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iirs Module 2 – GPS (EDUSAT based Trg.

Comparative study of
NAVSTAR GPS/
GLONASS/GALILEO/
Augmented
Positioning Systems

P.L.N. Raju, Geoinformatics Division


IIRS
Email – raju@iirs.gov.in
iirs Module 2 - GPS
Introduction
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) involve
satellites, ground stations and user equipment to
determine positions around the world and are now used
across many areas of society
GNSS GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia),
Galileo(Europe), Augmentation Systems
(SBAS, GBAS), IRNS (India), QuasiZenth
(Japan)
Fuelling growth during the next decade will be
next generation GNSS that are currently being
developed.
iirs Outline of my Talk

Comparison of
– GPS
– GLONASS
– GALILEO
Augmented SBNS
– WAAS
– MSAS
– EGNOS
– GAGAN
– GBNS (NDGPS/LAAS)
– Chinese Beidou System
– IRNSS, India’s Navigation System
iirs GPS Constellation
Plane
F E D C B A
D2
E1 B3
C2 B2 160°
F4 D1
120°
A3

a ly
80°

om
F3 F1
40°

an
A4

n
D3 E4 0° Equator

ea
B4 C1

M
320°
A2
280°
B1 satellite
C3 A1 F2 240° operational
E2
200° spare
C4 E3 17° 137° 257°
D4
77° 197° 317°
Right ascension of ascending node
Inclination 55°
Semimajor axis 26561.75 km (altitude above Earth 20183,6 km)
Excentricity nominally e = 0, generally e < 0,02
iirs GNSS SYSTEM
GPS Modernization
• Improved code on the L2 frequency of GPS (called L2C) –

• ionospheric error,

• more immune to RF interference and

• multipath.

• The first Block IIR-M during October 2005.

• Under currently published plans, that is not expected to occur


until 2013 or beyond.

• A third civil frequency at 1176.45MHz (called L5) on the Block IIF


satellites. Full operational capability is unlikely until 2015.

• GPS-III, (extra L2 and L5 signals of the Block IIR-M and Block IIF
satellites), Thirty GPS-III satellites are planned for launch from about 2013
until 2018.
iirs GLONASS Constellation

24 satellites (8 satellites
in each of 3 planes)
e ~ 0 (circular orbit)
inclination 64.8°
altitude 19 100 km,
orbit period 11h 15m
angular spacing between
orbits 120°
iirs About GLONASS

GLobal NAvigation Satellite System


Beginning in 1982
Belongs to USSR (Now Russia)
No onboard atomic clocks
Precise timing on the ground
Few years of life
12 Satellites in orbit
Three orbital planes
iirs About GLONASS

GLONASS receives similar navigational


data
GPS + GLONASS combined receivers
Mostly secrete (till 1988/1989)
Works on two frequencies like GPS
Few years back receivers were with GPS
+ GLONASS, latest no receiver with
GLONASS
1987

9
1988

10
1989

12
1990

14
1991
1992
1993
1994 12 12 12
16

1995
26

1996
22

1997
16

1998
1999
13 12

2000
11

2001
8

2002
7

2003
8

2004
10
iirs GLONASS Constellation history
iirs About GLONASS
iirs GLONASS Future Plans of Russia

GLONASS-M (L1 and L2 bands ) satellites with an improved 7-


year design lifetime.

2007 to 2008 planned to launch GLONASS-K satellites with


improved performance, also transmit a third civil signal (L3).

Stated intention is to achieve a full 24-satellite constellation


transmitting two civil signals by 2010.

Full constellation is planned to be broadcasting three sets of civil


signals by 2012.

Indian Government announced at the end of 2004 that it would be


contributing funds to assist Russia to revitalize GLONASS.
iirs Galileo from the European Union
Constellation of 30 satellites, increased altitude
(approx. 3000km higher than GPS) which will
enable better signal availability at high latitudes.

Exact signal structure is still liable to change,

Galileo satellites broadcast signals compatible


with the L1(E5a E5b) and L5 GPS signals. Galileo
will also broadcast in a third frequency band at E6;
which is not at the same frequency as L2/L2C of
GPS.
iirs About GALILEO

Galileo

Galileo Constellation
iirs About GALILEO

GIOVE - standing for 'Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element


iirs
iirs Galileo services

Open Service(OS)
The OS is free and provides a GPS –
like service, but with enhanced
accuracy. Playing an active role in the
integration of Galileo OS with
GSM/UMTS systems
Safety of Life Service (SoL)
This service is intended for aircraft
navigation.
iirs Galileo services

Commercial Service (CS)


Galileo CS provides enhanced accuracy
compared to OS, and transmits
restricted access broadcasts to
subscribers
Public Regulated Service (PRS)
Galileo PRS is an encrypted service
intended for emergency and defense
use.
iirs Galileo services

Search and Rescue Service (SAR)


Each Galileo satellite will have a receiver
to receive alert message communicated
by International Search and Rescue
Network and transmit on Galileo SAR
signals
iirs Different services and accuracy of position
iirs Satellite Based Augmented Systems
• WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System)
• GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation)
• EGNOS (European Geo-stationary Navigation
Overlay Service )
• MSAS (Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation
System)
• NDGPS (National level Differential Global
Positioning System)
• GBAS (Ground Based Augmented System)
Chinese Beidou System ~ (NDGPS/LAAS)
• India’s IRNSS
iirs Satellite Based Augmented Systems
iirs How Position Accuracy improved with SBAS?
iirs About WAAS

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and


the Department of Transportation (DOT) have
developed the WAAS program for use in precision
flight approaches. Currently, GPS alone does not
meet the FAA's navigation requirements for
accuracy, integrity, and availability. WAAS
corrects for GPS signal errors caused by
ionosphere disturbances, timing, and satellite orbit
errors, and it provides vital integrity information
regarding the health of each GPS satellite.
iirs How WAAS Works?
WAAS consists of approximately 25 ground reference
stations positioned across the United States that monitor
GPS satellite data. Two master stations, located on either
coast, collect data from the reference stations and create a
GPS correction message. This correction accounts for
GPS satellite orbit and clock drift plus signal delays
caused by the atmosphere and ionosphere. The corrected
differential message is then broadcast through one of two
geo-stationary satellites, or satellites with a fixed position
over the equator. The information is compatible with the
basic GPS signal structure, which means any WAAS-
enabled GPS receiver can read the signal.
Note: 1 – 3 m accuracy obtained with WAAS support
iirs How WAAS Works?
iirs Ground Based Augmented Systems
iirs NDGPS

To ensure greater accuracy and improved integrity, the


US Department of Transportation is deploying the
Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System
(NDGPS) service. This service uses ground reference
stations to determine the differential between the GPS
solution and the true solution. This differential is then
broadcast on a low frequency carrier for users to access,
free of direct user charge.

NDGPS provides accurate dynamic navigation


information to travelers with 1- to 2- meter accuracy (and
possibly better in the future).
iirs About GAGAN
GPS Aided Geo Augmentation
Navigation
India and US cooperation to integrate
GPS for ground based positioning
To improve air traffic and other civil
navigation
Joint venture of ISRO and AAI for 110 cr
8 reference stations
Master Control and Uplink facility
iirs

EGNOS
iirs
iirs
iirs Quasi Zenith Satellite System
iirs Augmentations SBAS Constellation

GAGAN MSAS
EGNOS WAAS
MTSAT
INMARSAT
ARTEMIS INMARSAT

GPS
iirs Local Area Augmentation System
It is an all-weather aircraft landing system
based on real-time differential correction of
the GPS signal. Local reference receivers
send data to a central location at the
airport. This data is used to formulate a
correction message, which is then
transmitted to users via a VHF data link. A
receiver on an aircraft uses this information
to correct GPS signals, which then
provides a standard ILS-style display to
use while flying a precision approach.
iirs Chinese Beidou navigation system

Geostationary satellites
Mainly for China
Four satellites launched so Far
10 m accuracy
Open services by 2008
Covers North side 5° to 50° N Latitude and
70°E to 140°E
Receiver sends signal, satellite estimates based
on time of it
iirs IRNSS – India’s own Navigation System

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite


System (IRNSS)
With seven satellites
GEO/ elliptical orbit
To be Build and launch by ISRO
Costs 16 billion rupees
First meeting held in July 2006
iirs References

• Wikipedia the free online encyclopedia


for GPS, EGNOS, WAAS, LAAS, NDGPS,
Beidou Navigation System

• Coordinates monthly Indian News Letter

• GPS World Magazine


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