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Recent Advancement of Rapid Prototyping in Aerospace Industry- A review

Mahendrakumar Ramamoorthy, Department of Industrial and systems engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, United States of America December 2013

Today the industrial sector is highly competitive and increasingly companies are attaching greater importance to the need to differentiate their product and service offerings in order to remain profitable. Typically, firms are adding new technologies to their products to differentiate, forming alliances with their customers, adding service features to their manufactured product offerings, reducing time to market for new products, reducing the number of suppliers and forming longerterm relationships and alliances with those that remain, expanding their product range, and reducing their cost base to become the lowest cost producer. Rapid prototyping technologies have the potential to contribute something to the achievement of most, if not all these actions. Though Rapid Prototyping Techniques find vast areas of application, we confine our paper only within aerospace sector. This review paper deals with different types of Rapid Prototyping methods used particularly in aerospace industry, their advantages and limitations. The scope of this paper is extended to their current achievements and future of RP in aerospace sector.

Keywords: Rapid Prototyping, Stereo lithography, Selective Laser sintering, 3D printing, Fused Deposit Modelling, Laminated Object Manufacturing

1. Introduction:
The nature of the aerospace industry demand that all parts are as reliable as they possibly can be. No corners can be cut when it comes to the design and manufacture of aerospace parts which is why the best processes available need to be implemented. The complexities involved with aerospace design make additive manufacturing the obvious choice as other forms of machining simply cannot meet the required standards. Rapid prototyping has emerged as a key enabling technology with its ability to shorten product development and manufacturing process that produces a physical prototype from a 3D cad model layer by layer which is also called as layer manufacturing.

It aims to produce prototype relatively quickly for visual inspection, ergonomic evaluation, and form fit analysis and as master pattern for product. The application of R.P to the product manufacturing process has shown a 60% decrease in lead time over traditional method with the various advantages that R.P technology promise R.P has begun to make its way in to the aeronautical industry and is set to have profound implication. The Northron Grunman global hawk, it is just one of many vehicles which depend on R.P for its development. Some of the desirable features which fits the RP into aerospace sector are its capability to test new materials, ability to build geometrically complex structures, and elimination of higher tool cost of low volume production. Here we will discuss the different types of RP techniques available in market and its achievements.

2. Rapid Prototyping (RP):

Rapid Prototyping can be defined as a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. Additive Layer Manufacturing or 3D printing is usually labored for fabrication or assembly. A scanning device is used to create 2D slice geometry or 3D models are created using the CAD workstations. This form the first step in RP. For RP this data must represent a valid geometric model; namely, one whose boundary surfaces enclose a finite volume, contain no holes exposing the interior, and do not fold back on themselves. CAD post-processors will approximate the application vendors internal CAD geometric forms (e.g., B-splines) with a simplified mathematical form, which in turn is expressed in a specified data format which is a common feature in Additive Manufacturing: STL (stereo lithography) a de facto standard for transferring solid geometric models to SFF machines. To obtain the necessary motion control trajectories to drive the actual SFF, Rapid Prototyping, 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing mechanism, the prepared geometric model is typically sliced into layers, and the slices are scanned into lines [producing a "2D drawing" used to generate trajectory as in CNC`s tool path], mimicking in reverse the layer-to-layer physical building process.

The professional literature in RP contains different ways of classifying RP processes. Liquid-based RP systems the initial form of material is in liquid state and, by a curing process, the liquid is converted into solid state; the system includes: 3D Systems Stereo lithography (SLA), Light Sculpting, Rapid Freeze and Two Laser Beams; solid-based RP systems the initial form of material is in solid state, except for powders (wire, roll, laminates, pellets); this system includes: Stratasys Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 3D Systems, Multi-Jet Modeling System (MJM) and Pares lamination Technology (PLT);

Powder-based RP systems the initial form of material is powder; the system includes: 3D Systems Selective Laser Sintering (SLA), Precision Optical Manufacturings Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) and Z Corporations Three Dimensional Printing (3DP). However, one representation based on German standard of production processes classifies RP processes according to state of aggregation of their original material and is given below.

3. Selection of Appropriate RP technology:

The first rapid prototyping technique stereo-lithography was developed by 3D system of Valencia, California, USA in 1986 since then number of different R.P technique have been developed till date. Over 20 different types of RP methods are available in market for parts manufacturing. But not all the technologies are acceptable in aerospace industry and only few methods are preferred here. Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (IPA) found that the quality function deployment (QFD) approach can be used for selecting the most appropriate R.P technology. It begins by matching customer requirement, which on turn match with necessary corresponding production requirement, and so on, to ensure that the customer needs are satisfied. The key benefit of implementing QFD is that engineering knowledge is retained in systematic manner so that it can be easily applied to future similar designs. The whole QFD procedure uses a series of matrices called house to express the linkage between inputs and outputs of different phases of development. Surveying the different layer based technology platforms that are commercially available today, only the followings are practically applicable in aerospace industry

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Stereo Lithography (SLA) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Fused deposition modelling (FDM) Laminated Object Manufacturing(LOM) Three Dimensional Printing(3DP)

Here we will discuss briefly about each techniques process, their advantages and also the limitations.


Stereo Lithography (SLA)

The Most accurate machine available among all other RP technique and the first commercially accepted RP process is the Stereo Lithography. It was invented by Charles Hull in 1987 who worked for 3D systems. This additive process is based on selective polymerization of a photosensitive liquid resin using ultraviolet light. The process begins with by filling a vat with liquid photo curable resin acryl-ate and placing it in the elevator table. A UV Helium-Cadmium or argon laser beam then traces a single layer cross section onto the surface of a vat of liquid polymer. Due to the absorption and scattering of beam, the reaction only takes place near the surface and voxels of solid polymeric resin are formed. The photo polymerization Process happens (linking small molecules known as monomers into chain-like larger molecules known as polymers) which causes the polymer to harden precisely at the point where the ultraviolet light hits the surface. The Beam is positioned and moved in horizontal X and Y directions of the pre-defined boundary and it is controlled by a galvanometer driven mirrors. The laser scans the first layer and platform is then lowered equal to one slice thickness (typically 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm (0.002" to 0.006")) and left for short time (dip-delay) so that liquid polymer settles to a flat and even surface and inhibit bubble formation. Then, a resin-filled blade sweeps across the part cross section which recoats it with fresh material. On this new liquid surface, the subsequent layer pattern is traced; adhering to the previous layer, in this way, the model is built layer by layer from bottom to top. When all layers are completed, the prototype is about 95% cured. Once the complete part is deposited, it is removed from the vat and then excess resin is drained. It may take long time due to high viscosity of liquid resin. The green part is then post-cured in an UV oven after removing support structures.

Capacity and Materials Used:

The vat which holds the liquid polymer determines the size limit of the prototype. The Maximum dimension of a part that can be built is approximately 505060 cm (20"20"24") but some machines like Mammoth stereo lithography machine (which has a build platform of 2107080 cm), are capable of producing single parts of more than 2 m in length. The accuracy achieved is about 0.1% of the overall dimension and deteriorates with larger sizes but no more than 0.5%. The layer thickness is between 0.004 and 0.03 in. Some of the commercially available polymers for SLA process are Accura 60 Plastic, Accura 55 Plastic, Accura 50 Plastic, Somos 11122 Transparent Plastic, SL5240 Polypropylenelike resin, SL7520 high strength resin, SL7870 Polycarbonate-like resin, Somos Raven 7620.

Stereo lithography is the ideal choice for Form and Fit testing of new designs, Functional parts for special projects , Architectural models and one-offs, Form and Fit testing of new designs ,Testing of new designs or reverse engineered parts, Investment Casting patterns for Quick Turn cast metal parts ,Limited run production parts. Achieving High accuracy in industrial standard. Bluestone parts resist deformation even under heavy loads and Resists temperatures up to 250C, making it suitable for tooling or other demanding applications. Suitable for thin-walled parts that require the stiffness of high performance engineering parts Improves/enhance demanding applications: wind tunnel, soft tooling and injection mold tooling. Consistent mechanical properties, even on long builds Good Surface Finish

Support structures always needed. Removal of support structures can be difficult. Requires post-curing. Limited materials (Photo polymers). Some war page, shrinkage and curl due to phase change.


Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) was developed and patented by Dr. Carl Deckard and academic adviser, Dr. Joe Beaman at the University of Texas at Austin in the mid-1980s, under sponsorship of DARPA. It serves as an alternative additive manufacturing process for the liquid curing system. SLS uses a high power laser beam (for example, carbon dioxide laser) to sinter successive layers of powder spread on a layer instead of liquid. The powder is metered in precise amounts and is spread by a counter-rotating roller on the table. A laser beam is used to fuse the powder (by preheating the powder to a temperature just below its melting point) within the section boundary through a cross-hatching motion. The table is lowered through a distance corresponding to the layer thickness (usually 0.01 mm) before the roller spreads the next layer of powder on the previously built layer. The un-sintered powder serves as the support for overhanging portions, if any in the subsequent layers.

Capacity and Materials Used:

SLS models can be built up to: 22" x 22" x 18" (550mm x 550mm x 460mm). Larger models of virtually any size, can be sectioned and assembled upon completion. Layer Thickness: 0.004" - 0.006" and SLS & LS: Accuracy: +/- .005" for the first 5 inches, +/- .001" inch per inch thereafter. SLS can make use of relatively wide range of commercially available powder materials such as nylon(Dura Form, Dura Form PA Nylon) or polystyrene(Dura Form), metals including steel, titanium, alloy mixtures, and composites(Wind Form XT) and green sand.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is the ideal choice for Prototypes that require material properties that closely replicate injection-molded parts. Depending on the material, up to 100% density can be achieved with material properties comparable to those from conventional manufacturing methods. The main advantage is that the fabricated prototypes are porous (typically 60% of the density of molded parts), thus impairing their strength and surface finish. No post curing required. Variety of materials. Mechanical properties of Nylon & Polycarbonate parts are used and hence Excel in load bearing applications at higher temperatures. Fast build times. Eliminate painting by using black color. Unlike some other additive manufacturing processes SLS does not require support structures due to the fact that the part being constructed is surrounded by un-sintered powder at all times, this allows for the construction of previously impossible geometries. Compatible with autoclaves, low-temperature furnaces, and vacuum plaster casting methods.

Rough surface finish. Mechanical properties below those achieved in injection molding process for same material. Material changeover difficult compared to FDM & SLA. Many build variables, complex operation.


Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

Another famous additive manufacturing technology in market is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM).It was developed by S. Scott Crump in the late 1980s and this process was first commercialized by Stratasys in 1990. The FDM machine use a CAD model to produce a physical prototypes by taking the STL file created by the CAD model and first converting it into an SML file which generate a tool-path to maneuver for each layer or slice to deposit material. The slice thickness can be set manually to anywhere between 0.172 to 0.356 mm (0.005 to 0.014 in) depending on the needs of the models. The fused deposition modelling (FDM) process creates parts by extruding material (normally a thermoplastic polymer, ABS - engineering and medical grade - plastic, Polycarbonate and investment casting wax) in a cross-hatching fashion. The Machine consist of a heating chamber which is a 90-degree curved elbow wrapped in a heating element, which serves as a melting area for the material and to change the direction of the filament flow so that material is extruded vertically downward. The head is moved in the horizontal X and Y directions for producing each layer through zigzag movements. The material solidifies in 0.1s as it is directed on to the workplace. Once a layer is complete the supporting table is moved in the Z Direction for building the next layer. The FDM process does not need support to produce part in most cases as head forms a precision horizontal support in mid-air as it solidifies. But for overhanging parts, a support may still be required, which can be manual or, water soluble supports to reduce part distortion.


Capacity and Materials Used:

ABS models can be built up to: 36" x 24" x 36" (914mm x 610mm x 914mm). Larger models of virtually any size, can be sectioned and assembled upon completion. ULTEM 9085, PC and PC/ABS models can be built up to: 36" x 24" x 36" (914mm x 610mm x 914mm). Larger models of virtually any size, can be sectioned and assembled upon completion. The FDM systems have evolved through several models, beginning with the original 3D Modeler, a floor unit, and progressing through the various "desktop units", including the 1500, 1600, 1650, 2000, 8000, and Quantum. Accuracy: +/- .005" for first 5 inches, +/- .0005" inch per inch thereafter (ABS). Same part repeatability (ABS) +/- .001". In standard res mode, minimum recommended wall thickness is 0.032", in high res mode 0.020". High Speed Slice: 0.013" (900mc builds only), Standard Layer Slice: 0.010" (default build style), High Resolution Slice: 0.007" Commonly used FDM materials are ABS, ABS/F1, BS/PC Blend, polycarbonate, Ultem 9085. All the materials are non-toxic and can be in different colors. There is minimum material wastage in the method.

No post curing. Variety of materials. Easy material changeover. Office environment friendly. Low end, economical machines. The advantage of FDM is the material capacity to handle heat and other demanding product tests. It is a feasible option for both rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, producing parts that are both accurate and durable. It is able to fabricate fully functional parts that have 85% of the strength of the actual molded part, because of this reason it is highly applicable for Aerospace and Aviation industries.


Not good for small features, details and thin walls. Surface finish. Supports required on some materials / geometries. Support design / integration / removal is difficult. Weak Z-axis. Slow on large / dense parts.



Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)

The first commercial Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) system was developed by Helisys of Torrance, CA in 1991. A manufacturing process that uses a carbon-dioxide laser to create successive cross-sections of a three-dimensional object from layers of paper with a polyethylene coating on the backside. The first step is to create a base on which the paper can attach itself to. This is done by placing a special tape down onto the platform. A sheet of paper is fed through with the aid of small rollers. As the paper is fed through, a heated roller is used to melt the coating on the paper so that each new layer will adhere to the previous layer. The carbondioxide laser then cuts the outline of the cross-sectional pattern into the top layer of paper. Once the laser is done cutting the pattern, it creates a border around the build that contains the desired part. This enables the part to stay intact as each new layer is created. Once the border has been cut, the laser then proceeds to create hatch marks, or cubes that surround the pattern within the border. The cubes behave as supports for the part to ensure that no shifting or movement takes place during the entire build. When the build is completed, the part, attached to the platform, needs to be removed from the LOM. Depending on the size of the part, the block to be removed may take more than one person to remove the build from the LOM. After the part has been successfully removed from the LOM, it must then be removed for the actual platform. Again this may take the work of more than one individual. A wire is used and placed between the part and the platform to "cut" the part away from the metal platform. The border, or frame of the part is then removed. The next step involves removing the supports. Often times the supports can be removed from simple shaking the part; other times it is necessary to use a chisel to pry the cubes away from the part. When all of the cubes have been removed, the unfinished part is sanded down and a lacquer is used to seal the part. Being that LOM parts are made for paper, humidity and temperature affect the structure and composure of the part if it is not coated; hence, the lacquer serves as a protective measure. The LOM is very useful in manufacturing large parts quickly.

Capacity and Materials Used:

There are currently two sizes of LOMs available LOM 1015 10x15x14 (build area) and LOM 2030 20x30x24. A precise X-Y positioning table is used to guide the laser beam resulting in production of accurate parts. Accuracy of 0.010" is easily achieved regardless of the size of the part. Variety of Materials like Paper, plastics, composites, and ceramics can be used in the LOM systems. Commercial availability of various sheet materials allow the users to vary the type and thickness of the manufacturing material for their specific applications. Paper is the simplest and least expensive material, and it produces rigid and durable parts which have properties similar to plywood. Plastic films are more expensive and they result in parts which are more flexible.


Speed--The LOM process does not convert liquid polymers to solid plastics nor does it convert plastic powders into sintered objects, but instead it uses existing solid sheet materials which are glued using a hot roller and cut with a laser beam. Unlike competitive technologies such as Stereo lithography and Selective Laser Sintering, the laser in the LOM process does not have to scan the entire surface area of each crosssection, rather it only has to outline its periphery. Therefore, parts with thick walls are produced just as fast as those with thin walls. The LOM process is especially advantageous for production of large and bulky parts which are often encountered in the aerospace and automotive industries. The reason for this unique advantage is the fact that the core manufacturing material does not need to be formed since the laser merely determines the geometrical shape by removing excess material. Simplicity--The simplicity of the LOM process and systems allow them to be practical extensions to many manufacturing and design environments. LOM machines can be thought of as peripheral devices to a CAD workstation, allowing any designer to output any design directly to an LOM system. The need to create additional support structures is completely eliminated with the process; something which is essential for competitive stereo lithography systems. The LOM process is quite straightforward and the user does not need to have any specific knowledge of chemistry, physics, mechanics or electronics in order to operate the machine.


The systems are designed using standard electromechanical components which makes them easy to maintain and troubleshoot.

Need for decubing, which requires a lot of labor Emission of smoke or fumes Can be a fire hazard Finish, accuracy and stability of paper objects not as good as materials used with other RP methods


Three Dimensional Printing (3DP):

Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) technology was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and licensed to several corporations. The process is similar to the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process, but instead of using a laser to sinter the material, an ink-jet printing head deposits a liquid adhesive that binds the material. The 3D printing process begins with the powder supply being raised by a piston and a leveling roller distributing a thin layer of powder to the top of the build chamber. A multi-channel ink-jet print head then deposits a liquid adhesive to targeted regions of the powder bed. These regions of powder are bonded together by the adhesive and form one layer of the part. The remaining free standing powder supports the part during the build. After a layer is built, the build platform is lowered and a new layer of powder added, leveled, and the printing repeated. After the part is completed, the loose supporting powder can be brushed away and the part removed. 3D printed parts are typically infiltrated with a sealant to improve strength and surface finish.


Capacity and Materials Used:

Max part size of 59.00 x 29.50 x 27.60 in and in feature size of 0.008 in can be built with 3DP with a Min layer thickness 0.0020 in and Tolerance of 0.0040 in. Ferrous metals such as Stainless steel; Non-ferrous metals such as Bronze; Elastomers; Composites; Ceramics.

Cost effective solution for small to medium size parts in shortest lead time Parts have little flexibility, makes them suitable for limited snap features or thin wall flexible features Environmental exposure do not alter the size of the part or its features. Ideal for general purpose parts exposed to temperature, water and many chemicals. High level of finish can be achieved by sanding and other post processing techniques. These parts can be further machined, polished or painted.

3DP parts have a ribbed and little rough appearance due to layering beads of plastic. Not suitable for extensive functional testing Could be a slow process for large build volume parts.

4. Factors specific to Aerospace Industry:

Aerodynamic structure stability is the important criteria when any part is developed in aerospace industry. For an air born structure like the aircraft the basic load which is continuously acting on it is the lift and drag force and they directly affect the internal structure of an aircraft. Lift, L = Ci * 0.5(v2s) Drag, D = Cd * 0.5(v2s) When the velocity, density, surface area and co-efficient of lift are higher the lift and drag forces tends to be higher and thus the amount of force which the aircraft has to withstand is very large from material point of view. But we cannot expect a higher values for above said properties for the parts manufactured using he rapid prototyping technology as it is at its early stage. It cannot replace the traditional aircraft manufacturing process as of now. The table below show the different material properties used in R.P technology.


Property Method SLA (SL5170) SLS (Protoform ) FDM (ABS) Materials Used

Tensile Strength (Psi)

Tensile Modulus (Ksi) 575

Flexur Elongati al on at Strengt Break h (%) (Psi) 12 15600

Flexura l Modulu s (Ksi) 429

Impact Strengt h (Ftlb/in) 0.6

Hardne ss(Shor e D) 85

Polymer 8700 Ceramic, Wax and Alloy 7100 Wax and Polymer 5000

408 360

6 50

_ 9500

625 380

1.25 2

_ 105

5. Recent improvements & achievements of RP in Aerospace Industry:

Considerable improvements have been made in using Rapid Prototyping for aerospace part manufacturing. Layer-build technology was successfully implemented on the F/A-18 by the US Navy. Using Nylon11 by SLS for a low rate production application, similarly a series of parts that formed the ductwork were built on a Vanguard SLS machine to check the flightworthiness by BAe (British aerospace). After a series of testing, re-building of parts with different machine build parameters and implementing post processing techniques, the parts were eventually certified as flightworthy. Design Verification of an Airline Electrical Generator, Engine Components for Fanjet Engine, and Prototyping Air Inlet Housing for Gas Turbine Engine Fabrication of FlightCertified Production Castings were also done successfully. Companies have an increasing number of printing techniques to choose from, such as electron-beam melting, which, like SLS, makes production-grade aerospace parts. They can also print with many materials, including titanium, ceramic, and resin. Arcam, a 3-Dprinter manufacturer in Sweden, is working with select labs to develop new materials and substantially expand its portfolio. As a result, companies are now using 3-D printing to create working parts, not just prototypes. For now, those parts aren't critical aircraft components. For example, the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner includes 30 or so printed componentsa recordbut most of them are air ducts or hinges. That, too, could change. In November, NASA started printing parts to test for its next heavy-lift rocket. One company, DIY Rockets, went even further: It launched a contest to develop an open-source, 3-Dprintable rocket engine. Last fall, students at the University of Virginia printed almost all the components of an operational UAV, including the 6.5-foot wingspan, and flew it around an airfield.


Similar achievements is the wind tunnel model of the European tilt rotor realized by the Rapid Prototyping Department of CRP Technology during the first months of the 2007. Wind tunnel Testing is one of the major part in the engine rotor design in any aerospace sector and this achievement helped the industry in realizing the worthiness of RP. It proved that the RP models can withstand in high profile testing environment. The wind tunnel model of the European tilt rotor realized by the RP department of CRP technology by using wind form material. The model was completed and tested in a very short interval of time with excellent result and high performing mechanical and aerodynamic properties. Thus Layer-build technology is successfully implemented for a low rate production application and early design criteria .The benefits, which included design flexibility, no tooling and just-in-time delivery, all contributed to the end customer accepting and allowing this technology to be implemented in aerospace industry.


6. Future of RP Technology in Aerospace Industry:

Even though the RP technology find vast area in the aerospace industry, its application is limited primarily due to the following three factors. I. II. III. Materials used for parts production Geometric Limitation of the equipment Parameters related to process

The very first limitation of RP in Aerospace industry is the lack of an appropriate range of materials for its application. This made authorities to impose very stringent quality measures for the usage of materials in real time parts manufacturing in aerospace industry. Currently low volume application products are produced with acceptable materials like epoxy resin, composite materials and sintered nylon and those products are often good enough for Evaluation of components by visualization Evaluation of design variations Estimation of the surface quality of the aircraft model Evaluation of the aircraft interior Ergonomic valuation with the aid of virtual reality.

Materials like flame retardant nylon, exotic metal such as titanium and high order engineering grade materials are under R&D and they can innovate the future of R.P in Aerospace industry. All vehicle programmes manned, unmanned, civil and military could benefit from rapid prototyping. All system builders large and small - can use rapid prototyping to reduce their exposure to risk considerably.


7. Conclusion:
Rapid Prototyping is proving to be a successful method starting from early design phase to the final part manufacturing in aerospace industry. Cost savings and model design/fabrication time reductions greater than a factor of 4 have been realized for RP techniques as compared to current standard model design/fabrication practices. Compared to its metal counterparts RP products are short of strength and accuracy. But still they can be accepted in the preliminary stages of design where full metal fabrication and machining processes consumes lot of money and time. Scaled down model of the components and their final assembly with lesser accuracy are acceptable for the initial design testing. The use of RP models will provide a rapid capability in the determination of the aerodynamic characteristics of preliminary designs over a large Mach range. This range covers the transonic regime, a regime in which analytical and empirical capabilities sometimes fall short. However the industry with very high standard for safety and place for no deviations like the aerospace sector cannot replace the proved machining processes or metal parts with the rapid prototyping. Considerable research over the new kind of materials for fabrication and increasing the capacity like size and strength of the current RP models can lead the aerospace sector into greater heights.

8. Reference:
1. Advancement of rapid prototyping in aerospace industry -a review Vineet Kumar vashistha, Rahul Makade, neeraj Mehla, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT,Hmaripur, India. 2. Rapid Prototyping Industrial Analysis, Trevor Boehm, Maria-Isabel Carnasciali , M. Elizabeth Douglas, Marco Gero Fernandez ,Christopher Williams 3. Rapid prototyping technologies, applications and part deposition planning Pulak M. Pandey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT,Delhi, India. 4. "Rapid Prototyping is Coming of Age," Steven Ashley, Mechanical Engineering, vol. 117, no. 7, July 1995, pp. 62-68. 5. 6. 7.