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What if we could tell you everything, the entire history of the world? Now, what if we told you, we could do it in just two hours? We're going to tell the whole story, from the Big Bang to the present day. How the planet prepared, for the rise of man. How the Stone Age, led to the steam engine. How the first seeds sprouted, into cities and civilizations. Everything is connected, and the path leads to you. lt took history 1 3.7 billion years to unfold. We'll show you everything you, need to know in the next two hours. This is our infant universe. Everything that will ever exist,everything that will ever happen, all begins here, within this tiny bundle of energy,smaller than an atom. And right now, history as we know it is about to mysteriously begin. For reasons we may never know,our universe suddenly erupts. ln a millionth of a millionth, of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth, of a millionth of a second, it went from a size, smaller than an atom to bigger than a galaxy. What you're seeing is energy, and it's one key to understanding, everything that will unfold in the next two hours. Within a fraction of a second, the Big Bang creates, all the energy that will ever exist, all the energy that will power the stars, that will fuel, anything that ever lives. All the energy, that you will ever consume dates back to the beginning of time. When you put gas into your car, you're tapping energy, that was created during the Big Bang. You're tapping, the energy of the universe itself.
00:02:58 We're only a few minutes into our two-hourjourney,but already 380,000 years have passed. You are about to witness the birth of your original ancestors, the first atoms. 00:03:20 00:03:23 This is hydrogen. The universe will use it to make
everything in the world around us. 00:03:27 00:03:29 00:03:31 00:03:32 You say, "What player do l want to start my team with?" 00:03:34 00:03:34 Well, if l want to start a universe, l want to start it with hydrogen. 00:03:37 00:03:37 Because from that, with a lot of heat and a lot of pressure, 00:03:39 00:03:39 00:03:41 00:03:43 The first atoms blast through the early universe. 00:03:46 00:03:49 And luckily for us, they don't spread out evenly, 00:03:52 00:03:54 because in those tiny pockets with more atoms, 00:03:57 00:03:57 gravity, the great sculptor of the early universe, 00:04:01 00:04:01 00:04:03 00:04:10 The first galaxies begins to work its magic. you can build more kinds of atoms. Hydrogen is like a baseball team.
are beginning to form, 00:04:13 00:04:14 revealing a timeless secret of the universe. 00:04:17 00:04:23 00:04:24 00:04:24 whenever more matter and energy can be drawn together in one place, 00:04:28 00:04:28 00:04:31 00:04:32 We have all of these urban centers around the planet 00:04:36 00:04:36 where so much creativity, so much art, so much science, 00:04:40 00:04:40 00:04:42 00:04:43 because of all these opportunities for things to interact with each other. 00:04:46 00:04:47 Really, in a sense, where there is stuff, new stuff can develop. 00:04:51 00:04:51 And where there isn't anything, nothing much can develop. 00:04:54 00:05:01 300 million years after the Big Bang, so much culture came about more complex things can emerge. Throughout history,
00:05:30 00:05:30 00:05:32 00:05:34 00:05:37 00:05:39 Suddenly there were these new beacons of light 00:05:42 00:05:42 shining forth. 00:05:54 Let there be light.00:05:04 00:05:05 00:05:08 00:05:09 gravity continues to squeeze together clouds of gas and dust. pouring energy into the universe. 00:05:46 00:05:48 00:05:49 00:05:51 But something is missing from this early universe. inside of forming galaxies. 00:05:25 00:05:25 hydrogen atoms slam together. and radiating bursts of energy. The first stars are born. creating a new element. 00:05:13 00:05:14 causing pressure and heat to violently rise. helium. . 00:05:17 00:05:21 When the temperature reaches 1 8 million degrees Fahrenheit.
00:06:11 00:06:12 00:06:14 00:06:14 the heavier things that we build stuff out of. To form planets and eventually people.00:05:54 There are billions of stars. . 00:06:06 00:06:07 the universe needs more to work with than just hydrogen and helium. iron or life built out of carbon and things like that. 00:06:21 00:06:21 they're actually manufactured in stars. 00:06:23 00:06:23 We may see stars like our own sun as sources of light. 00:06:16 00:06:16 for example. 00:06:31 00:06:31 00:06:34 Stars are element factories. The complicated elements. 00:05:58 00:05:59 00:06:03 00:06:03 to take the next leap that would make all of history possible. yet not a single planet. 00:06:27 00:06:27 but there is something bigger happening deep inside.
00:06:46 00:06:48 00:06:51 00:06:51 stars are already creating the element that will spur the lron Age.00:06:34 They fuse hydrogen into helium. 00:07:21 00:07:27 For Lady Liberty to have While the statue's frame is iron. But a look at the Statue of Liberty allow for the building of cities So more than 1 2 billion years ago. oxygen. 00:07:13 00:07:14 00:07:17 00:07:17 her skin requires an element too heavy to be made in stars. nitrogen. 00:07:03 00:07:08 00:07:10 00:07:10 reveals the next challenge awaiting the early universe. helium into lithium. 00:06:42 00:06:42 including carbon. and iron. 00:06:38 00:06:38 forging 25 of the most common elements we'll need to live. 00:06:56 00:06:56 00:06:59 00:06:59 and the creation of some of mankind's most famous monuments. .
00:07:45 00:07:46 but if the element factory isn't powerful enough. 00:07:49 00:07:49 00:07:52 00:07:56 Just a few million years after the first stars formed. . known as supernovas. how about blowing up the factory? or uranium for nuclear reactors. 00:07:30 00:07:32 for there to be gold for wedding rings.material for her skin. These explosions. some of them exploded. 00:07:42 00:07:42 Stars don't have enough energy to do the job. 00:08:09 00:08:09 providing the extra boost of energy needed to fuse heavier elements. 00:07:35 00:07:36 00:07:39 00:07:39 some elements had to be created another way. 00:07:59 00:07:59 00:08:01 00:08:02 00:08:06 00:08:06 are the biggest blasts in the universe since the Big Bang.
The periodic table of the elements stars create uranium. including copper. 00:09:04 00:09:05 00:09:06 00:09:07 We are all stardust. we have iron in our blood.00:08:14 00:08:15 ln the fiery blast of their own destruction. Those are your building blocks. just floating around through us. 00:08:18 00:08:20 00:08:24 00:08:27 all the rest of the elements that will fill our world. . 00:08:59 00:08:59 00:09:02 00:09:02 We have little bits of old supernova. 00:08:41 00:08:42 00:08:44 00:08:44 everything that is coming out of that particular chemistry set. 00:08:47 00:08:55 Supernovas are absolutely necessary for us to be here. You know. gold. therefore. 00:08:32 00:08:35 00:08:37 00:08:37 is sort of the library of matter in the universe.
Bronze Age. 00:09:28 00:09:29 The elements made by stars will become the seeds of life on Earth 00:09:34 00:09:34 00:09:37 00:09:38 00:09:40 00:09:41 Before there can be life. 00:09:15 00:09:16 Go to any supermarket and buy a multivitamin 00:09:17 00:09:19 00:09:20 00:09:20 You'll find copper. and go and look in the ingredients. You'll find zinc. You'll find selenium.00:09:09 00:09:10 00:09:12 00:09:12 Without supernovas. 00:09:23 00:09:23 You'll find all sorts of elements that can only be made in a supernova. Copper and tin. the universe has to build us a suitable home. 00:09:47 00:09:49 To build a proper house. there's no Bronze Age. you have to assemble the right materials 00:09:53 But the journey has just begun. . and the drivers of human history.
00:10:22 00:10:23 00:10:27 00:10:30 each generation with more heavy elements than the last.6 billion years ago. 00:10:00 00:10:00 it's the materials that you have at hand 00:10:03 00:10:03 that's gonna dictate the kind of house that your planet's gonna be.00:09:53 00:09:55 00:09:57 all in one place. 00:10:33 00:10:37 Until 4. takes a very long time. Stars explode and are reborn. Over the next eight billion years. 00:10:19 00:10:19 the element factories continue their work. it's the same thing. Now when planets form. . 00:10:06 00:10:07 To get enough of the right material in the right place all at once 00:10:11 00:10:11 00:10:14 00:10:14 00:10:17 00:10:17 more than half of history as we know it.
00:11:10 00:11:10 00:11:12 00:11:13 The third one out from this star will be our home.00:10:40 00:10:41 Finally there are enough materials gathered 00:10:44 00:10:44 00:10:47 00:10:53 00:10:55 00:10:56 00:10:58 00:10:58 00:11:00 00:11:00 99. lt's so massive that it's gathered up This is our sun. . 00:11:04 00:11:05 but there's still just enough left behind 00:11:07 00:11:07 for gravity to build some other things. 00:11:23 00:11:23 two-thirds of the history like planets. for the next step on the path to us.9% of the gas and dust in the solar system. 00:11:16 00:11:19 By the time Earth emerges just over four and a half billion years ago. A new star is born.
00:12:20 00:12:20 And once again that something is gravity. 00:11:27 00:11:31 The first sunrises sweep across a foreboding alien planet. 00:11:41 00:11:45 When you go back to the early Earth. 00:12:15 00:12:16 Something has to bring order out of this chaos. right after the planet formed. 00:11:53 00:11:54 The sun would have looked out over a hellacious scene 00:11:57 00:11:59 00:12:00 00:12:04 And in places you would see rafts of black volcanic rock. .of the universe has already passed. ofjust molten lava. 00:11:49 00:11:50 you really have to think of the Earth as another planet. 00:11:36 00:11:37 a world spinning so rapidly that a day lasts only six hours. 00:12:09 00:12:11 Within the liquefied rock the elements are all in a jumble.
the Earth will need a critical partner. This churning liquid metal forming a molten iron-nickel core. it will protect our future home 00:12:49 00:12:49 from the sun's deadly charged particles. 00:13:00 00:13:01 But for all this to unfold. 00:12:56 00:12:56 and later.00:12:23 00:12:25 Lighter material drifts toward the surface 00:12:28 00:12:28 00:12:30 00:12:33 while heavier material sinks toward the center. 00:12:52 00:12:52 Soon this magnetic field will allow for life to grow. . 00:12:36 00:12:36 00:12:39 00:12:40 00:12:42 00:12:42 creates a magnetic field that reaches out into space. and forms a solid crust. 00:12:45 00:12:46 Like a force field. guide the explorers who will connect two halves of the world.
000 miles per hour. its creation. 00:14:01 00:14:02 And in fact. 00:13:43 00:13:44 Within as little as a year. 00:13:51 00:13:52 00:13:54 00:13:57 00:13:58 00:13:58 was an incredibly important event in Earth's history. 00:13:31 00:13:39 But a spray of molten debris is whipped off into space. Four and a half billion years ago.00:13:06 00:13:14 00:13:16 00:13:17 an object the size of Mars smashes into the planet 00:13:20 00:13:20 00:13:23 00:13:29 Earth swallows up much of the impactor. . at 25. gravity gathers this debris 00:13:48 00:13:48 into a secondary sphere in orbit around the Earth. over four billion years ago. 00:14:03 The formation of the moon where it has been ever since.
. very important also for maintaining life on the Earth. 00:14:26 00:14:27 00:14:29 00:14:32 00:14:34 00:14:34 for the evolution of life on the Earth. saving us from wild climate swings. 00:14:23 00:14:24 giving the planet a key ingredient to life. very important seasons. 00:14:08 00:14:08 00:14:11 00:14:11 lts gravitational pull prevents the planet from wobbling. The moon keeps Earth steady. 00:14:43 00:14:46 The moon's gravity Having seasons is very.00:14:06 is really important to the Earth's climate today. 00:14:15 00:14:15 00:14:18 00:14:18 And the collision that formed the moon leaves Earth tilted on its axis. 00:14:40 00:14:40 that's very. 00:14:36 00:14:36 and having some stability in the tilt of those axes.
00:15:15 00:15:15 but there's water vapor. 00:14:57 00:15:07 00:15:10 00:15:11 lt's too hot on Earth for liquid water to exist. steam in the atmosphere. and eventually our oceans. rain pours down. a little rain must fall.4 billion years ago. . 00:15:24 00:15:24 Onto any world where you hope to have life.8 billion years ago. lakes. 00:15:57 By 3. 00:15:29 00:15:36 For millions of years as the planet cools. 4. 00:15:19 00:15:21 The trick is how to get it out of the sky. 00:14:51 00:14:51 which will eventually lengthen our days from six hours to 24. 00:15:47 00:15:50 00:15:53 00:15:53 our planet has a moon and permanent oceans.also begins to slow Earth's rotation. 00:15:41 00:15:41 forming puddles.
00:16:05 00:16:05 00:16:08 00:16:08 fertile continents for people to discover and develop. structures like this from the Big Bang to the present day. 00:16:39 00:16:39 00:16:42 00:16:42 hide a mysterious link to the first life on Earth.00:15:57 but it hardly resembles the place we now call home. . ln fact. 00:16:46 00:16:53 3. 00:16:00 00:16:02 To become the stage for all of human history. Who will create our modern world? Earth needs an oxygen-rich atmosphere. 00:16:19 00:16:28 We're telling the history of the world in two hours.8 billion years ago. 00:16:31 00:16:31 00:16:35 00:16:35 And our modern world holds important clues to the story. 00:16:12 00:16:12 00:16:15 00:16:15 There's a trillion of them crawling on your skin right now.
00:16:55 00:16:57 beneath the surface of our primeval oceans, 00:17:00 00:17:02 00:17:05 00:17:09 Six simple elements, including hydrogen from the Big Bang, 00:17:13 00:17:13 and oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen created by stars, 00:17:17 00:17:17 have combined to form the key substances 00:17:19 00:17:19 that will make up all life, including us. 00:17:23 00:17:26 00:17:29 00:17:31 Within its spirals hide the secret codes of life. 00:17:34 00:17:37 700,000 years after the planet first formed, 00:17:41 00:17:42 00:17:44 00:17:46 We stand not on the shoulders of giants, life on Earth begins. The most spectacular is DNA. a revolution is taking place.
00:17:49 00:17:49 00:17:52 00:17:55 We're very egocentric. We think that we animals run the world, 00:17:59 00:17:59 00:18:02 00:18:03 lt was an empire of bacteria long before animals. 00:18:06 00:18:06 00:18:07 00:18:07 and we like to think that we wiped out that empire. 00:18:11 00:18:11 Well, we would be dead if we wiped out that empire. 00:18:14 00:18:15 l have within me an entire zoo of bacteria. 00:18:18 00:18:19 00:18:21 00:18:21 has more bacteria living in our bodies than there are people on the planet. 00:18:26 00:18:28 00:18:30 00:18:30 microbes like these For billions of years, ln fact, each one of us Animals come along, but in fact we are very late entrants. but of tiny organisms, bacteria.
will have Earth to themselves. 00:18:34 00:18:36 00:18:38 00:18:38 the first life is small, simple, and full of possibilities. 00:18:43 00:18:44 00:18:45 00:18:45 into all of the incredible forms we see today, including us, 00:18:50 00:18:50 00:18:52 00:18:53 00:18:54 00:18:54 all the energy that will ever exist was created in the Big Bang. 00:18:58 00:19:00 All creatures need to grab their share of this energy to survive. 00:19:05 00:19:05 The more we harness, the more efficiently we use it, 00:19:09 00:19:09 00:19:11 00:19:12 And almost all of our share of the Big Bang's energy 00:19:15 the more complex we can become. As we've seen, goes back to the beginning of time. The secret of how it explodes Like our infant universe,
00:19:15 00:19:18 00:19:21 00:19:23 00:19:24 00:19:26 00:19:26 is beamed to us by the sun. 00:19:38 00:19:40 00:19:42 00:19:45 00:19:47 00:19:48 but first. 00:19:56 00:19:56 and everyone knows what happens when oxygen meets iron. 00:19:30 00:19:32 00:19:34 00:19:35 the most important waste product in the history of the world. 00:20:06 Soon. 00:20:01 00:20:03 Here l'm a little bacterium. it has another important job to do. oxygen will remake our world. 00:19:51 00:19:53 Earth's ancient seas are full of iron particles. oxygen. ln doing this. Two and a half billion years ago. they also create . some very special bacteria figure out how to consume the sun's energy to live. l've produced this oxygen molecule.
00:20:34 00:20:36 00:20:38 00:20:39 and the other early landmarks of the lndustrial Age 00:20:42 00:20:42 are a direct link to some of the first life forms on Earth. these huge deposits will be raised up 00:20:22 00:20:22 to become major sources of the world's iron and steel. 00:20:09 00:20:12 The rusted iron collects on the sea floor. ln this way. 00:20:46 00:20:49 Once there's no more iron left in the sea to rust. the Brooklyn Bridge lt was these iron deposits . 00:20:26 00:20:30 00:20:31 00:20:31 that later on drove the lndustrial Revolution.00:20:06 and here's a big piece of iron and clump. l rust it. 00:20:14 00:20:17 Billions of years later. 00:20:52 00:20:52 these ancient bacteria have a mission to complete.
life takes a giant leap. 00:21:04 00:21:06 And from then on we have a very different planet 00:21:09 00:21:09 from all the other planets in the solar system. Life tends to stick with what works Now.00:20:56 00:20:56 00:20:59 00:20:59 that it fills the oceans and escapes into the atmosphere. They create so much oxygen . Oxygen is a game changer. 00:21:26 00:21:29 00:21:30 00:21:32 even over the course of billions of years. 00:21:19 00:21:21 Every human breath is a ritual two and a half billion years old. 00:21:33 00:21:34 00:21:36 00:21:36 00:21:38 00:21:38 life has found By taming its power. 00:21:11 00:21:12 00:21:14 00:21:15 For the first time. some bacteria learn to live on oxygen.
will be the story that leads to us. 00:21:41 00:21:41 Twenty times more efficient than anything used on Earth before.a better way to energize itself. 00:21:45 00:21:46 What life does with all this new energy 00:21:49 00:21:49 00:21:51 00:21:58 Over the next two billion years. . life becomes more complex. 00:22:19 00:22:28 00:22:30 00:22:31 as the planet celebrates its four billionth birthday. 00:22:35 00:22:36 oxygen levels in the atmosphere have risen from next to nothing 550 million years ago. solid continents appear. 00:22:11 00:22:12 00:22:15 00:22:15 Earth is beginning to look more like the place we now call home. Skies become blue. 00:22:02 00:22:05 00:22:07 00:22:08 and so do the oceans that reflect them. Large.
00:23:05 00:23:07 00:23:10 00:23:13 lt's in this breathtaking span of roughly 30 million years 00:23:17 00:23:17 that most of the major animal groups evolve. you get size and complexity. to as much as 1 3%. 00:23:00 00:23:02 Right after you have abundant oxygen. 00:23:28 00:23:29 00:23:31 00:23:32 00:23:34 00:23:34 they evolve the body parts that will Though they look nothing like us. 00:22:49 00:22:55 This is the Cambrian explosion. biology's version of the Big Bang. 00:23:20 00:23:22 By 500 million years ago. Take a deep breath. These fish are our direct ancestors. And oxygen lets you do that. .00:22:39 00:22:40 00:22:42 00:22:44 00:22:46 00:22:46 because life on Earth is about to go wild. the first bony fish have evolved in the seas.
00:23:59 00:24:02 00:24:04 00:24:04 00:24:07 00:24:07 protecting us from dangerous radiation. 00:23:38 00:23:38 including a spine. 00:23:50 00:23:53 For the first four billion years of Earth's history. 00:23:56 00:23:56 plants and animals have stuck to the seas. 00:24:10 00:24:13 00:24:15 00:24:25 Around 400 million years ago. animals are ready to take the leap. Plants make the move first. ln fact. all vertebrates today .make our own bodies possible. With oxygen comes an ozone layer. and a mouth with jaws and teeth. 00:23:46 00:23:46 00:23:47 00:23:47 really represent modifications of the original fish body plan. But that all begins to change. 00:23:42 00:23:44 We owe a great deal to our fish ancestors.
humans will conquer "There's food here. 00:24:42 00:24:44 00:24:46 00:24:46 walks out of the primeval ocean onto land 00:24:50 00:24:50 00:24:52 00:24:54 Kind of like great-great-greatgreat-great-great grandpa 00:24:57 00:24:57 coming out of the ocean and seeing this fantastic world. Look at those bugs. for me personally. 00:25:06 00:25:06 00:25:08 00:25:14 Eventually. l can do this. and takes a big gulp of air. "Hey! l can live here. . 00:24:35 00:24:35 00:24:38 00:24:39 The most amazing thing about animal evolution ever. 00:25:01 00:25:03 00:25:05 00:25:05 "Look at those trees. is that moment that first amphibian whose descendants will include us." And it's like.00:24:30 00:24:32 Among the first ashore are the amphibians.
mating season. 00:25:38 00:25:41 But some amphibians eventually solve the problem. But before we can do that. 00:25:27 00:25:28 00:25:29 00:25:33 00:25:35 00:25:35 they have jelly-like eggs that would dry out on land. .every imaginable terrain. 00:26:01 00:26:01 You could be 300. 00:25:18 00:25:21 00:25:23 00:25:23 our ancestors must first cut their final tie to the water. 00:25:50 00:25:51 This allows us to carry the ocean with us onto land 00:25:55 00:25:56 and signals the evolution of amphibians into reptiles. 00:25:44 00:25:45 00:25:47 00:25:48 with a shell that keeps the moisture in. 1 . 500. 400.000 miles away from water They evolve a new form of egg Like modern frogs.
That is the key. 00:26:19 00:26:33 300 million years ago. 00:27:05 Energy created in the Big Bang As plants die here. . lt cuts that final tie to the ocean. and cooked. 00:26:09 00:26:10 00:26:11 00:26:12 00:26:15 00:26:16 That way we could colonize the rest of the land. compacted. 00:26:43 00:26:44 00:26:46 00:26:47 they are buried. 00:26:52 00:26:53 00:26:55 00:26:55 and radiated by the sun to plants on Earth 00:26:59 00:27:00 is now locked away underground as coal. life flourishes in massive tropical swamps 00:26:40 00:26:40 where planet Earth is cooking up a surprise.00:26:06 00:26:06 and still have the water in that egg in order to birth.
00:28:02 00:28:04 Five times in the last 500 million years. an apocalypse unfolds. 00:27:55 00:27:58 Extinction is a recurring character in the story of planet Earth. 00:27:31 00:27:32 The atmosphere is choked with carbon dioxide. 00:28:07 is stopped dead in its tracks.00:27:05 a gift to be opened by human beings millions of years in the future. . 250 million years ago. 00:27:36 00:27:36 and the diversity of animal life spawned in the Cambrian explosion 00:27:40 00:27:40 00:27:42 00:27:46 More than 70% of all species on Earth go extinct 00:27:50 00:27:50 in the worst mass die-off in history. 00:27:10 00:27:19 00:27:21 00:27:23 00:27:25 00:27:26 The biggest spike in volcanic activity since the early days of the planet. the Permian extinction.
00:28:34 00:28:36 And after more than four billion years. . New creatures like the dinosaurs. 00:28:44 00:28:47 00:28:48 00:28:49 00:28:51 00:28:51 into a single landmass we call Pangaea. the continents are clustered together At the start of the dinosaur era.00:28:07 some cataclysm wiped out the dominant species. 00:28:53 00:28:54 00:28:57 00:29:00 Africa separates from South America. 00:28:39 00:28:39 the moon's gravity finally settles Earth into a 24-hour day. 00:28:28 00:28:30 During that time. 00:28:11 00:28:12 lt's a reshuffling of the deck that allows new creatures to take hold. 00:28:16 00:28:17 00:28:21 00:28:24 Dinosaurs will reign for the next 1 60 million years. the first hardwood forests appear. But now they start to break apart.
00:29:40 00:29:41 During that time. 00:29:11 00:29:12 the gulf between the old and new worlds.00:29:03 00:29:04 00:29:06 00:29:07 creating what will become one of the defining barriers of human history. 00:29:29 00:29:30 lf we were to trace our lineage back far enough. we were living on the fringes. . 00:29:25 00:29:25 But there are some important creatures scurrying around their feet. 00:29:15 00:29:19 The undisputed stars of the dinosaur era 00:29:21 00:29:21 are animals like Triceratops and T-Rex. 00:29:44 The vast Atlantic Ocean opens up. 00:29:33 00:29:33 we would come to really small shrew-like mammals 00:29:37 00:29:37 surrounded by these titans of reptile life. mammals.
all the medium-size. . is that we lost! 00:29:59 00:30:00 00:30:01 00:30:02 We couldn't get much bigger than a small cat. Mammals lost. 00:30:05 00:30:05 For 1 60 million years. So the dinosaurs kind of held us back. maybe just eking out an existence. 00:29:49 00:29:49 00:29:52 00:29:53 The biggest headline of the history of dinosaurs. medium-big. Sixty-five million years ago. They beat us fair and square. for that whole time! 00:30:14 00:30:15 00:30:18 00:30:20 But the deck is about to be reshuffled. gigantic and stupendous animals were dinosaurs. 00:30:09 00:30:09 big. 00:29:56 00:29:56 which is 1 60 million years.00:29:44 We were maybe stealing dinosaur eggs. 00:30:23 00:30:32 00:30:34 00:30:34 a six-mile wide object.
00:31:14 00:31:16 lt doesn't take long after the disappearance of the dinosaurs 00:31:19 00:31:19 00:31:22 00:31:23 Like their later versions. Temperatures plummet. it gave the mammals time to rise. 00:30:38 00:30:38 00:30:40 00:30:48 00:30:51 00:30:51 00:30:53 00:30:54 Every creature on land weighing over 50 pounds goes extinct. 00:31:26 00:31:26 these mammals have evolved forward-facing eyes 00:31:29 for the first true primates to appear. 00:31:09 00:31:10 When they went extinct. A dust cloud blocks out the sun. . 00:30:58 00:31:00 00:31:03 00:31:05 The greatest gift that the dinosaurs ever gave us was dying. The reign of the dinosaurs is over.likely an asteroid. slams into the Earth. including us.
00:31:46 00:31:46 to manipulate objects.00:31:29 allowing for accurate depth perception and flexible hands with five digits. 00:32:02 00:32:05 00:32:07 00:32:07 the Americas and Africa have almost fully taken shape. 00:31:58 00:31:59 lt's so hot. their ability to hold things. . which means we can grasp things. is much more limited. 00:32:10 00:32:12 00:32:13 But in northern Africa. Fifty million years ago. there are jungles at the poles. just like us. As the continents drift. 00:31:40 00:31:40 lf you think about other animals that don't have digits 00:31:42 00:31:44 organized the way ours are. 00:31:35 00:31:35 They have five fingers. 00:31:49 00:31:52 00:31:54 00:31:54 our primate ancestors are evolving on a planet that is warming.
00:32:14 modern-day Egypt is submerged beneath an ancient sea. where they form into limestone. By 1 0 million years ago. 00:32:24 00:32:24 Their shells. made of calcium and carbon. 00:32:36 00:32:37 lf you look closely at the pyramids today. 00:32:17 00:32:19 On the floor of that sea live small.000-year-old monuments 00:32:43 00:32:43 are in fact made of 50-million-year-old seashells. 00:32:29 00:32:29 00:32:32 00:32:33 Limestone that will be used to build the Great Pyramids. 00:32:26 00:32:26 pile up on the sea bottom over millions of years. 00:32:39 00:32:40 you can still see evidence that these 4. shelled creatures called nummulites. 00:32:48 00:32:56 00:32:58 00:32:58 Earth is morphing into a world most of us would recognize. .
00:33:09 00:33:09 They're so tall. disrupting ocean currents setting the stage for a colder planet. 00:33:05 00:33:06 Mountain ranges like the Himalayas have arisen. With the planet getting colder. 00:33:29 00:33:29 00:33:30 00:33:30 and tipping the world even more towards an ice age. 00:33:42 00:33:42 but a new creature is coming in that threatens to destroy them.00:33:02 00:33:02 The Colorado River is carving out the Grand Canyon. 00:33:34 00:33:37 00:33:39 00:33:39 our primate ancestors hang on in the tropics. 00:33:25 00:33:25 cleaving the connection between the Atlantic and the Pacific. they disrupt weather patterns 00:33:12 00:33:13 00:33:16 00:33:20 The lsthmus of Panama emerges to connect North and South America. .
as any other living thing on Earth. . lt seems almost impossible to believe. 00:34:03 00:34:04 But their neighborhood is about to be invaded. is the emergence of grass. 00:34:07 00:34:08 This newcomer will have as profound an effect on human history 00:34:11 00:34:11 00:34:14 00:34:16 00:34:19 00:34:19 but one of the most important things that will lead to the emergence of us. Seven million years ago.00:33:47 00:33:56 00:33:58 00:34:00 our primate ancestors live safely in the trees. 00:34:23 00:34:24 00:34:27 00:34:29 The grasslands appear almost simultaneously around the world. 00:34:33 00:34:35 00:34:37 00:34:39 00:34:41 00:34:42 00:34:45 we get the North American prairies. we get the Eurasian steppe lands. We get the African savannas.
separated by grasslands. 00:35:18 00:35:18 00:35:19 00:35:20 Now. grasslands invade the traditional woodland habitat 00:35:00 00:35:01 00:35:02 00:35:03 With fewer trees and greater gaps between them.00:34:46 we get the great grasslands ofArgentina. our ancestors have to adapt. of our ape ancestors. 00:35:06 00:35:06 00:35:09 00:35:09 Apes would notice that there's more and more apes in the same tree 00:35:12 00:35:12 00:35:14 00:35:15 00:35:16 00:35:16 to go from one patch of food to a different one. you know. . 00:34:49 00:34:50 appearing simultaneously around the world. 00:34:53 00:34:56 ln Eastern Africa. increasing incentives for apes and less and less food. one way to do it is to run like hell.
new habitat. . 00:35:51 00:35:54 Standing on two feet is a revolutionary advance. 00:35:30 00:35:32 And so. 00:35:37 00:35:40 lt's a landscape better suited to primates that can walk on two legs.00:35:23 00:35:23 The other way to do it is to extend one's food sources into the grasslands 00:35:27 00:35:27 to seek out the foods that are available there. some apes make the move down into this stark.6 million years ago. early proto-humans or hominids 2. 00:36:06 00:36:16 00:36:18 00:36:21 00:36:24 00:36:24 walk an Earth whose rocks are loaded with the element silicon. Because it frees up our hands. 00:35:57 00:35:59 00:36:01 00:36:03 Hands we will need to shape human history. 00:35:45 00:35:46 Keeping their heads up above the tall grasses to watch for predators.
6 million years. 00:36:36 00:36:36 silicon is the second-most abundant element in Earth's crust. 00:36:48 00:36:49 rocks that can be chipped and shaped without shattering. literally 2. .6 million years ago.00:36:28 00:36:31 Created in the cores of stars billions of years before. 00:36:52 00:36:54 Hominids started doing this 2. 00:36:40 00:36:40 One of its chemical quirks is the ability to bond with oxygen 00:36:44 00:36:44 to form crystals that combine into solid rocks. 00:36:57 00:36:58 breaking cryptocrystalline silicates to make sharp edges. 00:37:05 00:37:10 Simply having a modified stone with a sharp edge on it. 00:37:01 00:37:01 and people use them for millions. 00:37:13 00:37:13 00:37:15 now suddenly you have a hammer.
00:37:15 00:37:18 00:37:18 You have a crude cutting edge. the Stone Age. A simple modified stone means a human can suddenly do 00:37:22 00:37:22 a thousand more things than we could do previously. That little extra bit of technology . 00:37:26 00:37:31 00:37:34 00:37:34 enabled our ancestors to persist and eventually turn into us. 00:37:40 00:37:43 Silicon launches the first technological revolution. 00:37:46 00:37:47 00:37:49 00:37:51 Millions of years after it powers our first handheld devices. 00:37:56 00:37:56 another chemical quirk of silicon will make it 00:37:59 00:37:59 00:38:01 00:38:04 The next leap towards becoming truly human 00:38:07 00:38:07 relies on a little-known secret the height of technology once again.
00:38:52 00:38:53 lf fire wasn't a possibility.of our home planet. 00:38:35 00:38:38 But only on Earth do we have the two critical things 00:38:40 00:38:41 00:38:43 00:38:45 a vast fuel supply in the form of plants and trees. 00:38:10 00:38:10 00:38:12 00:38:12 it turns out Earth may have a rare and special power. 00:38:29 00:38:32 Other planets and moons have lightning and lava. you'd have nothing like us running around. ln the known universe. 00:38:15 00:38:21 Of all the planets and moons in the solar system. 00:38:24 00:38:24 we think that Earth is unique in the ability to sustain fire. 00:38:57 we need for fire to burn. 00:38:48 00:38:49 and an atmosphere full of oxygen to fan the flames. .
giving us more energy. 00:39:22 00:39:24 Remember that all energy was created in the Big Bang 00:39:27 00:39:27 and all life is in a competition for our share of this energy. 00:39:38 00:39:38 releasing more calories. 00:39:42 00:39:42 which in turn allows us to support bigger brains. 00:39:45 00:39:48 Fire is also the ultimate gateway technology.000 years ago.00:39:01 Homo sapiens. 00:39:51 00:39:52 We will soon use it Using fire to cook is like having . 00:39:04 00:39:10 Our ancestors have fire firmly under control by 800. 00:39:15 00:39:19 lt's a skill that connects us back to the very beginning. they made a world with fire. 00:39:31 00:39:33 00:39:35 00:39:35 an external stomach to break down foods.
for creatures that know how to use it. metal into weapons.000 years ago. 00:40:06 00:40:06 00:40:08 00:40:08 00:40:09 00:40:11 lt's a technology that opens a world of possibilities 00:40:14 00:40:14 00:40:16 00:40:22 00:40:24 00:40:27 the modern human has fully taken shape. water into steam power. The larynx or voice box 200. . no metal. you can't have the internal combustion engine. 00:40:29 00:40:31 00:40:33 00:40:33 which is high up in the throat in our ancestors. descends. No fire. no rubber. No fire.to turn clay into pottery. 00:40:37 00:40:38 00:40:41 More complex sounds are now possible. 00:39:55 00:39:56 00:39:58 00:39:59 00:40:01 00:40:03 lf you don't have fire.
"My aunt told me that her cousin found this water hole 00:41:10 00:41:10 00:41:11 00:41:13 00:41:14 00:41:14 and we can all understand what they mean when they were describing 00:41:17 00:41:17 00:41:19 what they found out on that landscape. For the first time. . And we can all benefit "on the other side of that river." "we go off and hunted zebras. "My grandfather said that when the elephants didn't show up 00:41:05 00:41:05 00:41:06 00:41:07 You know." over every other creature on Earth.00:40:44 00:40:47 00:40:49 We begin to speak. information can be shared 00:40:52 00:40:52 between individuals and across generations. 00:40:56 00:40:57 Humans have gained a critical advantage 00:40:59 00:40:59 00:41:01 00:41:02 You can tell.
00:41:32 00:41:33 One can borrow the personal experience of anyone 00:41:36 00:41:36 00:41:37 00:41:38 00:41:39 00:41:39 00:41:41 00:41:42 As a species. No other creature has that. with whom one can communicate. and we are now ready to play.000 years ago. humans become exponentially smarter.00:41:20 Language changes humans from being like stand-alone computers 00:41:24 00:41:24 to being networked computers where you can share information. 1 00. That's a powerful advantage. . 00:41:46 00:41:47 The global game board has been set. man can move. 00:42:02 00:42:02 We can communicate and control fire. 00:41:51 00:41:54 00:41:58 00:41:59 We have agile hands and primitive tools. one doesn't need to depend on one's own personal experience. 00:41:27 00:41:30 Now.
00:42:05 00:42:06 We are finally ready to expand out of our African home 00:42:09 00:42:11 on a path millions of years in the making. 00:42:34 00:42:36 00:42:37 00:42:37 this means more than half the land on Earth can be reached on foot. 00:42:42 00:42:47 Human dispersal was a crucial game changer. We are one of the few primates For early humans. Afro-Eurasia. 33 million square miles. . 00:42:27 00:42:29 00:42:31 00:42:31 more than twice the surface area of our entire moon. 00:42:50 00:42:51 00:42:53 00:42:53 that live on more than one continent simultaneously. 00:42:14 00:42:19 Shifting continents have linked Africa and Eurasia 00:42:22 00:42:22 into the largest contiguous landmass on Earth.
00:43:27 00:43:29 By 50. Dispersal is extinction insurance. An ice age begins. the planet turns on us. humans continue their conquest of the globe. glaciers begin to advance down from the North Pole. 00:43:38 00:43:38 00:43:40 arriving in China and Australia. than other primates are. . 00:43:08 00:43:12 But just as the world begins to open itself up to man. 00:43:16 00:43:16 00:43:18 00:43:20 00:43:22 00:43:24 Now the planet will test us like never before.00:42:56 00:42:57 So what that means is that we're better insulated 00:43:00 00:43:00 from the kinds of things that caused big mammals to become extinct 00:43:02 00:43:03 00:43:04 00:43:05 lt's extinction insurance. 00:43:34 00:43:34 At the same time.000 years ago.
00:44:07 00:44:12 00:44:14 00:44:16 00:44:18 00:44:18 00:44:21 00:44:21 beyond what is simply needed to survive.000 years ago.00:43:41 By 30. The clues lie in these symbols. that is the same as us.000 years ago. 00:44:28 00:44:28 00:44:29 00:44:29 when we start seeing evidence of symbolic thought. Despite the trials of the lce Age. 00:43:50 00:43:51 the march of man reaches the frigid tundra of Northeast Siberia. 00:43:55 00:43:57 00:43:59 00:44:00 man endures and develops the last skills we will need to be truly human. . We have taken an intellectual leap. with the ice nearing its most extreme. 00:44:24 00:44:25 We can only start saying we have an organism that is human. Homo sapiens reach Europe for the first time. to think beyond the here and now. 00:43:45 00:43:46 By 20.
to any other species on this planet. can we say that is a human. with huge amounts of the planet's water locked up in ice. 00:44:50 00:44:51 that see the world in the same way as us.00:44:31 00:44:33 lt's when we start seeing a picture of a cow 00:44:37 00:44:38 that everybody will recognize as the picture of a cow. 00:44:41 00:44:41 Because only when we start seeing all of those things 00:44:44 00:44:44 00:44:46 00:44:47 People or creatures that think like us. . 00:44:53 00:44:54 00:44:55 00:44:55 human history was marked to be radically different 00:44:56 00:44:58 00:45:00 00:45:01 Now. And from that moment on. 00:45:05 00:45:05 00:45:09 sea levels plummet by 300 to 400 feet.
00:45:37 00:45:38 And human history as we know it can truly begin. 00:45:31 00:45:31 These years of preparation have allowed man 00:45:34 00:45:34 to finally emerge and spread out across the planet. . 00:45:26 00:45:26 and in just one hour. 00:45:58 00:46:01 00:46:04 00:46:04 it's important to remember Now. 00:45:19 00:45:23 We are telling the history of the world in two hours. more than 1 3 billion years have already passed. 00:45:53 00:45:54 lt has taken us on a journey of nearly 14 billion years. 00:45:14 00:45:14 We come across the Bering Land Bridge from Siberia to North America.00:45:10 The last great barrier to the spread of man is erased. the Big Bang. as humans take center stage. 00:45:41 00:45:48 Our history of the world began with the beginning of time.
the Earth would have existed only for the past five years. .00:46:06 00:46:07 just how small a slice of history we actually occupy. 00:46:11 00:46:12 00:46:13 00:46:13 imagine compressing 14 billion years of history 00:46:17 00:46:18 00:46:20 00:46:22 On this scale. 00:46:49 00:46:50 00:46:51 Modern industrial societies. 00:46:36 00:46:37 On this scale. 00:46:31 00:46:32 Large complex creatures would have developed seven months ago. dinosaurs went extinct only about three weeks ago. To make things simple. The entire recorded history of humans down to just 14 years. 00:46:28 00:46:29 So that's about a third of the history of the universe. 00:46:42 00:46:43 00:46:45 00:46:46 would span only the last three minutes.
000 years after expanding out ofAfrica.000 B. 00:47:40 man has reached South America. six seconds ago. 00:47:05 00:47:06 Mankind has waited billions of years for our brief instant to shine. 00:47:20 00:47:27 00:47:29 00:47:29 less than 1 00. effectively. 00:47:11 00:47:12 00:47:14 00:47:14 carried out the slow work of organizing the elements 00:47:17 00:47:18 in a way that would make human history possible. 00:47:34 00:47:34 00:47:36 00:47:37 Humans have met the adversity of the ice age head on. 00:46:55 00:46:57 What this shows me is that we humans have been around 00:47:00 00:47:00 for only a very brief instant in the recorded history of the universe.. as the stars and our evolving planet . lt's 1 0.C.00:46:52 the lndustrial Revolution.
00:47:41 00:47:42 00:47:43 and rather than die off. From coast to mountaintop. 00:48:22 00:48:22 but now the ice begins to melt and sea levels rise again. 00:48:28 00:48:28 Humans are trapped and separated in two vast and unconnected hemispheres. They only live in the tropics. . 00:47:46 00:47:47 And now we have colonized the entire globe. we have adapted. become even more intelligent. 00:48:11 00:48:11 00:48:13 00:48:13 Humans have managed to colonize the entire globe. 00:47:50 00:47:52 00:47:55 00:47:58 00:48:03 00:48:04 00:48:06 00:48:07 Our closest living ancestors. 00:48:16 00:48:18 lce age land bridges allowed man to spread around the world. live in the tropics. the chimpanzees. humans are there. from tundra to desert.
The map as we know it emerges. modern-day lraq. and form Egypt's Nile River. and bays. other rivers emerge. As the glaciers recede. 00:49:16 00:49:18 These river valleys become critically important 00:49:20 00:49:20 for how human history will now be ln Eurasia. . 00:48:45 00:48:46 00:48:48 00:48:51 00:48:52 00:48:52 increased rainfall causes Lake Victoria and Lake Albert to overflow 00:48:56 00:48:58 00:49:00 00:49:02 00:49:04 00:49:05 the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. 00:48:38 00:48:39 00:48:41 00:48:41 they carve out lakes. 00:49:09 00:49:11 The lndus in modern-day Pakistan and China's Yellow and Yangtze. ln Africa.00:48:33 00:48:33 Each pocket of humanity left to make the best of what it has been given. rivers.
00:49:25 00:49:27 These are the river valleys whose waters and fertile soils 00:49:31 00:49:31 will allow the first seeds of civilization to be planted. 00:49:41 00:49:41 00:49:44 00:49:45 and man can finally choose to stop moving.played out 00:49:23 00:49:23 following the retreat of these ice sheets. our ancestors have to get clever. Populations grow. 00:49:35 00:49:38 With temperatures warming after the ice age. . plants and animals are more plentiful. Permanent settlements begin. 00:50:04 00:50:06 They had to find a way to increase the amount of food 00:50:08 00:50:08 they could get from the surroundings. 00:49:48 00:49:50 00:49:52 00:49:54 00:49:55 00:50:00 With more mouths to feed.
00:50:44 00:50:45 00:50:47 00:50:47 lronically. grass seeds become the most important food crops 00:50:50 00:50:50 in the world. 00:50:33 00:50:33 the unheralded hero of human history. 00:50:17 00:50:20 00:50:22 00:50:25 And the seeds we sow come from the same plants 00:50:28 00:50:28 that millions of years earlier spurred our evolution from ape to man. one discovery forever changes the planet and the path of mankind.00:50:10 00:50:11 Now. 00:50:42 00:50:42 l can hunt a bison or l can take grass. right? lt's no food. 00:50:38 00:50:40 A grass seed is tiny. right? We learn to plant seeds. grass. . You hunt a bison. but they're the things that are ignored by hunter-gatherers 00:50:53 00:50:53 for thousands and thousands of years.
00:51:18 00:51:19 lt's also the staple crop upon which civilization depends. includes sugarcane. 00:51:12 00:51:13 So it's not just that beautiful green lawn 00:51:16 00:51:16 that we measure our middle class success from. 00:51:27 00:51:29 Once again. it all goes back to the Big Bang. 00:51:24 00:51:24 lt is the majority of our calorie intake. 00:51:32 00:51:34 Central to the story of all life lt includes wheat and rye and barley. 00:50:58 00:51:00 Some of the species of grass that we are most familiar with 00:51:03 00:51:03 00:51:05 00:51:05 00:51:09 00:51:09 all of the cereal crops are types of grass. .00:50:55 00:50:55 People don't start using them until they absolutely have to use them.
farming begins to take hold 00:52:18 Just as oxygen gave us an edge. 00:51:57 00:51:57 enough energy in the form of plants and meat to survive. 00:52:11 00:52:14 ln the warming after the last ice age.is our competition for that energy 00:51:37 00:51:37 00:51:39 00:51:40 00:51:43 00:51:43 just as fire allowed us to consume more calories. 00:51:50 00:51:51 A hunter-gatherer needs 1 0 square miles of territory 00:51:54 00:51:54 to provide himself with enough sustenance. . 00:51:47 00:51:47 switching to farming is an energy revolution. 00:52:01 00:52:02 A farmer can harvest the sun's energy so efficiently. created at the beginning of time. 00:52:06 00:52:06 he can fulfill his needs using only a tenth of a square mile of land.
we're talking about cattle. rye. no place in the ancient world 00:52:25 00:52:25 has a better concentration of plants and animals 00:52:28 00:52:28 00:52:30 00:52:30 than the Middle East's Fertile Crescent. two varieties of wheat. lentils. both plants and animals.00:52:18 in a half dozen places around the globe. 00:52:21 00:52:21 but by the fortunes of geography. barley. we have this remarkable convergence 00:52:36 00:52:36 of species that seem to have been susceptible 00:52:39 00:52:39 to domestication. and goats. pigs. 00:52:47 00:52:47 ln terms of plants. figs. 00:52:33 00:52:33 ln the Middle East. sheep. 00:52:52 00:52:52 all in this very small part that can be domesticated . 00:52:42 00:52:43 ln terms of animals.
of the world. 00:53:43 will become more powerful lt's a critical difference. 00:53:00 00:53:00 places like sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas 00:53:03 00:53:03 have very few wild species that can be easily domesticated. 00:53:37 00:53:39 lt's a little-known fact that although horses first evolved in the Americas. 00:53:08 00:53:10 00:53:13 00:53:13 People blessed with the right mix of plants and animals 00:53:16 00:53:16 00:53:18 00:53:18 and get a massive head start on the road to the modern world. 00:52:55 00:52:56 Unlike the Fertile Crescent and the rest ofAfro-Eurasia. . 00:53:22 00:53:30 One animal that gives any human who can tame it 00:53:33 00:53:33 an almost unbeatable edge is the horse.
They're gone. 00:53:52 00:53:52 maybe more.000 B. some as small as ponies. These powerful potential allies around 1 0. 00:54:10 00:54:10 00:54:12 00:54:12 large numbers of horses escaped back across the Bering Strait land bridge 00:54:16 00:54:16 and spread out across the great grasslands 00:54:18 Fortunately before that happened. some as big as Clydesdales. and then..00:53:43 they died out there along with many other large mammals 00:53:47 00:53:47 00:53:49 00:53:49 There were at least three species of ice age horses in North America. . They're gone. 00:54:03 00:54:04 00:54:06 00:54:06 disappear before they can be used by the first North Americans.. 00:53:59 00:53:59 They're part of the whole history.C. 00:53:56 00:53:56 And they had evolved in North America for 40 million years.
C. on the course of human history. .00:54:18 00:54:20 00:54:22 and steppe lands of Central Eurasia.000 B.. 00:54:26 00:54:27 00:54:29 00:54:29 nomadic people in Central Asia learn to tame them for the first time. 00:54:43 00:54:47 Perhaps no other animal has had a bigger influence 00:54:50 00:54:50 00:54:52 00:54:54 And the circle wouldn't be complete for another 5.000 years 00:54:58 00:54:58 when Christopher Columbus would bring horses with him 00:55:01 00:55:01 00:55:04 00:55:05 His horses would be the first on his second voyage to the Americas. 00:54:34 00:54:36 Domesticated horses will be harnessed across Eurasia. Around 4. 00:54:40 00:54:40 advancing everything from work to warfare. A narrow escape that had a profound effect on human history.
00:55:35 00:55:35 a type of gravity is at work as places like Sumeria. 00:55:29 00:55:30 Like clouds of interstellar dust gathering in material to form stars.C.. support large populations. 00:55:39 00:55:39 located in part of the Fertile Crescent known as Mesopotamia.000 years ago. 00:55:50 00:55:52 00:55:54 00:55:54 some of these Sumerian settlements can truly be called our first cities. . 00:55:46 00:55:46 and spin up into centers of power and innovation.000 years earlier.000 B. domestication of animals and plants 00:55:25 00:55:25 sets the stage for the next phase of human history. By 3. 00:55:13 00:55:21 6.to set hooves in the Americas 00:55:09 00:55:09 since the great die-off over 1 0. 00:55:43 00:55:43 draw in people.
00:56:13 00:56:16 Humans have become so efficient at deriving energy 00:56:19 00:56:19 from domesticated food that this land area. living in less than one square mile. Once you move to agriculture. now can support thousands. has around 50. 00:56:34 00:56:39 00:56:41 00:56:41 you are depending for 80. 00:56:25 00:56:26 00:56:28 00:56:30 But a change in diet also triggers a new dependence. 00:56:22 00:56:22 which would have supported only a single hunter-gatherer.00:55:59 00:56:01 One of them.000 people 00:56:05 00:56:05 00:56:09 00:56:09 a population density that rivals modern-day New York City. Uruk. . 90% of your calories 00:56:44 00:56:44 00:56:46 on perhaps one or two species.
00:56:56 00:56:56 So now we have our food for the year that has arrived in one hit. 00:56:48 00:56:49 00:56:50 00:56:50 they both ripen at about the same time. 00:57:06 00:57:06 because if inevitably your crop fails. 00:57:00 00:57:01 lt's like getting your salary paid once a year.00:56:46 ln the case of the Middle East. You need to plan. ln the case of wheat and barley. 00:57:10 00:57:11 And you're not gonna have another go for another 1 2 months. wheat and barley. . 00:57:14 00:57:19 00:57:23 00:57:25 00:57:27 To keep track of them. ln these first cities. 00:57:04 00:57:04 You need to record it. you have famine. crops are king. 00:56:53 00:56:53 Humans have to gather the seeds at the same time.
00:57:30 00:57:30 00:57:33 00:57:34 And to administer them. there's simply too many people To protect them. lt creates a need for government. 00:57:45 00:57:45 00:57:48 00:57:49 lt creates a need for some form of social and political hierarchy. 00:57:37 00:57:38 When you have hundreds or thousands of people who are living together. the beginnings of politics. 00:57:53 00:57:55 Planting seeds has set man on a new path. . the first armies. 00:57:42 00:57:42 00:57:43 00:57:43 to sort of run around and create a census. 00:57:57 00:57:59 00:58:01 00:58:02 But to take the next epic step from city to civilization.00:57:27 our ancestors develop the first writing. 00:58:07 00:58:07 we'll need the help Settlements have grown into cities.
000 years. 00:58:29 00:58:30 00:58:32 00:58:35 We cluster near rivers. 00:58:58 00:58:59 The more they exchange goods and learn from other lands. they must all master one thing. the Nile.of a very surprising creature. mankind has begun to settle down. 5. . 00:58:11 00:58:22 00:58:25 00:58:25 after wandering the Earth for more than 1 00. along the Tigris and Euphrates. trade. the Yellow and Yangtze. 00:58:39 00:58:41 00:58:45 00:58:47 00:58:49 00:58:49 00:58:51 00:58:54 But first. the lndus.000 years ago. 00:59:02 00:59:02 00:59:04 00:59:05 lt seems that long-distance trade and communication 00:59:08 00:59:08 the faster they grow. Civilizations are about to take off.