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Two windings of a single phase transformer are connected in series. Windings are coupled electrically and magnetically

Autotransformers

Step up autotransformer

Autotransformers

Assuming that the transformer is ideal: 1 1 = 2 2

1 2

1 +2 1 2

1 2

=a

But 1 =

Therefore

The ratio of apparent power rating of an autotransformer to that of the corresponding two winding transformer is

2

=1+a

Higher power is obtained from the autotransformer This is known as the power rating advantage of the autotransformer

(1 +2 )1 1 1

=1+

Autotransformers

Advantages Smaller leakage impedance Lower losses Lower exciting current Lower cost for small turns ratio Disadvantages Higher short circuit currents Electrical coupling of windings allows transient over-voltages to pass through more easily

Example 1

Example 1 - Solution

Example 2

Example 2 - Solution

Example 2 - Solution

1.3.3. = =

+ 0.8 (300) 0.8 300 +2.1

= 99.1%

Consider the step down transformer T1

20 400

1 = 20 kV 2 = 400 kV Normally we will choose the base values on each side of the transformer to be the rated values 1 = 20 kV 2 = 400 kV

The choice of base voltages is however not fixed so we are free to choose any other base values provided these values satisfy the turns ratio of the transformer 1 = 10 kV 2 = 200 kV OR 1 = 50 kV 2 = 1000kV

For each choice of bases, the ratio of the rated voltages is equal to the ratio of the base voltages

1 2

20 400

= 0.05

20 400

1 2

10 200

50 1000

= 0.05

A transformer whose rated voltages is in proportion to the selected base voltages is said to have a nominal turns ratio.

Consider two parallel transformers

A transformer whose rated voltages is not in proportion to the selected base voltages is said to have an off nominal turns ratio.

1 2

1 2

Examples Non identical parallel transformers Tap changing transformers Voltage regulating transformers Phase shifting transformers

Consider a transformer with a turns ratio of

1 = 2 (1)

If the base voltages on either side of the transformer are known the 1 = b 2 (2)

Then equation (1) can be written as 1 = 2

Letting

= b ( ) 2 c = equation

(3)

3 becomes

(4)

1 = bc 2

1 = bc 2 can be represented by two transformers in series as shown below

Per unit equivalent circuit

circuit representation is obtained by setting up nodal equations 1 11 = 2 21 12 1 21 2

circuit representation is obtained by setting up nodal equations

1 11 = 2 21 11 = =

1

12 1 21 2

22 = 2 12 = 21 =

Example 3.12

Tap changing transformers

Example 3.12

Example 3.12

Per unit equivalent circuit

Example 3.12

Example 3.12

Example 3.12

Per unit equivalent circuit

Tap changing transformers Taps in windings are used to change the turns ratio Tap changing alters the voltage magnitude which affects the control of reactive power There are two types of tap changing transformers Off load tap changing transformers Tap changing under load (TCUL) transformers

Tap changing transformers

Tap changing transformers

Tapping on both ends of a radial transmission line can be adjusted to compensate for the volt drop in the line

Consider a three phase transmission line with a step up transformer at the sending end and a step down transformer at the receiving end. and are the tap settings in per unit 1 is the supply phase voltage referred to the HV side 2 is the load phase voltage referred to the HV side and are phase voltages at both ends of the line

Considering the voltage phasor diagram

= + (R+jX)I Is is small then the vertical component of can be neglected = + ab +de = + IRcos + IXsin (1) Now P = Icos and Q = Isin Substituting into equation (1) gives

+ +

(2)

Since = 1 and = 2

+ 1 = 2 + 2

(2) becomes

Which reduces to

=

=

1 ( 1

+ 2 + ) 2

2 2 2+RP+XQ 1 2

(3)

Assuming that = 1 2 2 2+RP+XQ = 1 2 1=

1 2

(3) becomes

22+RP+XQ 1 2

1 2

1 2 - (RP+XQ) = 1 2 (RP+XQ) 1 = 2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2 = 1 2 (RP+XQ) Dividing numerator and denominator on RHS by 1 2 gives

2 1 = OR = RP+XQ 1 1 2

2 1 RP+XQ 1 1 2

A three phase transmission line is fed from a 23/230 kV transformer at its sending end. The line is supplying a 150 MVA, 0.8 power factor load through a step down transformer of 230/23 kV. The impedance of the line and transformers at 230 kV is 18 + j60 . The sending end transformer is energized from 23 kV supply. Determine the tap setting for each transformer to maintain the voltage at the load at 23 kV.

Tap setting at sending end is given by

150(0.8) P= = 40 MW 3 150(0.6) Q= = 30 MW 3

Source and load phase voltage referred to the high voltage side is

230 1 = = 133 kV 3 230 2 = = 133 kV 3

Therefore =

= 1.08 pu

Since we assume that = 1

= .

= 0.926 pu

Regulating Transformers

Regulating transformers Voltage magnitude Phase angle regulating

c = (1 + v) for voltage increase at bus abc c = (1 + v)-1 for voltage increase at bus abc

Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

c = (0.9524)(-j4) = -j3.8096 (1-c) = (1 - 0.9524)(-j4) = -j0.1904 ( 2 - c) = (0.95242 - 0.9524)(-j4) = j0.1813

-j3.8096

j0.1813

-j0.1904

Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

= (1 + 0.05) = 1.05 per unit

1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

c = (1.05)(-j4) = -j4.2 (1-c) = (1 1.05)(-j4) = j3.81 ( 2 - c) = (1.052 - 1.05)(-j4) = -j0.21

-j4.2

J3.81

-j0.21

Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

Two buses abc and abc are connected by two parallel lines 1 and 2 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 and 2 = j0.2 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer provides a 0.05 per unit increase in voltage magnitude towards abc, Determine i) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

c = 1 for a phase increase at bus abc

Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the volage phase 30 at bus abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

c = (1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j3.995 = (1-c) = (1 - 1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 - j0.005 ( 2 - c) = (12 - 1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 j0.005

-0.209-j3.995

0.209-j0.005

-0.209-j0.005

Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

Two buses abc and abc are connected by a transmission line 1 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the volage phase 30 at bus abc, Determine i) The per unit equivalent circuit of the transformer ii) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

1 = 1 = 0.25

=-j4

c = (1 30 )(-j4) = 0.209 - j3.995 = (1-c) = (1 - 1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j0.005 ( 2 - c) = (12 - 1 30 )(-j4) = -0.209 - j0.005

0.209-j3.995

-0.209-j0.005

-0.209-j0.005

Bus admittance matrix

11 = =

= -j4.0

Two buses abc and abc are connected by two parallel lines 1 and 2 with a positive sequence series reactance 1 = j0.25 and 2 = j0.2 per unit. A regulating transformer is placed in series with line 1 at bus abc. If the regulating transformer advances the phase 30 towards abc, Determine i) The 2x2 bus admittance matrix

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

Example 3.13

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