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# The Activated Sludge Model No 1 ASM1

Bengt Carlsson

## The Peterson process matrix

General expression for a component z in a completely mixed reactor . V z = Qzin Qz + Vrz

. z = Dzin Dz + rz

where V=volume of the reactor, Q=inflow rate=outflow rate, D=Q/V=dilution rate, and rz is the process rate Note that rZ = ( S ) X for simple biomass growth. In the process matrix discussed below, only process rates are described.

Example 1

## Biomass with Monod growth rate and decay:

rX = max S X bX KS + X

If we assume that all decayed biomass becomes substrate the process rate for substrate is:
1 S rS = max X + bX Y KS + X

## Peterson matrix for Example 1

Components Process

X 1 -1

Growth Decay

1 Y
1

max

S X KS + X

bX

## The bisubstrate model

Slowly biodeg substrate Xs Hydrolysis Easily biodeg substrate Ss Growth of biomass Biomass X 1-f f Decay of biomass

Inert matter XP

Example 2. A Bisubstrate model Assumptions: Biomass X has growth rate r and a decay bX. A typical example of r is SO S r = max X K S + S K O + SO The fraction (1-f) of the decayed biomass becomes slowly biodeg matter Xs, and fraction f becomes inert matter Xp. The yield is Y and hydrolysis of Xs has growth rate kXS

Substrate dynamics:
dS S 1 = r + kX S dt Y

## Change of slowly biodeg substrate:

dX S = (1 f )bX kX S dt

## Accumulation of inert matter:

dX P = f bX dt Growth and decay of biomass dX = 1 r 1b X dt

SS

XS

XP

rate

Growth

-1/Y

Decay

(1-f)

-1

bX

Hydrolysis

-1

k XS

In ASM1, a bisubstrate model is used for the carbon oxidation process. If the substrate and biomass is measured in COD [g COD/m3] the oxygen consumption is easy to calculate by adding the factors in the growth process:
1 (1 Y ) r + 1r = r Y Y

ASM1
ASM1 proposed 1987, probably the most used model for the ASP. Previously called IAWQ Model No 1 ASM2: 1995, model for biological P removal ASM3 1999, improvements of ASM1. Substrate goes through a storage process ADM1 2001, Anaerobic Digester Model No 1

ASM1 describes an activated sludge system with carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification. In total 8 processes are modelled: Growth of biomass (3), decay (2), ammonification of organic N (1), hydrolysis (2) Heterotrophic biomass XB,H: - Oxidise carbon under aerobic conditions - Denitrify (SNO =>N2) under anoxic conditions (if substrate available). Autotropic biomass XB,A: - Nitrify (SNH =>SNO) under aerobic conditions.

Total COD

## Active biomass Heterotrophs XB,H Autothrops XB,A

Nitrogeneous components
Most important components: Ammonia SNH Nitrate (and nitrite) SNO Biodeg N: SND and XND

## Growth rates and processes:

growth of heterotrophs XB,H - Aerobic growth - Anoxic growth - Decay
dX B , H dt

= H

SS SO X B,H K S + S S K O + SO

K O,H SS S NO + H g X B,H K S + S S K O , H + SO K S + S NO bH X B , H

## Growth of autotrophs XB,A - Aerobic growth - Decay

dX B , A dt

SO S NH X B, A = A K NH + S NH K O , A + SO bA X B , A

Model parameters
ASM1 has 19 model parameters, where some (typically max growth rates) are temperature dependent. Default values exist, but several parameters may need to be tuned to mimic a specific plant. Some set of parameters may lead to (approximately) the same model behaviour! Also the influent water needs to be characterized. See: Calibrating, identifiability and optimal experimental design of activated sludge models, B Peterson, PhD 2000. Thesis available for download

Limitations of ASM1
Examples: The pH is assumed to be near neutrality Many of the relations are empirical or based on hypothesis Cells need nutrients to grow which are not modelled Constant temperature. In order to allow for temperature variations, Arrerenius relations may be used

Model use
Example of use: Testing and evaluation new control strategies Education and process understanding Evaluating new processes and/or operating modes Process optimization Prediction The goal of the modelling should determine how careful the model should be calibrated.