Key term

Birth rate Death rate Infant mortality rate Total fertility rate Life expectancy Natural increase Migration Population pyramid (age-sex pyramid) LEDC MEDC Demographic transition model (DTM) Family planning Ageing population Youthful population Dependent population Population explosion Over populated Under populated Optimum population

POPULATION CHANGE Definition

Key term
Rural-urban migration Urban growth Urbanisation Rural depopulation Millionaire city Mega-city Pull factor Push factor Land degradation Drought Informal sector of work Shanty town / favela Self-help scheme NGO The Green Revolution

RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION Definition

Key term
CBD

CHANGING CITY AND TOWN CENTRES Definition

Decentralisation Retailing Zone of retreat / zone of decay Deprivation Retail parks LDDC Gentrification Suburbs Pedestrianised Accessibility Sphere of influence Residential area Urban renewal Renovation

PRESSURE AT THE RURAL-URBAN FRINGE Key term Definition
Rural-urban fringe Brownfield site Greenfield site Commuter Science park Trading estate High-tech industry Footloose industry Suburbanisation Green belt New town Commuter village Conurbation Counterurbanisation Suburbanised village Zone of transition

Key term
Tectonic plates

LIVING WITH TECTONIC HAZARDS Definition

Destructive plate boundary/margin Collision zone Subduction zone Mantle Constructive plate boundary / margin Conservative plate boundary / margin Tremor Richter scale Mercalli scale Primary effects Secondary effects Lava Magma Hot spot Pacific ring of fire Geothermal energy Focus

Epicentre Seismograph

Key term
Climate Precipitation Weather Synoptic chart Depression (low pressure system) Occluded front Warm front Cold front Isobar Anticyclone Tropical storm Hurricane / cyclone / typhoon Storm surge Hydrological (water) cycle Porous rock Permeable rock Impermeable rock Levee

WEATHER HAZARDS Definition

Transpiration

Key term
Poverty Overgrazing Soil degradation Appropriate technology Soil erosion Malnutrition Subsistence farming Negative food loop (p135 in Issues and E.) Desertification Sahel Climate change Overcultivation Deforestation Sanitation Cholera Genetic engineering /genetic modification Intensive farming

WATER AND FOOD SUPPLY Definition

Agriculture

PRESSURES ON THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Key term Definition
National Park Physical weathering Chemical weathering Biological weathering Erosion Glacier Pyramidal peak Corrie Glacial trough / Ushaped valley Arete Moraine Honeypot site Cultural impacts of tourism Environmental impacts of tourism Economic impacts of tourism E.g… Seasonal employment Low-cost, unskilled jobs Positive impacts of tourism

E.g… Negative impacts of tourism E.g… Management of tourism Ecotourism Sustainable tourism Tourism Infrastructure Recreational activities

CONTRASTING LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT Key term Definition
Gross National Product (GNP) per capita Adult literacy rate NIC Employment structure Primary industry Secondary industry Tertiary industry Human development index (HDI) Census Standard of living Refugees Indicators of development Aid Bilateral aid Multilateral aid Long term aid

Heavy industry Quality of life Mortality

Key term
Resource Renewable Non-renewable A reserve Fossil fuel HEP Recycle Landfill site

RESOURCE DEPLETION Definition

Key term

MANAGING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Definition

TNC / multinational company Acid rain Global warming Ozone depletion CFCs Greenhouse gases Appropriate technology Sustainable development Pressure group Kyoto Protocol Interdependence Coral bleaching

Key term
Tourism Recreation Ecotourism Sustainable tourism ‘Green tourism’

TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT Definition

Regional development Wildlife tourism

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