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LABORATORY REPORT

SENSORY EVALUATION OF FOOD




SIMPLE DIFFERENCE, A NOT A, AND SIMPLE PAIRED
COMPARISON TEST

By:
Anthonius Hideyo (03420110017)
Edison Sutiono (03420110021)
Henry William Gomuljo (03420110032)
Nasya Jessica (03420110044)
Livia Cornelia (03420110074)









FOOD TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITAS PELITA HARAPAN
KARAWACI
2013


CHAPTER I
MATERIALS AND METHODS


1.1 Materials and Equipment
The materials used for the three tests which were done in this experiment
as samples are milk from two different brands, one is as sample A as well as
reference, which is diamond, and the other is as sample B, which is ultra milk.
There is also pure water for neutralizing the mouth.
The equipment used in this experiment is plastic glasses and labels.

1.2 Procedures
1.2.1 Simple Difference Test
1. The samples A and B were presented in three-digit random number codes
to the panel in orders of either A-A, A-B, B-A, or B-B.
2. The panelist was instructed to decide whether both samples are the same
or different, and also neutralized the mouth using pure water every time
the panelist want to try another sample.
3. The first two samples are taken back.
4. The panel were given another two samples of A and B presented in three-
digit random number codes using the order when the panelist already got
the same samples, which are A-A or B-B, then the panelist will get the
different samples, which are A-B or B-A, as well as those who got
different samples at the first set, they will get the same samples for the
next ones. The panel also were instructed to rinse their palate first with
pure water before trying the next one.
1.2.2 A-not A Test
1. The panelist was first being familiarized with the reference sample.
2. After the reference is returned back, the samples A and B in three-digit
codes in four combination orders, which are A-A, A-B, B-A, and B-B
were presented to the panelist.


3. The panelist was instructed to decide for each sample presented of being
same as the reference sample or not, and also neutralized the mouth using
pure water every time the panelist want to try another sample.
1.2.3 Simple Paired Comparison Test
1. The samples A and B were presented in three-digit random number codes
to the panelist in two combination orders, which are either A-B or B-A.
2. The panelist was instructed to decide whether sample A or sample B is
more creamier to the other, and also neutralized the mouth using pure
water every time the panelist want to try another sample.


CHAPTER II
RESULT AND DISCUSSION


2.1 Simple Difference Test
In simple difference test, the result will be calculated using two different
formulas which are chi-square and McNemar test. From the calculation, it is
known that the chi-square result is P = 0.2046 while the calculation from the
McNemar test result is P = 0.0385. When the results are compared to table of
upper probability points of X
2
distribution from appendix A, both of the result
have the same conclusion in which samples are not significantly different at 5 %
level since both P = 0.2046 and P = 0.0385 is smaller than 3.84.
Although in the end both formulas have the same conclusion, there is quiet
a big difference between the numbers resulted. By using McNemar test, we can
surely say that both samples are not significantly different because the result is
very small compared to the minimum value, to reject null hypothesis, in the table.
It is caused by the inaccuracy when calculating using chi-square. Each panelist
were given two tests each, so although it seems to be 80 results, there are actually
only 40 results. In chi-square, the factor that there are actually only 40 panelists is
not considered, and therefore resulting in a less accurate number of probabilities.
While in McNemar test, the formula is made for differences in single group. For
example, each panelist is given an after and before test. So only those whose
results are changing between after and before test are calculated. (Bower, 2009)

2.2 A not A Test
As Lawless and Heymann (2010) stated A-not-A test and the less
frequently used alternate A-not-A test. In the standard A-not-A test, panelists first
learn to recognize the difference between example products labeled A and those
labeled not A. After that, they receive the actual samples one at a time and are
asked to state whether each one is A or not A. The alternate A-not-A test, on
the other hand, is a sequential difference test in which panelists are each made to


evaluate a particular sample and then determine whether the second sample they
receive afterwards is similar or different from the first one.
The A-not-A test has a probability 0.5, and is generally used in cases when
the triangle and duo-trio tests are not suitable. Examples would be when the
samples are too complex or when there is too much carry-over to present samples
multiple times (Kemp et al 2009).
In our experiment, the standard A-not-A test was the one used and 40
panelists were involved. Each panelist took part in the test twice which gives the
experiment a total of 80 answers. A total of 40 A samples (Diamond brand
milk) and 40 not A (Ultra milk) samples were given to the panelists at random.
The test resulted in 53 right answers of out of 80 answers. The test has a
probability of 0.5 and is one tailed. The null hypothesis in this experiment is that
there is no significant difference between the 2 samples. Comparing the calculated
chi value (8.4553) to the chi value of table A at : 0.05 (3.84) in the appendix A,
it can be inferred that the probability of getting 53 correct answers out of 80
responses is lower than 0.05%. This means that there is significant difference
between Ultra milk and Diamond milk at 0.05% level.

2.3 Simple Paired Comparison Test
According to Kemp et al. (2009), simple paired comparison test is
conducted in order to determine whether there is difference between two samples
with regard to a specific attribute. The panelist is presented with two samples
which is labeled with random digit of numbers and instructed to choose which one
that has greater intensity by referring to the specific attribute tested. This test is
considered as easy to be conducted and used for assessing preference between two
samples.
Simple paired comparison test can be either one-tailed or two-tailed test.
The one-tailed would be used if there is specific data about the correct answer of
the experiment. The possibility of the panelist to choose the right answer is 0.5.
On the other hand, the two-tailed test is applied when the results could not be
predicted and mostly based on personal reference (Kemp et al., 2009).


The experiment was conducted to determine which milk is creamier;
Ultramilk or Diamond. The null hypothesis (Ho) will be Ultramilk is as creamy as
Diamond which means there is no significant difference between Ultramilk and
Diamond in terms of creaminess. On the other hand, the H1 is Diamond is
creamier than Ultramilk. The experiment was a two-tailed type since the panel
leader did not state which one is more creamy. They only want to know which
sample is creamier, based on the panelist preference. The total panelist in the
experiment is 40 and there were 27 panelist which prefer Diamond and 13 panelist
which prefer Ultramilk.
In the binomial test, the probability is taken from the appendix B. From
the appendix B, it can be seen that the probability of 27 correct answers out of 40
is 0.038. The null hypothesis used is there is no significant difference between
ultramilk and diamond in term of creaminess. The two-tailed was used rather than
the one-tailed since the panel leader does not mentioned the real fact about the fat
content of the milk (fat content could show the creaminess of the milk). This value
is below the significant level of : 0.05. It can be concluded from this test that at
the significance level : 5%, there is a significance difference between diamond
and ultramilk in the term of creaminess.
For the calculation of chi-square, the probability calculated is 4.95. The
null hypothesis used is there is no significant difference between ultramilk and
diamond in term of creaminess. It can be seen from appendix A that the
probability value is 3.84 with the significant level of 5%. The calculated value is
higher than the table value. It can be concluded that at the significance level :
5%, there is a significance difference between diamond and ultramilk in the term
of creaminess.
For the Z test, the Z-value calculated is 2.055. This value is compared to
the significance level : 5%. The probability when the significance level : 5% is
0.95, and it is divided by to into 0.4750, because of the test is two sided. Referring
to appendix C, it can be seen that the z-value of 0.470 is 1.96. The calculated z-
value is higher that the z-value from the table. It can be soncluded that in the
significance level : 5%, there is a significant difference between diamond and
ultramilk in term of creaminess.


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION


From the simple difference test, it can be concluded that there is no
significance difference between two samples used, which are diamond and
ultramilk. However, from the A not A test, it can be concluded that there is a
significant difference between diamond and ultramilk.
As for the difference itself, it can be concluded from simple paired
comparison test that there is a significant difference between diamond and
ultramilk in the term of creaminess. In this case, majority of the panelists chose
diamond as the creamier one. It can be concluded then that diamond milk is
creamier compared to ultramilk.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Bower, John Statistical Methods for Food Science United Kingdom: Blackwell
Publishing Ltd., 2009.

Kemp, Sarah E., Tracey Hollowood, Joanne Hort. Sensory Evaluation: A
Practical Book. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Lawless, Harry T and Hildegrade Heymann. Sensory Evaluation of Food:
Principles and Practices. New York: Springer, 2010.


APPENDIX


Appendix A: Upper- Probability Points of
2
-Distibution (Entries Are
2
a:v
)


Appendix B : Probability of X or More Correct Judgment in n Trial (two-
tailed, p = (1/2)
a



Appendix C: The Standard Normal Distribution Table




Calculation of simple difference test result using X
2


Subject received

AA/BB AB/BA
Subject
answered
Same 18 16
Different 22 24



E = Expected number
O = Observed number
E1 = [(18+16) x 40]/80 = 17
E2 = [(22+24) x 40]/80 = 23
X2 = (18-17)
2
+ (16-17)
2
+ (22-23)
2
+ (24-23)
2
= 0.2046
17 23

Calculation of simple difference test result using McNemar

Subject received same samples answered
Subject received
different samples
answered
Same Different
Same 4 12
Different 14 10

X
2
= (|C
1
-C
2
| - 1)
2

C
1
+C
2
C
1
= Number of subject that answered both test correctly


C
2
= Number of subject that answered both test incorrectly

X
2
= ( |14-12| - 1)
2
= 0.0385
14+12
Calculation of simple paired comparison test
Chi-square
Equation used:
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1 2
E
0.5 E O
E
0.5 E O
_
O = Observed number = 27 (number of right answers) and 13 (number of wrong
answers)
E = Expected number = 40/2 = 20



= 4.925

Z test
Equation used:
npq
np x 5 . 0
= Z
x = number of correct answers = 27 panelists choose Diamond
n = total panelists = 40
p = probability of correct answer =
q = probability of wrong answer =
Z =
(


Z = 2.055