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Diffusion and Osmosis Chapter 2 At the end of the chapter, students should be able to: 1. Define diffusion and describe its role in nutrient uptake and gaseous exchange in plants and humans. 2. Define osmosis and describe the effects of osmosis on plant and animal tissues.

 The plasma membrane is partially permeable  only allows certain substances to pass through  Substances cross the plasma membrane, leaving or entering cell by diffusion, osmosis and active transport.

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Surface Area to Volume Ratio  Why are most cells microscopic?  Why are all large organisms made up of many cells but not just one cell?

Total surface area (height x width x number of sides x number of boxes) Total volume (height x width x length x number of boxes) Surface-area-tovolume ratio (area ÷ volume)

6

250

750

1

125

125

6

1.2

6

In the diagram, cells are represented as boxes  As the size of cell increases to 5 units of length per side in (b), the ratio of surface area to volume ratio decreases compared to the smaller cell (a)  In a large cell (b), rates of movement of materials across cell membranes are needed to meet the needs of cell may not be enough because most of the cytoplasm is far away from the cell membrane  By dividing large cell to many small cells in (c), a high surface area to volume ratio can be restored. This can serve each cell’s need for getting nutrients and remove waste products  That is why larger organisms do not generally have larger cells than smaller organisms, but more cells.

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Diffusion  Molecules of oxygen are moving about all the time. Molecules of a liquid, or a substance like sugar dissolved in water also move around.  The movement cause molecules to spread themselves out evenly to fill all the available space  Diffusion  movement of molecules from a region of _______________ concentration to a region of _________________ concentration, down a concentration gradient.  Concentration gradient  difference between high concentration and low concentration  Diffusion ________________________________.

 Diffusion also occurs in liquids. o When you add a drop of red ink to a beaker of water, the ink spread slowly throughout the water without stirring. o Water in beaker becomes evenly red

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 Rate of diffusion depends on: o Concentration gradient  The greater the difference in concentrations between two regions of a substance, the faster the rate of diffusion  __________________ diffusion gradient, faster diffusion

o Distance over which diffusion takes place  Shorter distance between the 2 regions of concentration, __________________ rate of diffusion

o Area over which diffusion takes place   Larger surface area, ___________________ rate of diffusion. Diffusion surfaces have structures for increasing surface area where they exchange material. Eg. Microvilli on cells lining the intestine.

o Size and nature of diffusion molecules   Small molecules dissolve ____________________ Molecules that dissolve in fats diffuse _____________________ through cell membranes than molecules that dissolve in water.

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Importance of diffusion  Diffusion an important way which substances move in and out of cells. In booth plant and animal cells, gases are exchanged through diffusion  Examples: o Presence of millions of alveoli in the lungs provides very large surface area for gaseous exchange o In plants, carbon dioxide diffuses in through the stomata during photosynthesis and oxygen diffuses out o In a one-celled organism called Amoeba, _________________ diffuses in and __________________ diffuses out of it.

Osmosis  The figure shows a concentrated sugar solution, separated from a dilute sugar solution by a partially permeable membrane. o This membrane only allows _________________ molecules but not the larger sugar molecules to pass through

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 Water then diffuses from _____________ solution (more water molecules) into more ____________________ solution (less water molecules) through partially permeable membrane.  Process  osmosis o Definition: movement of ____________________________ from region of their _______________ concentration to a region of their _______________ concentration, through a partially permeable membrane.

Water potential  Water potential of solution  whether the solution lose water molecules or gain water molecules from another solution  Pure water has highest water potential  Another way of defining osmosis  movement of water molecules from a region of __________________ water potential to a region of _________________ water potential, through a partially permeable membrane.

Importance of osmosis in the uptake of water by plants  Plants absorb water from soil through root hairs.  The __________________ is usually less concentrated than ______________ in vacuole of root hair cell  Water moves into root hair cell by _____________, from higher water potential to lower water potential through partially permeable membrane (plasma membrane of root hair cell.  Water passes from one cell to another by _______________ until it reaches the xylem vessels.

Effect of Osmosis on Plant Cells  The effects of osmosis on plant cells can be observed by placing them in a) Water b) Concentrated sugar or salt solution (more concentrated than the cell sap in the vacuole) Diffusion and osmosis 6

In solution of high water potential or pure distilled water 1. water _______________ cell by osmosis 2. vacuole _______________ in size 3. cell contents are pushed against the cellulose cell wall 4. the cell wall prevents over expansion of the cell by exerting an opposing pressure preventing the entry of more water 5. the cell becomes ______________ 6. the plant cell does not _____________ because the cell wall is tough

In solution with low water potential 1. water _____________ cell by osmosis 2. vacuole ______________ in size 3. cytoplasm shrinks away the cellulose cell wall and it stops pushing outwards on the cell wall 4. the cell becomes ______________ 5. as more water is lost, the cytoplasm shrinks further into the centre of the cell but the cell wall is too stiff to shrink much 6. the cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm tears away from the cell wall. The cell is ________________ 7. Plasmolysis occurs when a plant cell is placed in a concentrated solution.

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Effect of Osmosis on Animal Cells  The effect of osmosis on animal cells can be shown by putting red blood cells in a) Water b) Strong salt solution (more concentrated than the cytoplasm) Strong salt solution water

 In water  Water ___________________ cell by osmosis  Cells become larger and burst  In strong salt solution  Water _________________ cell by osmosis  Cells shrink

Active Transport  Requires energy (from respiration)  Enables cell to transport substances from a region of __________________ concentration to a region of ___________________ concentration.  Example of active transport o Root hair cells take in mineral salts from soil although the soil may not have a lot of mineral salts

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