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Megan Hoey Mrs.

Anderson Honors English 9 February 9, 2014 Issue Research: Government Manipulation on the Media If you think the spinning on news channels today is bad, imagine what itd be like if the CIA still steered the ship. Under Operation Mockingbird, the CIAs sticky fingers touched over 300 newspapers and magazines, including The New York Times, Newsweek, and the Washington Post. Over 400 journalists were in collusion with the CIA. They promoted the Agencys views and provided services like spying in foreign countries, gathering (foreign) intelligence, and publishing reports written by the Agency. Sometimes, CIA Head Frank Wisner commissioned journalists to write pro-government articles at home and abroad. And, as if a CIA spin werent enough, the Agency also paid editors to keep anti-government pieces off the presses. Journalists with ties to the CIA also planted false intelligence in newsrooms so that unconnected reporters would pick it up and write about it. The CIA teamed up with journalists because many reporters had strong foreign ties. A journalist reporting from abroad could gather information that the CIA couldnt, and he could plant propaganda better, too. Although a congressional hearing in the 1970s put an end to inside jobs, Big Brother still manipulates markets elsewhere. In 2005, the government spent $300 million placing pro-American messages in foreign media outlets as an attempt to stymie extremists and sway support. (Mental Floss)

In general, we assume that the government may value viewership as well as the mobilization of citizens to \invest," to the extent that viewership increases advertising revenue at (and thus may reduce the cost of running) the state-owned news outlet. We model this concern in a reduced-form way, assuming that total advertising revenue is proportional to viewership. Let denote the size of the market. Further, assume that the government's preferences over investment and advertising revenue are separable. (Wallis) Government officials have a number of ways to influence media content:

The media are dependent upon officials for the largest amount of source materia

The US government provides a number of subsidies to media companies

The government protects media companies from foreign or domestic attack

Officials woo journalists who are compliant

Officials can withhold information

Officials can censorespecially during wartime

Government subsidies media in many ways like, Newspaper delivery rules, Third class postal rates, Special merger rules, Public broadcasting subsidies, Spectrum allocation, According to official sources . . . , News organizations depend on official sources for their raw materials and interpretations of events, Must fill in the white space between the ads Backgrounding, quotes, Exclusives, and white papers. (Know the lies)

Works Cited "8 Government Conspiracy Theories (And How They Could Be Right)." Mental Floss. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.

"The Government's Control Over the Media." N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.