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Abstract________________________________________________________

The aim of this investigation is to describe the principle of DC motor speed control using nonlinear armature voltage control. For the armature control mode, the field current is held constant and an adjustable voltage is applied to the armature. The mathematical model of a separately excited DC motor (S D!" #ith independent armature control can be obtained by considering the electrical system, electromagnetic interaction and mechanical system. The armature voltage control of separately excited DC motor can be controlled from belo# and up to rated speed using $%&T as a converter. The $%&T firing circuit receives signal from controller and then chopper gives variable voltage to the armature of the motor for achieving desired speed. There are t#o control loops, one for controlling current and another for speed. The controller used is 'roportional type #hich removes the delay and provides fast control. !odelling of separately excited DC motor is done. The complete layout of DC drive mechanism is obtained. The designing of current and speed controller is carried out. (fter obtaining the complete model of DC drive system, the model is simulated using !(T)(&(S$!*)$+,".The simulation of DC motor drive is done and analy-ed under varying speed and varying load tor.ue conditions li/e rated speed and load tor.ue, half the rated load tor.ue and speed, step speed and load tor.ue and stair case load tor.ue and speed.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Introduction

( DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC" electricity. DC motors #ere used to run machinery, often eliminating the need for a local steam engine or internal combustion engine. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and dis/ drives, or in large si-es to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines. !odern DC motors are nearly al#ays operated in conjunction #ith po#er electronic devices. The principle of DC motor is based on simple electromagnetism. ( current2carrying conductor generates a magnetic field3 #hen this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it #ill experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction bet#een a current2carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Development of high performance motor drives is very essential for industrial applications. ( high performance motor drive system must have good dynamic speed command trac/ing and load regulating response. DC motors provide excellent control of speed for acceleration and deceleration. The po#er supply of a DC motor connects directly to the field of the motor #hich allo#s for precise voltage control, and is necessary for speed and tor.ue control applications. DC drives, because of their simplicity, ease of application, reliability and favourable cost have long been a bac/bone of industrial applications. DC drives are less complex as compared to (C drives system. DC drives are normally less expensive for lo# horsepo#er ratings. DC motors have a long tradition of being used as adjustable speed machines and a #ide range of options have evolved for this purpose. Cooling blo#ers and inlet air flanges provide cooling air for a #ide speed range at constant tor.ue. DC regenerative drives are available for applications re.uiring continuous regeneration for overhauling loads. (C drives #ith this capability #ould be more complex and expensive. 'roperly applied brush and maintenance of commutator is minimal. DC motors are capable of providing starting and accelerating tor.ues in excess of 4556 of rated. D.C motors have long been the primary means of electric traction. They are also used for mobile e.uipment such as golf carts, .uarry and mining applications. DC motors are conveniently portable and #ell fit to special applications, li/e industrial e.uipments and machineries that are not easily run from remote po#er sources. 7

D.C motor is considered a S$S8 (Single $nput and Single 8utput" system having tor.ue9speed characteristics compatible #ith most mechanical loads. This ma/es a D.C motor controllable over a #ide range of speeds by proper adjustment of the terminal voltage. +o# days, $nduction motors, &rushless D.C motors and Synchronous motors have gained #idespread use in electric traction system. ven then, there is a persistent effort to#ards ma/ing them behave li/e dc motors through innovative design and control techni.ues. :ence dc motors are al#ays a good option for advanced control algorithm because the theory of dc motor speed control is extendable to other types of motors as #ell. Speed control techni.ues in separately excited dc motor; &y varying the armature voltage for belo# rated speed. &y varying field flux should to achieve speed above the rated speed.

Different methods for speed control of DC motor; Traditionally armature voltage using <heostatic method for lo# po#er dc motors. *se of conventional '$D controllers. +eural +et#or/ Controllers. Constant po#er motor field #ea/ening controller based on load2adaptive multi2 input multi2 output lineari-ation techni.ue (for high speed regimes". Single phase uniform '=! ac2dc buc/2boost converter #ith only one s#itching device used for armature voltage control. *sing +(<!(2)1 (+on2linear (uto2regressive !oving (verage" controller for the constant tor.ue region. )arge experiences have been gained in designing trajectory controllers based on self2tuning and '$ control. The '$ based speed control has many advantages li/e fast control, lo# cost and simplified structure. This thesis mainly deals #ith controlling DC motor speed using $%&T as po#er converter and '$ as speed and current controller.

Chapter 1.1

IG T

<ecent technology advances in po#er electronics have arisen primarily from improvements in semiconductor po#er devices, #ith insulated gate bipolar transistors ($%&T" leading the mar/et today for medium po#er applications. $%&Ts feature many desirable properties including a !8S input gate, high s#itching speed, lo# conduction voltage drop, high current carrying capability, and a high degree of robustness. Devices have dra#n closer to the >ideal s#itch>, #ith typical voltage ratings of ?55 2 0@55 volts, on2state voltage of 0.@ 2 1.5 volts at currents of up to 0555 amperes, and s#itching speeds of 155 2 A55 ns. The availability of $%&Ts has lo#ered the cost of systems and enhanced the number of economically viable applications. The insulated gate bipolar transistor ($%&T" combines the positive attributes of &BTs and !8SF Ts. &BTs have lo#er conduction losses in the on2state, especially in devices #ith larger bloc/ing voltages, but have longer s#itching times, especially at turn2off #hile !8SF Ts can be turned on and off much faster, but their on2state conduction losses are larger, especially in devices rated for higher bloc/ing voltages. :ence, $%&Ts have lo#er on2state voltage drop #ith high bloc/ing voltage capabilities in addition to fast s#itching speeds. $%&Ts have a vertical structure as sho#n in Fig. 0.0. This structure is .uite similar to that of the vertical diffused !8SF T except for the presence of the pC layer that forms the drain of the $%&T. This layer forms a p2n junction (labelled B0 in the figure", #hich injects minority carriers into #hat #ould appear to be the drain drift region of the vertical !8SF T. The gate and source of the $%&T are laid out in an inter2digitised geometry similar to that used for the vertical !8SF T.

Figure 0.0; 'hysical Structure of $%&T A

1.1.1 IG T !"itchin# Characteristics


8ne of the main important performance features of any semiconductor s#itching device is its s#itching characteristics. *nderstanding the device s#itching characteristics greatly improves its utili-ation in the various applications. The main performance s#itching characteristics of po#er semiconductor s#itching devices are the turn2on and turn2off s#itching transients in addition to the safe operating area (S8(" of the device.

1.1.1.1 Turn On Characteristics


The turn2on s#itching transient of an $%&T #ith an inductive load is sho#n in Fig. 0.1. The turn2on s#itching transients of $%&Ts are very similar to !8SF Ts since the $%&T is essentially acting as a !8SF T during most of the turn2on interval. =ith gate voltage applied across the gate to emitter terminals of the $%&T, the gate to emitter voltage rises up in an exponential fashion from -ero to D% (th" due to the circuit gate resistance (<%" and the gate to emitter capacitance (Cge".

Figure 0.1; $%&T Turn 8n Characteristics The !iller effect capacitance (Cgc" effect is very small due to the high voltage across the device terminals. &eyond D% (th", the gate to emitter voltage continues to rise as before and the drain current begins to increase linearly as sho#n above. Due to the clamp diode, the collector to emitter voltage remains at Ddc as the $%&T current is less than $o. 8nce the $%&T is carrying the full load current but is still in the active region, the gate to emitter voltage becomes temporarily clamped to D% ,$o, #hich is the voltage re.uired to maintain the $%&T current at $o. (t this stage, the collector to emitter voltage starts decreasing in t#o distinctive intervals tfv0 and tfv1. The first time interval corresponds to the traverse through the active region #hile the second time interval corresponds to the completion of the transient in the ohmic region.

1.1.1.$ Turn on !"itchin# Transients

The turn2off s#itching transients of an $%&T #ith an inductive load are sho#n in Fig. 0.7. =hen a negative gate signal is applied across the gate to emitter junction, the gate to emitter voltage starts decreasing in a linear fashion. 8nce the gate to emitter voltage drops belo# the threshold voltage (D% (th"", the collector to emitter voltage starts increasing linearly. The $%&T current remains constant during this mode since the clamp diode is off. =hen the collector to emitter voltage reaches the dc input voltage, the clamp diode starts conducting and the $%&T current falls do#n linearly. The rapid drop in the $%&T current occurs during the time interval tfi0, #hich corresponds, to the turn2off of the !8SF T part of the $%&T (Fig. 0.7". The tailing of the collector current during the second interval tfi1 is due to the stored charge in the n2 drift region of the device. This is because the !8SF T is off and there is no reverse voltage applied to the $%&T terminals that could generate a negative drain current so as to remove the stored charge. The only #ay for stored charge removal is by recombination #ithin the n2 drift region. Since it is desirable that the excess carriers lifetime be large to reduce the on2state voltage drop, the duration of the tail current becomes long. This #ill result in additional s#itching losses #ithin the device. This time increases also #ith temperature similar to the tailing effect in &BTs. :ence, a trade off bet#een the on2state voltage drop and faster turn2off times must be made.

Figure 0.7; Turn 8ff Transients of $%&T

1.1.1.% IG T !a&e Operatin# Area


The safe operating area (S8(" of a po#er semiconductor device is a graphical representation of the maximum operational voltage and current limits (i2v" of the device subjected to various constraints. The for#ard bias safe operating area (F&S8(" and the reverse bias safe operating area (<&S8(" represent the device S8( #ith the gate emitter junction for#ard biased or reverse biased, respectively. The $%&T has robust S8( during both turn2on and turn off. The F&S8(, sho#n in Fig. 0.4(a", is s.uare for short s#itching times, similar to that of po#er !8SF Ts. The $%&T is thermally limited for longer s#itching times as sho#n in the F&S8( figure. The <&S8( of $%&Ts, sho#n in Fig. 0.4(b", is different than the F&S8(. The upper half corner of the <&S8( is progressively cut out #hich reduces the <&S8( as the rate of change of the collector to emitter voltage across the device, dDce9dt, is F

increased. The <&S8( is reduced as the dDce9dt is increased to avoid latch up #ithin the device. This condition exists #hen higher values of dDce9dt are applied may give to the rise to a pulse of for#ard decaying current in the body region of the device that acts as a pulse of gate current that can turn on the device. Fortunately, the dDce9dt values that #ould cause latch up in $%&Ts are much higher compared to other devices.

(a"

(b"

Figure 0.4; (a" F&S8( (b" <&S8( of $%&T

1.1.1.' IG T Gate Dri(e E)uip*ents


$%&Ts are voltage controlled devices and re.uire gate voltage to establish collector2to2 emitter conduction. <ecommended gate drive circuitry includes substantial ion and off biasing as sho#n in Figure 0.A.

Figure 0.A; Typical gate drive circuitry 05

Due to the large input gate2to2emitter capacitance of $%&Ts, !8SF T drive techni.ues can be used. :o#ever, the off biasing needs to be stronger. ( C0A D positive gate drive is normally recommended to guarantee full saturation and limit short circuit current. ( negative voltage bias is used to improve the $%&T immunity to collector2to2emitter dv9dt injected noise and reduce turn2off losses as sho#n in Fig. 0.?.

Fig. 0.?; ffect of negative bias on turn off losses The value of the gate resistance has a significant impact on the dynamic performance of $%&Ts. ( smaller gate resistance charges and discharges the $%&T input capacitance faster reducing s#itching times and s#itching losses and improving immunity to dv9dt turn2on (Fig. 0.@". :o#ever, a small gate resistance can lead to oscillations bet#een the $%&T input capacitance and the parasitic lead inductance.

00

Figure 0.@; The $%&T s#itching losses as a function of gate resistance, <% The minimum pea/ current capability of the gate drive po#er supply and the average po#er re.uired are given by,

IG(pk)=
'avg G D% . H%. fs #here, DD% G D%
Ion

C JD%

Ioff

H% G total gate charge (per manufacturer. spec." fs G s#itching fre.uency

01

Figure 0.E; Total $%&T %ate Charge during s#itching $n many applications, the gate drive circuitry needs to be isolated from the control circuit to provide the level shifting and improve noise immunity. The isolation re.uirements can be met by using pulse gate transformers (Fig. 0.F" or optical isolation.

Figure 0.F; Typical &ipolar $%&T gate drive using gate pulse transformers

07

$n bipolar applications, separate turn2on and turn2off gate resistors are used to prevent cross conduction of an $%&T pair (Fig. 0.05". =ith opto2isolation, an isolated po#er supply is re.uired to provide the gate po#er to the $%&T.

Figure 0.05; Typical opto2isolation gate drive Gate dri(e +a,out Considerations 0. !inimi-e parasitic inductance bet#een the driver output stage and the $%&T (minimi-ing the loop area" 1. !inimi-e noise coupling via proper shielding techni.ues 7. *tili-e gate clamp protections (TDS" to minimi-e over voltage across gate terminals 4. *tili-e t#isted pairs, preferably shielded, for indirect connection bet#een the driver and the $%&T A. =ith 8'T8 coupling isolation, a minimum of 05,555 D9ms transient immunity must be provided (in hard s#itching applications"

04

Chapter 1.$ 1.$.1 asics o& !eparate-, E.cited DC /otor

!eparate-, E.cited DC /otor

Figure 0.00; Separately xcited DC !otor K Separately xcited DC motor has field and armature #inding #ith separate supply. K The field #indings of the dc motor are used to excite the field flux. K Current in armature circuit is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator segment for the mechanical #or/. K The rotor tor.ue is produced by interaction of field flux and armature current.

1.$.$ 0or1in# o& !eparate-, E.cited DC /otor


K =hen a separately excited dc motor is excited by a field current of if and an armature current of ia flo#s in the circuit, the motor develops a bac/ !F and a tor.ue to balance the load tor.ue at a particular speed. K The field current if is independent of the armature current ia. ach #inding is supplied separately. (ny change in the armature current has no effect on the field current. K The if is generally much less than the ia.

1.$.% 2ie-d and Ar*ature E)uation


$nstantaneous field current;

0A

=here <f and $f are the field resistor and inductor respectively. $nstantaneous armature current;

#here <a and )a are armature resistor and inductor respectively. The motor bac/ emf #hich is also /no#n as speed voltage is expressed as

,v is the motor voltage constant.

1.$.' asic Tor)ue E)uation

1.$.3 !tead, !tate Tor)ue and !peed

0?

1.$.4 5ariab-e !peed Operation

Figure 0.01; Tor.ue vs Speed Characteristics for different (rmature Doltage K Family of steady state tor.ue speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be dra#n as above. K The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage. K The speed variation from no load to full load (rated" can be .uite small. $t depends on the armature resistance.

0@

Figure 0.07; Typical operating <egion of Separately xcited DC !otor

0E

CHAPTER $ O 6ECTI5E

0F

Chapter $

Ob7ecti(e

8bjective of my #or/ during my dissertation is to design a dc motor #hose speed can be controlled up to desired level and armature current increase gradually at the starting of dc motor and becomes constant very soon.

$ have used t#o controlling methods3 one is current control and other one is speed control. For the current control mechanism armature current controlled algorithm of dc motor is used in my #or/. The output current is controlled by a proportional controller in the feedbac/ #hich is fed bac/ to $%&T to control the speed.

$%&T is a fast s#itching device used in medium po#er applications. Dc motor should gain the speed at once in the starting and later on /eeping that at constant level #hereas armature current should increase gradually ,so that motor doesnLt burn and then it decreases suddenly after motor gains highest speed and current decreases after that.

The tool used in my #or/ is !(T)(& simulin/ po#er toolbox.

15

CHAPTER % +ITERATURE !UR5E8

10

Chapter %

+iterature !ur(e,

Sarat ,umar Sahoo, (sh#in ,umar Sahoo and <a-ia Sultana in their paper M)abD$ = &ased Speed Control of DC !otor using !odulus :ugging (pproachN published in OEuropean Journal of Scientific Research in 2012 described the speed control of separately excited DC motors by P and P D controller is !idely used in industry" # desi$n of controller by applyin$ a se%eral method in analy&in$ controlled parameter to tune parameter in order to obtain the best process response" # desi$n of P and P D controller by 'odulus (u$$in$ #pproach are presented in this paper for testin$ the performance of controllers in command follo!in$ control and in disturbance re)ection control" *rom simulation results !ith +#,- E./ it !as found that the controller !as fast response and stable/ and the effect of disturbance is fast re)ected 011" (##ad (. , (bu2<ub :.,Toliyat :.(. used neural net#or/ algorithm for the speed control of ac motors. Trac/ing of the rotor speed is reali-ed by adjusting the ne# #eights of the net#or/ depending on the difference bet#een the actual speed and the commanded speed. The controller is adaptive and is based on a nonlinear autoregressive moving average (+(<!(2)1" algorithm. ( comparative study bet#een the proposed controllers and the conventional '$ one #ill be presented and the advantages of the proposed solution over the conventional one #ill be sho#n. The rotor speed trac/s the commanded one smoothly and rapidly, #ithout overshoot and #ith very negligible steady state error. Computer simulation results are carried out to prove the claims P1Q. The project devloped by +urula $--ati is focused on speed control of DC motor. The main objective is to design and develop %*$ soft#are for speed control experiment, #here '$D controllersL design approaches has been applied. The controllers have been designed and the system is simulated using !(T)(& to analy-e their initial performance. The computer is connected to DC !otor via data ac.uisition card (D(H Card" and Disual &asic is used to conduct the experiment. Field2testing is implemented to compare the results bet#een the original and modified system #ith the '$D controller. Finally, the performance of the system is analy-ed and validation is done in terms of time response, robustness and percentage of error P7Q. Theo B.(. de Dries, !ember, $ in 0FFE published in his paper about the design and reali-ation of an on2line learning motion controller for a linear motor is presented, and its usefulness is evaluated. The controller consists of t#o components; 0" a model based feedbac/ component and 1" a learning feed for#ard component. The feedbac/ component is designed on basis of a simple second order linear model, #hich is /no#n to have structural errors. $n the design, emphasis is placed on robustness. The learning feed for#ard component is a neural2net#or/2based controller, comprised of one hidden2 layer structure #ith second2order B2spline basis functions. Simulations and experimental evaluations sho# that, #ith little effort, a high2performance motion system can be obtained #ith this approach P4Q. 11

C.*. 8gbu/a published his paper in 155F describing the control strategies, transfer functions, and performance analysis of 8pen )oop Control, Closed )oop Speed Control, and $nner Current )oop Controlled Separately xcited DC !otor are presented both for steady state and dynamic responses. For the Closed )oop Speed Control, three controllers are used, namely; 'roportional, $ntegral, and 'roportional2$ntegral Controllers. $n the case of the $nner Current )oop Control, 'roportional and 'roportional2$ntegral Controllers are used for analysis. The results obtained sho# that the 8pen )oop Control gives a sluggish response #hich is improved in the Closed )oop Speed Control. The fastest response is obtained in the $nner Current )oop Control and this fast response and ease of control gives the DC !otor a competitive edge over the (C !otors PAQ. (bhari S. published paper named N 8ptimal control based feedbac/ lineari-ation for position control of DC motorN. This paper proposes the position control of DC motor. T#o methods are used for position control, )H< method and feedbac/ lineari-ation. =e sho# that these methods #ithout load tor.ue are stable, but, #hen load is added to the motor>s shaft, )H< and feedbac/ lineari-ation could not ma/e efficient input signal for reference trac/ing in output. To solve this problem, #e combined these methods and #ill sho# by using combined method, the position of shaft trac/s reference in presence of large tor.ue. For validation of ne# controller, #e compared response #ith )H< and feedbac/ lineari-ation. Simulation results sho# stable response of ne# method P?Q. Fei Rhang verified the s#itching speed of $%&T. (n insulated gate bipolar transistor #ith a novel buffer is proposed and verified by t#o2dimensional (1D" mixed device2circuit simulations. The structure of the proposed device is almost identical #ith that of the conventional $%&T, except for the buffer layer #hich is formed by employing a three2 step, gradually changing doping nC structure. Compared #ith the conventional $%&T, the proposed device exhibits better trade2off relation bet#een the conduction and s#itching losses. The turn2off time is halved from F.4 Ss of the conventional $%&T to 4.A Ss of the proposed device, so the operation speed of the proposed device is greatly improved. Further, the for#ard bloc/ing voltage is enormously increased from F5@ D of the proposed device to 01@E D of the proposed device, #hich is re.uired for high po#er operation P@Q. Thepsatorn '. in his paper presents implement in speed control of a separately excited DC motor using fu--y logic control (F)C" based on )abD$ = ()aboratory Dirtual $nstrument ngineering =or/bench" program. )abD$ =, is a graphical programming environment suited for high2level or system2level design. Therefore, the principle that are data flo# model, different from text2base programming and a se.uential model. The user2 friendly interface and toolbox design are sho#n the high level of suitableness and stability of )abD$ = and fu--y logic on speed control of DC motor. The fu--y logic controller designed to applies the re.uired control voltage that sent to DC motor based on fu--y rule base of motor speed error (e" and change of speed error (ce". The results sho# the control as a F)C that do the comparison #ith '$ and '$D controller PEQ.

17

Bong2&ae )ee , Tae2&in $m, :a2,yong Sung, Toung28u/ ,im published a paper named N ( lo# cost speed control system of brushless DC motor using fu--y logicN in 0FFF.This paper focuses on a lo#2cost speed control system using a fu--y logic controller for a brushless DC motor. $n digital control of a brushless DC motor, the control accuracy is of a high level, and it has a fast response time. =e used a :all $C signal for the permanent magnet rotor position and for the speed feedbac/ signals, and also for a microcontroller of E2bit type (E5C)AE5"3 furthermore, #e designed the fu--y logic controller and implemented the speed control system of the brushless DC motor. To ac.uire an accurate fu--y logic control algorithm, a simulation #ith the !(T)(& program has been made, #hile the performance of the system, found by an experiment for a unit step response, #as also verified PFQ. <obert &abuUs/a and Stefano Stramigioli demonstrated the use of !(T)(& and Simulin/ for modeling, analysis and control design #ith the help of t#o examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system. $t is assumed that the reader already has basic /no#ledge of !(T)(& and Simulin/. The main focus is on the use of the Control System Toolbox functions P05Q. $n $ transaction in 0FFF use of fu--y control is demonstrated. During the past several years, fu--y control has emerged as one of the most active and fruitful areas for research in the applications of fu--y set theory, especially in the realm of industrial processes, #hich do not lend themselves to control by conventional methods because of a lac/ of .uantitative data regarding the input2output relations. Fu--y control is based on fu--y logic2a logical system that is much closer in spirit to human thin/ing and natural language than traditional logical systems. The fu--y logic controller (F)C" based on fu--y logic provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on expert /no#ledge into an automatic control strategy. ( survey of the F)C is presented3 a general methodology for constructing an F)C and assessing its performance is described3 and problems that need further research are pointed out. $n particular, the exposition includes a discussion of fu--ification and defu--ification strategies, the derivation of the database and fu--y control rules, the definition of fu--y implication, and an analysis of fu--y reasoning mechanisms P00Q. '. ,. +andam, and '. C. Sen presented a comparative study of proportional2integral ('2$" and integral2proportional ($2'" control schemes for a dc drive. Darious characteristics, such as error signal processing and sensitivity to controller gains, of both the schemes are analysed. The response of both the controllers for a change in speed reference and load tor.ue is discussed. The current response during starting is also presented. $t is sho#n that the $2' scheme offers some distinctive advantages. xperimental and simulation results are also presented.( one .uadrant %T8 chopper is used as the po#er conditioning unit in the experimental set2up using a separately excited dc motor P01Q. C. Canudas de =it in 0FE4 surveyed the control of machines by friction. =hile considerable progress has been made in friction compensation, this is, apparently, the first survey on the topic. $n particular, it is the first to bring to the attention of the controls community the important contributions from the tribology, lubrication and physics 14

literatures. &y uniting these results #ith those of the controls community, a set of models and tools for friction compensation is provided #hich #ill be of value to both research and application engineers. The successful design and analysis of friction compensators depends heavily upon the .uality of the friction model used, and the suitability of the analysis techni.ue employed. Conse.uently, this survey first describes models of machine friction, follo#ed by a discussion of relevant analysis techni.ues and concludes #ith a survey of friction compensation methods reported in the literature. (n overvie# of techni.ues used by practising engineers and a bibliography of 1E5 papers is included P07Q. B.T. :ung and R. Ding described a method to design an improved motor excitation for three2phase brushless permanent magnet motors is presented. The uni.ue motor excitation reduces ripple in the developed tor.ue, reduces the effects of cogging or detent tor.ue, and is also a minimum average po#er excitation. 'ractical benefits are reduced vibration and acoustic noise in speed control applications, and improved accuracy in position control applications. First, an analysis of tor.ue ripple is presented using the exponential Fourier series in the tor.ue model. The analysis is simple, yet extends some #ell /no#n results by predicting the presence of additional harmonic components. +ext, the design of an optimal #eighting of stator current harmonics is cast as a type of constrained minimi-ation problem. $n contrast to iterative approaches that have been reported in the past, the ne# design method determines the current harmonic #eights in closed form. Steps in the design procedure are demonstrated using measured bac/ !F data from a 1 hp brushless DC motor P04Q. 'artina 'al2o%a presented a paper named 3 D.C. motor speed controlN in Electrical systems 4 control"$n this, a d.c. motor speed control is constructed, #here a variable voltage supply is used to feed the field #indings. Since the field circuit re.uires much less po#er than the armature, this scheme has the advantage that only a small and inexpensive variable voltage supply is re.uired. ( disadvantage is that a speed feedbac/ signal is re.uired in order to ma/e speed proportional to input field voltage P0AQ. 'anafeddin 5ama&o% and 6nur ,astur2 720108 presents the design of a fu--y control system to control the position of a DC motor. The motor #as modelled and converted to a subsystem in Simulin/. First, a crisp proportional2derivative ('D" controller #as designed and tuned using a Simulin/ bloc/ instead of conventional tuning methods such as hand2tuning or Riegler2+ichols fre.uency response method. Then a fu--y proportional2derivative (F'D" controller #as designed and system responses of F'Ds #ith different defu--ification methods #ere investigated. ( disturbance signal #as also applied to the input of the control system. F'D controller succeeded to reject the disturbance signal #ithout further tuning of the parameters #hereby crisp 'D controller failed P0?Q. 9he proportional:inte$ral 7P 8 control is the most used al$orithm to re$ulate the armature current and speed of cascade control system in motor dri%es" (o!e%er/ e%en !hen a tunin$ desi$n to satisfy some 1A

desired performance/ the output o%ershoot is of hi$her %alues " n this paper $brahim ,. (l2(bbas, <ateb $ssa told that P current controller is replaced by proportional:inte$ral:deri%ati%e 7P D8 controller to eliminate the o%ershoot in current loop and then the o%ershoot in speed loop" 'ethods of computin$ P D current controller parameters are deri%ed usin$ nternal 'odel Control as a function of motor parameters" 9he transfer function of o%erall closed loop current is used to determine P speed controller parameters" Simulation results sho! robustness of the proposed method to reference si$nal and disturbance si$nal %ariations 01;1" 9he speed control of separately excited DC 0SEDC1 motors by P and P D controller is !idely used in industry" n this paper/ <aju Singh, Dr.(.,.'andey proposed the desi$n of P speed controller usin$ modulus hu$$in$ approach for closed loop speed control of dc motor usin$ chopper is presented" 9hen the stability of o%erall transfer system of close loop system is analy&ed usin$ this approach" t is sho!n that ho! the system is made stable usin$ this approach< 9hen the stability is chec2ed by usin$ Routh:(ur!it& criteria 01=1" ,. <amesh, ,. (yyar, (. +irmal/umar, %. %urusamy published a paper on N Design of Current Controller for T#o Huadrant DC !otor Drive by *sing !odel 8rder <eduction Techni.ueNin 1505. n this paper/ desi$n of current controller for a t!o >uadrant DC motor dri%e !as proposed !ith the help of model order reduction techni>ue" 9he calculation of current controller $ain !ith some approximations in the con%entional desi$n process is replaced by proposed model order reduction method" 9he model order reduction techni>ue proposed in this paper $i%es the better controller $ain %alue for the DC motor dri%e" 9he proposed model order reduction method is a mixed method/ !here the numerator polynomial of reduced order model is obtained by usin$ stability e>uation method and the denominator polynomial is obtained by usin$ some approximation techni>ue preceded in this paper" 9he desi$ned controllers responses !ere simulated !ith the help of '#9+#, to sho! the %alidity of the proposed method 01?1" #ccordin$ to Fatma %*<&*R in @Stability (nalysis of a Closed2)oop speed Control for a 'ulse =idth !odulated DC !otor Drive/ the effect of the %ariation of amplitude and the choppin$ period of a P.' si$nal on the stability of a closed:loop control for a DC motor dri%e is in%esti$ated" *irst/ the entire system is formulated as a +inear Auadratic 7+A8 trac2er !ith output feedbac2" 9hen/ stability analysis for the %aryin$ amplitude and the %aryin$ choppin$ period is carried out by the methods of root locus and the Jury test" *inally/ stability limits obtained from a root locus and Jury test are chec2ed by the simulation of the system in '#9+#, 0201" 1?

(ta S D$+C, an adapti%e obser%er estimatin$ all parameters and load tor>ue is proposed for DC ser%o motors" 9he obser%er uses no direct feedbac2 but the adaptation schemes use current and speed measurements" ,oth the obser%er and adaptations are simple to implement for real:time applications" Simulation results are satisfactory for the full adapti%e obser%er" f the obser%er !or2s in parallel !ith only load tor>ue and armature resistance adaptations/ the results are %ery $ood e%en if %ery lo!:>uality sensors are used" n this simulation/ only a sin$le hall sensor is used as a rotational transducer/ !hich produces a sin$le pulse per re%olution/ and %ery hi$h le%el noise and disturbance are added in order to pro%ide a more realistic simulation 0211"
&ose &.,. published a paper on O'o#er electronics and motor drives recent technology advancesL in proceedings of the $ $nternational Symposium on $ndustrial lectronics, $ . The aim of this paper is to introduce students to the modelling of brushed dc motor and to use computer simulation as a tool for conducting transient and control studies. Simulation can be very helpful in gaining insights to the dynamic behaviour and interactions that are often not readily apparent from reading theory. +ext to having an actual system to experiment on, simulation is often chosen by engineers to study transient and control performance or to test conceptual designs. 'resently, there are many control la#s available to control the brushed dc motor. The control la# of angular velocity depends on the motor parameters. The motor parameters are time varying, especially load tor.ue, hence adaptive control is one of the best control la#. $n standard adaptive control, instability may be occured in the presence of un modelled dynamics. <obust adaptive control is designed so the stability can be guaranteed 0221.

1@

CHAPTER ' PRO +E/ 2OR/U+ATION

1E

Chapter '_

Prob-e* 2or*u-ation

The greatest advantage of DC motors may be speed control. Since speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to the magnetic flux produced by the poles, adjusting the armature voltage and9or the field current #ill change the rotor speed. The problem encounter #hen dealing #ith DC motor is the lag of efficiency and losses. $t is re.uired that once DC motor is set to at a particular speed then it shouldnLt change it speed because of external parameters. $n order to eliminate this problem, controller is introduced to the system. There are so many types of controller available to control the current in the motor li/e proportional control, integral control, derivative control, '$D controller. So there is problem of selecting suitable controller in feedbac/ loop. To understand the errors introduced in DC motor #hile controlling speed, basic model of speed control #ill be studied first.

'.1 asic /ode- o& DC /otor


The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC motor can be varied by controlling armature voltage for speed belo# and up to rated speed /eeping field voltage constant. The output speed is compared #ith the reference speed and error signal is fed to speed controller. Controller output #ill vary #henever there is a difference in the reference speed and the speed feedbac/. The output of the speed controller is the control 1F

voltage

c that controls the operation duty cycle of (here the converter used is a IG T"

converter. The converter output give the re.uired Da re.uired to bring motor bac/ to the desired speed. The <eference speed is provided through a potential divider because the voltage from potential divider is linearly related to the speed of the DC motor. The output speed of motor is measured by Tacho2generator and since Tacho voltage #ill not be perfectly dc and #ill have some ripple. So, #e re.uire a filter #ith a gain to bring Tacho output bac/ to controller level. The basic bloc/ diagram for DC motor speed control is sho# belo#;

Figure 4.0; Closed )oop System !odel for Speed Control of DC !otor The separately excited dc motor is sho#n as

Figure 4.1; Separately xcited DC motor The armature e.uation is sho#n belo#; Da G gC $a<aC )a (d$a9dt" The description for the notations used is given belo#; 0. Da is the armature voltage in volts. 1. g is the motor bac/ emf in volts. 7. $a is the armature current in amperes. 4. <a is the armature resistance in ohms. 75

A. )a is the armature inductance in :enry. +o# the tor.ue e.uation #ill be given by; Td G BdV9dt C&VCT) =here; 0. T) is load tor.ue in +m. 1. Td is the tor.ue developed in +m. 7. B is moment of inertia in /g9mW. 4. & is friction coefficient of the motor. A. V is angular velocity in rad9sec. (ssuming absence (negligible" of friction in rotor of motor, it #ill yield; &G5 Therefore, ne# tor.ue e.uation #ill be given by; Td G BdV9dt C T) 222222222 (i" Ta/ing field flux as X and (&ac/ !F Constant" ,v as ,. .uation for bac/ emf of motor #ill be; g G , X V 222222222 (ii" (lso, Td G , X $a 222222222 (iii" From motorLs basic armature e.uation, after ta/ing )aplace Transform on both sides, #e #ill get; $a(S" G (Da Y g"9(<a C )aS" +o#, ta/ing e.uation (ii" into consideration, #e have; GZ $a(s" G (Da Y ,XV"9 <a(0C )aS9<a " (nd, V(s" G (Td 2 T) "9BS G (,X$a 2 T) " 9BS (lso, The armature time constant #ill be given by; ((rmature Time Constant" Ta G )a9<a

70

Figure 4.7; !odel of Separately xcited DC !otor (fter simplifying the above motor model, the overall transfer function #ill be as given belo#; V (s" 9 Da(s" G P,X 9<aQ 9BS(0CTaS" 9P 0 C(,WXW 9<a" 9BS(0CTaS"Q Further simplifying the above transfer function #ill yield; V(s" 9Da(s" G (0 9/X" 9[ 0 C(/WXW 9<a" 9BS(0CTaS"\ 2222222222222222 (iv" (ssuming, Tm G B<a 9 (/X" W as electromechanical time constant P0Q. Then the above transfer function can be #ritten as belo#; V(s"9Da(s" G (09/X"9 PSTm (0CSTa"C0Q 22222222(v" )et us assume that during starting of motor, load tor.ue T) G 5 and applying full voltage Da (lso assuming negligible armature inductance, the basic armature e.uation can be #ritten as; Da G ,XV(t" C $a<a (t the same time Tor.ue e.uation #ill be; Td G BdV9dt G ,X$a 22222 (vi" 'utting the value of $a in above armature e.uation; DaG,XV(t"C(BdV9dt"<a9 ,X Dividing on both sides by ,X, Da9,XGV(t"CB<a(dV9dt"9(,X"W 222222222222222222222222(vii" Da9,X is the value of motor speed under no load condition. Therefore, V(no load"GV(t"CB<a(dV9dt"9(,X"W G V (t" C Tm (dV9dt" =here, ,X G ,m(say" (nd, TmGB<a9(,X"WGB<a9(,m"W 71

Therefore, B G Tm (,m" W9 <a 222222222 (viii" From motor tor.ue e.uation, #e have; V(s" G ,m$a(s"9BS 2 T)9BS 22222222 (ix" From e.uation (viii" and (ix", #e have;

+o#, <eplacing ,X by ,m in e.uation (v", #e #ill get; V(s"9Da(s"G(09,m" 9 (0CSTmCSWTaTm" 222222222222 (x" Since, the armature time constant Ta is much less than the electromechanical time constant Tm, (Ta ]] Tm" Simplifying, 0 C STm C SWTaTm ^ 0 C S (TaCTm" C SWTaTm G (0 C STm"(0 C STa" The largest time constant #ill play main role in delaying the system #hen the transfer function is in time constant form. To compensate that delay due to largest time constant #e can use '$ controller as speed controller. $t is because the -ero of the '$ controller can be chosen in such a #ay that this large delay can be cancelled. $n Control system term a time delay generally corresponds to a lag and -ero means a lead, so the '$ controller #ill try to compensate the #hole system . :ence, the e.uation can be #ritten as; V(s"9Da(s" G (09,m"9((0 C STm"(0 C STa"" 22222(xi" Tm and Ta are the time constants of the above system transfer function #hich #ill determine the response of the system. :ence the dc motor can be replaced by the transfer function obtained in e.uation (xi" in the DC drive model sho#n earlier.

'.$ Decidin# the T,pe O& current Contro--er


The control action can be imagined at first sight as something simple li/e if the error speed is negative, then multiply it by some scale factor generally /no#n as gain and set the output drive to the desired level. &ut this approach is only partially successful due to the follo#ing reason; if the motor is at the set2point speed under no load there is no error speed so the motor free runs. $f a load is applied, the motor slo#s do#n and a positive error speed is 77

observed. Then the output increases by a proportional amount to try and restore the desired speed. :o#ever, #hen the motor speed recovers, the error reduces drastically and so does the drive level. The result is that the motor speed #ill stabili-e at a speed belo# the set2point speed at #hich the load is balanced by the product of error speed and the gain. This basic techni.ue discussed above is /no#n as _proportiona- contro-_ and it has limited use as it can never force the motor to run exactly at the set2point speed.

'.$.1 I*portance o& Current Contro--er


=hen the machine is made to run from -ero speed to a high speed then motor has to go to specified speed. &ut due to electromechanical time constant motor #ill ta/e some time to speed up. &ut the speed controller used for controlling speed acts very fast. Speed feedbac/ is -ero initially. So this #ill result in full controller output c and hence converter #ill give maximum voltage. So a very large current flo# at starting time because bac/ mf is -ero at that time #hich sometime exceeds the motor maximum current limit and can damage the motor #indings. :ence there is a need to control current in motor armature. To solve the above problem #e can employ a current controller #hich #ill ta/e care of motor rated current limit. The applied voltage Da #ill no# not dependent on the speed error only but also on the current error. =e should ensure that Da is applied in such a #ay that machine during positive and negative tor.ue, does not dra# more than the rated current. So, an inner current loop hence current controller is re.uired.

74

CHAPTER 3 PROPO!ED 0OR:

7A

Chapter 3

Proposed 0or1 and I*p-e*entation

$n my #or/ armature controlled algorithm is used to control the speed of DC motor. To control the speed of DC motor the current is feedbac/ #ith proportional feedbac/ algorithm. The difference bet#een the reference current and feedbac/ current is error and that is given further to speed control devices. $n our #or/ $%&T is selected as the speed controlling device because it is having properties of !8S input gate, high s#itching speed, lo# conduction voltage drop, high current carrying capability, and a high degree of robustness. The designing of speed control controller in our #or/ can be modelled as;

Figure A.0; &loc/ !odel of Speed Control Design +o#, converting the bloc/ model in transfer function, #e #ill get; 7?

;<s=9;<s=<re&.=> <:n9:$=<Ra9:*T*Tn=<1?Tn!9<1?$T$!=!@=9A1?<:nRa9:$:*T*Tn= <1?Tn!9<1?$T$!=!@=<:19<1?T1!==B 22222222 (xviii" :ere, #e have the option to Tn such that it cancels the largest time constant of the transfer function. So,

:ence, e.uation 222 (xviii" #ill be #ritten as; ;<s=9;<s=<re&.=><:nRa9:$:*T*Tn= <1?T1!=9A:$:*Tn!$<1?T1!=?:nRa:1B $deally, V(s" G09S (SWC`sCa" The damping constant is -ero in above transfer function because of absence of S term, #hich results in oscillatory and unstable system. To optimi-e this #e must get transfer function #hose gain is close to unity.

7@

3.1 Simulink Model In our "or1 /at-ab !i*u-in1 *ode-Cs !i*po"er s,ste* is pri*ari-, used. Figure 6.1 shows the armature controlled DC motor. By varying torque and moment of inertia s!eed of DC motor is controlled.

FigureA.1; &loc/ diagram representing input and output parameters of DC motor


73.24 Display Discre te , T s = 1e -005 s. powe rgui w 4 TL
J TL w ia Te A+ A-

0.05 J

ia

Dio!e

DC Motor

Te

DC Source Series RLC Branch

I BT
E 100 omega ref 2 Gain Relay omega,omega ref 73.24 Display1

Figure A.7; DC motor #ith Current Control and Speed Control using $%&T 7E

Figure A.7 sho#s that $%&T is attached in the armature #indings. The gate of armature is operated by the relay output, #hich provides a saturated output voltage. ( feedbac/ loop using proportional controller is used to correct the deflection in output #ith reference input voltage. $n designing dc motor all limiting parameters of motor are /ept in mind. The model of motor is further made visible by opening DC motor in figure A.7. This DC motor model is sho#n in figure A.4.

i# " #i $ -

C ontro%%e! &o%tage Source


$ s -

Series RLC Branch

1 #$
36.62

TL 1

TL Ka

f cem

Display
Te w

J 2

3 Te 1 w 2 ia

Subsystem

71.06 Display1

FigureA.4 DC !otor Further by opening the dc motor subsystem0 coloumb and viscous friction of dc motor comes in functioning as sho#n in figure A.A.

7F

73.24 3 J 1 TL 2 Ka Product Add Divide Product1 Te Display2 Integrator 1 s w 1 fcem Display3 0.5629 Display5 Scope1 36.62

0.5 Ke Te 2

Coulomb(Tf) & Viscous(Bm*w) Friction

w 3 30.97 Display 11.26 Display4

35.53 Display1

Figure A.A; Dc motor Subsystem1 $n figure ?.1 a po#er gui bloc/ is used. That bloc/ provides the environment for the simulation of po#er electronics components.

45

CHAPTER 4 RE!U+T! AND DI!CU!!ION

40

Chapter 4
respresenting and comparing them is as;

Resu-ts D Discussion

<esults for different gain, moment of inertia and coefficirnt of friction is sho#n. The table

Table0; <epresenting different parameters of DC motor #hich affect the speed of DC motor 0 1 7 4 A ? @ E F ,e T) B < ) Coulomb Friction Dalue Coeff. 8f friction %ain (mplitude of DC Speed 5.A 4 E.E3 5.A 5.50 5.0 E.'$13 $ F%.$' 2i#ure 4.1 5.A 4 E.1 5.A 5.50 5.0 E.'13 %.3 G$.%$ 2i#ure 4.% 5.A @.0 E.$$ 5.A 5.50 5.0 E.'13 11 G1.FF 2i#ure 4.3 5.A ?.F E.$$ 5.A 5.50 5.0 E.'13 1' GF.%% 2i#ure 4.F

:ere figure ?.0 represents the graph bet#een the refrence speed and DC motor speed. <efrence speed is cosidered to be 055 rpm. (s is clear from the figure the speed of dc motor is @4 rpm #hereas it should match the refrence speed. (s the value of gain is increased /eeping viscous frictional force of motor constant and a little bit change in moment of inertia of motor , a more gradual increase in motor speed is obtained along #ith highest speed of motor almost /issing the refrence speed. !otor speed is being constant after some seconds of starting of motor that proves speed of motor is constant no# irrespective of any chnages. This is the speed control of motor. Figure ?.1 represents the armature current graph. $t depicts that armature current suddenly increases at the start but soon it becomes constant. &ut figure ?.4 and ?.? of amrature current sho#s that as the moment of inertia and viscous friction of motor is changed, the sudden rise of armature current becomes smoother and constant after that. This is the re.uired condition of armature current that first it should gradually gain the highest speed then after motor has gained its constatnt speed then armatture current should also decrease and remain constant thereafter.

41

Figure ?.0; %raph bet#een DC motor speed b reference speed

47

Figure ?.1; %raph Sho#ing Dariation in (rmature Current $nitially the moment of inertia and gain of motor is /ept at lo# value then iot has been found that the amlitude of DC speed reaches upto @7.14 #hile refernce speed #as 055 rpm. So results are not satisfactory. !oreover the speed is not constant even aftre a certain time. $t is re.uired in DC motor once re.uired speed is reached, it should remain constant. (bove graphs ?.1 and ?.7 depicts these results.

44

Figure ?.7; %raph bet#een Dc motor speed and reference speed

Figure ?.4; %raph sho#ing (rmature Current 4A

Figure ?.7 and ?.4 sho#s the results #hen moment of inertia of motor and gain of controller is changed to get the desired results. Still the magnitude of DC motor speed is F1.71 rpm. $n control system theory it has been mentioned that the speed of DC motor can reach up to maximum FE rpm, not exactly 055 rpm. So modification as per re.uirement is done in figure ?.A and ?.?.

Figure ?.A; %raph bet#een Dc motor speed and reference speed

4?

Figure ?.?; %raph sho#ing (rmature Current The graph in figure ?.A sho#s that the magnitude of DC motor speed is F0.@@. For this the gain has been increased /eeping coefficient of friction constant and moment of inertia 5.11. Still changes in parameters are re.uired. =hile the armature current in figure ?.? satisfies the re.uired condition that first it should increase suddenly then decrease and then constant armature current.

4@

Figure ?.@; %raph bet#een Dc motor speed and reference speed

Figure ?.E; %raph sho#ing (rmature Current 4E

To reach up to reference speed gain is increased more upto 04. The DC speed reaches to F@.77 #hich is approximately the desired value. From table 0 it is cleared that the moment of inertia causes the constant speed in DC motor. (s it is increased more early motor #ill gain its constant speed. Figure ?.@ sho#s that it ta/es time to reach upto maximum value. This is because of tor.ue present in motor. &ecause of this a high armature current doesnLt burn the motor.

4F

Chapter H

2uture "or1

!(T)(& simulation for speed control of separately excited DC motor has been done #hich can be implemented in hard#are to observe actual feasibility of the approach applied in this thesis. This techni.ue can be extended to other types of motors. $n this thesis, #e have done speed control for rated and belo# rated speed. So the control for above the rated speed can be achieved by controlling field flux. The problem of overshoot can be removed using a +eural +et#or/ and Fu--y approach. The current in the feedbac/ can be controlled by proportional controller, integral controller, derivative controller, '$D controller. =hereas speed can be varied using $%&T, fu--y sets, neurology, or any algorithm different from these can be generated. *sing different combination of current controls and speed varying methods and by comparing them best suitable method can also be found.

A5

RE2ERENCE!

A0

P0Q.Sarat ,umar Sahoo, (sh#in ,umar Sahoo, <a-ia Sultana,N )abD$ = &ased Speed Control of DC !otor using !odulus :ugging (pproachN European Journal of Scientific Research SS5 1BC0:21DE -ol"D= 5o"F 720128/ pp" FD;: F;D P1Q.(##ad (. , (bu2<ub :.,Toliyat :.(. ,' +onlinear autoregressive moving average (+(<!(2)1" controller for advanced ac motor control' $ndustrial lectronics 155E. $ C8+ 155E. P7Q.+urul $--ati &inti 'anda/ Babo,N Speed Control 8f DC !otor *sing '$D Controller $mplementation =ith D$S*() &(S$CN +ovember, 155E P4Q.%erco 8tten, Theo B.(. de Dries, !ember, $ , Bob van (merongen, !ember, $ ,N )inear !otor !otion Control *sing a )earning Feedfor#ard ControllerN $ 9(S! T<(+S(CT$8+S 8+ ! C:(T<8+$CS, D8). 1, +8. 7, S 'T !& < 0FF@ PAQ.C.*. 8gbu/a,N'erformance Characteristics of Controlled Separately xcited DC !otorN The 'acific Bournal of Science and Technology Dolume 05. +umber 0. !ay 155F (Spring" P?Q.!oradi !. ,(hmadi, (., (bhari S. ,N 8ptimal control based feedbac/ lineari-ation for position control of DC motorN (dvanced Computer Control ($C(CC", 1505 1nd $nternational Conference P@Q.Fei Rhang, )ina Shi, =en Tu, Chengfang )i, ciao#ei Sun,N +ovel buffer engineering; ( concept for fast s#itching and lo# loss operation of planar $%&TN PEQ.Thepsatorn '. , +umsomran (., Tipsu#anporn D., Teanthong, T,N DC !otor Speed Control using Fu--y )ogic based on )abD$ =N S$C 2$C(S , 155?. $nternational Boint Conference PFQ.Bong2&ae )ee , Tae2&in $m, :a2,yong Sung, Toung28u/ ,im ,N ( lo# cost speed control system of brushless DC motor using fu--y logicN $nformation, Decision and Control, 0FFF. $DC FF. 'roceedings. 0FFF P05Q. <obert &abuUs/a and Stefano Stramigioli,N !atlab and Simulin/ for !odeling and ControlN +ovember 0FFF P00Q. $ T<(+S(CT$8+S 8+ STST !S, !(+. (+$" CLT:T.<+T.T$ (S D8$. 15, +8. 1. !(< ($9('<$$. 0FF5". P01Q. '. ,. +andam, and '. C. Sen, M( comparative study of proportional2integral ('2$" and integral2proportional ($2'" controllers for dc motor drives,N $nt. Bour. of Control, vol. 44, pp. 1E721F@, 0FE?. P07Q. &. (rmstrongY:dlouvry, '. Dupont and C. Canudas de =it, M( survey of !odels, (nalysis Tools and Compensation !ethods for the control of !achines #ith FrictionN, Automatica, vol. 75, no. @, pp. 05E72007E, 0FF4. P04Q. B.T. :ung and R. Ding, MDesign of currents to reduce tor.ue ripple in brushless permanent magnet motorsN, Proc.Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 045, pt. &, no. 4, pp. 1?5Y 1??, Buly 0FF7. P0AQ. 'artina 'al2o%a/3 D.C. motor speed controlN Electrical systems 4 control 11"C"200D 01D1"'anafeddin 5ama&o% and 6nur ,astur2 720108 DC motor position control usin$ fu&&y proportional:deri%ati%e controllers !ith different defu&&ification methods #n 6fficial Journal of 9ur2ish *u&&y Systems #ssociation -ol"1/ 5o"1/ pa$es FD:CB/ 2010 A1

P0@Q. $brahim ,. (l2(bbas, <ateb $ssa,N 8vershoot limination in Cascade Control of Separately xcited DC !otorsN uropean Bournal of Scientific <esearch $SS+ 04A5210?c Dol.EA +o.0 (1501", pp.FE2054 P0EQ. <aju Singh0, Dr.(.,.'andey1,NStability (nalysis of Closed )oop Speed Control of S DC !otor *sing <outh :ur#it- CriteriaN %BC(T, Dol 1 (0", 1501, F1?2F1E $SS+; 114F20F4A P0FQ. ,. <amesh, ,. (yyar, (. +irmal/umar, %. %urusamy,N Design of Current Controller for T#o Huadrant DC !otor Drive by *sing !odel 8rder <eduction Techni.ueN, $BCS$S, Dol. @, +o. 0, pp. 0@214, Banuary 1505, *S( P15Q. Fatma %*<&*R, yup (,'$+(<, eStability (nalysis of a Closed2)oop speed Control for a 'ulse =idth !odulated DC !otor Drive Tur/ B lec ngin, D8).05 +o.7 1551. P10Q. (ta S D$+C,N ( Full (daptive 8bserver for DC Servo !otorsN, Tur/ B lec ngin, D8).00, +8.1 1557, c Tf*&I$T(, P11Q. &ose &.,., 'o#er electronics and motor drives recent technology advances, 'roceedings of the $ $nternational Symposium on $ndustrial lectronics, $ , 1551, pp 1121A. P17Q. Sabat (n#ari,N <obust !odel <eference (daptive Control of (ngular Delocity Control Simulation of &rushed DC !otorN Burnal Te/ni/ le/tro Dol. ?, +o. 0, !aret 155?; 75 2 7?

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