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Autotransformers

Two windings of a single phase transformer are connected in series. Windings are coupled electrically and magnetically

Autotransformers

Step up autotransformer

Autotransformers

Step down autotransformer

Autotransformer Basic Equations


Assuming that the transformer is ideal: 1 1 = 2 2
1 2

Let be the current on the low voltage side = 1 + 2 1 1 = 2 ( - 1 ) =


1 +2 1 2

1 2

=a

Autotransformer Basic Equations


But 1 =

Therefore

The ratio of apparent power rating of an autotransformer to that of the corresponding two winding transformer is
2

=1+a

Higher power is obtained from the autotransformer This is known as the power rating advantage of the autotransformer

(1 +2 )1 1 1

=1+

Autotransformers
Advantages Smaller leakage impedance Lower losses Lower exciting current Lower cost for small turns ratio Disadvantages Higher short circuit currents Electrical coupling of windings allows transient over-voltages to pass through more easily

Example 1

Example 1 - Solution

Example 2

Example 2 - Solution

Example 2 - Solution
1.3.3. = =
+ 0.8 (300) 0.8 300 +2.1

= 99.1%

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


Consider the step down transformer T1
20 400

1 = 20 kV 2 = 400 kV Normally we will choose the base values on each side of the transformer to be the rated values 1 = 20 kV 2 = 400 kV

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


The choice of base voltages is however not fixed so we are free to choose any other base values provided these values satisfy the turns ratio of the transformer 1 = 10 kV 2 = 200 kV OR 1 = 50 kV 2 = 1000kV

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


For each choice of bases, the ratio of the rated voltages is equal to the ratio of the base voltages
1 2

20 400

= 0.05
20 400

1 2

10 200

50 1000

= 0.05

A transformer whose rated voltages is in proportion to the selected base voltages is said to have a nominal turns ratio.

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


Consider two parallel transformers

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


A transformer whose rated voltages is not in proportion to the selected base voltages is said to have an off nominal turns ratio.

1 2

1 2

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers

Examples Non identical parallel transformers Tap changing transformers Voltage regulating transformers Phase shifting transformers

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


Consider a transformer with a turns ratio of

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


1 = 2 (1)

If the base voltages on either side of the transformer are known the 1 = b 2 (2)

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


Then equation (1) can be written as 1 = 2

Letting

= b ( ) 2 c = equation

(3)

3 becomes
(4)

1 = bc 2

Off nominal turns ratio Transformers


1 = bc 2 can be represented by two transformers in series as shown below

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


Per unit equivalent circuit

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


circuit representation is obtained by setting up nodal equations 1 11 = 2 21 12 1 21 2

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


circuit representation is obtained by setting up nodal equations

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


1 11 = 2 21 11 = =
1

12 1 21 2

22 = 2 12 = 21 =

Example 3.12

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


Tap changing transformers

Example 3.12

Example 3.12
Per unit equivalent circuit

Example 3.12

Example 3.12

Example 3.12
Per unit equivalent circuit

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


Tap changing transformers Taps in windings are used to change the turns ratio Tap changing alters the voltage magnitude which affects the control of reactive power There are two types of tap changing transformers Off load tap changing transformers Tap changing under load (TCUL) transformers

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


Tap changing transformers

Transformers with off nominal turns ratio


Tap changing transformers

Tap changing transformers


Tapping on both ends of a radial transmission line can be adjusted to compensate for the volt drop in the line

Tap Setting Formula


Consider a three phase transmission line with a step up transformer at the sending end and a step down transformer at the receiving end. and are the tap settings in per unit 1 is the supply phase voltage referred to the HV side 2 is the load phase voltage referred to the HV side and are phase voltages at both ends of the line

Tap Setting Formula

Tap Setting formula


Considering the voltage phasor diagram

Tap Setting Formula


= + (R+jX)I Is is small then the vertical component of can be neglected = + ab +de = + IRcos + IXsin (1) Now P = Icos and Q = Isin Substituting into equation (1) gives

+ +

(2)

Tap Setting Formula


Since = 1 and = 2
+ 1 = 2 + 2

(2) becomes

Which reduces to

=
=

1 ( 1

+ 2 + ) 2

2 2 2+RP+XQ 1 2

(3)

Tap Setting Formula


Assuming that = 1 2 2 2+RP+XQ = 1 2 1=
1 2

(3) becomes

22+RP+XQ 1 2
1 2

1 2 - (RP+XQ) = 1 2 (RP+XQ) 1 = 2 2 2

2 2

Tap Setting Formula


2 2 2 = 1 2 (RP+XQ) Dividing numerator and denominator on RHS by 1 2 gives

2 1 = OR = RP+XQ 1 1 2

2 1 RP+XQ 1 1 2

Tap changing transformer Example


A three phase transmission line is fed from a 23/230 kV transformer at its sending end. The line is supplying a 150 MVA, 0.8 power factor load through a step down transformer of 230/23 kV. The impedance of the line and transformers at 230 kV is 18 + j60 . The sending end transformer is energized from 23 kV supply. Determine the tap setting for each transformer to maintain the voltage at the load at 23 kV.

Tap changing transformer Example - Solution


Tap setting at sending end is given by

2 1 = RP+XQ 1 1 2 Load real and reactive power per phase is


150(0.8) P= = 40 MW 3 150(0.6) Q= = 30 MW 3

Tap changing transformer Example - Solution


Source and load phase voltage referred to the high voltage side is
230 1 = = 133 kV 3 230 2 = = 133 kV 3

Therefore =

133 133 18 40 +(60)(30) (133)(133)

= 1.08 pu

Tap changing transformer Example - Solution


Since we assume that = 1
= .

= 0.926 pu

Regulating Transformers
Regulating transformers Voltage magnitude Phase angle regulating

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer

Modelling as a off nominal turns ratio transformer

c = (1 + v) for voltage increase at bus abc c = (1 + v)-1 for voltage increase at bus abc

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example C = (1 + )1 = (1 + 0.05)1 = 0.9524 per unit


1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


c = (0.9524)(-j4) = -j3.8096 (1-c) = (1 - 0.9524)(-j4) = -j0.1904 ( 2 - c) = (0.95242 - 0.9524)(-j4) = j0.1813

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

-j3.8096

j0.1813

-j0.1904

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

22 = 2 = (0.9524)2 (-j4.0) = -j3.628 12 = = - (0.9524)(-j4.0) = j3.8096 21 = = - (0.9524)(-j4.0) = j3.8096

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example C = (1 + )


= (1 + 0.05) = 1.05 per unit
1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


c = (1.05)(-j4) = -j4.2 (1-c) = (1 1.05)(-j4) = j3.81 ( 2 - c) = (1.052 - 1.05)(-j4) = -j0.21

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

-j4.2

J3.81

-j0.21

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

22 = 2 = (1.05)2 (-j4.0) = -j4.41 12 = = - (1.05)(-j4.0) = j4.2 21 = = - (1.05)(-j4.0) = j4.2

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by two parallel lines 1 and 2 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 and 2 = j0.2 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Phase angle regulating transformer

Phase angle regulating transformer

Modelling as a off nominal turns ratio transformer


c = 1 for a phase increase at bus abc

c = 1- for a phase increase at bus a b c

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the volage phase 30 at bus abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example c = 1- =1 30


1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


c = (1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j3.995 = (1-c) = (1 - 1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 - j0.005 ( 2 - c) = (12 - 1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 j0.005

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


-0.209-j3.995

0.209-j0.005

-0.209-j0.005

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

22 = 2 = (1)2 (-j4.0) = -j4.0 12 = = - (1 30 )(-j4.0) = 0.209+j3.995 21 = = - (1 30 )(-j4.0) = -0.209+j3.995

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the volage phase 30 at bus abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example c = 1 =1 30


1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


c = (1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 - j3.995 = (1-c) = (1 - 1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j0.005 ( 2 - c) = (12 - 1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j0.005

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


0.209-j3.995

-0.209-j0.005

-0.209-j0.005

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

22 = 2 = (1)2 (-j4.0) = -j4.0 12 = = - (1 30 )(-j4.0) = -0.209+j3.995 21 = = - (1 30 )(-j4.0) = 0.209+j3.995

Voltage magnitude regulating transformer - Example


Two buses abc and abc are connected by two parallel lines 1 and 2 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 and 2 = j0.2 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the phase 30 towards abc, Determine i) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13