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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review

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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Unit 9: StoichiometryPractice

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CHEMISTRY 1 HONORS Date________ Per______ SECOND SEMESTER EXAM RE IE!

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1.

Differentiate between the significance of the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation and the significance of the subscripts in a chemical formula. Coefficients show the correct proportions of atoms and molecules in a chemical reaction. They are normal sized numbers placed at the beginning of the chemical formulas in a chemical reaction during the process of balancing. They tell how many of an entire chemical formula is in a reaction.

Subscripts show the correct proportions of atoms/ions in a chemical formula. They are the small numbers within the chemical formula. They tell how many individual atoms/ions are present.

2.

State the Law of Conservation of Mass and explain its relationship to stoichiometry. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that Matter can neither be created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. chemicals. This law is dictates the necessity for balancing a chemical e!uation with coefficients" if we didn#t balance e!uations$ we would be created and/or destroying

3.

mole mole problem! "ne disadvantage of burning propane #C$%&' is that carbon dioxide is one of the products. (he released C") increases the growing concentration of C") in the atmosphere. %ow many moles of carbon dioxide are produced when *+.+ moles of propane are burned in excess oxygen on a gas grill,

n = 30.0 mol CO2 C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O 4.

mole-mass problem: -ater decomposes to produce hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. %ow many grams of water would be required to produce *+.+ moles of hydrogen gas,

m = 180. g H2O or 1.80 x 102 g H2O 2H2O 2H2 + O2


MM
HO
2

= 18.015 g/mol

5.

mass-mole problem: .f )/.+ grams of carbon dioxide are used in photosynthesis how many moles of glucose #C0%*)"0' could be

n = 0.0947 mol C6H12O6


Produced according to the following equation! 0C") 1 0%)" C0%*)"0 1 0")

MM 2 = 44.009 g/mol CO
Page 3 Revised 2/10/2014

CHEMISTRY 1 HONORS Date________ Per______ SECOND SEMESTER EXAM RE IE!

Name___________________________

6.

mass mass problem! "ne series of reactions that inflates air bags in automobiles is the decomposition of sodium a2ide #3a3$'. Determine the amount of 3) produced if *++.+ g of 3a3$ is decomposed using the following unbalanced equation!

m = 64.64 g N2
2NaN3 MM MM
NaN
2 3

2Na

3N2

= 65.011 g/mol

= 28.014 g/mol

7.

limiting reactant problem! 3itrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to produce ammonia! 4443) 1 444%) 4443%$ 5not balanced %f &''.' g of nitrogen gas reacts with ('.' g of hydrogen gas what mass of ammonia will be produced)

N2
N

3H2

2NH3 MM
H
2

MM 2 = 28.014 g/mol

= 2.016 g/mol

MM

NH

= 17.031 g/mol

Page 4 Revised 2/10/2014

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

Name__________________________

LIMI IN! "#$C $N = H2 %&'a()& a*+&r 113 g NH3 ,) -ro.('&./ H2 r(n) o(+ #0C#11 "#$C $N = N2 %&'a()& ,+ 'o(l. 2a3& ma.& 122 g NH3 ,* H2 2a.n4+ r(n o(+ *,r)+. H#O"# IC$L 5I#L6 = 113 gram) o* ammon,a

8.

Mass to mass and Percent Yield problem! .ron reacts with oxygen to form .ron #...' oxide.

67e 1 $") )7e)"$.

a.7 285.9 g 8&2O3

a) b) a.)

.f )++.+ g of iron reacts8 what is the theoretical yield of iron #...' oxide, .f the actual yield is )+/.6 g8 what is the percent yield of the reaction,

MM *e(+, - &./.0/& g/mol

%.7 71.84 9

b.)

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

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Unit 10: States of Matter Practice! Place a chec9 in the box if the description applies to solids8 liquids and:or gases. ;ach characteristic may apply to *8 ) or all $ states! Solids Liquids <ase s %ighly compressible 1es 7luid 1es 1es (a9es the shape of its container 1es 1es 7ills the volume of its container 1es Particles are far apart from one another 1es Molecules are moving 1es 1es 1es

1.

2.

7ill in the chart below! #a thru f' a. Sublimation

Solids Liquids Gases


b. 2vaporate/3oil d. Condense f. 4eposition c. Melt e. *reeze

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

-hich of the above #a thru f' are exothermic, 4$ 2$ * -hich of the above #a thru f' are endothermic, 5$ 3$ C -ater boils when the atmospheric pressure is equal to the vapor pressure. %ow are temperature and the 9inetic energy of molecules related, Temperature is a measure of

the average 6inetic energy of a substance. -hat is plasma,

7lasma has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. 7lasma is often seen within ionized gases. 7lasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses uni!ue properties8

o o

%t contains free electrical charges 9not bound to atoms or ions: %t can be produced by heating and ionizing a gas.

7lasma is often found in areas of the planet/universe where e;tremely high heats are possible and gases e;ist to help create the plasma. 8. Put hydrogen bonds8 dispersion forces and dipole dipole forces in order of how strong they are and give an example of each type of attraction.

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

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Strongest - <ydrogen bonds which have hydrogen attached to a fluorine$ o;ygen$ or nitrogen 92;ample8 +;ygen#s attraction to other hydrogens in a bunch of < (+#s: Medium Strength - 4ipole=4ipole bonds which occur between the slight positive end of one polar molecule and the slight negative end of another polar molecule 92;ample8 >itrogen#s attraction to other hydrogens in a bunch of >< ,#s: ?ea6est - 4ispersion forces which occur in any covalently bonded molecule 92;ample8 <ydrogen#s attraction to other hydrogens in a bunch of C< @#s: >ote &8 These are intermolecular forces of attraction so they occur +ATS%42 of the moleculesB >otes (8 +ne covalent bond can be all three types at once.

9.

-hy do polar compounds tend to have higher melting boiling points than nonpolar compounds, 7olar compounds have electrostatic attractions holding their molecules together whereas nonpolar compounds have wea6er intermolecular forces holding them together. ?ith stronger forces holding the molecules together$ it ta6es more energy to brea6 those forces and produce a li!uid 9when melting: or a gas 9when boiling:" therefore$ higher melting and boiling points.

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Unit 11: Gases

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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Practice!

Name__________________________

1. 2.

List the five main assumptions of the 9inetic molecular theory. Spacing and particle si2e The v"#$me "% a &as 'arti(#e is sma## ("m'are) t" the v"#$me "% the em'ty s'a(e* =ttraction:repulsion There are i+si&+i%i(a+t attra(tive "r re'$#sive %"r(es am"+& ,-etwee+. &as 'arti(#es* Movement /as 'arti(#es are i+ ("+sta+t0 ra+)"m m"ti"+* Collision type C"##isi"+s i+ &ases are e#asti( whi(h mea+s there is +" #"ss "% e+er&y )$ri+& the ("##isi"+* (emperature The avera&e 1i+eti( e+er&y "% a ("##e(ti"+ "% &as 'arti(#es )e'e+)s "+ the tem'erat$re "% the &as a+) +"thi+& e#se -hat causes the pressure of a gas inside of a container, /as 'ress$re is the res$#t "% the ("##isi"+s "% &as m"#e($#es with a s$r%a(e* I+ the (ase "% a (#"se) ("+tai+er0 that s$r%a(e is the wa##s "% the ("+tai+er* There are three ma2"r varia-#es whi(h )etermi+e the am"$+t "% 'ress$re a &as wi## exert i+ a (#"se) ("+tai+er3 the si4e "% the ("+tai+er0 the tem'erat$re "% the &as0 a+) the am"$+t "% &as i+ the ("+tai+er* -hat is the combined gas law, -hat are Standard (emperature and Pressure, 0 oC + 273 = 273 K (Standard em!erat"re#$ 1 atm (Standard Press"re#

3. 4. 5. 6.

.f the temperature of a weather balloon is increased how does the volume of the balloon change, %n&reases Combined gas law: A gas at 110 kPa and 30.0 oC fills a flexible container wit an initial !ol"me of #.00 $. %f t e temperat"re is raised to &0.0 oC and t e press"re is increased to ''0 kPa( w at will be t e new !ol"me)

0.583 L

P1 1 5 P2 2 ,1161Pa.,2*667. 5 ,8861Pa.,x. T1 T2 969 : 9;9: P15116 1Pa 152*66 7 T1596*6 "C < 2=9 5 969 : P25886 1Pa 25x T25>6*6 "C < 2=9 5 9;9 : Combined gas law: * at is t e !ol"me at +,P :of a 1#-.0 m$ of a gas at 1.-0 atm and 100.0 oC P1 1 5 P2 2 "r P1 1T25P2 2T1 T1 T2 P151*;6 atm 1512;*6 m7 T15166 "C < 2=9 5 9=9 : ,1*;.,12;.,2=9.5,1.,x.,9=9.

7.

137 mL

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

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P251 atm ,Sta+)ar) Press$re. 25x T256 "C < 2=9 5 2=9 : ,Sta+)ar) Tem'erat$re.

8.

%deal gas law: * at are t e !al"es .wit "nits/ for 0( t e ideal gas constant)

R = 8.314 0.0821
9.

R=

%deal gas law: Calc"late t e n"mber of moles of gas contained in a 3.0 $ !essel at 300. 1 wit a press"re of 1.-0 atm.

0.18 moles
P 5+RT ,1*;6.,9.5+,6*6>21.,966. 8*;528*?9+

10. Molar !ol"me:

23drogen gas reacts wit ox3gen gas to prod"ce water at +,P. 2ow man3 liters of 3drogen gas are re4"ired to prod"ce #-.0 grams of water) #2# 5 6# #2#6

/ive+3 2;*6 &rams "% water 91*1 #iters H2 at STP @a(t"rs that eA$a# 1 a+) ("+vert %r"m &rams water t" m"#es water0 m"#es water t" m"#es hy)r"&e+0 a+) %r"m m"#es hy)r"&e+ t" 7iters hy)r"&e+3 1 m"# H2O0 2 m"#e H20 22*8 7 H2 1>*61; & water 2 m"# water 1 m"# H2 S"#ve3 2;*6 & H2O 1 m"# H2O 2 m"#e H2 x x x 22*8 7 H2 1>*61; & water 2 m"# water 1 m"# H2 Ca+(e# $+its a+) m$#ti'#y* A+swer3 91*1 7 H2

2,580 PSI 11. 7o n p"ts 1#-0 P+% of 6x3gen( 8&0 P+% of 9itrogen and --0 P+% if 2eli"m in a +C:;A tank.
* at is t e total press"re) &(.' 7S% C DE' 7S% C ..' 7S%

12. :nder w

at conditions do gases follow t e %deal gas $aw) At hi&h tem'erat$res a+) #"w 'ress$res the i)ea# &as #aw is a very &"") m")e# %"r &as -ehavi"r* Pro!erties o' t(e gaseo"s state !redi&ted )* t(e idea+ gas +a, are ,it(in -. 'or gases "nder ordinar* &onditions/ %n ot(er ,ords0 given a set o' &onditions0 ,e &an !redi&t or &a+&"+ate t(e !ro!erties o' a gas to )e ,it(in -. )* a!!+*ing t(e idea+ gas +a,/ (1(en dea+ing ,it( gases at +o, tem!erat"re and at (ig( !ress"re0 &orre&tion (as to )e made in order to &a+&"+ate t(e !ro!erties o' a gas in

10

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

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ind"stria+ and te&(no+ogi&a+ a!!+i&ations/ 2o" ,i++ +earn (o, to do t(is in &o++ege +eve+ &(emistr* #

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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Unit 12: Solutions Practice!

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1. 2.

.n general8 what two classes of materials will dissolve in water, 7olar covalent F %onic -hich is more concentrated8 &'.' grams of sugar in &''.' mL of water or *+.+ grams of sugar in *)/.+ mL of water, -hy, <igher number of particles per unit of volume

3.

.f a crystal of solute was added to each of the following types of solutions8 what would happen, >nsaturated %t would dissolve crystallization saturated %t would not dissolve supersaturated Gapid

4. 5.

-hat three classes of compounds are electrolytes, 5cids$ 3ases. Salts 9%onic compounds: <ive two examples of nonelectrolytes. Sugar$ 2thanol$ 7ure water

6.

=ccording to ?eference (able <8 which solution is saturated at $+@C, 9&: &( grams of HCl+, in &'' grams of water #)' *) grams of ACl"$ in )++ grams of water #$' $+ grams of 3aCl in *++ grams of water

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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

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#6' $+ grams of 3aCl in )++ grams of water

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Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review

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=ccording to ?eference (able <8 the solubility of which compound is least affected by a change in temperature, >aCl 7. 7ill out the chart to show how the addition of a solute to a solvent will affect the melting point #MP' and the boiling point #BP' of the solution8 and why these temperatures are affected. Boiling Point Condition ?equired to change the phase of the pure liquid Iapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure Boiling Point is elevated because the number of solvent particles at the surface is reduced thereby lowering the vapor pressure requiring a:an increase in temperature to achieve atmospheric pressure. Melting point

@a(t"rs that eA$a# 1 a+) ("+vert %r"m m"#arity t" m"#es0 a+) %r"m m"#es t" &rams NaOH3 2*66 m"# NaOH0 1 7 NaOH0 86*66 & NaOH 1 7iter NaOH 1666 m7 NaOH 1 m"#e NaOH

Ainetic energy of particles overcomes S"#ve3 ;66*6 m7 NaOH x 1 7 NaOH intermolecular 2*66 m"# NaOH 86*66 & NaOH x x attractive forces 5 86*66 & NaOH present in the solid state. Melting point is lowered because solute particles disrupt interparticle 10. Solubility of solids and gases! attractive forces *actors that affect solvation rate of S+L%4S in li!uids8 allowing melting to (emperature of the solution increases occur at a lower temperature. (he mixture is stirred (he solid is bro9en into smaller pieces The rate 1666 m7 NaOH 1 7iter NaOH 1 m"#e NaOH

=ffect of adding solute

8.

= *++./ mL intraveneous #.C' solution contains /.*+ g glucose #C0%*)"0'. -hat is the molarity of this solution, m"#arity ,M. 5 m"#esB#iter s"#ve+t

*actors that affect solubility of J5S in a li!uid8

The solu choice:

Cha+&e &rams t" m"#e0 (ha+&e m7 t"(emperature of the solution increases 70 the+ )ivi)e* 0/232 4 1>6* &Bm"#e M"#ar mass "% &#$("se is ;*16 & )ivi)e) -y 1>6* &Bm"#e 5 *62>99 m"#es 166*; m7 5 *166; 7 C"+(e+trati"+ is m"#B7iter 5 6*62>99 m"#B6*166; 756*2>2 M (he pressure over the gas is decreased (he pressure over the gas is increased

9.

%ow many grams of sodium hydroxide are required to prepare /++.+ mL of a ).++ M solution, /ive+3 ;66*6 m7 "% a 2*66 M s"#$ti"+ "% NaOH

14

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Unit 13: Thermochemistry Practice!

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1. 2.

-hat is the derived unit for specific heat, Select the word in the parenthesis that ma9es the statement true! =n obDect with a higher specific heat requires #more : less' heat to raise its temperature.

2.092 ! 3. %ow many 9E are equal to /++.+ calories,


(4/134 5 = 1 &a+# ("+vert t" 1C ,*6681>81C 5 1 (a#.

;66*6 (a#"ries x 8*1>8 C x 1 1C 1666 C 1 (a

4. 5.

-hat is the S. unit for energy:heat, Loule Select the word in the parenthesis that ma9es the statement true! =n #endothermic:e;othermic' reaction releases heat so the container would feel #warm:cold' while an #endothermic:exothermic' reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings so the container would feel #warm:cold'.

0. Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true! (he flat lines on a heating curve represent #a temperature change: a constant temperature: a change of state'. 7. Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true! (he sloped lines on a heating curve represent #a temperature change: a constant temperature: a change of state'.

15

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review

Name_________________________

8.

Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true! .t ta9es longer for substances to #melt : boil' because the heat of vapori2ation is #higher : lower' than the heat fusion.

-hen a hot obDect is put in cooler water8 what will happen to the temperature of the obDect, The obMect loses heat and decreases in temperature to the temperature of the water, The water gains heat and increases in temperature

9.

10. Convert )/oC to Aelvin.


o

(. C (D, - (/E H

Convert )/A to oC. (.=(D, - =(@E

11. -hy are there no negative temperatures in the Aelvin system, 5bsolute zero is the theoretical
temperature at which no more heat can be removed from the system and particle motion would stop. This temperature is e!ual to Nabsolute zero# or '.' H.

12. -hich statement describes characteristics of an endothermic reaction,


44(he sign of % is positive8 and the products have less potential energy than the reactants. OOThe sign of < is positive$ and the products have more potential energy than the reactants.

Reaction Pathway for an Endothermic Reaction

44(he sign of % is negative8 and the products have less potential energy than the reactants.

16

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review

Name_________________________

44(he sign of % is negative8 and the products have more potential energy than the reactants.

13. Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true! 14. Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true!

(he average 9inetic energy of a substanceFs molecules #increases : decreases' as it cools from )G$A to )0$A, Solid H is placed in contact with solid I. %eat will flow spontaneously from H to I when #H is )+@C and I is )+@C : P is &'QC and 1 is .QC : H is )/@C and I is *+@C : H is )/@C and I is $+@C'.

600 ! 15. *

at is t e total n"mber of <o"les of eat energ3 absorbed b3 1- grams of water w en it is eated from 30=C to '0=C) A5m(T A5,1; &.,8*1>8CB&DEC.,16EC. A5 heat i+ 2"$#es 5 F A5?2=*? C 5 ?66 C ,with si&* %i&s*. m5 mass i+ &rams 5 1; & (5 s'e(i%i( heat 5 8*1>8 T5 (ha+&e i+ tem'erat$re 16"C e eat of f"sion of a compo"nd is 30 <o"les per gram. * at is t e total n"mber of <o"les of eat t at m"st be absorbed b3 a 1-.0 gram sample to c ange t e compo"nd from a solid to a li4"id at its melting point) Conversion factor = 30 ! 1 " 1#$0 " % 30 = &#0 1"

450 !

16. ,

17. Salt = and salt B were dissolved separately in *++ mL bea9ers of water. (he water temperatures
Salt =! Salt B! were measured and recorded as shown in the table below! initial water temp. final water temp. )/.*@C $+.)@C )/.*@C )+.+@C

Select all the phrases in the parenthesis that ma9e the statement true! (he dissolving of #only salt = was endothermic: only salt B was exothermic: both salt = and salt B were endothermic: salt 5 was e;othermic and the dissolving of salt 3 was endothermic'.

17

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review

Name_________________________

Unit 1&: 'ci(s an( )ases Practice! 1. List at least / properties of acid and bases in the table! 6&ids

7ases

:ro.('& H ;a) H3O 7 ,on)


+ +

:ro.('& OH>
;2=.rox,.&7 ,on) ,n <a+&r

,n <a+&r ;+2& 2=.ron,(m ,on ,) a 2=.rog&n ,on a++a'2&. +o a <a+&r7 "&a'+ <,+2 %a)&) +o *orm a )al+ an. <a+&r

a)+& %,++&r/ '2al?= $r& &l&'+rol=+&) 8&&l )oa-=/ )l,--&r= "&a'+ <,+2 a',.) +o *orm
)al+) an. <a+&r

Corro.& m&+al) $r& #l&'+rol=+&)

-H gr&a+&r +2an 7 ;-OH l&)) +2an 77 1+rong %a)&) 'a()&


-2&nol-2+2al&,n +o +(rn -,n? (rn) l,+m() -a-&r %l(& @Aa),' Al(&B

a)+& )o(r -H ,) l&)) +2an 7 ;-OH gr&a+&r +2an 77 (rn) l,+m() -a-&r +o r&. Ca()& -2&nol-2+2al&n&
+o r&ma,n 'olorl&))

2.

Compare and contrast the =rrhenius and Bronsted Lowry! =rrhenius

Bronsted Lowry

3.

Arrhe+i$s a(i)s 'r")$(e H< i+ water Arrhe+i$s -ases 'r")$(e OHG i+ water

Hr"+ste) G 7"wry a(i) are 'r"t"+ )"+"rs Hr"+ste) G 7"wry -ases are 'r"t"+ a((e't"rs

>ifferentiate between strong and weak acids and bases .i.e. * at makes an acid strong)/ Str"+& A(i)s a+) Str"+& Hases -"th i"+i4e ("m'#ete#y i+ water0 !ea1 a(i)s a+) wea1 -ases "+#y 'art#y i"+i4e A77 ACIDS AND HASES DISSO7 E* !ea1 "+es 2$st )" +"t )iss"(iate a## the way*

4.

Con<"gate acid?base pairs - :sing t e e4"ation below( label t e: acid( base( con<"gate acid( con<"gate base

18

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review N83

Name_________________________ + N84+ + 829

98:
A(i)

Hase

C"+2$&ate A(i) C"+2$&ate -ase

@25A( @62-A( p2( p62 Bill in t e c art below: J%1K 1 ; 10 :3 4 ;*6 x 16G12 M 1 x 16G; M 1*;> x 16 M
G2

J"% K 16G11 M 2/0 ; 10 :3 4 1 x 16GI M ?*91 x 16G19 M

p% 9 11*9 / *.& %Cl 1 3a"%

p"% 11 2*= I *).)

acid:base a(i) -ase a(i) a(i)

5.

Predict the products for this neutrali2ation reaction! HC# < NaOH
a(i) -ase

L 444444444 1 4444444444

NaC# < H2O


sa#t

water

(he data collected from a laboratory titration are used to calculate the #chose one '#*' rate of a chemical reaction#)' heat of a chemical #$' concentration of a solution #6' boiling reaction point of a solution

19

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

Name__________________________

0.20 " 6. = student completes a titration by adding *).+ milliliters of 3a"%#aq' of un9nown concentration to
*0.+ milliliters of +.*/M %Cl#aq'. -hat is the molar concentration of the 3a"%#aq', Ma(i) a(i) 5 M-ase -ase , 6*1;M. ,1?*6 m7. 5 ,x.,12*6 m7.

7.

=cids react with many metals. -hat will be the second product of the reaction below, )%Cl 1 Mg L MgCl) #aq' 1 <( #g' #b' &

8. 9.

-hich of these p% numbers indicates the highest level of acidity, 9a: . #c' *+ #d' *)

= solution with a p% of ).+ has a hydrogen ion concentration ten times greater than a solution with a p% of! #a' *.+ 9b: ,.' #c' +.)+ #d' )+ 9&: <(S+@ #)' ACl #$' 3a"% #6' 3%$

10. -hich compound is an =rrhenius acid, 11. According to one acid-base t


9(: donates an <C

eor3( water acts as an acid w en an 2#6 molec"le#*' accepts an %1 #$' accepts an % #6' donates an %

12. <iven the reaction!%Cl#aq' 1 Li"%#aq' M %"%#N' 1 LiCl#aq'(he reaction is best described as!
9&: neutralization #)' synthesis #$' decomposition#6' oxidation reduction

13. -hat are some possible sources of the acids in the atmosphere that contribute to acid rain,
Sulfur and >itrogen o;ides 9S+( $ >+(: from burning fossil fuels 9coal and oil:

20

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Anit &.8 Ged+; Practice!

Name__________________________

1. 2. 3. 4.

-hat happens during oxidation, The atom loses electrons. -hat happens during reduction, The atom gains electrons. List several common redox reactions! %ron rusting$ bioluminescence$ blood analysis 9crime scene:$ cellular respiration$ breathingKetc. 2alf reactions: *rite t e correct alf reaction in t e space pro!ided. Br 1 * e Mg Mg C( C ( e= Mg 1) 1 ) e 3r R Br O

"xidation %alf reaction Mg

a. b. 5.

?eduction %alf reaction 3r C & e=

Balance the equation. 9>ot sure e;actly what should be here$ but my guess is the combined G24+P reactionK: Mg C 3r( Mg3r(

P"t it all toget er. + ow t e oxidation n"mber of eac element: H9s: ' C 3r( 9g: ' H3r 9s: C& =&

a. b. #. d. e.
Unit 1*: +eaction +ates Practice!

-hich substance is oxidi2ed, H -hich substance is reduced, 3r -hat is the oxidi2ing agent, 3r -hat is the reducing agent, H Balance the equation. ( H C & 3r( ( H3r

-hat do molecular cloc9s have to do with reaction rates, Scientists use molecular cloc6s to measure evolutionary change over time in order to determine the age of different organisms. This change over time is a rate and is$ therefore$ lightly connected to Geaction Gates. 2. %ow does each factor affect the rate of a chemical reaction, *actors that affect reaction rate8 The rate of the reactionK. 9Circle your choice: Concentration of the reactants increases %ncreases Decreases Concentration of the reactants decreases .ncreases 4ecreases (emperature increases %ncreases Decreases (emperature decreases .ncreases 4ecreases =n inhibitor is added .ncreases 4ecreases = catalyst is added %ncreases Decreases (he pressure of a reactant gas is increased %ncreases Decreases (he pressure of a reactant gas is decreased .ncreases 4ecreases

1.

21

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

Name__________________________

3.

Draw and label the following reaction diagrams. Be sure to label the activation energy #P;a' and the change in heat #P%' on each diagram!

2;othermic with a Catalyst

4.

7ill in the missing terms! = catalyst speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy.

22

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___ Unit 1,: -uclear Chemistry

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Practice! 1. Compare and contrast alpha8 beta and gamma radiation! =ttribute =lpha radiation Symbols Mass @ Charge Penetrating ability C( Can be stopped by a sheet of paper

Beta radiation ' =& Can be stopped by a thin piece of metal foil

<amma radiation ' '

Can penetrate thin walls o concrete and lead

2.

Compare radioactive decay8 nuclear fission and nuclear fusion! Comparison Category ?adioactive decay 3uclear fission Define 5 spontaneous process where unstable nuclei lose energy by giving off radiation 5ny unstable nuclei of an atom that naturally decays 5toms# nuclei s.littin" into smaller$ more stable pieces and L5GJ2 amounts of energy are released. 5ny unstable nuclei of an atom that naturally decays

3uclear fusion 5toms# nuclei com/inin" together into a single$ larg and more stable nucleusK also releases L5GJ2 amounts of energy <appens on the sun

3atural occurrences

(echnological uses

2nergy$ weapons$ medicine$ biological growth$ detection of radiation

>uclear power plants$ weapons$ medicine$ biological growth

>ot as many uses as fissio because it#s too unstable f scientists to control righ nowKin the future we wou love to use it for energy an weapons. ?e 4+ howeve use solar power currently that#s one step closer.

3.

Iucca Mountain is the proposed site for a national repository for high level nuclear waste generated from military functions8 nuclear medicine8 nuclear power8 and nuclear research. .dentify $ characteristics of this site that ma9e it suitable for this purpose!

a. b. #. d. e. $. %. 4.

%n a desert location %solated away from population centers 9Las Iegas$ the nearest metropolitan area$ is /' miles away: Secured &$''' feet under the surface %n a closed hydrologic basin Surrounded by federal land 7rotected by natural geologic barriers 7rotected by robust engineered barriers and a fle;ible design

-hat are the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power plants to generate electricity, Disadvantages

=dvantages

Low to;ic emissions

Ta6es a long time to build a power plant

23

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

Name__________________________

Technology is already developedKno research re!uired Much more energy produced at a cheaper cost than nearly all its competitors Iery little maintenance/money re!uired once the power plant is built

Creates nuclear waste that must be stored safely

*uel rods used to shield and contain the nuclea reactors must be replaced when depleted 5 nuclear meltdown 9though 2PTG2M2L1 rare: i possible and would produce catastrophic casualities >uclear power plants could be a target for touris attac6s

5.

Compare and contrast nuclear reactions and chemical reactions! 3uclear reactions >uclei are unstable and want to become more stable 7rotons and neutrons <AJ2 amount >uclear power plants using nuclear fission and solar power using nuclear fusion >uclear power plants using nuclear fusion

Comparison Category 7undamental 7orces ?esponsible

Subatomic particles affected ?elative amount of energy released Current applications as an energy source 7uture applications as energy source

Chemical reactions 5toms want to loo6 li6e a noble gas 9most of the time: so they bond to achieve a full outer shell of electron They can share$ donate$ or accept electrons to achieve this goal. 2lectrons Small amount <ydrogen powered cars$ coal$ petroleum$ ethanol$ etc.

Scientists are hard at wor6 to develo more advanced technology every da

6.

.n the nucleus8 why donFt the positive protons fly apart from electrostatic repulsion, The binding force in the nucleus holds the protons and neutrons together in the atom. %t#s li6e a glue that 6eeps things in their place.

7.

Balance the following nuclear reactions!

a. b.

QQ

6$

(c Pu

1
6 )

)$Q

Q6

%e 1

24

Chemistry Semester 2 Exam Review Date___________ Per___

Name__________________________

#. d. e.

)$Q

Q$

3p
+ *

)$Q

Q6

Pu 1

6)

*Q

e 1

% 1

25

8.

%nterpret t e grap to answer t e 4"estions:

a. b. #. d. e.

-hat is the initial mass, (''' lbs -hat is the half life, (E.& years -hat mass remains after $.+ half lives, (.' lbs -hat mass remains after *+ half lives, &./. lbs =fter how many half lives will )++ pounds remain, ,.,( half=lives 91ou must use the formula on pg ED&: > - >'9:n - = amount remainin" -0 = initial amount n = 0 of 1 lives ('' - (''' 9:n (''' (''' '.& - 9:n log 9'.&: - log 9:n =& - n S log9: =& - n S 9='.,'&: 9='.,'&: 9='.,'&: ,.,( - n