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MOSFET Small Signal Model & Operation MOSFET Small Signal Model & Operation
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Lecture # 5 Lecture # 5
Small Signal Operation & Models Small Signal Operation & Models
The DC Bias Point The DC Bias Point
The Signal Current in the Drain The Signal Current in the Drain
The Voltage Gain The Voltage Gain
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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2
DC Bias Point DC Bias Point
For dcbiaspoint weset thesignal v
gs
tobezero
D D DD D
t GS n D
V V V
R I V V
V V
L
W
K I
=
|
.
|

\
|
' =
2
) (
2
1
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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t GS D
V V V >>
The required signal swing depend on V
D
, which should be
sufficientlygreater than(V
GS
V
t
).
Small Signal Drain Current Small Signal Drain Current
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 2
2
gs n gs t GS n t GS n D
t gs GS n D
gs GS GS
v
L
W
K v V V
L
W
K V V
L
W
K i
V v V
L
W
K i
v V v
|
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' =
+ |
.
|

\
|
' =
+ =
last term. neglecting
2 ) ( 2
) (
2
1
2
d D D
OV t GS gs
gs t GS n gs n
W
i I i
V V V v
v V V
L
W
K v
L
W
K
|
|

|
+ ~
<< <<
|
.
|

\
|
' << |
.
|

\
|
'
First component is thedc bias current, second is thecurrent component directly proportional to theapplied
signal and last is proportional to squareof input signal
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
4

2

2
, 2
) (
) (
'
ov
D
t GS
D
m D n m
OV n t GS n
gs
d
m
gs t GS n d
V
I
V V
I
g I L W K g
V
L
W
K V V
L
W
K
v
i
g
v V V
L
W
K i
=

= =
|
.
|

\
|
' = |
.
|

\
|
' = =
|
.
|

\
|
' =
3
Voltage Gain Voltage Gain
D m
gs
d
V
D gs m D d d
d D D d D D d D D DD D
D d D DD D
D D DD D
R g
v
v
A
R v g R i v
v V R i V R i R I V v
R i I V v
R i V v
= =
= =
+ = = =
+ =
=
) (
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5
Total Instantaneous Voltages Total Instantaneous Voltages
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4
Separating DC Analysis & Signal Analysis Separating DC Analysis & Signal Analysis
In In the the small small signal signal analysis analysis signals signals are are superimposed superimposed on on the the DC DC
quantities, quantities, we we have have seen seen that that drain drain current current ii
DD
is is equal equal to to II
DD
current current plus plus the the
signal signal current current ii
dd
and and similarly similarly drain drain voltage voltage vv
DD
is is equal equal to to the the dc dc voltage voltage VV
DD
plus plus the the signal signal voltage voltage vv
dd
.. This This means means the the analysis analysis can can be be simplified simplified if if we we
separate separate the the two, two, so so once once dc dc conditions conditions are are established established and and all all dc dc quantities quantities
are are calculated calculated we we can can perform perform the the signal signal analysis analysis and and totally totally ignoring ignoring the the dc dc
quantities quantities..
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
7
Small Signal Equivalent Models Small Signal Equivalent Models
Froma signal point of view FET behaves like a voltage controlled current
sourcedevice.
This model assume (short coming) that drain current in
saturation is independent of the drain voltage, we have
learnt that in reality drain current depend on the V
DS
in a
linear manner and which is modeled by a finite resistance r
o
(10 K t 1000 K) b t d i d V i
2
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
' =
ov n D
v
L
W
K I
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(a) Neglectingthedependenceof i
D
on v
DS
in saturation (thechannel-length modulation effect); and (b) Includingtheeffect of channel-length
modulation, modeled by output resistancer
o
=|V
A
| /I
D
.
(10 K to 1000 K) between drain and source. V
A
is
MOSFET parameter (It is proportional to the MOSFET
channel length.

1
where
} { ) || (
= =
= = = =
A
D
A
o
D gs m D d d o D m
gs
d
v
V
I
V
r
R v g R i v r R g
v
v
A
5
Example 4.10 Example 4.10
First find I
D
and V
D
and then find g
m
, r
o
and A
v
fromthefollowing equations.
) 5 . 1 ( * 25 . 0 *
2
1
) so current gate (No ) (
2
1
2
2
D D
D GS t GS n D
V I
V V V V
L
W
K I
=
= |
.
|

\
|
' =
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) || || (

) (
o L D m
i
o
v
D
A
o
t GS n m
D D DD D
r R R g
v
v
A
I
V
r
V V
L
W
K g
I R V V
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
' =
=
Fromslide4
i
i
in
G o i i
i
v
R
R v v i
=
= / ) (
The T Equivalent Circuit Model The T Equivalent Circuit Model
Let us add this and as we can see that
circuit propertiesarenot changed.
Even joining X point with G will not
h h l f I ( i )
We can replace controlled
source with a resistance if
the current through it
remainsthesame.
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
10
Development of theT equivalent-circuit model for theMOSFET. For simplicity, r
o
has been omitted but can beadded between D and S in theT model of (d).
Resistance =V/I=v
gs
/g
m
v
gs
changethevalueof I
G
(remainzero).
6
Alternative T Equivalent Circuit Model Alternative T Equivalent Circuit Model
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(a) TheT model of theMOSFET augmented with thedrain-to-sourceresistancer
o
. (b) An alternativerepresentation of theT model.
Exercise 4.23 Exercise 4.23
2 2
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
gs n gs t GS n t GS n D
v
L
W
K v V V
L
W
K V V
L
W
K i |
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' + |
.
|

\
|
' =
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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2 2 L L L . \ . \ . \
7
Exercise 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28 & 4.29 Exercise 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28 & 4.29
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Basic Structure of a Single Stage Amplifier Basic Structure of a Single Stage Amplifier
2
1
2
1
ov ox n
v
L
W
C I |
.
|

\
|
=
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8
Exercise 4.30 Exercise 4.30
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Common Source Amplifier Common Source Amplifier
G
sig G
sig
in
sig in
sig
i
G in g
R
R R
v
R
R R
v
v
R R i
+
=
+
=
= = 0
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16
(a) Common-sourceamplifier based on thecircuit of Fig. 4.42. (b) Equivalent circuit of theamplifier for small-signal analysis. (c) Small-signal
analysis performed directly on theamplifier circuit with theMOSFET model implicitly utilized.
v
o
sig i
sig G
A
v
v v
R R
=
>>
9
Common Source Amplifier with Resistance Common Source Amplifier with Resistance
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(a) Common-sourceamplifier with aresistanceR
S
in thesourcelead. (b) Small-signal equivalent circuit with r
o
neglected. It has been observed that r
o
fortunately does not effect theoperation significantly in discretecircuit amplifiers.
Exercise 4.32 & 4.33 Exercise 4.32 & 4.33
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10
Common Gate Amplifier Common Gate Amplifier
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(a) A common-gateamplifier based on thecircuit of Fig. 4.42. (b) A small-signal equivalent circuit of theamplifier in (a). (c) Thecommon-gateamplifier
fed with acurrent-signal input.
Three observations:
CS CS vs vs CG Amplifier CG Amplifier
CS is inverting where as CG is non inverting.
CS has high input resistance where as CG has low input resistance,
which is useful for cascading circuit operation (unity gain current
amplifier or current follower).
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The gain for both configuration is identical, the over all gain for CG
is small by a factor of 1 + g
m
R
sig
.
11
Exercise 4.34 Exercise 4.34
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Common Drain or Source Follower Common Drain or Source Follower
Amplifier Amplifier
CD has high input resistance,
low output resistance, gain
near tounity
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(a) A common-drain or source-follower amplifier. (b) Small-signal equivalent-circuit model. (c) Small-signal analysis performed directly on the
circuit. (d) Circuit for determiningtheoutput resistanceR
out
of thesourcefollower.
near tounity.
12
Exercise 4.35 Exercise 4.35
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Summary of Comparison Summary of Comparison
The common source is best suited for obtaining bulk of the gain required in the amplifier, multiple
stages can be used depending upon the requirement of the magnitude.
The performance can be improved if a resistance is introduced in the source terminal, however, gain
is reduced.
The common gate is useful for some specific applications due to its low input resistance.
The source follower finds application as a voltage buffer for connecting high resistance source to a
low resistance load in a multistage amplifier.
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13
Exercise 4.36 & 4.37 Exercise 4.36 & 4.37
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Frequency Response of CS Amplifier Frequency Response of CS Amplifier
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(a) Capacitivelycoupled common-sourceamplifier. (b) A sketch of thefrequency response of theamplifier in (a) delineatingthethreefrequency bands
of interest.
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High Frequency Response High Frequency Response
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27
Determiningthehigh-frequency responseof theCS amplifier: (a) equivalent circuit; (b) thecircuit of (a) simplified at theinput and theoutput;
High Frequency Response High Frequency Response
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(Continued) (c) theequivalent circuit with C
gd
replaced at theinput sidewith theequivalent capacitanceC
eq
; (d) thefrequency responseplot, which is that
of alow-pass single-time-constant circuit.
15
Low Frequency Response Low Frequency Response
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Analysis of theCS amplifier to determineits low-frequency transfer function. For simplicity, r
o
is neglected.
Low Frequency Response Low Frequency Response
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Sketch of thelow-frequency magnituderesponseof aCS amplifier for which thethreebreak frequenciesaresufficiently separated for their effects to
appear distinct.
16
Exercise 4.38, 4.39 & 4.40 Exercise 4.38, 4.39 & 4.40
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CMOS Inverter CMOS Inverter
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Circuit Operation Circuit Operation
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Operation of theCMOS inverter when v
I
is high: (a) circuit with v
I
= V
DD
(logic-1 level, or V
OH
); (b) graphical construction to determinetheoperating
point; (c) equivalent circuit.
Circuit Operation Circuit Operation
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Operation of theCMOS inverter when v
I
is low: (a) circuit with v
I
=0 V (logic-0 level, or V
OL
); (b) graphical construction
to determinetheoperatingpoint; (c) equivalent circuit.
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Voltage Transfer Characteristics Voltage Transfer Characteristics
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Dynamic Operation of CMOS Inverter Dynamic Operation of CMOS Inverter
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Dynamic operation of acapacitivelyloaded CMOS inverter: (a) circuit; (b) input and output waveforms; (c) trajectory of theoperatingpoint as the
input goes high and C discharges through Q
N
; (d) equivalent circuit duringthecapacitor discharge.
19
Current in the CMOS Inverter Current in the CMOS Inverter
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Exercise 4.41, 4.42, 4.43 & 4.44 Exercise 4.41, 4.42, 4.43 & 4.44
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20
Exercise 4.45 & 4.46 Exercise 4.45 & 4.46
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Exercise 4.47, 4.48 & 4.49 Exercise 4.47, 4.48 & 4.49
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The Depletion Type MOSFET The Depletion Type MOSFET
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41
(a) Circuit symbol for then-channel depletion-typeMOSFET. (b) Simplified circuit symbol applicablefor thecasethesubstrate(B) is connected to the
source(S).
The Depletion Type MOSFET The Depletion Type MOSFET
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42
Thecurrent-voltagecharacteristics of adepletion-typen-channel MOSFET for which V
t
=4 V and k
'
n
(W/L) =2 mA/V
2
: (a) transistor with current and
voltagepolaritiesindicated; (b) thei
D
v
DS
characteristics; (c) thei
D
v
GS
characteristic in saturation.
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The Depletion Type MOSFET The Depletion Type MOSFET
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Therelativelevels of terminal voltages of adepletion-typeNMOS transistor for operationin thetriodeand thesaturation regions. Thecaseshown is
for operation in theenhancement mode(v
GS
is positive).
The Depletion Type MOSFET The Depletion Type MOSFET
Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
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Sketches of thei
D
v
GS
characteristicsfor MOSFETs of enhancement and depletion types, of both polarities(operatingin saturation). Notethat the
characteristic curves intersect thev
GS
axis at V
t
. Also notethat for generality somewhat different values of |V
t
| areshown for n-channel and p-channel
devices.