A Technical paper presentation on


PRESENTED BY: P.SUDHEER, Y07IT105, II/IVB.Tech, E-mail:prattipati8@yahoo.co.in Ph no:9989153955

TO Quest 09

ABSTRACT: A Computational Grid is a collection of heterogeneous computers and resources spread across multiple administrative domains with the intent of providing users uniformaccess to these resources. There are many ways to access the resources of a Computational Grid, each with unique security requirements and implications for both the resource user and the resource provider. Grid Computing strives to provide seamless, scalable access to wide-area distributed resources. However, with this benefit of resource collection and distribution, security of that information becomes a major risk (Vijayan, 2004). Currently there is debate among IT professionals as to the security, functionality, middleware, and scalability provisions of computational grids. A central security requirement for grid computing can be referred to as behaviour conformity. This is KEY WORDS: VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION(VO),TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCAL(TCP),OPEN GRID SERVICE ARCHITECTURE(OGSA), an assurance that ad hoc related principals (users, platforms or instruments) forming a grid virtual alorganisation (VO) must each act in conformity with the rules for the VO constitution. Trusted Computing (TC) technology can add to grid computingthe needed property of behaviour conformity. With TC using an essentially in-platform (trusted) third party, a principal can be imposed to have conformed behaviour and this fact can be reportedto interested parties who may only need to be ad hoc related to theformer. A broader goal of these scenarios are to increase the awareness of security issues in grid computing

















are fundamental to the grid design. The basic security components within the Globus Toolkit provide the mechanisms for and authentication,authorization,

environment, there are many different tools and technologies available. This chapter will examine some of those technologies and the different components provided within the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) of the Globus Toolkit. WHAT IS A GRID COMPUTING? communications emerging between heterogeneous for sharing

confidentiality of communication between grid computers.Without this functionality, the integrity and confidentiality of the dataocessed within the grid would be at

Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources.The standardization of WHAT CAN GRID COMPUTING DO? When you deploy a grid, it will be to meet a set of customer requirements. To better match grid computing capabilities to those requirements, it is useful to keep in mind the reasons for using grid computing.

system created the Internet explosion. The standardization resources, along with the availability of higher bandwidth, are driving a possibly Lequally large evolutionary step in grid computing.

PARALLEL CPU: The potential for massive parallel CPU capacity is one of the most attractive features of a grid. In addition to pure

scientific needs, such computing power isdriving a new evolution in industries such as the bio-medical field, financialmodeling, oil exploration, motion picture animation, and many others. CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS OF GRID COMPUTING: CONCEPTS: Types of resources

A grid is a collection of machines, sometimes referred to as “nodes,” “resources,” “members,” “donors,” “clients,” “hosts,” “engines,” and many other such terms.They all contribute any combination of resources to the grid as a whole. Someresources may be used by all users of the grid while others may have specificrestrictions. add additional hardware to augment the capabilities of the grid. ORGANIZATION: The technology considerations are important in deploying a grid. However,organizational and business issues can be equally important. It is important to understand how the departments in an organization interact, operate, and contribute to the whole. SECURITY: Security is a much more important factor in planning and maintaining a grid than in conventional distributed computing, where data sharing comprises the bulk ofthe activity. In a grid, the member machines are configured to execute programs rather than just move data. This makes an unsecured grid potentially fertile ground for viruses and Trojan horse programs MIDDLEWARE: DEVELOPMENT:This discribes the software for the grid portal environment .source code and applications for two of the main gro=id protocals.resource and datamanagement.the software ws written by apache jetspeed and IBMwebspherebportal sphere.

COMPONENTS: Any grid system has some management components. First, there is a component that keeps track of the resources available to the grid and whichusers are members of the grid. This information is used primarily to decide where grid jobs should be assigned.Second, there are measurement com ponents that determine both the capacities of the nodes on the grid and their current utilization rate at any given time. This information is used to schedule jobs in the grid. Such information is also used to determine the health of the grid, alerting personnel to problems such as outages,congestion, or overcommitment. This information is also used to determine CONSTRUCTION: DEPLOYMENT PLANNING: The use of a grid is often born from a need for increased resources of some type.One often looks to their neighbor who may have excess capacity in the particular resource. One of the first considerations is the hardware available and how it is connected via a LAN or WAN. Next, an organization may want to

SCHEDULER:schedulers are at the foundation of thee ny grid system.their job is to schedule programme or jobs in clusters of of maachine among others.and it also includes sun grid engine,(Sge),condorand others.and also includes managedd job factory service providede by troubleshootuing& globus toolkit. . VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION: Two or more organizations that share resources become VO.The policies governing access to those resource vary according to the actual organizations environmemnt involved,creating of providers an and

OGSA:Open grid service architecture is the middle-tier software that glues client and scheduler service together.this includes overview of ogsa,service models,interfaces,factories,lifetime management,service discovery,notifications

bullet that can take any application and run it a 1000 times faster withoutthe need for buying any more machines or software. Not every application issuitable or enabled for running on a grid. Some kinds of applications simplycannot be parallelized. For others, it can take a large amount of work to modifythem to achieve faster throughput. The configuration of a grid can greatly affect the performance, reliability, and security of an organization’s computing infrastructure. For all of these reasons, it is important for the users to understand how far the grid has evolved today and which features are coming tomorrow or in the distant future.

consumers.resources are made available by owners withconstraints on when,where and what can be done on them.Resources consumers may also place constraints on properties of the resources they are prepared to work with.For example ,a consumer may accept resource over a secure channel only. WHAT CAN GRID COMPUTING CANNOT DO: A word of caution should be given to the overly enthusiastic. The grid is not a silver :SECURITY IN GRID COMPUTING: FUNDAMENTALS IN GRID SECURITY: Security requires the three fundamental services: authentication, authorization,and encryption. A grid resource must be authenticated before any checks can be done

as to whether or not any requested access or operation is allowed within . Authentication Authentication is the process of verifying the validity of a claimed individual and identifying who he or she is.Authentication is not limited to human beings; services,

applications, and other entities may be required to authenticate also. Access control Assurance that each user or computer that uses the service is permitted to do what he or she asks for. The process of authorization is often used as a synonym for access control, but it also includes granting the access or rights to perform some actions based on access rights. Data integrity Data integrity assures that the data is not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. Data confidentiality Sensitive information must not be revealed to parties that it was not meant for. Data confidentiality is often also referred to as privacy. Key management Key management deals with the secure generation,distribution,authentication, and storage of keys used in cryptography. SYMMENTIC AND ANTI SYMMENTIC KEYS ENCRYPTION: _ Data Encryption Standard (DES): 56-bit key plus 8 parity bits, developed by IBM in the middle 1970s _ Triple-DES: 112-bit key plus 16 parity bits or 168-bit key plus 24 parity bits (that is, two to three DES keys) _ RC2 and RC4: Variable-sized key, often 40 to 128 bits long To summarize, secret key cryptography is fast for both the encryption and decryption processe . However, secure distribution and management guarantee. of keys is difficult to

SYMMENTIC: Symmetric key encryption is based on the use of one shared secret key to perform both the encryption and decryption of data. To ensure that the data is only read by the two parties (sender and receiver), the key has to be distributed securely between the two parties and no others. If someone should gain access to the secret key that is used to encrypt the data, they would be able to decrypt the information. This form of encryption is much faster than asymmetricencryption Here are some commonly used examples of a symmetric key cryptosystem:

ANTI SYMMENTIC KEY ENCRYPTION: The asymmetric key pair is generated by a computation which starts by finding two vary large prime numbers. Even though the public key is widely distributed, it is practically impossible for computers to calculate the private key from the public key. The security is derived from the fact that it is very difficult to factor numbers exceeding but requires hundreds a long of digits.This time, mathematical algorithm improves security, encryption

especially for large amounts of data. For this reason, public key encryption is used to securely transmit a symmetric encryption

key between the two parties,and all further encryption is performed using this symmetric key.

Figure 3-1 Symmetric key encryption using a shared secret key




CERTIFICATE:A properly implemented Certificate Authority (CA) has many responsibilities. responsibilities.These should be followed diligently to achieve good security. The primary responsibilities are: _ Positively identify entities requesting certificates _ Issuing, removing, and archiving certificates

_ Protecting the Certificate Authority server _ Maintaining a namespace of unique names for certificate owners _ Serve signed certificates to those needing to authenticate entities _ Logging activity DIGITAL: Digital certificates are digital documents that associate a grid resource with its specific public key. A certificate is a data structure containing a public key and

pertinent details about the key owner. A certificate is considered to be a tamper-proof electronic ID when it signed by the Certification Authority for the grid environment. Digital certificates, also called X.509 certificates, act very much like passports;they provide a means of identifying grid resources. Unlike passports, digital certificates are used to identify grid resources.

GRID SECURITY POLOCIES AND PROCEDURE: CA AUTHORITY A PKI must be operated in accordance with defined policies. The deployment of a PKI system in an organization requires the development of security policies and processes for that organization. The demo CA that is provided within the Globus Toolkit provides the software in order to . CONTROL REVIEW: When building any new environment or mplementing a new software application, it is always a good idea to perform a security health check. A security health check will help determine how these new changes will

build a CA, but unfortunately none of the policies. In this section, we will examine some of the basic policies and expectations that a CA would normally be responsible for. For any type of 76 Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus production CA duties, it is suggested that you examine a commercial vendor To providetheseservices for you







environment and any other areas of change. This can help provide guidance on the overall use of security controls or how you are managing security within your environment. A review of your security

controls can help you better understand how security works for your passwords, and administration, toolsets, auditing,

will provide an in-depth review of the site security controls in place and the related processes used within the organization.

monitoring within your environment. This GRID SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE: Apart from the different GSI components and technologies, there are many other infrastructure security components that are needed to secure the grid. Physical security Once again, the security of grid require additional security. In a grid environment,this is no different. The use of firewalls within a grid design helps restrict network.access to computers. The firewall is an important piece of the securityinfrastructure, so it needs to be carefully analyzed and understood before it is implemented.

infrastructure is based on other common security fundamentals. The basics involve solid physical security practices for all grid computers. The physical environment of a system is also considered a part of theinfrastructure. physical access should be controlled and ispart of the security policies that need to be defined For maximum security, the network segment where the PKI-sensitive servermachines are installed should be physically and logically separated from the rest of the network. Ideally, the separation is done through a firewall that Is transparent only for PKI-related traffic. Normally, PKI traffic is reduced to using only a few TCP/IP ports. GRID FIREWALLSFirewalls can be used within networked environment to logically separate different sets of computers that

OPERATING SYSTEM: A review of the configuration files for each operating system and middleware component within the scope of the project determines how each effectively allows authorized users access based on your security policy and prevents and detects unauthorized access attempts at all times. You should: _ Remove any unnecessary processes from the servers. If the grid server does not need sendmail or an FTP server running, these processes should be disabled. _ Remove any unnecessary users or groups. Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus _ Use strong passwords for all users on the grid server. _ Update your server with the latest updates and security FixPacks. This includes all software the has been installed as well.

_ Restrict access to the /.globus directory. _ Consider using host IDS to monitor important directories on the server. _ Enable logging and auditing for the server. _ Use a uniform operating system build whenever possible. _ Enable file level restrictions on important files within the server. _ Make periodic reviews of the operating system every other month to ensure that nothing major has changed. _ Enable anti-virus protection. HOST INTRUSION DETECION: A recommended option for further securing your grid computers is to invest in a host intrusion detection (IDS) product. As with POTENTIAL GRID SECURITY RISK: potential: Building a PKI environment will provide the necessary services along with the GSI to design a secure grid solution. This, however, does not guarantee that there are not any security risks. Within this section, we will examine somen possible vulnerabilities to watch out for during your security design. This is by no means a laundry list for all security vulnerabilities or a cookbook for building a srcure infrastructure. PKI vulnerabilitiesJust because you have built a PKI environment does not mean that your networkis completely secure. There are still many vulnerabilities to be aware of. It isnecessary to always keep an open mind






important files within the local workstation, host intrusion detection can add a greater defense for anyone manipulating files on the workstation thatshould not be doing so. Intrusion detection functions include: _ Monitoring and analyzing both user and system activities _ Analyzing system configurations and vulnerabilities _ Assessing system and file integrity _ Ability to recognize typical patterns of attacks _ Analysis of abnormal activity patterns _ Tracking user policy violations and understand that with any networked environment there is going to be some risk involved. Impersonation: Obtaining a certificate through fraudulent means (either user or organization). Theft of private key: Unauthorized use of a private key associated with a validcertificate. Compromise of root CA private key: Using a CA key to sign fraudulentcertificates or destroying a private key. Automatic Trust Decisions: Automated trust decisions can also automate fraud. Grid server vulnerabilities Any server or workstation that participates in the grid is a potential vulnerability to an external or internal hacker. Knowing this, it is very important to protect and isolate any







Any modification of the gridmap file. Latest operating system FixPacks. Any application FixPacks.

resources that do not need explicit access to the grid. Good physical security will limit the exposure of anybody walking up to the server and accessing the console. Protect any directories of the /.globus directory. Theft of the digital certificate and private key (along with the private key phrase). Any application vulnerabilities or processes that are running on the grid

APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF GRID COMPUTING: Distributed data management • Compute resources for simulations • Coupling distributed data with simulation Virtual resources and virtual organizations for collaboration: Reliability: High-end conventional computing systems use expensive hardware to increase reliability.




provide guidance for theGrid user, the Grid application developer, and the Grid resource provider. While a given scenario can provide practical guidance for design and deployment, additional insightis gained by recognizing the general, rapidly-emerging issuessuch as the need for restricted delegation (giving onlysubset of your rights to something that will act on yourbehalf) that can be seen running through many of the scenarios.

Today, grid systems are still at the early stages of providing a reliable, well performing, and automatically recoverable virtual data sharing and storage. We will see products that take on this task in a grid setting, federating data of all kinds, and achieving better performance, integration with scheduling, reliability, and capacity. Autonomic computing has the goal to make the administrator’s job easier by automating the various complicated tasks involved in managing a grid. These include identifying problems in real time and quickly initiating corrective actions before they seriously impair the grid. CONCLUSION: Computational Grids are rapidly emerging as a practical means by which to perform new science and new applications. The goal of this paper was not to discuss the particularsecurity mechanisms or policies of systems such as Legion,Globus, or any other existing system, but rather to describeGrid security that transcends existing approaches. Each scenarioin this paper is designed to

There are many subtle security implications involved in the many emerging Grid usage scenarios. Both the resource provider and the resource consumer should under stand, from a security perspective, what is expected from each other and what might happen if these expectations are not met. Without this understanding, the transition from experimental systems into production systems will soon be curtailed by explicit security violations or more subtly a

compromise of information that a user had believed was securely kept private. REFERENCES: TEXTBOOKS: GRID COMPUTING A Monograph by D JANAKIRAM GRID COMPUTING for by VLADIMIR SILVA Research


Introduction to GRID COMPUING with globus By IBM.com/redbooks WEBSITES: AN INTERNATIONAL WORK SHOP PAPER ON Security Implications of Typical Grid Computing Usage Scenarios by Marty Humphrey, Mary R. Thompson http://www.wikipedia.com/ www.amazon.com www.grid.org www.ibm.com/redbooks

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