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3 Relationship Between Each Taste and the Specific Part of Tongue that is More Senstive The experiment is done by swapping solution-dipped cotton bud into four parts of tongue, which is tip, front side, back side, and back. The answers of all forty-five panelists are collected and counted into their average, which are shown by figure 2.1 2.5 below.
Figure 2.1 : Intensity of Taste Detected in Sweet Solution 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.2 : Intensity of Taste Detected in Salty Solution 7 6 5 Sweet 4 3 2 1 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.3 : Intensity of Taste Detected in Bitter Solution 7 6 5 Sweet 4 3 2 1 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.4 : Intensity of Taste Detected in Sour Solution 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.5 : Intensity of Taste Detected in Umami Solution 7 6 5 Sweet 4 3 2 1 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Bitter Umami Salty Sour

The experiment results are expected to have several errors, due to high subjectivity of the panel. One of the main causes of high error is the intensity given by the panelist. This error can be seen clearly in figure 2.4, which is the figure for sour solution. In the figure 2.4, the average intensity of salty taste at the back is 9, in the scale between 1 to 10, which is very high. However, this is due to only 1 panelist detected the sour solution as salty taste, and that particular panelist gave the score of 9. A same case can also be seen in figure 2.3, which is the figure for bitter solution. In this figure, the average intensity of sour taste in the front side is 6. This is due to only 1 panelist detected the bitter solution as sour, and that particular panelist gave the score of 6. In order to be able to analyze the data more accurately, a whole new figure was made, which exclude the intensity of the taste detected in the result. The result can be seen in figure 2.6 2.10 below.

Figure 2.6 : Amount of Answer for Each Taste in Sweet Solution 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.7 : Amount of Answer for Each Taste in Salty Solution 25

20 Sweet 15 Bitter Umami 10 Salty Sour 5

0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back

Figure 2.8 : Amount of Answer for Each Taste in Bitter Solution 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.9 : Amount of Answer for Each Taste in Sour Solution 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Figure 2.10 : Amount of Answer for Each Taste in Umami Solution 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Tip Front Side Back Side Back Sweet Bitter Umami Salty Sour

Differ with figure 2.1 2.5, figure 2.6 2.10 are giving more accurate result. The number of right answer for each taste can be seen directly from the figure 2.6 2.10. The percentage of right answer for each taste can be seen in table 2.1 below.
Table 2.1 Percentage of Right Answer for Each Taste

Tip Sweet Salty Bitter Sour Umami 40 % 50 % 47.5 % 35 % 12.5 %

Front Side 27.5 % 52.5 % 47.5 % 45 % 5%

Back Side 20 % 42.5 % 57.5 % 40 % 5%

Bitter 17.5 % 35 % 67.5 % 37.5 % 10 %

It can also be concluded from the figure 2.6 2.10 that majority of the panel can distinguish the basic taste, except umami. It can be seen clearly from figure 2.10 that many panelists cannot distinguish umami with salty taste. Another possibility is the panelists are not sure what taste the solution is, because they are not familiar with umami as a basic taste, so they answer it as salty or sour. It is stated by Reineccius (2006) that the sensitivity of taste for each part of the tongue is different. The sensitivity for taste in tongue is shown by figure 2.11 below.

Figure 2.11 : Sensitivity of Four Basic Taste on Specific Region of Tongue Source : Reineccius (2006)

Referring to tongue map in figure 2.11, the result of experiment shown by figure 2.6 2.9 is exhibiting a correspondencing result. However, Humphreys, et al (2005), tongue map is not really accurate, although it is not really wrong either. It is not as if only specific part can taste a particular tase; however, there are parts which the tongue is more sensitive compared to other taste. It can be seen that the amount of right answer for each taste is increasing as the sensitivity of tongue shown in figure 2.11 increased. As for umami solution, Yamaguchi and Kumiko (2000) stated that foliate papillae, which located in the side of the tongue, is more sensitive to sour and umami taste. However, the result shown by figure 2.10 is showing decrease in umami answer. This might be due to error that has been explained before, that many panellists are not familiar with umami taste, so they chose salty instead.

Humphreys, Glyn, Margaret Shiffrar, William Yost, and Bruce E. Goldstein. Handbook of Sensation and Perception. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Reineccius, Gary. Flavor Chemistry and Technology 2nd Edition. Boca Ranton: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 2006. Yamaguchi, Shizuko, and Ninomiya Kumiko. "The Use and Utility of Glutamates as Flavoring Agents in Foods." Journal of Nutrition 130, 2000: 921-926.

APPENDIX
Percentage of Right Answer % Right Sweet at Tip = 16/40 * 100 = 40 % % Right Sweet at Front Side = 11/40 * 100 = 27.5 % % Right Sweet at Back Side = 8/40 * 100 = 20 % % Right Sweet at Back = 7/40 * 100 = 17.5 %

Average Intensity Avg Sweet Intensity at Tip = 43/16 = 2.69 Avg Sweet Intensity at Front Side = 34/11 = 3.1 Avg Sweet Intensity at Back Side = 20/8 = 2.5 Avg Sweet Intensity at Back = 21/7 =3