of Crete? The Minoan Thalassocracy revisited. In, D.A. Hardy (ed.) Thera and the Aegean World III: Archaeology. London: The Thera Foundation:128-61. TC 495; DAG 10 THE.

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ONLINE RESOURCES

The full UCL Institute of Archaeology coursework guidelines are given here: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook The full text of this handbook is available on the course Moodle site. 5 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Libraries and other resources


Libraries The reading for this course is available in the Institutes own library, with essential readings in its Teaching Collection, or in books held at the library issue desk, or available on-line. For in-depth reading beyond that required, works not held in the Institutes library are usually available in the UCL Main Library (specifically in Ancient History or Classics) and the DMS Watson Science Library. It is also worth obtaining access to the library of the Institute of Classical Studies (ICS) in Senate House in Malet Street, a 5minute walk away. Collect a registration form from the ICS Librarys front desk and bring it to the Course Co-ordinator for signing, by which he vouches for the readers good conduct. On the following pages, information is given for the essential and some other reading, as to where in the UCL library system it is available. The location and Teaching Collection (TC) number, and status (e.g. if on loan) for all UCL holdings can be accessed on the eUCLid computer catalogue. Readings in the Institute of Classical Studies can be located using the University of London Schools of Advanced Studies on-line catalogue: http://catalogue.ulrls.lon.ac.uk/search~S7 Reports on recent archaeological work Archaeological Reports http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ARE and the Chronique des Fouilles included in the Bulletin de correspondance hllenique summarise work in Greece each year. Inst Arch Periodicals and, for BCH: http://www.efa.gr/ follow links to CEFAEL and BCH; Archaeological Reports was published, until ca. 1955, as Archaeology in Greece, in the Journal of Hellenic Studies Main CLASSICS Periodicals and http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=jhellenicstudies. For the past few years, individual site summaries are available via Archaeology in Greece Online, accessible via the British School at Athens web-site (www.bsa.ac.uk). For readers of modern Greek, Archaiologikon Deltion, Ergon and Praktika may be useful, although no specific reading from non-English sources will be expected. The first generally reports annually on rescue archaeology in Greece, while the latter two provide summary and full preliminary reports on the annual work of the Archaeological Society of Athens. All are available in the Institute of Classical Studies, the last 25 years of the Praktika are in the Institute of Archaeology library. Several conference and monograph series focus on Aegean prehistory. The Swedish Institute at Athens organised annual thematic conferences, many on prehistoric themes, most edited by Robin Hgg and co-editors. These have been somewhat superseded by the biennial conferences organised by Robert Laffineur and colleagues, and published in the series Aegaeum; other conferences and monographs are also published in this series. Short but useful papers were produced for a series of Temple University Aegean Symposia, organised by Phillip Betancourt in the 1970s and 1980s. Over the past decade, an excellent series of thematic volumes have come out of an annual workshop at Sheffield University. A series of conferences have been organised around the site of Akrotiri on Thera, and its interconnections with the rest of the Aegean. Finally, the Mycenaean Seminar of the University of London has run an annual series of lectures for the past 50 years, of which abstracts appear in the Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. In addition to the Aegaeum series, many Aegean prehistory volumes have been published as Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (SIMA) or SIMA-Pocket Books, or over
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the last three decades by British Archaeological Reports (BAR). Monograph series have been established by various institutions and journals, such as the Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP), British School at Athens, Archaeological Society of Athens, Hesperia, American Journal of Archaeology, and Bulletin de correspondance hllenique. Most are in the Institute library individually as books, and many are available now on line. Electronic journals Most of the journals from which readings have been noted, are available in the library of the Institute. For most only the last 20 years are on the shelves; earlier volumes need to be called from store, either on-line, or using a slip from the library Issue Desk. The location of holdings for each journal can be ascertained using eUCLid. Journals which have articles on the reading lists and which are available on-line, include the following, which you will have access to (short of the last 2-5 years) if you locate them via the UCL library web-site and your UCL account. Many journal sites provide lists of the Tables of Contents (TOC) for various years, some provide abstracts, some allow download as PDF files, and a few have searchable indices. The main journals for this course are available on-line are: American Journal of Archaeology; Antiquity; Archaeological Reports: Bulletin de correspondance hllenique; Cambridge Archaeological Journal; European Journal of Archaeology; Hesperia; Journal of Archaeological Science; Journal of Hellenic Studies; Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology; Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry; Oxford Journal of Archaeology; World Archaeology. Websites and other internet resources An increasing number of resources are available on the web, but should be used with caution; many are enthusiasts sites with holiday snaps, and some are worse; note that there is no vetting system on the web (unlike academic publications). You should be extremely cautious about relying on information from web-sites, and should not, normally, use them as citation sources for your essays. If you feel information from a website is essential and cannot track it back to a printed source, ask the Course Coordinator whether it is reputable, before citing it. Many current field projects maintain their own websites, which may provide more up-to-date information than has appeared in print. These can be found by Googling the site name (beware of alternative spellings, particularly transliterations of Greek names). Many museums are increasingly putting images and details of their holdings on the web - search for the specific museums website to see what is available. Some conferences put abstracts of papers on the web, and some publishers do likewise for the publication of conference proceedings.
General sites with useful links are Hellenic Ministry of Culture: http://www.culture.gr/ links for individual sites and museums. Nestor: http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/. Home site, with bibliographic database search http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/nestorbib . American School of Classical Studies: http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/ with links to projects http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/index.php/fieldwork/fieldwork. Perseus: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ a Classics teaching resource; links to maps and images. INSTAP East Crete Study Centre: http://www2.forthnet.gr/instapec/ . Metis: http://www.stoa.org/metis/cgi-bin/cat interactive panoramic views of sites. Minoan Crete: http://www.uk.digiserve.com/mentor/minoan/index.html includes information about major Bronze Age sites on Crete. Aegeus society: http://www.aegeussociety.org/en/index.php/ great site devoted to the Bronze Age Aegean with news about new publications, seminars and also book reviews. Jeremy Rutter has introductory material by topic for his Dartmouth College undergraduate course available at: http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/ . Each lesson/topic has attached a fairly useful bibliography and range of images. The Nestor website has a search facility http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/nestorbib which can be useful for finding references for Aegean publications from 1959-2010; it is not comprehensive, but is strong for the English language literature, and can be searched by author, title words, journal, book title or year. It adds about 500-800 publications per year.
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Aegeus society is a great place to check for newer publications including articles, fairly comprehensive but not exhaustive: http://www.aegeussociety.org/en/index.php/ . TOCS-IN at the University of Toronto is a journal and festschrift index for classical journals from 1992. The Home site http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/amphoras/tocs.html#arts will lead you the search facility; the list of journals http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/amphoras/tdata/inform.html and festschrifts/collections <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/cgibin/amphoras/tocsrch?trm=BkColl&coll=on> indicates the sources searched. Aegeanet: is a discussion group. If you join, it is better as a reader than participant; people take a dim view of requests for reading lists or requests for ideas for essays. It will also fill your inbox rapidly with loads of waffle. Home page: http://people.ku.edu/~jyounger/aegeanet.html . Studies in Mycenaean Inscriptions and Dialect: A collection of resources on Aegean scripts: http://paspserver.class.utexas.edu/ Corpus of the Minoan and Mycenaean Seals: a searchable database of Bronze Age seals from the Aegean http://arachne.uni-koeln.de/drupal/?q=en/node/196 SOON TO BE MOVED TO HEIDELBERG. University of Heidelberg digitized Archaeological literature: http://digi.ub.uniheidelberg.de/en/sammlungen/archaeologie.html?sid=e918f190085a2afc066e82931994dba8&tree_ cmd=-178#xRezeption:20der:20Antike:2350004 Includes electronic versions of some out of print books, including Arthur Evans Palace of Minos. Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Dendrochronology Lab: http://www.arts.cornell.edu/dendro/ University of Crete: Remote sensing and archaeological maps: http://digitalcrete.ims.forth.gr/index.php?l=1 .

Also, many of the Aegaeum volumes out of print are available in pdf form at: http://www2.ulg.ac.be/archgrec/publications.html

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A register will be taken at each class. If you are unable to attend a class, please notify the lecturer by email. Departments are required to report each students attendance to UCL Registry at frequent intervals throughout each term.

Information for intercollegiate and interdepartmental students

Students enrolled in Departments outside the Institute should collect hard copy of the Institutes coursework guidelines from Judy Medringtons office.

Dyslexia

If you have dyslexia or any other disability, please make your lecturers aware of this. Please discuss with your lecturers whether there is any way in which they can help you. Students with dyslexia are reminded to indicate this on each piece of coursework.

Feedback

In trying to make this course as effective as possible, we welcome feedback from students during the course of the year. All students are asked to give their views on the course in an anonymous questionnaire which will be circulated at one of the last sessions of the course. These questionnaires are taken seriously and help the Course Co-ordinator to develop the course. The summarised responses are considered by the Institute's Staff-Student Consultative Committee, Teaching Committee, and by the Faculty Teaching Committee. If students are concerned about any aspect of this course we hope they will feel able to talk to the Course Co-ordinator, but if they feel this is not appropriate, they should consult their Personal Tutor, the Academic Administrator (Judy Medrington), or the Chair of Teaching Committee (Dr. Karen Wright). ********
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