You are on page 1of 70

Guideline to Design Electrical Network for Building/Small Area.

(1) Calculate Electrical Load: • • Find out built up area in Sqft.of per flat per House/Dwellin unit. !ultipl" area in Sqft. b" Load/Sqft accordin to followin #able Load/S ft 1%% &att/Sqft (% &att/Sqft 1) &att/Sqft

Type of Load $ndustrial Co''ercial Do'estic •

*ppl" t+e di,ersit" factor and Co'pute t+e load of all dwellin units in t+e area. Di!ersity "actor %.) %.%..

Type of Load $ndustrial Co''ercial Do'estic • • • • •

*dd t+e load of co''on ser,ices suc+ as *uditoriu'/ Street Li +ts/ Lifts and &ater 0u'ps etc. For si'plicit" purpose %.)1&/dwellin units 'a" be considered as co''on load. Co'pute t+e 2#otal Load3 of t+e area b" addin load obser,ed at abo,e. *ppl" t+e power factor of %.- to deter'ine t+e load in 14*. Co'pute t+e Load in 14*5 2#otal Load3/%.Take transformer loading of #$% considerin t+e networ1 arran e'ent 6in !ain Circuit.

&'( Decide !oltage grade for Electrical Load) • • • $f load is equal to or 'ore t+an 7.)%!4*/ t+e area s+all be fed t+rou + ((14 feeder. For suc+ loads/ t+e land space for ((/1114 Sub8station s+all +a,e to be allocated b" builder / Societ"/ *ut+orit". For load between 1 !4* to 7.)!4*/ dedicated 1114 feeder s+all be preferred. For load below 1 !4*/ e9istin 1114 feed can be tapped t+rou + 4C: or 6!;.

(() Decide Si<e of #ransfor'er: • • • Select #.C Si<e of 7) =4*/>( =4*/1%% =4*/7%% =4* or .%% =4* accordin to "our Load. #+e 'a9i'u' capacit" of distribution transfor'er acceptable is .%% 14* as a standard capacit". ?nl" two8no of transfor'er at one location s+all be acceptable. $f t+ere is 'ore nu'ber of transfor'ers H# s+all be required to e9tend usin under round cables to locate additional transfor'er.

(.) 6!; / L# 0anel: • Eit+er 4C: or 6in !ain Circuit s+all be used to control transfor'ers. #+ere cables s+ould +a,e 'eterin arran e'ent at 1114. #+e protection s"ste' at inco'in suppl" s+all be usin nu'erical rela"s.

• • •

?n L# side of transfor'er/ L# 'ain feeder pillar s+all be pro,ided. #+e $nco'in s+all be protected b" !CC:/SF;. #+e distribution pillar8bo9 s+all be connected into 6in !ain ;nit. #+e inco'er of distribution pillar s+all +a,e !CC: / SF;. #+e out oin s+all +a,e H6C fuses.

()) #+e L# cables fro' #.C to L# panel / !ain feeder pillar: • Decide Si<e of L# Cable fro' #.C to L# 0anel as per followin #able.

Transformer Si*e

+a,le

>(%14* transfor'ers 7 no 9 1C 9 >(% Sq ''/ *l/ @L0E Cable .%%14* transfor'ers 1 no 9 1C 9 >(% Sq ''/ *l/ @L0E 7)%14* transfor'ers ( A C 9 .%% Sq ''/ *l/ @L0E 1>%14* transfor'ers ( A C 9 (%% Sq ''/ *l/ @L0E 1%%14* transfor'ers ( A C 9 1)% Sq ''/ *l/ @L0E (>) Considerin ,arious Factors B Len t+ of Cable: • • • • • #+e factors for ca,le loading s-all ,e taken as ./%. #+e factor for multiplicity of ca,les from same ca,le trenc- s-all ,e 0/%. #+e su ested ma1imum lengt- of LT ca,le feeder s-all ,e '$/ 2trs. #+e L# cables s+all be connected in rin 'ain circuit. #+e load on sub8feeder pillar s+all be restricted to 1)%1&.

(C) L# cables fro' 'ain feeder pillars to distribution pillar bo9es: Load on distri,ution pillar LT +a,le Si*e

;p to )%1& ;p to 1%%1& ;p to 1)% 1&

( A C 9 1)% sq''/ *L/ @L0E ( A C 9 (%% sq''/ *L/ @L0E ( A C 9 .%%sq''/ *L/ @L0E

(-) Calculate 4olta e Drop and #BD Losses: • • #+e entire s"ste' +as to be desi ned for a !oltage drop of './% fro' 1114 Side of transfor'er to 'eterin equip'ent at end consu'er pre'ises. #+e entire s"ste' +as to be desi ned for T3D losses of ser!ice ma1imum './% from 1114 to end consu'er 'eter includin of ser,ice cable.

&4( 5-y EL+B can6t work if Neutral input of EL+B do not connect to ground7

• •

ELC: is used to detect eart+ lea1a e fault. ?nce t+e p+ase and neutral are connected in an ELC:/ t+e current will flow t+rou + p+ase and t+at 'uc+ current will +a,e to return neutral so resultant current is <ero. ?nce t+ere is a round fault in t+e load side/ current fro' p+ase will directl" pass t+rou + eart+ and it will not return t+rou + neutral t+rou + ELC:. #+at 'eans once side current is oin and not returnin and +ence because of t+is difference in current ELC: will trip and it will safe uard t+e ot+er circuits fro' fault" loads. $f t+e neutral is not rounded/ fault current will definitel" +i + and t+at full fault current will co'e bac1 t+rou + ELC:/ and t+ere will be no difference in current.

&'( 5-y in a t-ree pin plug t-e eart- pin is t-icker and longer t-an t-e ot-er pins7 • • $t depends upon 65rl/a w+ere area(a) is in,ersel" proportional to resistance (6)/ so if (a) increases/ 6 decreases B if 6 is less t+e lea1a e current will ta1e low resistance pat+ so t+e eart+ pin s+ould be t+ic1er. $t is lon er because t+e #+e First to 'a1e t+e connection and Last to disconnect s+ould be eart+ 0in. #+is assures Safet" for t+e person w+o uses t+e electrical instru'ent.

&8(5-y Delta Star Transformers are used for Lig-ting Loads7 • • For li +tin loads/ neutral conductor is 'ust and +ence t+e secondar" 'ust be star windin . and t+is li +tin load is alwa"s unbalanced in all t+ree p+ases. #o 'ini'i<e t+e current unbalance in t+e pri'ar" we use delta windin in t+e pri'ar". So delta / star transfor'er is used for li +tin loads.

&9(5-at are t-e ad!antages of star:delta starter wit- induction motor7 • • (1)#+e 'ain ad,anta e of usin t+e star delta starter is reduction of current durin t+e startin of t+e 'otor. Startin current is reduced to (8. ti'es ?f current of Direct online startin . (7) Hence t+e startin current is reduced / t+e ,olta e drops durin t+e startin of 'otor in s"ste's are reduced.

&$(5-at is meant ,y regenerati!e ,raking7 • &+en t+e suppl" is cut off for a runnin 'otor/ it still continue runnin due to inertia. $n order to stop it quic1l" we place a load (resistor) across t+e ar'ature windin and t+e 'otor s+ould +a,e 'aintained continuous field suppl". so t+at bac1 e.'.f ,olta e is 'ade to appl" across t+e resistor and due to load t+e 'otor stops quic1l". #+is t"pe of brea1in is called as 26e enerati,e :rea1in 3.

&#(5-en !oltage increases t-en current also increases t-en w-at is t-e need of o!er !oltage relay and o!er current relay7 +an we measure o!er !oltage and o!er current ,y measuring current only7

So/ for a better protection of t+e s"ste'.(. (:) t+e contact resistance of t+e surroundin eart+ to t+e electrode.olta e B o. ?. $t s+ould +a.er . • &+en t+e .olta e rela" 'eant for sensin o.• • Do.olta e (*s 'ost of t+e loads are non8linear in nature).olta es B protect t+e s"ste' fro' insulation brea1 down and firin .er .olta e between t+e two p+ases is equal to t+e la'p . $n order to find t+e second ter'inal we s+ould recourse to its definition: Eart+ 6esistance is t+e resistance e9istin between t+e electricall" accessible part of a buried electrode and anot+er point of t+e eart+/ w+ic+ is far awa".resistance and eart.etween eart.er current rela".olta e b" Fust 'easurin t+e current onl" because t+e current increases not onl" for o. ?. &0( 5-at are <=+ fuses and w-ere it is used7 • H6C stand for 2+i + rupturin capacit"3 fuse and it is used in distribution s"ste' for electrical transfor'ers &>(2ention t-e met-ods for starting an induction motor7 • • • • • • #+e different 'et+ods of startin an induction 'otor D?L: direct online starter Star delta starter *uto transfor'er starter 6esistance starter Series reactor starter &4/(5-at is t-e difference .f one lamp connects .er . &44(5-at is t-e power factor of an alternator at no load7 .er current protection are co'pletel" different.er .er . #+e resistance of t+e electrode +as t+e followin co'ponents: (*) t+e resistance of t+e 'etal and t+at of t+e connection to it.er current rela" 'eant for sensin an" internal s+ort circuit/ o.olta e t+en t+e la'p will low.olta e protection B o. &e canEt sense t+e o.e bot+ o. &.er load condition/ eart+ fault t+ereb" reducin t+e s"ste' failure B ris1 of fire.olta es but also for under .etween two p-ases it will glow or not7 $f t+e .er .olta e difference is bi it will da'a e t+e la'p and w+en t+e difference is s'aller t+e la'p will low dependin on t+e t"pe of la'p.ident in t+e eart+ resistance.electrode resistance7 • • • ?nl" one of t+e ter'inals is e.So/ t+e o.

So it s+ould be <ero la in li1e inductor &4'(5-y most of analog o/p de!ices -a!ing o/p range 9 to '/ mA and not / to '/ mA 7 • • . $f DC current appl" to 0ri'ar" windin t+an alternatin flu9 is not produced so no secondar" e'f induced in secondar" windin so pri'ar" current 'a" oes +i + and burn transfor'er windin . $t is t+e .• *t no load S"nc+ronous $'pedance of t+e alternator is responsible for creatin an le difference. Due to an" proble' in instru'ent (i. #+e reason t+at . • • • .%& bulb is reater and .%& bulb will low bri +ter.ul. will glow .olta e is constant across t+e bulb(054G7/6).So t+e resistance of .er" i'portant factor to c+oose a C#. So for t+is reason coil and insulation will burn out &+en *C current flow to pri'ar" windin it induced alternatin flu9 w+ic+ also lin1 to secondar" windin so secondar" current flow in secondar" windin accordin to pri'ar" current.e) bro1en wire/ its output reduces to % '*.. For e9a'ple8 a pressure instru'ent i.'* to indicate % psi/ up to 7% '* to indicate 1%% psi/ or full scale. &48(Two . &4#(5-at will -appen if D+ supply is gi!en on t-e primary of a transformer7 • !ainl" transfor'er +as +i + inductance and low resistance.olta e at w+ic+ a C# ets saturated.s of 4//w and 9/w respecti!ely connected in series across a '8/! supply w-ic.'a is c+osen instead of % '* is for fail safe operation .erse 0ower flow rela" are used in eneratin stationsE protection.87% '* is a standard ran e used to indicate 'easured . $n case of DC suppl" t+ere is no inductance /onl" resistance will act in t+e electrical circuit.ul.rig-t and w-y7 • Since two bulbs are in series t+e" will et equal a'ount of electrical current but as t+e suppl" . So if ran e is %87% '* t+en we can differentiate w+et+er it is due to bro1en wire or due to % psi. So +i + electrical current will flow t+rou + pri'ar" side of t+e transfor'er.es output . &49(5-at is meant .olta e across .alues for an" process.y knee point !oltage7 • =nee point . &4$(5-at is re!erse power relay7 • • 6e.olta e is calculated for electrical Current transfor'ers and is .erse power rela". Secondar" current also induced e'f (:ac1 e'f) in secondar" windin w+ic+ oppose induced e'f of pri'ar" windin and t+us control pri'ar" current also. * eneratin stations is supposed to fed power to t+e rid and in case eneratin units are off/ t+ere is no eneration in t+e plant t+en plant 'a" ta1e power fro' rid. #o stop t+e flow of power fro' rid to enerator we use re.%& is 'ore (45$6) so .(C#8current transfor'er).

e (H or I J> )of t+e rated ter'inal . so in order to brin t+e . &40(Different .ersit" factor is t+e ratio of t+e su' of t+e indi.etween grounding and eart-ings7 • Kroundin 'eans connectin t+e neutral point of t+e load to t+e round to carr" t+e residual current in case of unbalanced conditions t+rou + t+e neutral to t+e round w+ereas eart+in is done in an electric equip'ent in order to protect +e equip'ent in occurrence of fault in t+e s"ste'.idual 'a9i'u' de'ands of t+e .&4. &'4(5-y -umming sound occurred in <T transmission line7 • #+is sound is co'in due to ioni<ation (brea1down of air into c+ar ed particles) of air around trans'ission conductor.olta e profile at t+e load end in trans'ission line t+ere is considerable . &4>(5-en we connect t-e capacitor . Di.e load.ank in series 7 • we connect capacitor ban1 in series to i'pro.olta e drop alon t+e trans'ission line due to i'pedance of t+e line.olta e at t+e load ter'inals wit+in its li'its i. #+is effect is called as Corona effect/ and it is considered as power loss.isions of a s"ste'/ or part of a s"ste'/ to t+e 'a9i'u' de'and of t+e w+ole s"ste'/ or part of t+e s"ste'/ under consideration. &'8(5-y s-ould .arious subdi. &''(5-at is different .etween megger and contact resistance meter7 • !e er used to 'easure cable resistance/ conductor continuit"/ p+ase identification w+ere as contact resistance 'eter used to 'easure low resistance li1e rela"s /contactors.ersit" factor is usuall" 'ore t+an one.e t+e .olta e t+e capacitor ban1 is used in series &'/(5-at is Di!ersity factor in electrical installations7 • Di.olta e spi1e seen in a inducti.(5-at are t-e ad!antage of free w-eeling diode in a "ull 5a!e rectifier7 • $t reduces t+e +ar'onics and it also reduces spar1in and arc+in across t+e 'ec+anical switc+ so t+at it reduces t+e .e t-e fre uency is $/ -* only w-y not ot-ers like anyt-ing? w-y s-ould we maintain t-e fre uency constant if so w-y it is only $/7 .

reaker selection7 • $(L)M1.4'$ 2@A step up transformer? t-en w-at will .e t+e frequenc" at an" frequenc" "ou li1e/ but t+an "ou 'ust also 'a1e "our own 'otors/ transfor'ers or an" ot+er equip'ent "ou want to use.% 4L 47511=4 or 11%%% 4L $15 7((. &'9(.e lite wit.( 650l/a area of t+e conductor increases resistance . So =4*6 is stand for 2=ilo 4olt *'ps wit+ 6eacti. ''/! A+ rating. #o brin all t+e ratin s into co''on platfor' we use pu concept in w+ic+/ in eneral lar est !4* and =4 ratin s of t+e co'ponent is considered as base . So/$7 5 11. So if an" s+ort circuits occur in t+e s"ste' first +i + currents b"passed in t+e Eart+lin ter'inal. &'#(w-at is t-e full form of C@A=7 • &e 1now t+ere are t+ree t"pes of power in Electricals as *cti. &e 'aintain t+e frequenc" at )%+< or >%+< cos t+e world 'aintains a standard at )% />%+< and t+e equip'ents are 'ade to operate at t+ese frequenc". !cb specification are done on 'a9i'u' current flow in circuit. &'. *'ps.e/ apparent B reacti.e co'ponent.pin diameter is -ig-er t-an o-ter two pin7 w-at its purpose 7 • :ecause Current flow in t+e conductor is in.alue on 6elation8 ).alue decreases) &'0(<ow can you start:up t-e 9/w tu.(. &'>(5-at is DpuE in electrical engineering7 • 0u stands for per unit and t+is will be used in power s"ste' sin le line dia ra' t+ere it is li1e a +u e electrical circuit wit+ no of co'ponents ( enerators/ transfor'ers/ loads) wit+ different ratin s (in !4* and =4).7)5$(!*@) 'a9i'u' current. li +t/ wit+ nor'al .f we gi!e '889 A? $9/@ on Arimary side of 4.n t-ree pin plug # Amp.%/11%%%5 $7/7((.) *'ps &'$(w-at are t-e points to . w-y eart.e.e consider for 2+B&miniature circuit . ?t+erwise itEs not possible to ioni<e t+e particles in tube.ersel" proportional to t+e conductor dia'eter.• • &e can +a..'8/! A+/D+ wit-out using any c-oke/+oil7 • $tEs possible b" 'eans of Electronic c+o1e.f Secondary @oltageB44 C@7 • *s we 1now t+e 4olta e B current relation for transfor'er841/47 5 $7/$1 &e =now/ 4$5 ).e t-e Secondary +urrent? . :" puttin t+ese .olta e.

&8'( 5-at -appen if we gi!e ''/ !olts dc supply to d .etween Electronic regulator and ordinary r-eostat regulator for fans7 • • #+e difference between t+e electronic and ordinar" re ulator is t+at in electronic re .alues are called as pu . #+ose .but ups start wit+ 17.e t+e power needed for t+at particular speed but in case of ordinar" r+eostat t"pe re . Dor'all" t+e" +a.ar"in t+e firin an le speed is controlled but in r+eostatic control resistance is decreased b" steps to ac+ie. &8/(5-y link is pro!ided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in p-ase of ac circuit7 • • Lin1 is pro.ution of power7 • • • • • $f t+ere is +i + power factor/ i.ed.losses in for' of +eat will be reduced/ 7. i. &89( w-at t-e one main difference . r tu.ided at a Deutral co''on point in t+e circuit fro' w+ic+ .$n electronic re ulator triac is e'plo"ed for speed control.en in a lin1 for' to wit+stand +i + *'ps..alue/base . 'eans accordin to ups 4* it i.So if an" 'alfunction +appen t+e fuse connected in t+e particular control circuit alone will blow off &84( 5-at is t-e diff. (p.e low resistance. ups is also two t"pes : on line and offline .b" .er +eatin of tranfor'ers. online ups +a.icesO for *C are desi ned to operate suc+ t+at it offers +i + i'pedance to *C suppl". .e speed control.er" speed and no power is sa.arious connection are ta1en for t+e indi. :ut in t+e case of Fuse in t+e 0+ase of *C circuit it is desi ned suc+ t+at t+e fuse ratin is calculated for t+e particular circuit (i.olta e.in +i + . .e lig-t7 • • :ulbs Nde. &+en DC suppl" is applied/ due to low resistance/ t+e current t+rou + la'p would be so +i + t+at it 'a" da'a e t+e bulb ele'ent &88(5-at will -appen w-en power factor is leading in distri.u5actual . it also reduces o. power losses are less because as we decrease t+e speed t+e electronic re .es bac1up.alues.idual control circuit and so it is i.etween FAS 3 in!erter 7 And electrical engineering 3 electronics engineering7 uninterrupted power suppl" is 'ainl" use for s+ort ti'e .alue).ul. t+e power wasta e is sa'e for e.cable beco'es less bul1" and eas" to carr"/ and .er" c+eap to afford/ B (.olt and a'p for lon ti'e bac1up wit+ wit+ +i + dc .e if t+e power factor is close to one: 1.alues/ t+en all ot+er co'ponent ratin s will et bac1 into t+is basis.e load) onl".

) . $t ran es fro' )8C for new 'otors B nor'all" for 'otor to be in ood condition it s+ould be Kreater t+an 7.alue for 1%'in to insulation resistance for 1 'in./7.etween sync-ronous generator 3 async-ronous generator7 • $n si'ple/ s"nc+ronous enerator suppl"Es bot+ acti. &8.e and reacti.iation for *uto'atic 4olta e 6e ulator.racket fan etc( w-ic.(5-at is t-e Aolari*ation inde1 !alue 7 &pi !alue(and simple definition of polari*ation inde1 7 • $ts ratio between insulation resistance($6)i. #+us it can control t+e output 6eacti./dc to (>.e 'ea er . &94(5-at -appens if i connect a capacitor to a generator load7 • Connectin a capacitor across a enerator alwa"s i'pro.e power for 'a neti<in .e power and obser.dc wit+ C a'p.+ motor is used in t-e fan &ceiling fan? e1-aust fan? padestal fan? . &8>(Difference .are find in t-e -ouses 7 • $t is Sin le 0+ase induction 'otor w+ic+ 'ostl" squirrel ca e rotor and are capacitor start capacitor run. $t is i'portant part in S"nc+ronous Kenerators/ it controls t+e output .e power but as"nc+ronous enerator(induction enerator) suppl"Es onl" acti.etween a four point starter and t-ree point starter7 • #+e s+unt connection in four point starter is pro. but in.es powerfactor/but it will +elp depends up on t+e en ine capacit" of t+e alternator/ ot+erwise t+e .etween surge arrestor and lig-tning arrestor7 • L* is installed outside and t+e effect of li +tnin is rounded/ w+ere as sur e arrestor installed inside panels co'prisin of resistors w+ic+ consu'es t+e ener " and nullif" t+e effect of sur e.erter is startwit+ 17.ided separatel" for' t+e line w+ere as in t+ree point starter it is connected wit+ line w+ic+ is t+e drawbac1 in t+ree point stater &9/(5-at is t-e difference .e 0ower of t+e Kenerator. #+is t"pe of enerators are used in wind'ills.olta e of t+e enerator b" controllin its e9citation current. &8#(w-at is t-e difference .e reacti. dc and 17%a'p to 1-%a'p batter" wit+ lon ti'e bac1up &8$(5-ic.type of A. &80(5-at is Automatic @oltage regulator&A@=(7 • • *46 is an abbre.

T-ose two -a!e t-e same supply.• alternator will be o. &9$(T-ere are a Transformer and an induction mac-ine. ?D&F (oil direct/water forced) ). it allows t+e ac co'ponents to pass t+rou +.ice w+ic+ is used for t+e protection of transfor'er fro' its internal faults/ it is a as based rela".de!ice t-e load current will . ?F*F (oil forced/air forced) . i am going to install a $oo k!a transformer 3 80/ k!a DG set w-at s-ould t-e eart-ing !alue7 • • #+e two t"pes of eart+in are Fa'iliar as Equip'ent eart+in and s"ste' eart+in . &9. and t+e transfor'er is onl" producin t+e wor1in flu9 and its not consu'in .es infinite resistance to dc co'ponents(i.e ma1imum7 And w-y7 • #+e 'otor +as 'a9 load current co'pare to t+at of transfor'er because t+e 'otor consu'es real power.ent re close t+e brea1er b" close pus+ button after if it alread" close.ouc-ol* relay and t-e significance of it in to t-e transformer7 • • :ouc+ol< rela" is a de. "or w-ic. &9#(w-at is . &98(<ow many types of colling system it transformers7 • • • • • ?D*D (oil natural/air natural) 7.er an" internal fault occurs in a transfor'er/ t+e bouc+ol< rela" at once i.reaker7 • w+en brea1er is close at one ti'e b" close pus+ button/ t+e anti pu'pin contactor pre.er loaded due to t+e e9tra watts consu'ed due to t+e i'pro. Secondl"/ donEt connect a capacitor across an alternator w+ile it is pic1in up or wit+out an" ot+er load &9'(5-y t-e capacitors works on ac only7 • Kenerall" capacitor i. ?D*F (oil natural/air forced) (.(5-y we do ' types of eart-ing on transformer &ie)(. ?F*D (oil forced/air forced) &99(5-at is t-e function of anti:pumping in circuit ..ody eart-ing 3 neutral eart-ing ? w-at is function./ bloc1 t+e dc co'ponents).e. w+ene. Hence t+e load current in t+e transfor'er is because of core loss so it is 'ini'u'. &it+ ..e'ent on pf. $n Equip'ent eart+in : bod" ( non conductin part)of t+e equip'ent s+ould be eart+ed to safe uard t+e +u'an bein s. S"ste' Eart+in : $n t+is neutral of t+e suppl" source ( #ransfor'er or Kenerator) s+ould be rounded.es a +orn for so'e ti'e/ if t+e transfor'er is isolated fro' t+e circuit t+en it stop its sound itself ot+er wise it trips t+e circuit b" its own trippin 'ec+anis'.

.5 )7-.(.lamp glow .olta e and under frequenc" 'a" be inbuilt. Hi +est .7>%P5--1. &$4( .> o+'s respecti. .e .7>%P * 6esistance of eac+ bulb fila'ent is (4/$ 5 6) For 7%% &att :ulb 67%%5 7(%/%.a source of '8/@ A+ supply? w-ic.ution lines7 • Dear distribution transfor'ers and out oin feeders of 111.el" Dow/ w+en in series/ current flowin in all bulbs will be sa'e.f '//watt?4// watt and #/ watt lamps connected in series wit.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Eac+ bulb w+en independentl" wor1in will +a. and t+is li +tin load is alwa"s unbalanced in all t+ree p+ases.) o+'s For 1%% &att :ulb 61%%5 7(%/%. Dote to re'e'ber: Lowest power8la'p +as +i +est ele'ent resistance.olta es will not arise.e used7 • • !C: is 'iniature circuit brea1er w+ic+ is t+er'al operated and use for s+ort circuit protection in s'all current ratin circuit.->P>5 7>.(.e currents (&/45 $) For 7%% &att :ulb current ($7%%) 57%%/7(%5%..er load current and 'a netic operation for instant trip in s+ort circuit condition. #+e ener " released will be $76 #+us/ li +t output will be +i +est w+ere resistance is +i +est. will . So delta / star transfor'er is used for li +tin loads.e (DK6s) eart+in .nder . and near power transfor'ers in sub8stations. &e can protect t+e equip'ent also.lamp !oltage rating is '8/@. &$/(5-y Delta Star Transformers are used for Lig-ting Loads7 • • For li +tin loads/ neutral conductor is 'ust and +ence t+e secondar" 'ust be star windin .rig-ter77Eac.olta e drop across it @ $ Nw+ic+ is co''on for all la'psO 5s +i +est power.o+'s and For >% &att :ulb 6>%5 7(%/%.rig-test.• t+is/ in case of unbalanced loadin neutral will not be s+ifted.* For >% &att :ulb current ($>%) 5>%/7(%5%. .. #o 'ini'i<e t+e current unbalance in t+e pri'ar" we use delta windin in t+e pri'ar".ul. &9>(5-ere s-ould t-e lig-ting arrestor . So t+at unbalanced . #+us/ #/ watt .e placed in distri.P. !CC: 'oulded case circuit brea1er and is t+er'al operated for o. Dor'all" it is used w+ere nor'al current is 'ore t+an 1%%*.->P> * For 1%% &att :ulb current ($1%%) 51%%/7(%5%..etween 2+B 3 2++B? 5-ere it can . &it+ si<e of t+e equip'ent( transfor'er or alternator)and selection of rel"in s"ste' eart+in will be furt+er classified into directl" eart+ed/ $'pedance eart+in / resisti. #+e >%& la'p as it +as +i +est resistance B 'ini'u' current require'ent. &90(5-at is t-e difference . and inco'in feeder of ((1.

0re. * s+orted C will clearl" s+ow .olta e drop across it in a Series circuit *nd +i +est resistance in a parallel circuit will pass 'in'u' current t+rou + it.entin droplet of water/ice to fall on botto' conductor is anot+er criteria.#+e clearance fro' ot+er p+ase is a criteria.entin +ead inFuries to birds t+e ar's are of different lin1s to pre.ar"in DC pro.alue w+en connected to . * open C will not s+ow an" 'o. * o+''eter ('ulti 'eter) is ood enou +.en eart+ electrodes (unless in a dr" sand" desert site). !utual inductance 'ini'i<ation is anot+er criteria. o 1. #o pre.e a 'ulti8store" structure at "our substation. :" s+ortin t+e two ends of C (c+ar ed b" o+''eter) 'o'entaril" can i.e a wea1 spar1. &$9(. DC 'eters also s+ow t+e 6!S . &$$(5-at is t-e difference .e w+en t+e" sit on t+e wire below.use of 2ulti meter.e'ent on o+''eter. #+is s+ows t+at C is not bad.ent a bro1en upper line fro' fallin on one or 'ore of t+e p+ase lines below.alue and ot+er para'eters/ "ou need better instru'ents &$8(5-at do A+ meters s-ow? is it t-e =2S or peak !oltage7 • *C .etween Surge Arrester 3 Lig-tning 2ast • • • • Transmission Line Lig-tning Arotection G General: #+e trans'ission line towers would nor'all" be +i +er t+an a substation structure/ unless "ou +a. #o 1now t+e . So 'ini'u' power dissipated across it as 'in current @ equal 4olta e across 5s 'in power dissipation &$'( <ow to c-eck +apacitor wit. • • • • !ost troubles wit+ Capacitors Q eit+er open or s+ort.n t-e transmission tower construction 2iddle arm is longer t-an t-e upper and lower arm • • • • wires will sta" apart.• • *nd +i +est resistance will drop +i +est .olt'eters and a''eters s+ow t+e =2S !alue of t+e .ar"in quic1l"/ if t+e frequenc" is less t+an about 1%H< "ou will see t+e 'eter readin fluctuatin instead. Desi ned to 'aintain t+e 'ec+anical require'ent to pre.idin t+e DC is . $t is li1ewise nor'al to run catenariesE (aerial eart+ conductors) for at least 11! out fro' all substation structures. o 7.ent bi birds (?stric+es etc) fro' bu'pin t+eir +eads a ainst t+e cable abo.ent arc+in between conductors w+ile 'aintainin a tower +ei +t t+at is 'ana eable/ and of course pre. o (. Eart+ !ats are essential in all substation areas/ alon wit+ dri.olta e or current. #+ose eart+ wires to be properl" . * ood capacitor will s+ow low resistance initiall"/ and resistance raduall" increases.er" low resistance.

7)) wit+out e9ceedin specified • • .ice factor/ it will successfull" deli.ertical eart+ed electrode w+ic+ would be struc1/ rat+er t+an an" electrical equip'ent. #+e e9tension towers are nor'all" >%%'' square appro9i'atel" until t+e e9tension tower c+an es s+ape at t+e tapered pea1/ and in so'e cases proFect upwards fro' t+e eneral structure 7 to > 'etres/ wit+ t+e electrode so'e 7 to ( 'etres proFectin upwards fro' t+e top of t+e e9tension tower.anta e to +a.ertical electrodes bonded to t+e structure/ and proFectin up fro' t+e +i +est points of t+e structure/ wit+ t+e location and nu'ber of t+ose electrodes to be sufficient t+at if a li +tnin stri1e arri.e t+e power conductor lines/ at a sufficient distance and position t+at a li +tnin stri1e will not +it t+e power conductors.e tower pictures in a 0ost because of a C6. &+at is ser.e two catenar" eart+ conductors/ one eac+ side of t+e trans'ission tower as t+e" protect t+e power lines below in a better 'anner.es t+e En ineerin Staff ood statistics for future substation desi n. $n so'e cases it is t+us an ad. ). $n li +tnin 8prone areas it is often necessar" to +a. 7. Location Countr" Site soil t"pe and resisti.er 17.e catenar" eart+in alon t+e full distance of t+e trans'ission line.• • • • • • • • • electricall" to eac+ supportin trans'ission tower/ and bonded bac1 to t+e substation eart+ s"ste'.e t+e catenariesE eart+ conductors abo.) +p (1% 9 1.Hard -elps in • • • • 6educin Step and #ouc+ potentials durin S+ort Circuit Faults Eli'inates t+e rowt+ of weeds and s'all plants in t+e "ard $'pro. #+e substation nor'all" +as a Li +tnin Counter I w+ic+ re isters a stri1e on t+e structure or connected catenar" eart+ conductors/ and t+e at+erin of t+at infor'ation (Li +tnin Da"s/ nu'ber per Da"/!ont+/Rear/ *'pera e of eac+ stri1e) i.e .ise please. . >..er" +i + point in t+e structure/ and in t+ose cases s'all structure e9tension towers are installed/ wit+ electrodes at t+e tapered pea1 of t+ose e9tension towers. For e9a'ple/ if a 1%8+p 'otor +as a 1. &it+out specifics/ (and "ou could not presentl" i. 1. Ser.er rap+ics upload proble')/ specifics would include: Structure Lig-tning Arotection G General: *t t+e Substation/ it is nor'al to +a. $n so'e older outdoor substation structures/ air8brea1 isolator switc+es are often at a .7) ser.ed/ it would alwa"s be a . $t is i'portant to +a. &$#(Fse of Stones/Gra!el in electrical Switc.it" Du'ber of Li +tnin Da"s E9pected 4olta e H Current of a local li +tnin stri1e ?t+er I *d.ice factor is t+e load t+at 'a" be applied to a 'otor wit+out e9ceedin allowed ratin s. (.es "ard wor1in condition 0rotects fro' fire w+ic+ cause due to oil spilla e fro' transfor'er and also protects fro' wild +abitat.ice factorS Ser.

11 511=4 apro9.) 14 to 1).ice factor s+ould onl" be used for s+ort8 ter' o.olat e to desired le. #+en t+e ions produced in t+is process repel wit+ eac+ ot+er and attracts towards t+e conductor at +i + .irtual conductor and increases t+e effecti.)8+p 'otor/ bu" oneL ser. #+e ioni<ed air surroundin t+e conductor acts as a .el/ we are usin t+e e9act . *lso alternators are now a.ice factor is not a 17.olta e and frequenc".olta e/*..olta e was still t+e for' factor. Furt+er increase in t+e potential difference in t+e trans'ission lines t+en a faint lu'inous low of .7) ser.e .e its rated load in t+is 'anner/ t+e 'otor 'ust be supplied wit+ rated . $n olden da"s w+en t+e electricit" beco'es popular/ t+e people +ad a 'isconception t+at in t+e trans'ission line t+ere would be a .% 4/ or 7(% 4 instead of 77% 4. $n ancient ti'es w+en we needed to use 1% 14 at destination/ si'pl" 'ultiplied t+e for' factor to it Sa" 1.(we +ad ta1en 1%J losses as standard t+u'b rule) si'ilaril" for (% B >% =4.e/ t+e for' factor is appro9i'atel" 1.)8+p 'otor. $f t+e 1%8+p 'otor is operated continuousl" at 17.olta e correction s"ste's/ powerfactor i'pro.olta es li1e . #+ese trans'ission lines are separated b" certain spacin w+ic+ is lar e in co'parison to t+eir dia'eters.efor').olta e loss of around 1%J.olta es fro' 1%.in capacitors/ w+ic+ can boost/correct .era e 4olta e For *C sine wa.11.efor' (si nal) is t+e ratio of t+e 6!S (6oot !ean Square) . #+is p+eno'enon is called .=4 • • • • • • &$0( <ow +orona Disc-arge Effect Iccur) • • $n a power s"ste' trans'ission lines are used to carr" t+e power.. &+en t+e potential increases still furt+er t+en t+e ato's present around t+e conductor starts ioni<e. $n case of a sinusoidal wa. For' Factor 5 6!S .11. Dote t+at w+en bein dri.e dia'eter of t+e power conductor.%%=4 inspite of . $f "ou need a 17.(w-y transmission line 44C! I= 88C@?##C! not in 4/k! '/k!7 • • • #+e for' factor of an alternatin current wa.irtual corona and followed b" production of o<one as w+ic+ can be • .e For' Factor is 1.era e . #+is is t+e reason.11@1%51.) 14 so eneration in 'ultiples of 11 does not arise.elocit" w+ic+ intern produces ot+er ions b" collision.) +p/ its insulation life could be decreased b" as 'uc+ as two8t+irds of nor'al.. #+e reason is so'e t+in +istorical. #+e :asic $dea be+ind a desired trans'ission .ailable wit+ ter'inal .%% 4 instead of . $n E9tra Hi + 4olta e s"ste' (EH4 s"ste' ) w+en potential difference is applied across t+e power conductors in trans'ission lines t+en air 'ediu' present between t+e p+ases of t+e power conductors acts as insulator 'ediu' +owe.11).• te'perature rise. Dow a da"s w+en/ we +a.iolet colour appears to et+er alon wit+ +issin noise.er/ t+at a 1%8+p 'otor wit+ a 1. $t +as not+in to do wit+ for' factor (1.alues of all points on t+e wa.erload conditions &$.alue to t+e a. Dowada"s t+at t+ou +t +as c+an ed and we are usin . =eep in 'ind/ +owe.er t+e air surroundin t+e conductor subFects to electro static stresses.en abo.alue ('at+e'atical 'ean of absolute . So in order to et 1%% at t+e load point t+e" started sendin 11% fro' suppl" side.

olta e conductors/ so Corona Disc+ar e Effect is affected b" t+e p+"sical state of t+e at'osp+ere as well as b" t+e condition of t+e lines.olta e (Critical :rea1down 4olta e) w+ere t+e insulatin air 'ediu' acts as conductin 'ediu' results in brea1down of t+e insulatin 'ediu' and flas+ o.e said p+eno'enon constitutes C?6?D* D$SCH*6KE EFFEC# in electrical #rans'ission lines. &$>( "actors Affecting +orona Disc-arge Effect) • Corona Disc+ar e Effect occurs because of ioni<ation if t+e at'osp+eric air surroundin t+e . Still furt+er increase in t+e potential between t+e power conductors 'a1es t+e insulatin 'ediu' present between t+e power conductors to start conductin and reac+es a . So Corona :rea1down .er is obser. *ll t+is abo. Howe.olta e can be increased b" followin factors By increasing t-e spacing . &4( +onductor) • • Corona Disc+ar e Effect is considerabl" affected b" t+e s+ape/ si<e and surface conditions of t+e conductor Corona Disc+ar e Effect decreases wit+ increases in t+e si<e (dia'eter) of t+e conductor/ t+is effect is less for t+e conductors +a.olta e directl" proportional to t+e densit" of t+e at'osp+ere present in between t+e power conductors.detected b" t+e odor. &8( Atmosp-ere) • • :rea1down . &#/( 2et-ods to reduce +orona Disc-arge Effect) • • Critical :rea1down .er .olta e occurs at low .olta es are less.olta e w+en t+e distance between t+e power conductors increases.ed. &+en t+e 4olta e of t+e s"ste' increases ($n EH4 s"ste') corona Effect will be 'ore.in round conductors co'pared to flat conductors and Corona Disc+ar e Effect is concentrated on t+at places 'ore w+ere t+e conductor surface is not s'oot+.etween t-e conductors) o Corona Disc+ar e Effect can be reduced b" increasin t+e clearance spacin between t+e p+ases of t+e trans'ission lines. $n a stor'" weat+er t+e ions present around t+e conductor is +i +er t+an nor'al weat+er condition.etween t-e +onductors) • • Electro static stresses are reduced wit+ increase in t+e spacin between t+e conductors. &'( Line @oltage) • Corona Disc+ar e effect is not present w+en t+e applied line .olta es in t+e stor'" weat+er condition co'pared to nor'al conditions &9( Spacing . Corona Disc+ar e Effect ta1es place at 'uc+ +i +er .

&#4( 5-at is electrical corona7 • • • Corona is t+e ioni<ation of t+e nitro en in t+e air/ caused b" an intense electrical field.iolet and wea1er into .olta e about )%J lower and is .ed. Corona can also contribute to t+e c+e'ical soup destruction of insulatin ce'ents on insulators resultin in internal flas+8o.e dia'eter co'pared to t+e nor'al conductors. • .isible durin t+e da" and requires dar1ness to see at ni +t.iolet ca'eras/ and da"li +t corona ca'eras usin t+e solar8blind wa. By increasing t-e diameter of t-e conductor)  Dia'eter of t+e conductor can be increased to reduce t+e corona disc+ar e effect.isible to t+e na1ed e"e da" or ni +t if t+e ap is lar e enou + (about )/-T at ()%% .  By Fsing +orona =ings or Grading =ings)  #+is is of +a.er.  By using Bundled +onductors)  :" usin :undled Conductors also corona effect can be reduced t+is is because bundled conductors will +a. Cost and Space require'ent increases.er ti'e result in corona t+at creates punctures/ carbon trac1s and ob. &#'( 5-at damage does corona do7 • #+e accu'ulation of t+e nitric acid and 'icro8arcin wit+in it create carbon trac1s across insulatin 'aterials. :" usin +ollow conductors corona disc+ar e effect can be i'pro.o increase in t+e p+ases results in +ea.elen t+s on eart+ created b" t+e s+ieldin o<one la"er surroundin t+e eart+.ier 'etal supports. #+e corona is t+e onl" indication. Electrical corona can be distin uis+ed fro' arcin in t+at corona starts and stops at essentiall" t+e sa'e .isible and near infrared) t+at can be seen wit+ t+e na1ed e"e in dar1ness/ ultra.olts). Defects in insulatin 'aterials t+at create an intense electrical field can o. *rcin starts at a .olta e and is in. 5-at are t-e indications of electrical corona7 • * si<<lin audible sound/ o<one/ nitric acid (in t+e presence of 'oisture in t+e air) t+at accu'ulates as a w+ite or dirt" powder/ li +t (stron est e'ission in ultra.e 'uc+ +i +er effecti. Corona 6in s or Kradin 6$n s are present on t+e sur e arresters to equall" distribute t+e potential alon t+e Sur e *rresters or Li +tnin *rresters w+ic+ are present near t+e Substation and in t+e #rans'ission lines. &#4(.in no reater si nificance but i presented +ere to understand t+e Corona 6in in t+e 0ower s"ste'.ious discoloration of DC$ insulators.olta e and stops at a .

er . #+en t+ere can be insulators t+at +a.olta e will +a.ailable .P ti'es t+e *C .olta e and a flas+8o.&#8( <ow long does corona re uire creating !isi.( +onductor corona is caused .e insulators t+at will i''ediatel" arc8 o.)14 dependin upon "our en ineerin tolerances and insulators in t+e strin s. 6oad salts and conta'inants can also contribute to startin t+is deterioration.e or steppin stone li1e/ and usuall" result in an outa e and destruction.e internal flas+8o.e a nor'al operatin .olta e distance and use a sturd" enclosure to contain an insulator t+at 'a" s+atter/ due to stea' build8up fro' 'oisture in a ca. • &#. $f t+e 6F$ is present/ de8ener i<e t+e insulator (line) and if t+e 6F$ oes awa"/ suspect t+e insulator (line).olta e and t+e confi uration of t+e ener i<ed parts/ corona 'a" be present in 'an" areas w+ere t+e flas+8o.e arcin start w+en capacitor or ot+er transients +appen/ stop w+en t+e line is de8ener i<ed or dropped below )%J of arc i nition .er co'ponents are a.olta e.erload.it"/ arcin produces intense +eat/ an *! radio is a ood 6F$/arcin detection de. &##( <ow to test insulators7 • *lwa"s re'e'ber to practice safet" procedures for t+e flas+8o. &#$( 5-at causes flas-:o!er7 • Flas+8o. $nsulators +a.olta e. * recent article said t+e DC .olta e. &#0( 5-at is flas-:o!er and arcing7 .olta e required to 2searc+ out defects can be 1.e corona "ear8around and e9tre'e losses durin wet weat+er/ t+e opposite occurs durin dr" weat+er as t+e corona produces nitric acid w+ic+ accu'ulates and destro"s t+e steel reinforcin cable (*CS6) resultin in t+e line droppin .er trippin t+e test set current o.er causes are not alwa"s easil" e9plained/ can be cu'ulati. .ar" startin at 77%14 or (.er can be e9cited b" steppin stone defects in t+e insulatin pat+.olta e.er occurs/ flas+8o.y7 • Corona on a conductor can be due to conductor confi uration (desi n) suc+ as dia'eter too s'all for t+e applied .sin a 'e 8o+'8'eter can eli'inate defecti. #+e first flas+8o.le damage7 • $n a specific substation t+e corona rin was 'ista1enl" installed bac1wards on a te'porar" )%%14 DC$ insulator/ at t+e end of two "ears t+e DC$ insulator was replaced because 1/( of t+e insulator was w+ite and t+e re'ainin 7/( was re".aries dependin upon t+e confi uration of t+e insulators and t+e t"pe of insulator/ DC$ nor'all" start at 1>%14/ pin and cap can . $nsulators can +a.er . &#9( 5-at !oltage are corona rings typically installed at7 • $t .ice/ a buc1et truc1 *C dielectric test set (1(%=4) is a ood test set for 'ost pin and cap t"pe insulators.er t+at are/are not present at nor'al operatin .

Flas+8o,er is an instantaneous e,ent w+ere t+e ,olta e e9ceeds t+e brea1down potential of t+e air but does not +a,e t+e current a,ailable to sustain an arc/ an arc can +a,e t+e rid fault current be+ind it and sustain until t+e ,olta e decreases below )%J or until a protecti,e de,ice opens. Flas+8o,er can also occur due to induced ,olta es in unbounded (loose bolts/ was+ers/ etc) power pole or substation +ardware/ t+is can create 6F$/#4$ or radio/#4 interference. *rcin can be in at ) ,olts on a printed circuit board or as t+e insulation increases it 'a" require -%14*C to create flas+8o,er on a ood cap and pin insulator.

&#>( 5-at are causes of insulator failure7 • Electrical field intensit" producin corona on conta'inated areas/ water droplets/ icicles/ corona rin s/ U #+is corona acti,it" t+en contributes nitric acid to for' a c+e'ical soup to c+an e t+e bondin ce'ents and to create carbon trac1s/ alon wit+ o<one and ultra,iolet li +t to c+an e t+e properties of DC$ insulator co,erin s. ?t+er detri'ental effects include water on t+e surface or sub8surface free<in and e9pandin w+en t+awin / as a liquid penetratin into a 'aterial and t+en a sudden te'perature c+an e causes c+an e of state to a as and rapid e9pansion causin fracture or rupture of t+e 'aterial.

&./( +auses of +orona • • • Corona is causes b" t+e followin reasons: #+e natural electric field caused b" t+e flow of electrons in t+e conductor. $nteraction wit+ surroundin air. 0oor or no insulation is not a 'aFor cause but increases corona. #+e use of D.C (Direct Current) for trans'ission.(6eason w+" 'ost trans'ission is done in for' of *C)

&.4( Effects of +orona 1. Line Loss I Loss of ener " because so'e ener " is used up to cause ,ibration of t+e air particles. 7. Lon ter' e9posure to t+ese radiations 'a" not be ood to +ealt+ ("et to be pro,en). (. *udible Doise .. Electro'a netic $nterference to teleco''unication s"ste's ). ?<one Kas production >. Da'a e to insulation of conductor. &.'( 2inimi*ing +orona Effects • • • $nstallin corona rin s at t+e end of trans'ission lines. * corona rin / also called anti8corona rin / is a toroid of (t"picall") conducti,e 'aterial located in t+e ,icinit" of a ter'inal of a +i + ,olta e de,ice. $t is electricall" insulated. Stac1s of 'ore spaced rin s are often used. #+e role of t+e corona rin is to distribute t+e electric field radient and lower its 'a9i'u' ,alues below t+e corona t+res+old/ pre,entin t+e corona disc+ar e.

&.8( Types of grounding system w-ic- are) #+ere are pri'aril" t+ree t"pes of roundin s"ste' w+ic+ are: • &4(Solid grounding I #+e neutral point of t+e s"ste' is rounded wit+out an" resistance. $f t+e round fault occurs/ +i + round current passes t+rou + t+e fault. $ts use is ,er" co''on in low ,olta e s"ste'/ w+ere line to neutral ,olta e is used for sin le p+ase loads. &'( Low =esistance grounding &L=G( I #+is is used for li'itin t+e round fault current to 'ini'i<e t+e i'pact of t+e fault current to t+e s"ste'. $n t+is case/ t+e s"ste' trips for t+e round fault. $n t+is s"ste'/ t+e use of line to neutral (sin le p+ase) is pro+ibited. #+e round fault current is li'ited to in t+e ra e fro' 7)* to >%%*. &8( <ig- =esistance Grounding &<=G( I $t is used w+ere ser,ice continuit" is ,ital/ suc+ as process plant 'otors. &it+ H6K/ t+e neutral is rounded t+rou + a +i + resistance so t+at ,er" s'all current flows to t+e round if round fault occurs. $n t+e case of round fault of one p+ase/ t+e fault" p+ase oes to t+e round potential but t+e s"ste' doesnEt trip. #+is s"ste' 'ust +a,e a round fault 'onitorin s"ste'. #+e use of line to neutral (sin le p+ase) is pro+ibited (DEC/ 7)%.(>(()) in H6K s"ste'/ +owe,er/ p+ase to neutral is used wit+ usin t+e additional transfor'er +a,in its neutral rounded. &+en round fault occurs in H6K s"ste'/ t+e 'onitorin s"ste's i,es alar' and t+e plant operators start t+e standb" 'otor and stop t+e fault" one for t+e 'aintenance. #+is wa"/ t+e process plant is not interrupted. #+e round fault current is li'ited to 1%* or less.

#+ere are ot+er two t"pes suc+ as Corner Kroundin (for Delta s"ste') and ;n rounded s"ste' but t+e" are not co''onl" used. &.9( 5-y t-e up to dia ./mmJ li!e conductor?t-e eart- ca,le must ,e same si*e 7A,o!e dia ./mmJ li!e conductor t-e eart- conductor need to ,e only dia ./mmJ 7 • • #+e current carr"in capacit" of a cable refers to it carr"in a continuous load. *n eart+ cable nor'all" carries no load/ and under fault conditions will carr" a si nificant instantaneous current but onl" for a s+ort ti'e I 'ost 6e ulations define %.1 to ) sec I before t+e fuse or brea1er trips. $ts si<e t+erefore is defined b" different calculatin para'eters. :roadl" spea1in +owe,er t+e 'a nitude of eart+ fault current depends on:

(a) t+e e9ternal eart+ loop i'pedance of t+e installation (i.e. be"ond t+e suppl" ter'inals) (b) t+e i'pedance of t+e acti,e conductor in fault (c) t+e i'pedance of t+e eart+ cable. i.e. Fault current 5 ,olta e / a H b H c

Dow w+en t+e acti,e conductor (b) is s'all/ its i'pedance is 'uc+ 'ore t+an (a)/ so t+e eart+ (c) cable is si<ed to 'atc+. *s t+e acti,e conductor ets bi er/ its i'pedance drops si nificantl" below t+at of t+e e9ternal eart+ loop i'pedance (a)L w+en quite lar e (+ere in DV abo,e 17%''7/ but in "our re ion apparentl" C%''7) its i'pedance can be i nored. *t t+is point t+ere is no 'erit in increasin t+e eart+ cable si<e i.e. Fault current 5 ,olta e / a H c

(c) is also ,er" s'all so t+e fault current pea1s out. • • #+e neutral conductor is a separate issue. $t is defined as an acti,e conductor and t+erefore 'ust be si<ed for continuous full load. $n a (8p+ase s"ste'/ if balanced/ no neutral current flows. $t used to be co''on practice to install reduced neutral supplies/ and cables are a,ailable wit+ sa" +alf8si<e neutrals (re'e'ber a neutral is alwa"s necessar" to pro,ide sin le p+ase ,olta es). Howe,er t+e increasin use of non8linear loads w+ic+ produce +ar'onics +as 'ade t+is practice dan erous/ so for e9a'ple t+e current DV 6e s require full si<e neutrals. $ndeed/ in bi ;0S installations $ install double neutrals and eart+s for t+is reason.

&.$( T-e difference ,etween Ground and Neutral7 • DE;#6*L is t+e ori in of all current flow. $n a pol"8p+ase s"ste'/ as itEs p+ase relations+ip wit+ all t+e t+ree p+ases is t+e sa'e/ (i.e.) as it is not biased towards an" one p+ase/ t+us re'ainin neutral/ t+atEs w+" it is called neutral. &+ereas/ K6?;DD is t+e E*6#H on w+ic+ we stand. $t was percei,ed to utilise t+is ,ast/ o'nipresent conductor of electricit"/ in case of fault/ so t+at t+e fault current returns to t+e source neutral t+rou + t+is conductor i,en b" nature w+ic+ is a,ailable free of cost. $f eart+ is not used for t+is purpose/ t+en one +as to la" a lon . lon 'etallic conductor for t+e purpose/ t+us increasin t+e cost. Kround s+ould ne!er be used as neutral. #+e protection de,ices (e ELC:/ 6CD etc) wor1 basicall" on principle t+at t+e p+ase currects are balanced wit+ neutral current. $n case "ou use round wire as t+e neutral/ t+ese are bound to trip if t+e" are t+ere I and t+e" 'ust be t+ere. at least at substations. *nd t+ese are 1ept ,er" sensiti,e ie e,en 'inute currents are supposed to trip t+ese. ?ne aspect is safet" I w+en so'e one touc+es a neutral/ "ou donEt want +i' to be electrocuted I do "ouS ;suall" if "ou see t+e switc+es at +o'e are on t+e p+ase and not neutral (e9cept at t+e !C: sta e). *n" one assu'es t+e once t+e switc+ is off/ it is safe (t+e safet" is ta1en care of in ( wire s"ste'/ but a ain 'ost of t+e fi9tures are on 7 wire) I +e will be shocked at t+e accidental touc+in of wire in case t+e floatin neutral is floatin too 'uc+.

&.#( 5-at is impedance of a transformer7 • $f "ou 'ean t+e percenta e i'pedance of t+e transfor'ed it 'eans t+e ratio of t+e ,olta e( t+at if "ou applied it to one side of t+e transfor'er w+ile t+e ot+er side of t+e transfor'er is s+ort cuitcuted/ a full load current s+all flow in t+e t+e s+ort ciruted side)/ to t+e full load current.

olta e in pri'ar" side and increase t+e .80ole. &.els s+all increase tre'endousl"/ da'a in t+e windin B core.'eans eart+in t+e neutral furt+er downstrea' is not correct/ • • • &.pole switc+es are used in c+an in o. #+e +i + . Howe. &.e a !ains Suppl" Source and a Stand8b" 0ower Suppl" Source.olta e .0( A++ .alue of JV +elps to reduce s+ort circuit current but it causes 'ore . &+ile parallin (under uncontrolled condition) t+e neutral current between t+e 7 sources will criss cross and create trippin of an"one source brea1ers. (pole or .• • • !ore t+e JV of transfor'er/ 'ore Copper used for windin / increasin cost of t+e unit. t+e neutral return current fro' one source s+ould not 'i9 wit+ or return to anot+er source./ 5-en is Neutral . Lower JV 'eans econo'ical desi ns.ide t+e pri'ar" . &+en we di.>( w-y 8No of +urrent transformer in 8 p-ase Star point is grounded.olta e 41 wit+ t+e full load .olta e we will et t+e s+ort circuit i'pedance of t+e transfor'er wit+ refereed to pri'ar" or V%1.er/ cost increases si nificantl" wit+ increase in JV. #+is . . (() Di.olta e re ulation (J c+an e of . !easure t+e pri'ar" . For ettin t+e percenta e i'pedance we need to use t+e for'ula 5 V%1M#ransfor'er !4* /(Square of 0ri'ar" line .ices (*''eter) (7) *ppl" low .olta e (41).ncomers 3 Bus +ouplers are normally 9:Aole.e neutral isolation and t+e neutrals of bot+ t+e sources are lin1ed/ t+en w+en onl" one source is feedin and t+e ot+er source is ?FF/ durin an eart+ fault/ t+e potential of t+e ?FF SourceEs Deutral wit+ respect to eart+ will increase/ w+ic+ 'i +t +ar' an" 'aintenance personnel wor1in on t+e ?FF source.els will reduce/ 'ec+anical da'a es to windin s durin s+ort circuit s+all also reduce.. also as per $EC standard t+e neutral of a distribution s"ste' s+all not be eart+ed 'ore t+an once.olta e so t+at t+e secondar" current is t+e rated secondar" current of t+e transfor'er.olta e dip for 'otor startin and 'ore . $t is for t+is reason t+at 0CC $nco'ers B :us Couplers are nor'all" . :ut s+ort circuit le.ide t+e 41 b" t+e rated pri'ar" .ariation) fro' no load to full load. as a 'andator" point t+e neutral of an" transfor'er etc are to be eart+ed/ si'ilarl" t+e neutral of a enerator also +as to be eart+ed.olta e of t+e transfor'er and 'ultipl" b" 1%%.(<ow to measure Transformer . #+is is necessar" because if "ou do not +a.er two independant sources /w+ere t+e neutral of one ssource and t+e neutral of anot+er source s+ould not'i9/. (Dote t+at onl" eit+er t+e inco'er or t+e buscoupler need to be .alue is t+e percenta e i'pedance of t+e transfor'er.mpedance7 • • • • • Follow t+e steps below: (1) S+ort t+e secondar" side of t+e transfor'er wit+ current 'easurin de.solation =e uired7 • Deutral $solation is 'andator" w+en "ou +a. :ut s+ort circuit fault le.8pole and not bot+).olta e).t+e e9a'ples are electricit" board power suppl" and standalone enerator suppl" etc.

(iii) required to ac+ie.en if "ou use onl" 1 C#Es for t+e ?. !anufacturer s+all be able to i. Fault current passin t+rou + roun / step and touc+ potential.e restricted eart+ fault protection (6EF) for bot+ t+e enerators w+ilst in operation.e low resistance pat+ to fault current. #+is contactor can be ter'ed as 2neutral contactor3. (ii) durin independent operation/ neutrals of bot+ enerators are required in low .olta e.ercurrent 0rotection or for t+e Eart+ Faults 0rotection/ t+eir neutral point is alwa"s s+orted to eart+. so neutral in rounded to i. at t+at ti'e +ea.er load) in an" one of t+e p+ase /t+en t+ere will be un balanced load in DK .e but actuall" it is for t+e safet" of t+e C#Es w+en t+e current is passin t+ru t+e C#Es.ided in neutral to eart+ circuit of eac+ enerator. .r.t windin / core burnin . #+erefore/ for t+e eart+ faults protection rela"s operatin / it is t+at/ if t+e total current flowin in to t+e C#Es is D?# equal total current flowin bac1 out of t+e C#Es t+en wit+ t+e differeces of t+e lea1a e current/ t+e Eart+ Faults 6ela"s will operated. &0/( Aower Transformer Neurtal Eart-ing • • • • • #+e followin points need to c+ec1 before oint for Deutral Kroundin 6esistance.e t+is data.oid t+e flow of <ero sequence current.en t+ese C#Es are not Krounded or Eart+ed/ t+ese ?. &04( w-y a neutral grounding contactor is needed in diseal generator7 • #+ere would not be an" current flow in neutral if DK is loaded equall" in ( p+ases / if t+ere an" fault(eart+ fault or o. Capacit" of transfor'er to sustain round fault current/ w.olta e switc+board to obtain t+ree p+ase/ . *n electrical s"ste' consistin of 'ore t+an two low .olta e Diesel Kenerator sets intended for parallel operation s+all 'eet t+e followin conditions: (i) neutral of onl" one enerator needs to be eart+ed to a. #+is is D?# as w+at "ou e9plain as abo.it" of rela".ercurrent and t+e Eart+ Faults 0rotection 6ela" still can operated. $n case no data or calculation is possible/ o for li'itin E/F current to (%%* or )%%*/ dependin on sensi. wire s"ste' includin p+ase to neutral .• • • • For C#Es eit+er "ou use for ( p+ase or 7 p+ase or e. Standard practice of li'itin eart+ fault current. E.ercurrent 0rotection +as not+in to do wit+ t+e eart+in t+e neutral of t+e C#Es.ercurrent 0rotection and t+e Eart+ Fauts 6ela"s are b" t+e =ic+off Law 0rinciple w+ere t+e total current flowin into t+e points is equal to t+e total of current flowin out fro' t+e point. ?peratin of t+e ?. 6ela" co8ordination and fault clearin ti'e. $n enerall"/ trippin of Eart+ faults and ?. • • • • Solution: • Considerin t+e require'ent of eart+in neutral of onl" one enerator/ a contactor of suitable ratin s+all be pro." current flow t+rou + t+e neutral /it is sensed b" C# and trips t+e DK.

olta e bein deter'ined b" t+e fault current 'a nitude and t+e i'pedance . For Differential 0rotection C#s usin on bot+ side H# B L4 side eac+ p+ase/ and co'parin t+e unbalance current for t+is protection also 0@ class C#s are usin .en causin deat+."ault 3 Fnrestricted Eart.ariabl" cause t+e ?.er/ t+ere are certain constraints in a s"ste' w+ic+ calls for a tertiar" transfor'er windin especiall" in t+e case of considerable +ar'onic le. #ertiar" windin is 'a" be used for an" of t+e followin purposes: (*)#o li'it t+e fault le.ice to opearte in sufficientl" quic1 ti'e before an" +ar' could be done.alue. Durin independent operation of an" enerator its neutral contactor s+all be closed.el (. #+is .idin a tertiar" windin for a transfor'er 'a" be a costl" affair. ?peration of neutral contactors s+all be preferabl" 'ade auto'atic usin brea1er au9iliar" contacts.ercurrent or s+ort circuit protection de. • &08( Difference .e t+is proble'/ as at t+e instant of an eart+ fault/ t+e faulted p+ase oes to neutral potential and t+e +i + fault current would in. For 6EF protection 0@ class cts are usin but for . • • • • .els in t+e distribution s"ste'.'ostl" on low .idin t+e infeed t+at is/ double secondar" transfor'ers. >1 (1) (a).• • Deutral contactors s+all be interloc1ed in suc+ a wa" t+at onl" one contactor s+all re'ain closed durin parallel operation of enerators.olta e and of reacti.olta e 'i +t circulate enou + current in a person accidentall" co'in in contact wit+ t+e faulted equip'ent/ as to +ar' +is e. noEs C#s are usin one eac+ on p+ase and one in neutral."ault protections7 • 6estricted eart+ fault is nor'all" i. $t is wor1in on t+e principle of balanced currents between p+ases and nuetral.en to on star connected end of power equip'ent li1e enerators/ transfor'ers etc. &0'( Neutral grounded system !s solidly grounded system • • $n $ndia/ at low . (:)#+e interconnection of se.olta e side.6EF )07% Cts usin . Howe.etween =estricted Eart.olta es.nrestricted E/F protection wor1in on t+e principle of co'parin t+e unbalance on t+e p+ases onl". for 6EF protection ..((4) "ou 2FST do onl" Solid Eart+in of t+e s"ste' neutral. Dote t+at/ L4 s"ste's can be +andled b" non8tec+nical persons too. #+is is b" $E 6ules 1P)>/ 6ule Do.olta e present between t+e faulted bod" B t+e neutral/ t+e 'a nitude of t+is .eral power s"ste's operatin at different suppl" .olat e le. • &09( Transformer tertiary winding • 0ro.e power b" 'eans of a s"nc+ronous capacitor connected to t+e ter'inals of one windin . :ecause/ if "ou opt for i'pedance eart+in / durin an eart+ fault/ t+ere will be appreciable . $n solid eart+in / "ou do not +a.el on t+e L4 s"ste' b" subdi. (C) #+e re ulation of s"ste' . Followin is an e9cerpt fro' t+e boo1 2#+e WB0 #ransfor'er :oo13.

$t consists/ in itEs si'plest for'/ of two or 'ore coils of insulated wire wound on a la'inated steel core. $t can be desi ned to 2step up3 or 2step down3 . Since t+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponents in eac+ p+ase of a t+ree8p+ase s"ste' are in p+ase/ t+ere can be no t+ird8order +ar'onic . $f t+ere is no delta windin on a star/star transfor'er/ or t+e neutral of t+e transfor'er and t+e suppl" are not bot+ connected to eart+/ t+en line to eart+ capacitance currents in t+e suppl" s"ste' lines can suppl" t+e necessar" +ar'onic co'ponent.• • • • • $t is desirable t+at a t+ree8p+ase transfor'er s+ould +a.efor' will be undistorted/ t+e circulatin t+ird8order +ar'onic currents flowin in t+e neutral can cause interference wit+ teleco''unications circuits and ot+er electronic equip'ent as well as unacceptable +eatin in an" liquid neutral eart+in resistors/ so t+is pro. #+is is far preferable to t+e purc+aser arbitraril" specif"in a ratin of/ sa"/ ((.e a tertiar" t+e intendin purc+aser s+ould ideall" pro.alues between t+e .olta e will contain t+e +ar'onic distortion.olta e is t+en induced in t+e ot+er coil/ called t+e secondar" or output coil.ert alternatin current fro' one . #+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponent of t+e 'a netisin current 'ust t+us flow t+rou + t+e neutral of a star8connected windin / w+ere t+e neutral of t+e suppl" and t+e star8connected windin are bot+ eart+ed/ or around an" delta8connected windin . $f t+e +ar'onics cannot flow in an" of t+ese pat+s t+en t+e output .arious windin s/ will per'it an accurate assess'ent to be 'ade of t+e fault currents and of t+e 'a nitude of currents t+at will flow in t+e tertiar" windin . #+is infor'ation (w+ic+ s+ould include t+e s"ste' c+aracteristics and details of t+e eart+in arran e'ents) to et+er wit+ a 1nowled e of t+e i'pedance .olta es between lines. $f t+e neutral of t+e star8connected windin is uneart+ed t+en/ wit+out t+e use of a delta tertiar"/ t+is neutral point can oscillate abo.en if t+e neutral of t+e suppl" and t+e star8connected windin are bot+ eart+ed/ t+en alt+ou + t+e transfor'er output wa. E. &+en .olta e ratio) between t+e pri'ar" and secondar" depends on t+e turns ratio of t+e two coils.olta e is introduced to one coil/ called t+e pri'ar"/ it 'a neti<es t+e iron core.ides an added reason for t+e use of a delta connected tertiar" windin . .olta es and wor1s on t+e 'a netic induction principle. &+en specif"in a transfor'er w+ic+ is to +a.ice/ w+ic+ insures under nor'al conditions/ a lon and trouble8free life. * .olta e (or . :ecause t+e use of a delta tertiar" pre.idin a low8i'pedance pat+ for t+ird8+ar'onic currents.olta e equal in 'a nitude to t+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponent. &0$( 5-at is a transformer and -ow does it work7 • * transfor'er is an electrical apparatus desi ned to con.ents t+is it is so'eti'es referred to as a stabili<in windin .olta e to anot+er.e and below eart+ at a .ent of unbalance in t+e loadin between p+ases/ so t+at t+is unbalance is reduced and not so reatl" fed bac1 t+rou + t+e s"ste'.ice. #+e c+an e of .e one set of t+ree8 p+ase windin s connected in delta t+us pro. #+e presence of a delta connected windin also allows current to circulate around t+e delta in t+e e. * transfor'er +as no 'o.in parts and is a co'pletel" static solid state de.ide sufficient infor'ation to enable t+e transfor'er desi ner to deter'ine t+e worst possible e9ternal fault currents t+at 'a" flow in ser.(J/ of t+at of t+e 'ain windin s.

#+is is a 'et+od w+ic+ uses two t+in plates separated b" .olta e to a transfor'er produces a 'a netic flu9/ or 'a netic lines of force in t+e core. o &+" not reduce t+e noise in t+e core b" reducin t+e a'ount of flu9S #ransfor'er . &0.e len t+ of t+e frequenc".ide t+e speed of sound/ in air ( enerall" understood as 11(% feet per second) b" t+e frequenc".olta es are fi9ed b" s"ste' require'ents. *lso/ increasin (or decreasin ) 'a neti<ation does not affect t+e 'a netostriction equi.er a s+eet and eac+ s+eet is be+a. reduce air.olta e is fi9ed. *s t+e noise +its t+e inner s+eet so'e of its ener " is used up inside t+e .ibrate. #+e outer s+eet s+ould not . $n tec+nical ter's t+e relations+ip is not linear.e enou + to reduce t+e noise to a person listenin on t+e ot+er side.olta es to t+e nu'ber of turns in t+e windin deter'ines t+e a'ount of 'a neti<ation. Doise is usuall" reduced (attenuated) as it tries to pass t+rou + a 'assi. &alls can be of bric1/ steel/ concrete/ lead/ or 'ost ot+er dense buildin 'aterials. #+erefore t+e a'ount of flu9 at t+e nor'al . #+is is c+eaper t+an a full roo'. * transfor'er core is 'ade fro' 'an" s+eets of special steel to reduce losses and 'oderate t+e ensuin +eatin effect. * transfor'er is 'a neticall" e9cited b" an alternatin .&0#( 5-y do transformers -um7 • #ransfor'er noise is caused b" a p+eno'enon w+ic+ causes a piece of 'a netic s+eet steel to e9tend itself w+en 'a neti<ed. o #+e 'a neti<ation of an" i.el of noise and .isible to t+e na1ed e"e.in / writ+in construction it is w+en e9cited. Screens +a. $t will reduce t+e noise to t+ose near t+e wall/ but t+e noise will et o. &+at does t+is 'eanS &ell/ e. #+e e9tensions and contractions are ta1in place erraticall" all o. (():uild a screen wall around t+e unit. #o find t+e wa. #+is also fi9es t+e le.en point on t+e s+eet . Standin wa. &+en t+e 'a neti<ation is ta1en awa"/ it oes bac1 to its ori inal condition. (7)0ut t+e obFect inside an enclosure w+ic+ uses a li'p wall tec+nique. #+is p+eno'enon is scientificall" referred to as 'a netostriction.el).e.e been 'ade fro' wood/ concrete/ bric1 and wit+ dense bus+es (alt+ou + t+e latter beco'es ps"c+olo ical) (. #+e ratio of t+ese .es will cause • • • .iscous (rubber") 'aterial.ibration/ and consequentl" noise. Howe.e wall.er t+e screen and fall elsew+ere (at a lower le. #+is ratio of .aries/ so t+e e9tension and contraction is not unifor'.er/ t+e" are sufficient to cause a .e len t+ in air/ for instance/ "ou di.alentl".( <ow can .er" frequenc" +as a wa.iscous 'aterial.orne noise7 • • :elow is a list of "our 'ost effecti.ibration. *ppl"in .e options: (1)0ut t+e transfor'er in a roo' in w+ic+ t+e walls and floor are 'assi.e len t+.in erraticall" wit+ respect to its nei +bor/ so "ou can see w+at a 'o.olta e and current so t+at it beco'es e9tended and contracted twice durin a full c"cle of 'a neti<ation. #+e de ree of flu9 deter'ines t+e a'ount of 'a netostriction and +ence/ t+e noise le.el.)Do not 'a1e an" reflectin surface coincident wit+ +alf t+e wa. $f a noise +its a reflectin surface at t+ese di'ensions it will produce w+at is called a standin wa.olta e to turns is deter'ined 'ainl" for econo'ical soundness. #+ese e9tensions are 'iniscule proportionall" and t+erefore not nor'all" .

$f unequal .)J of eac+ ot+er.e re!erse connected7 • !K! dr" t"pe distribution transfor'ers can be re. &0>( 5-at is t-e difference .e and below t+e rated pri'ar" .) &00( 5-at are taps and w-en are t-ey used7 • #aps are pro. &>/( +an transformers . .solatingE? and DS-ielded 5indingE transformers7 • $nsulatin and isolatin transfor'ers are identical.alues of eac+ transfor'er 'ust be wit+in C. Howe.ided on so'e transfor'ers on t+e +i + . $f "ou +it t+ese di'ensions and et ec+oes "ou s+ould appl" absorbent 'aterials to t+e offendin walls (fiber lass/ wool/ etc.olta es below t+e na'eplate rated .olta e conditions/ and still deli.olta e windin to correct for +i + or low .olta e.re.er/ an" )% H< transfor'er will operate on >% H< ser.e used in parallel7 • Sin le p+ase transfor'ers can be used in parallel onl" w+en t+eir .olta es are equal.erse connected wit+out a loss of =4* ratin / but t+ere are certain li'itations. #ransfor'ers rated 1 =4* and lar er sin le p+ase/ ( =4* and lar er t+ree p+ase can be re.olta e.olta es are used/ a circulatin current e9ists in t+e closed networ1 between t+e two transfor'ers w+ic+ will cause e9cess +eatin and result in a s+orter life of t+e transfor'er. #aps are enerall" set at two and a +alf and fi. &>'( +an transformers .ided for t+is purpose.erse effects or loss in =4* capacit". #+ese ter's are used to describe t+e separation of t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s.erse connected wit+out an" ad.ice.er full rated output .e percent abo. &>8( +an 2G2 Transformers .etween D.e operated at $/ <*7 • #ransfor'ers 1 =4* and lar er/ rated at >% H</ s+ould not be used on )% H< ser. &+en operatin below t+e rated . $n addition i'pedance .ice due to +i +er losses and resultant +eat rise.el.erberations (ec+oes) and an increase in t+e sound le.olta es at t+e secondar" ter'inals. * s+ielded transfor'er includes a 'etallic s+ield between t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s to attenuate (lessen) transient noise. &>4( +an #/ <* transformers . $n D? case s+ould a transfor'er be operated in e9cess of its na'eplate ratin unless taps are pro.e operated at !oltages ot-er t-an nameplate !oltages7 • $n so'e cases/ transfor'ers can be operated at .olta e t+e =4* capacit" is reduced correspondin l".nsulatingE? D.

erters or p+ase s+iftin de.erse fed t+e inrus+ current can be up to 1> ti'es reater.olta e and t+e full load .olta e.olta e connections. &+en used as e9citin windin a +i +er inrus+ current results. .olta e.era e te'perature of t+e windin s and insulation abo.ert sin le p+ase power to t+ree p+ase. &>>( 5-at is meant . $f t+e transfor'er is re.reaker w-en re!erse feeding a transformer7 • #"picall" t+e output windin is wound first and is t+erefore closest to t+e core.igger . *n H ter'inal si nifies a +i + . Low .olta e connection w+ile an @ ter'inal si nifies a lower .olta e secondar" would connect on t+e H ter'inals. &>0( +an transformers de!elop t-ree p-ase power from a single p-ase source7 • Do.ar"in inco'in .8wire.ersed.( +an a single p-ase transformer . $n 'ost cases t+e inrus+ current is 1% to 17 ti'es t+e full load current for 1/1% of a second. #+e transfor'er output will be sin le p+ase. &+en t+e transfor'er is re. need a . get t-e wrong output !oltage w-en installing a step up transformer7 • #ransfor'er ter'inals are 'ar1ed accordin to +i + and low .ices suc+ as reactors and capacitors are required to con. $n t+is case a bi er brea1er wit+ a +i +er *$C ratin 'ust be used to 1eep t+e transfor'er online. * co''on 'isconception is t+at H ter'inals are pri'ar" and @ ter'inals secondar". &>.e used on a t-ree p-ase source7 • Res.erse fed/ t+e taps are on t+e output side and can be used to adFust t+e output . &>#( 5-y may . *n" sin le p+ase transfor'er can be used on a t+ree p+ase source b" connectin t+e pri'ar" leads to an" two wires of a t+ree p+ase s"ste'/ re ardless of w+et+er t+e source is t+ree p+ase (8wire or t+ree p+ase . 0+ase con.olta e connection. &>$( Do taps work t-e same w-en a transformer is re!erse fed7 • #aps are nor'all" in t+e pri'ar" windin to adFust for .olta e pri'ar" would connect to @ ter'inals w+ile +i + . #+is is usuall" e9pressed in ter's of percenta e.y regulation in a transformer7 • 4olta e re ulation in transfor'ers is t+e difference between t+e no load . #+is is true for step down transfor'ers/ but in a step up transfor'er t+e connections s+ould be re. &4//( w-at is temperature rise in a transformer7 • #e'perature rise in a transfor'er is t+e a.olta e.e t+e e9istin a'bient te'perature.&>9( 5-y do .

#+e equi.( 5-at is polarity? w-en associated wit.er be connected w"e pri'ar" to w"e secondar"/ since t+is will result in unstable secondar" .e polarit". #+e" s+ould ne. Letter classifications +a. &4/$( +an single p-ase transformers . &4/#( 5-at is B.olta e and one . &4/8( 5-at is meant .iation for :asic $'pulse Le.els.alent t+ree p+ase capacit" w+en properl" connected of t+ree sin le p+ase transfor'ers is t+ree ti'es t+e na'eplate ratin of eac+ sin le p+ase transfor'er.olta e between windin s/ and between windin s and round. #+is can be co'pared wit+ an ordinar" li +t bulb.a transformer7 • 0olarit" is t+e instantaneous . #+e :$L of a transfor'er is a 'et+od of e9pressin t+e .el.e been replaced b" insulation s"ste' te'peratures in de rees celsius.olta e obtained fro' t+e pri'ar" windin in relation to t+e secondar" windin . #+ree p+ase transfor'ers are so'eti'es not readil" a.e used for t-ree p-ase applications7 • Res. #+e fila'ent te'perature of a li +t bulb can e9ceed 7%%% de rees "et t+e surface te'perature of t+e bulb is low enou + to per'it touc+in wit+ bare +ands.L and -ow does it apply to transformers7 • :$L is an abbre. $'pulse tests are dielectric tests t+at consist of t+e application of a +i + frequenc" steep wa.olta e sur e t+at a transfor'er will tolerate wit+out brea1down. &4/'( Are temperature rise and actual surface temperature related7 • Do.olts and below are nor'all" connected in additi.y impedance in transformers7 • $'pedance is t+e current li'itin c+aracteristic of a transfor'er and is e9pressed in percenta e.e front .es one +i + .olta e. &4/.&4/4( w-at is D+lassE in insulation7 • $nsulation class was t+e ori inal 'et+od used to distin uis+ insulatin 'aterials operatin at different te'perature le.ailable w+ereas sin le p+ase transfor'ers can enerall" be found in stoc1. &4/9( 5-y is impedance important7 • $t is used for deter'inin t+e interruptin capacit" of a circuit brea1er or fuse e'plo"ed to protect t+e pri'ar" of a transfor'er. Letters were used for different desi nations. #ransfor'ers >%% . #+e s"ste' te'perature is t+e 'a9i'u' te'perature at t+e +ottest spot in t+e windin . #+is lea. #+ree sin le p+ase transfor'ers can be used in delta connected pri'ar" and w"e or delta connected secondar".

(=4*/( per p+ase) "or e1ample) * C) 14* ( p+ase transfor'er can be loaded up to 7) 14* on eac+ secondar". E. Electrical K3A Aart:' Download in 0DF &4( 5-at6s t-e reason of grounding or eart-ing of e uipment7 • wit+ a round pat+/ in case of s+ort circuit t+e s+ort circuit current oes to t+e bod" of t+e equip'ent B t+en to t+e round t+rou + t+e round wire.olta e windin s. #+is is useful w+en connectin sin le p+ase transfor'ers in parallel for t+ree p+ase operations.aries fro' appro9i'atel" 1%J on s'all si<es of about 1 =4* and less to appro9i'atel" 7J on lar er si<es of C)% =4*. &44/( +an a t-ree p-ase transformer .s/+our. &444( <ow many BTF6s of -eat does a transformer generate7 • #+e +eat a transfor'er enerates is dependent upon t+e transfor'er losses.en t+ou + t+e inrus+ or startin current is about ) to C ti'es nor'al runnin current/ t+e resultant lower .olta e appearin across a .e applied to motor loads7 • #+is is an e9cellent application for air cooled transfor'ers.1 to obtain t+e :#. 0olarit" is a ter' used onl" wit+ sin le p+ase transfor'ers. &4/>( +an air cooled transformers .olta e ter'inal unconnected.olt'eter will be t+e su' of t+e +i + and low .erloadin is actuall" beneficial in t+at a cus+ionin effect on 'otor startin is t+e result.+ence if at t+e 'o'ent of fault if a person touc+es t+e equip'ent bod" +e will not et a s+oc1 cause +is bod" resistance (in t+ousands of o+'s) will offer a +i + resistance pat+ in co'parison to t+e round wire.e loaded as a single p-ase transformer7 • • Res/ but t+e load can not e9ceed t+e ratin per p+ase and t+e load 'ust be balanced. #+e e9citin current on 'ost li +tin and power transfor'ers . &4/0( 5-at is e1citing current7 • E9citin current is t+e current or a'peres required for e9citation. "or e1ample) * transfor'er wit+ losses of 7%%% watts will enerate >-7% :#.low ..s/+our. #o deter'ine air conditionin require'ents 'ultipl" t+e su' of t+e full load losses (obtained fro' factor" or test report) of all transfor'ers in t+e roo' b" (.olta e caused b" t+is 'o'entar" o. Hence t+e fault current will flow t+ru t+e round wire B not t+ru +u'an bod". . &+en t+e transfor'er is e9cited/ t+e resultant . $f "ou need a (% 14* load/ 1% 14* of load s+ould be supplied fro' eac+ secondar".

7s class is 'ore accurate t+an wit+ %.in end t+an t+at of t+e sendin end.olta e. so in t+e case of aero plane as well as s+ip t+e bod" of t+e sa'e is enou + to dissipate • • • • . #+erefore bot+ capacitance and inductance is responsible to produce t+is p+eno'enon.&+en t+e load on t+e s"ste' falls t+e ener " stored in t+e capacitance ets disc+ar ed.es brea1er a trip co''and.olta e protection s"ste'/ sur e protection s"ste'/ insulation le.reaking capacity is &for e1ample( define as 4/kA. * C# in t+e round connection detects t+e +i + .e to +a. #+e capacitance (c+ar in current) is ne li ible in s+ort lines/ but si nificant in 'ediu' and lon trans'ission line. #+e !C: will trip instantaneousl" w+en t+e current is between t+ese li'its. Kroundin +elps in a.ut t-e 2+B . *lso in %. &8( 5-at is "errari Effect7 • • Ferranti Effect is due to t+e rise in .7 class. $F t+ere would +a.e interrupted as t-e !alue will reac. C# wit+ %.alue fault current +ence t+e rela" connected to t+e C# i.er" li +tl" loaded at t+e recei.e a sin1 w+ic+ can dissipate all t+e fault current.7s class C#/ ratio B p+ase an le errors 'ust be wit+in t+e specified li'its at 1J/ )J/ 7%J/ 1%%J B 17%J of rated secondar" current. 6esistance can be ne lected wit+ respect to t+e line inductance . &'( A type:+ 2+B -as t-ermo magnetic capa.in end 'a" beco'e reater t+an sendin end . #+e 'ain i'pact of t+is p+eno'enon is on o.er .• • 0ro.el at t+e location w+ere it is installed.idin a round pat+ +elps in clearin t+e fault.n to 4/.n to 4/.n t-at means a s-ort circuit current will .7 class C#/ ratio B p+ase an le errors 'ust be wit+in t+e specified li'its at )J/ 7%J/ 1%%J B 17%J of rated secondar" current. • )$n to 1%$n is t+e pic1up t+res+old for t+e 'a netic trip ele'ent.. #+is is dan erous bot+ for t+e equip'ent B t+e +u'an bein s.7s class/ 6atio B 0+ase an le errors li'its are lower t+an %. .ility $. #+is ets added .#+is occurs w+en t+e load on t+e s"ste' reduces suddenl" #rans'ission line usuall" consists of line inductance /line to eart+ capacitance and resistance.olta e drop across t+e line inductance (due to c+ar in current) bein in p+ase wit+ t+e sendin end .olta e at t+e recei.e a s+ort circuit capacit" 'ore t+an or equal to t+e fault le.olta e drop.olta es. Howe.e been no round t+en a fault wit+ t+e outer bod" can cause a arcin to t+e round b" brea1in t+e air. &+ereas in %. #+is effect is 1nown Ferranti effect and is due to t+e .oidin arcin faults. because in %.in end to raise * Lon trans'ission line draws si nificant a'ount of c+ar in current. #+e c+ar in current causes inducti.nder nor'al condition/ a current li'itin t"pe !C: will trip on s+ort circuit ('a netic trip) and t+e current durin circuit interruption will be 'uc+ less t+an t+e prospecti. Hence/ t+is p+eno'enon is applicable for 'ediu' and lon trans'ission line.etween $.e reactance .n .er/ t+e !C:s +a.olta e at t+e recei. $f suc+ line is open circuited or .7 classes.in end/ t+e .ector all" to t+e sendin end . Eart+in an equip'ent doesnEt 'ean it requires a round or actual eart+ U its Fust enou + to +a.olta e and +ence causes t+e .el etc.e current.olta e at t+e recei. 1%1* is t+e s+ort circuit wit+stands capacit" of t+e !C:.

%%14 line. since so'e part of power is still transferred t+rou + t+e +ealt+" p+ases.. #+e reason $ 1now is for a line t+e sin le pole reclosure pro.e co''on dri. refer $EEE8-% for SC a'pacit" calculations.• all t+e fault current. #+is is t+e +ard wa" co< we +a. So i usuall" opt for t+e eas" o Si<e of Copper bus bar 5 Continuous Current 6atin / %.e to consider to t+e deratin factor/ current up ratin factor/ effect of s+ort circuit current / electrod"na'ics effect/ stren t+ of 'aterial/ :ut it will ta1e 7 da"s to calculate t+e si<e in suc+ a 'anner.Si<e of *lu'inu' bus bar 5 Continuous Current 6atin / 1.er/ t+en it will follow t+e less resistance pat+. Hence/ if an" equip'ent +a.an aeroplane will in no wa" connected to eart+ so a li +tenin stri1e will ne.e/ trip/ close coils for t+e t+ree poles/ below t+at all brea1ers +a.%%14 brea1er till date +as a independent dri.it" *5*rea L5Len t+ so lar e is t+e area/ t+e less will be resistance. $t can be t+ree p+ase auto8reclosure or sin le pole auto8reclosure.ution transformers .7 e : if t+e continous current ratin is . *lso .er ta1e its pat+ t+rou + aero plane.75 )%%sq'' si<e of Cu busbar s+ould be reater t+an . *nd/ bod" current will be eart+ed.etween power transformers 3 distri. $t 'ean to sa" an aero plane will ne.%%/ %.in sa'e cross8section as we used for p+ase B neutral 6 5 1 M(L/*) 15resisti. * li +tenin stri1e will opt for t+e s+ortest pat+ to reac+ t+e eart+. #+e sin le pole auto reclosures are enerall" for . #+e eneral t+u'b rule is 7%%*/sq '' for Cu and 1%%*/sq '' for *l for 1 sec SC ratin U &4/( 5-at is difference .ides a better stabilit" of t+e s"ste'.-5 (((sq'' • &0 (5-ere is Auto:recloser is used7 • • • • • • • • • Ken.er see a li +tenin stri1e in its pat+.e/ trip / closin coils for t+e t+ree poles. (s+ip can be rounded to water also).%%/ 1.e current in t+e bod"/co. 0rotection / #/L / :us bar protection *uto reclosure is enerall" used for #rans'ission lines w+ere t+e eneral t"pe of faults are transient in nature.%%*'peres / t+en if "ou c+oosin *l bus bar / si<e s+ould be reater t+an .. below t+is if e'plo"ed are t+ree pole auto8 reclosures. (>) &+" eart+ point in ( pin soc1et is twice in si<e • • • • • w+" eart+ point in ( pin soc1et is twice in si<e co'pared to p+ase B neutral w+ereas conductor we used for bot+ end of soc1et for eart+ point +a. #+e si<e is calculated as per t+e fault current. it 'ean to sa" t+e fault current will be dissipated t+rou + t+e bod". protection / #rans. #+e usual si<e used of copper bus bar is 7)X> Cu for panel.

e low i'pedance so as to +a.olta es fro' transfor'er le.olta e between 1 and (> 14.olta e. distribution transfor'er desi n to +a.olta e abo.er/ burden of instru'ent transfor'er depends on t+e lead wire used in t+e secondar" of C# or 0#.1) . &ill be located in substations near load centers.alent of 1%% . Kenerall" +i +l" accurate C# or 0# of %.e is 1. &44(5-y it t-at t-e !oltage le!els in . $n $ndia/ trans'ission is 'ostl" done at ((1. 0ower transfor'ers are t"picall" units fro' ) to )%% !4*/ wit+ input .• • • • • • Distribution #ransfor'ers are desi ned for a 'a9i'u' efficienc" at )%J of load.11M1%% i..%1.els to 11 1.olta es fro' 11 1.ati.3 &+en C# or 0# is to be calibrated/ it +as to be calibrated usin t+e sa'e lead burden wit+ w+ic+ it +as to be connected at site for connectin it to 'eters. #+e distributions transfor'ers +a.. for lon er transfer of power/ we use .e a 'a9 efficienc" at a load lower t+an full load.e +i +er so as to li'it t+e SC current.in DEL8DEL connection. Distribution transfor'ers are used to step down .e loads. #+e difference between power and distribution transfor'ers refers to si<e B input .olta e at w+ic+ power is transferred is C>)1.olta e le.er o operate at t+eir full eff.e a 'a9 efficienc" at full load.. at t+e 'ost. #+ere +as been no c+an e in $S and $EC considerin di ital 'eters/ 'oreo.power transfor'er desi n to +a.7 are used for 'easure'ent purpose/ be"ond t+is/ accurac" class of %. 2Selection of burden depends co'pletel" on t+e use of leads on secondar" side of C# or 0# . &ill be +a.%) or %.els in $ndia are t+e 'ultiples of 1.els. C# :urden 5 $ 9 $ 9( 6ct H 76l H 6') w+ere 6ct 5 C# $nternal resistance 6l5 6esistance of lead/cable 6'5 6esistance of 'eter(s) connected in series 0# :urden 5 4 9 4 / (( 6pt H 6')/ for a conser. co< ripple factor of a perfect sine wa.er will be t+e trans'ission . &ill be located at power eneratin stations.ar" between 7) 14* and 1% !4*/ wit+ input .olts.e (> 14.1. of copper losses B iron losses at full loads w+ereas t+is is ac+ie. 0ower transfor'ers are +a.olta e to 1(7 or w+ate.in DEL8R.ndia is is in 2ultiples of 447 • • • • • • • 4olta e le. 11% .e. 0ower transfor'ers are used to step up .e desi n "ou can i nore t+e lead resistance since it will reduce t+e burden on 0# • ./ t+atEs in nort+ *'erica.e a better re ulation U power transfor'ers +a.1 or %.%1 is used b" standard laboratories li1e E6D* ?6 C06$ for calibration purpose of ct or pt.ed in t+e desi n itself at about )%J loadin in dist transfor'er but friends t+ere is a dile''a as our dist.e equal.11. w+ereas power transfor'ers are desi ned to deli. transfor'er are al'ost full" loaded B be"ond so t+e" ne. B also poor . :ut not in dc . w+ic+ is t+e eneratin . Distribution transfor'ers . t+e +i +est .olta e.er 'a9 efficienc" a" P%J and abo./.olta e re ulation. #+e 'ain basic difference lies in t+e Desi n sta e itself as power transfor'er are to operate at near full load so t+ere sensin is suc+ t+at t+e" ac+ie.olts/ we need to transfer 1.. Hence to transfer an equi.

alid for suc+ s"ste's.e to desi n t+e s"ste' for t+at . ?nl" in case of . Hence durin faults arcin rounds can ta1e place.e delta trans'ission s"ste' w+ere trans'ission personnel as1 "ou to isolate neutral after connected to rid. #wo reasons are alread" 'entioned ones. S'aller ratin s are directl" eart+ed t+rou + re ister.fre uencies.in s+ould bo of s'aller +ei +t.e open or close during t-e running condition of power system77 • Durin nor'al condition t+e neutral isolatin switc+ s+ould be 1ept close. Hence t+e abo. Hence "ou +a.olta e w+ic+ 'a1es it costlier.olta e of +ealt+" p+ases can o up 1.ia 0+ase to eart+ capacitances. #+us t+e eart+ fault will not be cleared. #+e for'ula for w+ic+ is ( C/.ide eart+ed neutral/ for a fault/ eart+ fault current will start flowin t+ru t+e neutral/ w+ic+ "ou can sense t+ru a C# B rela" B +ence can i''ediatel" identif" B clear t+e fault in abut 1%% 's b" openin t+e associated brea1er/pri'e 'o. $n suc+ case would "ou li1e to open "our round connection cable in case "ou want to re'o. Hence if 'ore nu'ber of enerators are connected t+en onl" one is eart+ed and ot+ers are open. $n uneart+ed s"ste' / t+e . $n case of 7 or 'ore enerators connected to a co''on bus wit+out a transfor'er in between/ basicall" in +"dro stations/ one of t+e D$S is 1ept closed B rest are opened to pre. one 'ore can is it is required if we +a.elocit" of li +t B f 5 frequenc" so if t+e frequenc" is 1% =H< t+en 'ini'u' antenna +ei +t require is C.er/e9citation.ent circulatin currents to flow between enerators. So'eti'e "ou 'a" want to test "ou enerator B 'a" want to isolate t+e neutral fro' round.e t+e D$SS Rou will certainl" not li1e to open all t+e bolted connections for Fust a s'all test li1e c+ec1in "our insulation wit+ a 'e ar etc.'.e -appen if t-e neutral isolator will .olta e. Deutral isolator is not 'ust. #+e t+in is t+e *ntenna for trans'ittin B recei.e a close loop and +ence ne ati. $f "ou un rounded t+e neutral t+en t+e enerator is connected to t+e round . $n case it is 1ept open/ under balanced load conditions t+e current t+ru neutral will not flow B not+in +ar'ful will ta1e place but in case an eart+ fault ta1es place t+en t+ere will be no eart+ fault current flowin t+ru t+e s"ste' B t+e enerator will run as a un rounded enerator. w+ic+ are dan erous bot+ to +u'an B equip'ent. • $tEs not re ardin power co< power +as no relations+ip wit+ frequenc".e sequence current will flow. • • • • • • • • &4$(5-y it is re uired to operate t-e radio stations at -ig.f) w+ere C 5 . #+is will increase t+e rotor te'perature. for suc+ t+in s "ou need a D$S. &e will +a. $f 'ore nu'ber of enerators are connected parallel. li1e for e9a'ple 'e arin etc.C(7 ti'es t+e 08E .er" i'portant s"ste's li1e 'edical s"ste's etc "ou will not round t+e s"ste' cause "ou can operate suc+ s"ste's for sin le round fault. &+en "ou pro.) 1. *lso Hi + frequenc" increases t+e qualit" of reception / increases t+e ran e of co''unication / +i + frequenc" offers +i + bandwidt+ . Yuic1er t+e fault clearance less is t+e da'a e. #a1e e9a'ple of 'obile B its antenna w+ic+ is opeartin on KH< . for C5 (%%%%%%%%% but if frequenc" is 1 !+< t+en +ei +t require is C) !etre so t+ats w+" +i + freq is used.e e9planation will not be .&48(5-at will .

Kreater t+e $ .iew is cleared now.so for lar e ran e of freq ur ain will re'ain constant. $f "ou directl" eart+ t+e L* t+rou + structure t+en t+e sur e counter will not be able to 'easure t+e no of sur es. reater is t+e $76 +eat produced. so'e 'a" be a weldin / dc weldin / arc/ constant . ?f course t+e transfor'er is desi ned to wit+stand suc+ +i + currents.S A STEA FA I= STEA DI5N T=ANS"I=2E=7 5<H DIES S<I=T +. &4#(5-y is s-orting type terminal re uired for +T7 • Durin 'aintenance or secondar" inFection "ou will need to b"pass t+e C# B for t+e sa'e "ou need s+ortin lin1. !uc+ 'ore is t+ere but $ +ope ur . ?pen circuitin t+e C# will saturate it B da'a e it. $s 'otori<ed eart+ switc+ allowed for isolator as per $S and $ECS $ t+in1 it is allowed cause e.ided/ +ence "ou can b"pass t+e insulated base. $ts a co'ple9 subFect of stud" B for deeper 1nowled e detailed stud" is i'portant. &40( 5-y is insulating . #+e arcin ener " ele.ates t+e te'perature B +ence 'elts t+e electrode 'aterial o. inFection "ou will s+ort circuit t+e 'ain C# B b"pass it. for lesser ratin t+e counter is not pro. . Durin sec.ase re uired for LA7 +an it . &'4( .es o.e used wit-out insulator as well&co* it is possi..y 4 of t-e LA manufacturers? especially at #k@( • #+e L* is pro.le as suggested .ent fro' eat+in durin t+e closed condition • &'/( 5-at is main *one and c-eck *one in case of '4 protections7 • !ain <one is t+e <one in w+ic+ t+e distance rela" will 'onitor t+e i'pedance B durin t+e fault if t+e i'pedance falls under its c+aracteristics (circle/quadrilateral) t+en t+e rela" will operate.alue.er t+e Foint.er" co'ple9 B detailed p+eno'enon.NG T=ANS"I=2E= .erload B SC protection.olta e/ constant current etc.=+F. :ut t+en proper eart+in +as to be assured.S TIF+<ED TI G=IFND. :ut weldin is a .ided wit+ a dedicated 06?0E6 eart+in w+ic+ 'a" be in t+e for' of a buried treated electrode ne9t to it. #+e fault condition produces lar e 'a nitude currents.ia a sur e counter. C+ec1 <one is a bac1 up for t+e 'ain <one. • :asicall" durin weldin we force a s+ort8circuit at t+e electrode tip.en for C# blows off due to a fault t+en rat+er t+an protectin t+e C# it will 'a1e it open circuited +ence it will be saturated B da'a ed.en if it is 'otori<ed t+e interloc1in will pre.T DINT TACES ALA+E 5<EN ELE+T=IDE . For 0# it i.S T<E 5ELD.( 5-y is fuse gi!en for only AT and not +T7 • Fuse if i. &4. :esides t+ere are 'an" principles on w+ic+ weldin operates.L* connection is securel" 'ade wit+ t+e electrode .

e t+e . &'8( +lass of t-e instrument7 • • Kenerall" t+e class indicates t+e accurac" wit+ w+ic+ t+e 'eter will indicate or an equip'ent will 'easure wit+ respect to its input.1Q8%.)/ 1/ ) B error .reaker.olta e B p+ase error B it . (. For better understandin we call enerator or transfor'er or line etc brea1ers .e accuracies B accordin l" application as depicted below for testin t+e followin .alues are enerall" used: for routine tests : accurac" class 1 for t"pe tests : accurac" class %.&''(5-at6s t-e difference . • • &'$( "irst pole to clear factor:+ircuit .etween generator .( corresponds to t+ree p+ase faults in s"ste' wit+ an eart+ed neutral. 1pp 5 1.in eart+ in a s"ste' wit+ eart+ed neutral. railwa" s"ste's.7/ %.% (Q8(Q8to be specified.er not nor'all" considered in t+e standards. #+is case responds to 1pp 5 1.e better +eat dissipation B reduce error.reakers • #+e first pole to clear factor (1pp)is dependin on t+e eart+in s"ste' of t+e networ1.es t+e .1/ %. and is si'ilar for all equip'ent. For e9a'ple for a 4# accurac" will depend on its lea1a e reactance B windin resistance.reaker and simple . 1pp 5 1.alues will be: classQ8J .)Q8%. 7. For a 4# accurac" i.7Q81% %.)Q87% 1Q81Q8.e accurac" of 1.% corresponds to special cases e.olta e error(H/Z)Q8p+ase displace'ent %. Si'ilarl" indicatin instru'ents s+all +a. &'#( 5-at is t-e roll of NG= in a power system and w-y we use a resistance to ground t-e neutral w-en we need always low resisti!ity for t-e grounding77 . $n eneral followin cases appl":8 1. *lso better core 'aterial will i. . :ased on t+e equip'ent . 1pp 5 1.) corresponds to t+ree p+ase faults in isolated or resonant eart+ed s"ste'. * special case is w+en t+ere is a t+ree p+ase fault wit+out in..) .ol.1Q8) %. #+e first pole to clear factor is used to calculatin t+e transient reco.ailable are: %.7Q8%.aries wit+ t+e 4* burden of secondar".77 • :rea1er is one w+ic+ disconnect t+e circuit in fault condition. #+is special case is +owe.olta e and 'a9i'u' s+ort circuit current t+e ratin s will be decided. #+e accurac" of different equip'ent will depend on nu'ber of factors.olta e error for a 4# different t"pe of 4#s a. indicatin 'eters enerall" will +a.er" .olta e for t+ree p+ase faults. class of accurac" will i.) or better.

#+us all "our obFecti.entin t+e arcin / 8li'itin t+e fault current 8B isolatin t+e faulted s"ste' are ac+ie.Co''unicate it to t+e protection rela"s B +ence t+e rela"s can t+en isolate t+e s"ste' fro' t+e faultL so t+at t+e s"ste' is isolated fro' t+e fault before t+e +ar' is done b" t+e fault current. #+e enerator is actuall" connected wit+ t+e round t+rou + t+e unseen capacitances wit+ t+e round.ed ?f course "ou can +a.er" +i + cause t+ere will be no resistance to li'it t+e . *lso we need to reduce t+e fault current to suc+ a .er: &+ere 'ultiple enerators are solidl" rounded but +a. well if Rou donEt round t+e neutral t+en t+ere is a possibilit" of production of w+at is called is an arcin w+en t+e fault will ta1e place. D?& $f "ou round t+e enerator directl" t+en w+ene. so u see t+at alwa"s t+ere is a connection between t+e enerator B t+e round t+ru suc+ capacitances(capacitances between enerator B round/ capacitance between cables/bus duct B round etc) +ence w+en a fault will ta1e place an arc will produce w+ic+ will deteriorate t+e insulation B is also dan erous to +u'ans.e different t"pes of eart+in s"ste's based on "our require'ent B s"ste' confi uration.er a fault will ta1e place at an" p+ase wit+ round t+e fault current flowin t+row t+e faulted p+ase8to round8to neutral will be . D$S S+ould be replaced b" a lin1 $ t+in1 so t+at it can be operated onl" in disconnected condition. #+at is t+e reason t+at all t+e equip'ent will be desi ned for fault =* . &'0( NG= =atings / w-y are NG=6s rated for 4/sec7 • #+ese are placed in t+e neutral circuit B +ence will be ener i<ed onl" in t+e fault conditions t+us t+eir continuous loadin is not e9pected. D$S S+ould be a.e switc+es in t+e neutral/ t+ere +as so'eti'es been t+e practice of roundin onl" one of t+e se. Deutral isolatin switc+ $s required for: 'easurin / testin / repair etc.ersit" factor to obtain s'aller ratin cause t+e t+erefore $t will not be continuousl" rated. • .e.oided as one can open t+e neutral switc+ B 'a1e t+e s"ste' dan erous wit+ un rounded condition. Si'ilarl" w+en "ou place a transfor'er in t+e neutral roundin circuit t+e =4* ratin obtained after t+e calculation is 'ultiplied b" a di. +ence t+e :rea1ers will isolate t+e fault before 1 sec i. Hence we insert a resistance in t+e neutral circuit to li'it t+is fault current.ided to cut t+e circulatin ne ati.eral enerators in parallel to li'it round8fault current dut" or circulatin t+ird +ar'onic current.e. wit+in t+e ti'e period t+e equip'ent are desi ned to carr" t+e fault current.aules for 1 sec so t+at t+e total operation(C# sensin 8rela" functionin 8circuit brea1er operation ) ti'e will be less t+an 1 sec. D$S is also pro.alue t+at t+e protection C#s are able to identif" t+e fault current wit+out saturatin t+e C#s. +ence t+e" are selected for inter'ittent ratin . i +ope t+e e9planation was understandable.• • • • • • • &e need to understand w+" roundin is needed.alue of fault current. $n t+at case arcin fault can ta1e place B ur protection 'a" beco'e ineffecti. +owe.e sequence current in 7 'ore enerator connected in parallel.es of: 8pre.

ution Line.alues B t+en u calculate fro' t+at t+e capaciti. #+e nu'ber can be increased to increase t+e creep a e distance. E!8stren t+ of t+e strin .S T<E=E T5I B.n a ''/ k@ system? t-ere are two possi.e) w+ere an increase of 1%J in t+e flu9 densit" (. 7.er . ?nce t+e current is obtained "ou can t+en calculate t+e electrostatic =4* fro' t+e current 'ultiplied wit+ .alue of no of discs b" di. &+ile selectin t+e disc insulators one +as to 1eep in find t+e followin t+in s: 1. ?nce t+at is done t+en u need to see its suitabilit" wit+ respect to E! stren t+.olta e) causes an increase of )%J in t+e 'a neti<in force (current).e couplin of "our enerator/ equip'ent and t+e round 8 enerator to round capacitance 8 enerator cable to round capacitance(or bus duct as t+e case 'a" be) 8low . I. &'>( <ow to calculate knee point !oltage and significance of knee point !oltag7 • =nee point .le LA ratings 4>0 k@ and '4# k@.olta e B t+e capaciti. $ts si nificance lies 'ainl" in 0S class core of C#s used for diff protection &8/( Design met-od for neutral grounding resistor777 • • DK6 desi n basics: capaciti.!iously t-e two -a!e different 2+I@6s? wit.e reactance.nsulation Disc in Transmission And Distri.olta e. &8'( .olta e windin of trafo B round capacitance.e current t+en produced is calculated fro' t+e enerator .idin t+e p+ase to eart+ .e(:H cur. #+e total capacitance is t+en obtained fro' t+e abo. #+e capaciti.arious .olat e wit+ 1. 8sur e arrestor capacitance. • • 1114 is t+e p+ase to eart+ .e reactance obtained abo.e .S .e.olta e for 77%14 577%/ (sqrt(()M11)517 DoEs of disc are suitable.N ''/ k@ and 9// k@ LE@ELS7 • Hi +est S"ste' 4olta e $'pulse &it+ Stand Le. • &84( +riterion is t-ere for selection of . B t+en later "ou can order it for a specific conductor t"pe wit+ all t+e strin /suspension insulator +ardware.olta e: #+at point on t+e 'a neti<in cur.in so'e rid conditions t+e" as1 to 1eep neutral isolated after bein connected to rid. 5<H . $nterface wit+ t+e t"pe of conductor used ('oose/ tarantula/ <ebra etc) So "ou will co'e to t+e . Sufficient Cree pa e distance so as not to cause a flas+o.olta e s"ste's as per $S 1%11-14 (r's) 14 (pea1) 17 >% .el are different :$LEs for .'4# k@ LA -a!ing -ig-er 2+I@. *ll t+e forces co'in on to t+e strin B t+e abilit" of t+e strin to wit+stand t+e'.L LE@EL AS AE= .C(7. (.

olta e ta1in place at different locations and at t+e location of fault.es.) 7.) 1.le circuit t-ree wires on t-e eit-er sides .) 7.e to do an intensi. Fran1l" spea1in one will +a.. Hence s"ste' .olta e 9 sqrt(7)/ sqrt(() so for 1114 line its P14 $n t+at case also t+e . Rou will +a.) 17( 17( 1. reduction in noise in co''.er.ide enou + creep a e so as to pre. #+e selection criterion of t+e insulator discs depend on t+e installation 'et+od B t+e s"ste' .) C) 1.) C)% -)% P)% 1%)% &88( A-ase dou. disc. ?nce t+at is done we need to obtain t+e te'porar" o.) 7.er/ "ou can ta1e t+e .olta e/ ri +tl" said we can +a. :ut for a suspension t"pe s"ste' w+ic+ +as to bear onl" t+e wei +t t+en nu'ber of discs required 'a" be less t+an w+at "ou et b" di. pro9i'it" effect 7.e a strain t"pe of fittin ie t+e stac1 +as to bear +ori<ontal conductor tension/ wei +t load of t+e conductor/ wind load/ ice load etc t+en t+e nu'ber of insulator discs required 'a" be 'ore.) 7. Kenerall" 111.ut t-ere one t-ing to . discs are stac1ed to et+er to pro.arious reasons few are to a..idin b" 11.olta e ratin of L* is selected as:8 Line .er .olta e factor w+ic+ is t+en calculated fro' so'e $EC cur. *fter t+is one needs to see t+e force t+at t+e stac1 +as to bear. s1in effect (. Howe.) 1C% (7) . B (( 1.e "ou a rou + idea of t+e nu'ber of discs.ent an" electrical fault to round B also 'eans for suspension.alues wont differ 'uc+ if u ta1e t+e #?4 factor as 1.ided b" 11 s+all i. Si nals &89( Selection of LA • • • #+e .e.oid 1.e noticed t-e wires are transposed i.) 7. =GB HGH BG= • #+is is done for .alue of 1.e 11 1..e to calculate t+e forces occurrin B w+at t+e discs can not bear. :ut suc+ a stud" is done onl" w+en an intestine power s"ste' stud" is carried out.) 1.)> as #?4 to be 'ore precise. radio interference .)% ))% >)% >. $f "ou +a. • • • • .e power s"ste' stud" after t+at one as to calculate t+e o.olta e di.17 (> (> C7.)% ))% .

alue t+en to <ero a ain B t+en to pea1 . #+is neutral eart+in is t+rou + done t+rou + a switc+.rt7) t+en to % t+en to %. • &8>( 5-at is Skin EffectLLL 3 more importantly <ow does it -appen77 . a nor'al switc+ wit+ t+e correct ratin capacit" would wor1. ((1. Hence once t+e second enerator is s"nc+roni<ed wit+ t+e bus or rid t+e neutral is isolated.. #+is leads to increase in loss and increase in te'perature ( #+is 'a" leads to false trippin also ).( *'ps.entricular fibrillation/ w+ic+ t+en rapidl" leads to deat+. discs in .• • • #+at is t+e reason "ou +a. neutral roundin switc+ we donEt need a +i + speed roundin switc+.e side B t+en a ain to %.rt7/ wil pro.%% 1.e *C current/ * DC current wit+ .ide e9actl" t+e sa'e power consu'ption.alue in t+e 8.e sequence current will be flowin t+ou + bot+ t+e enerator ta1in eart+ as pat+. *nd of course t+is +appens )% ti'es a second.. line cause in t+at case t+e creep a e obtained 'ust +a.er" ri id.ar" fro' <ero to pea1 .ided b" sq.($ uess so'e stroboscopic 'et+od 'a" enable "ou to see it flic1erin Uso'ebod" 'a" post t+e 'et+od) Considerin a sine wa.els quite sufficient to ensure a dan erous a'ount of current will flow/ w+et+er it uses alternatin or direct current.alue di. • &80( 5-at all are t-e applications w-ere -ig. ((C) &+at will +appen if dc suppl" will i.els of DC current since t+e alternatin fluctuations can cause t+e +eart to lose coordination/ inducin .alue +ence we need to 1eep in 'ind t+e r's .> in t+e ot+er direction B t+en a ain to %. ?f course "our e"e is not t+at quic1 enou + to notice t+at flic1erin B +ence "ou see a continous li +t co'in out of t+e bulb wit+ *C. #+is is fine if t+ere is onl" one enerator. Hence t+e bulb actuall" flic1ers wit+ a )% H< frequenc". Dote t+at t+e current in case of *C flowin t+rou + t+e bulb will . * 1%% watt bulb operatin at 77% 4 *C will draw r's current $r's50/451%%/7(%5%. Howe. Low frequenc" ()% I >% H<) *C currents can be 'ore dan erous t+an si'ilar le.er an" practical distribution s"ste' will use .aries fro' % to %. Since t+e precautions a ainst electrocution are si'ilar/ ulti'atel"/ t+e ad.> (pea1 . insulators is enerall" used in a .alue of current w+en oin to desi n a switc+ (or brea1er for lar er loads) for suc+ a load.alue equal to pea1 *C .alue/ 5 %.en to 1%% w bulb. So'e sa" onl" one neutral +as to be eart+ed.( M sq.olta e le.ertical installation B are not stac1ed to et+er cause t+at will 'a1e t+e suspension .entuall" adopted as t+e standard. #+e e9planation i.anta es of *C power trans'ission outwei +ed t+is t+eoretical ris1/ and it was e.e been enou + B also t+e strain require'ent. #+e current +ence actuall" .en was/ if bot+ t+e neutral eart+in are closed t+e ne ati. For two enerators in parallel to a bus t+e neutral eart+in differs.e seen onl" 7(/7. Since t+e power consu'ption is calculated fro' t+e r's .speed grounding switc-es are used. • • • Kenerator neutral is eart+ed directl" or t+rou + distribution transfor'er. • • ?f course t+e bulb will low. So'e sa"s bot+ t+e neutral are to eart+ed.

:ut in t+is case potential will be induced between s+eat+ B round. Hence t+e 'a9i'u' opposition nt+ere B 'ini'u' opposition at t+e surface. #+is 'et+od is called sin le point bondin .olta e de. Hence t+e *L#E6D*#$DK current in t+e conductor induces .ar"in +ence no bac1 e'fUbut if u raduall" start increasin t+e frequenc" t+en t+e flu9 cuttin t+e conductor oes on increasin U+ence reater t+e frequenc" reater t+e alternatin flu9 cuttin t+e conductor B +ence reater t+e bac1 e'f B t+erefore reater t+e s1in effect[[[ &9/( 5-y t-ere is a need to ground t-e s-eat.elop'ent because can eit+er o wit+ t+e de rated cable or if one updates t+e cable in ad.ot.#+is will also pro. #+is 'et+od pro.. $n ED? brea1er t+e sprin c+ar in is done wit+ a 'otor and draw out 'anuall" b" +and.of single core power ca.reaker7 • • $n t+e :rea1ers for t+e operation sprin c+ar in is 'ust.ance.olta es in t+e s+eat+ or t+e ar'our.ide pat+ for t+e fault currents to flow.ides 'a9i'u' possible current carr"in capacit" wit+ t+e 'a9i'u' possible len t+s. so ED? 'eans Electricall" sprin c+ar ed Draw ?ut brea1er . #+is s"ste' of cable eart+in is called bot+8end bondin . +ence t+e current carr"in capacit" of t+e cable will be ood.t-e ends7 • • * sin le core cable wit+ a s+eat+ is not+in but a conductor carr"in current surrounded b" anot+er conductor(s+eat+). • • • &94( 5-at is EDI 3 2DI type .les. t+is s"ste' is su ested onl" w+en one wants to a. #+ere is anot+er s"ste' called t+e cross bondin s"ste' in w+ic+ t+e s+eat+ are sectionaliosed B cross connected so t+at t+e circulatin currents are 'ini'i<ed. #a1in into account t+e inductance effect/ its si'ple consider t+e DC current.Since its constant B not . 5-y t-e grounding a!oided at . #+is is t+us used onl" for s+ort len t+s.. w+en onl" one end of t+e cable s+eat+ is rounded t+en t+ere is no pat+ for t+e circulatin current to flow.+ence t+e current tries to follow at t+e surfaceU$t is due to t+is reason t+at we ta1e +ollow tube conductors in bus duct. Hence roundin t+ese cables at bot+ ends will cause t+e potential of t+e ar'our to be sa'e as round potential B +ence s+all beco'e safe for t+e personnel. Hence t+is w+ole t+in will cause t+e cable to produce so'e $76 losses/ +ence +eatin B +ence t+e current carr"in capacit" will be de rated. *lt+ou + so'e potential will also e9ist between s+eat+ B round/ t+e sa'e bein 'a9i'u' at t+e lin1 bo9es w+ere bondin is done.oid t+e . :ut roundin t+e cables at bot+ t+e end will cause a proble'. #+is potential is proportional to t+e len t+ of t+e cable B +ence t+is will li'it t+e len t+ of t+e cable used. $n t+at case t+e circulatin currents will start flowin wit+ t+e ar'or/ t+e round B wit+ t+e two ends of t+e roundin co'pletin t+e circuit.• • • 6e'e'ber farada"s law of electro'a netic inductionSSS a conductor placed in a c+an in 'a netic field induces an e'f well t+e sa'e is +appenin +ere #+e effect of bac1 e'f is 'a9 at t+e centre cause of 'a9i'u' lines of field t+ere.

power between two s"s t+rou + ot+er two +ealt+" p+ases.el would seriousl" affect cb.el wit+out c+an in frequenc".(8C?8('in8C? t+is is t+e sequence of *6.e. !ulti s+ot I in t+is sc+e'e 'ore t+an one reclosin atte'pt is 'ade for a i. THAE I" A/= &. #+e factor t+at 'ust b ta1en into account.power can ta1e place durin t+e dead ti'e. so !D? 'eans !anual sprin c+ar e Draw ?ut brea1er &9'( 5-y transformer rating is in C@A or 2@A7 • • • :ecause power factor of t+e load is not defined in case of transfor'erUt+ats w+" it is not possible to rate transfor'er in =&.ased on p-ase( • • ( p+ase a/r I t+is t"pe of a/r causes an i''ediate drift apart of t+e two s"s and +ence no interc+an e of s"n.( sec it closes auto'aticall"/ if faults persists t+en it will open after ( 'in it closes and if still fault persists.olta e) are independent of power factor/ t+at is w+" a #ransfor'ers ratin is not on 1&/ but on =4* &98( +omplete use 3 operation on auto:reclosure7 • !an" faults on o. 6epeated closure atte'pts wit+ +i + fault le. w+" transfor'er rated in 14* #ransfor'er is not a load and +a. since bot+ t+e losses . sin le p+ase a/r8 onl" t+e fault" p+ase is reclosed wit+out causin interruption in interc+an e of s"n. • THAE I" A/= &. it re'ain in open condition.olta e i.olta e purel"/ not on load i. #+e losses (cu loss and iron loss) of t+e transfor'er depends on current and .en fault before loc1out of cb occurs .in no effect on 0.er faults occurs C: opensUt+en after %. b) s"ste' condition. .t+ese condition results in arc+in faults and t+e arc in t+e fault can be e9tin uis+ed b" de8ener i<in t+e lines b" si'o openin of C: on t+e bot+ ends of t+e lines. i.olta e le.el to anot+er .e/ p+ase an le between t+e current and .F (t+atEs w+" no c+an e in its power factor) and it onl" transfer t+e constant power fro' one .+i + speed a/r for EH# s"ste' is in.olta e le.• $n !D? brea1er t+e sprin c+ar in is also done b" +and 'anuall" and draw out about also b" +and onl". a) cb li'itation.e.en fault before loc1out of cb occurs.ariabl" sin le s+ot.er+ead trans'ission lines are transient in nature/P%J of faults are used b" birds/tree branc+es.ased on attempts of reclosure( • • • sin le s+ot I in t+is sc+e'e cb is reclosed onl" once on a i. ?8%.i< copper loss(depends on current) and iron loss(depends on .8?0ED/C8CL?SED w+en e.

if we s+ort t+e secondar" t+en 'uc+ +i + current will circulate in t+e secondar" due to +i + induced e'f 'uc+ +i +er t+an t+e actual full load current as a result of w+ic+ t+e transfor'erEs secondar" windin 'a" burn out. • &9$( Distance relay setting Step1 : Ket t+e conductor Details (i.e Sequence $'pedance (V)/ Vero Seqeunce $'pedance(V%)) w+ic+ is in 0ri'ar" . &9#( Difference .e.alues.( 5-y we use inductors . Con. *nd so'e definite error can be defined e. Step 7 : :ased upon t+e calculated .en wit+ 7%J loadin .alue di.er" +i + induced e'f 'a" appear in t+e secondar" as flu9 is .7S is Special class for 'eterin .'S7 • • %.)S are special t"pe of 'easure'ent C#s t+e" uarantee t+e declared accurac"/ e. enerall" if u use %.ert in ter's of secondar" .en wit+ a load as low as 1J. Vone Vone line Vone line.alue.7s class ct t+an ur 4* burden of core is also co'e down. also for tariff 'eterin purposes. (6e. 7 (Forward) 'eans 1%%J of 0rotected line len t+ H 7%J *dFacent S+ortest ( (Forward) 'eans 1%%J of 0rotected line len t+ H )%J *dFacent Lon est .arious <ones i.olta e applied to t+e pri'ar".THAE I" A/= &.7 • secondar" of a ct is ne. $f "ou need 'ore 1indl" Searc+ Hand boo1 of 0ower S"ste'( *::/ *6E4* !anafacctures). :ut/ 0KC$L B D#0C use %.er opened as because ct is alwa"s connected to t+e line so openin t+e secondar" will 'ean t+ere will be no counter ''f to balance t+e pri'ar" current as a result of w+ic+ a .er" +i + and no counter ''f and t+is will be dan erous for t+e personnel in t+e secondar" side and for pt if it is s+orted t+en wit+ full . %.7 class.ide into . &9.7 class ct.erse) 'eans 1%J of protected line. #+us t+e" are suitable for industries w+ere loads are co''issioned in steps or sta es.7S B %. it is 'ore accurate t+an %.e 0ositi.' and /.etween +T class /. Vone 1 (Forward) 'eans -%J of "our protected line len t+.urden is connected on t-e +T.ased speed( • • +i + speed low/dela"ed a/r &99( 5-y t-e secondary of +T ne!er open w-en .

olta e be 'aintained at t+e proper ratin . $t consists/ in its si'plest for'/ of two or 'ore coils of insulated wire wound on a la'inated steel core.ed t+e proble' of la in current. * . ?nl" autotransfor'ers/ w+ose pri'ar" and secondar" are connected to eac+ ot+er electricall"/ are not of t+e insulatin or isolatin .ert alternatin current fro' one .olta e for bot+ +i + and low . Standard tap arran e'ents are at two8and8one8+alf and fi. . So we +a.olta e to anot+er.in t+e transfor'er.e nor'al in order t+at t+e secondar" .olta e conditions.er full rated output .er" +i +) current flows due to so'e fault in t+e s"ste'/ t+e inductor will oppose t+e flow of t+at current sa. $t can be desi ned to 2step up3 or 2step down3 .ices.ailable line . &+en connected to t+e pri'ar" side of transfor'er/ if an" sudden s+ort circuit (. Secondl"/ for t+e proble' of la in currentU capacitors are connected across t+e inductor to i'pro. #+e c+an e of .ided on so'e transfor'ers on t+e +i + . 5-at is t-e difference .-% .e (i) protected t+e transfor'er/ (ii) sol.olta es at t+e secondar" ter'inals.olta e is introduced to one coil/ called t+e pri'ar"/ it 'a neti<es t+e iron core.olta e (or . * transfor'er +as no 'o. 5-at is a transformer and -ow does it work7 • • * transfor'er is an electrical apparatus desi ned to con.DDED CH*DKE $D C.olts/ t+e pri'ar" s+ould be connected to t+e )J tap abo.olt pri'ar" and t+e a.nsulating?E D.e t+e propert" to oppose S.solating?EandDS-ielded 5indingE transformers7 • • • • $nsulatin and isolatin transfor'ers are identical. 8. #+is is especiall" i'portant in critical applications suc+ as co'puters/ process controllers and 'an" ot+er 'icroprocessor controlled de.olta e is runnin at )%.e percent of t+e rated pri'ar" . #+ese ter's are used to describe t+e isolation of t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s/ or insulation between t+e two.olta e windin to correct for +i + or low .ariet". Electrical K3A Aart:8 Kuestions and Answers related to Transformer) 4.ice/ w+ic+ insures/ under nor'al operatin conditions/ a lon and trouble8 free life.olta e conditions/ and still deli. *ll two/ t+ree and four windin transfor'ers are of t+e insulatin or isolatin t"pes.olta e is t+en induced in t+e ot+er coil/ called t+e secondar" or output coil. 5-at are taps and w-en are t-ey used7 • • • #aps are pro. For e9a'ple/ if t+e transfor'er +as a . • '.olta e ratio) between t+e pri'ar" and secondar" depends on t+e turns ratio of t+e two coils.66ED#.olta es and wor1s on t+e 'a netic induction principle.e t+e la in current. &+en . * s+ielded transfor'er is desi ned wit+ a 'etallic s+ield between t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s to attenuate transient noise.in parts and is a co'pletel" static solid state de.etween D. .• • $nductors +a.

erse effects or loss in =4* capacit".-% .ed as listed abo.CJ and .-% .olta e indicates at no load.olta e/ t+e =4* capacit" is reduced correspondin l". For e9a'ple: #ransfor'er * +as an i'pedance of .e used in parallel7 • Sin le p+ase transfor'ers can be used in parallel onl" w+en t+eir i'pedances and .olt secondar" is operated at 7. +an Transformers . • • • .olta e windin +as a reater .ice.olta e.ided for t+is purpose. #+is 'eans t+e low ..olta e windin .% .e operated at $/ <*7 • • #ransfor'ers rated below 1 =4* can be used on )% H< ser.olta es below t+e na'eplate rated .olt source and t+ereb" beco'e t+e pri'ar" or input to t+e transfor'er/ t+en t+e ori inal . +an transformers .alues of eac+ transfor'er 'ust be wit+in C. Howe.% . #.e t+e output connected to a 7.e operated at !oltages ot-er t-an nameplate !oltages7 $ • • • n so'e cases/ transfor'ers can be operated at .e i'pedance between t+e li'its of (.% .J/ transfor'er : w+ic+ is to be parallel to * 'ust +a.9. #+e reason for t+is li'itation in =4* si<e is/ t+e turns ratio is t+e sa'e as t+e . #ransfor'ers 1 =4* and lar er/ rated at >% H</ s+ould not be used on )% H< ser. • . $.e/ plus t+e an ular displace'ent and p+asin between t+e two transfor'ers 'ust be identical. $n D? case s+ould a transfor'er be operated at a .olta e is reduced to 17% .(J.er/ an" )% H< transfor'er will operate on a >% H< ser.erse connected wit+out an" ad.olts/ t+e secondar" . #ransfor'ers rated 1 =4* and lar er sin le p+ase/ ( =4* and lar er t+ree p+ase can be re. $f t+e transfor'er was ori inall" rated 1% =4*/ t+e reduced ratin would be ) =4*/ or in direct proportion to t+e applied .ice.ice..olt outputQ can +a.olta e in e9cess of its na'eplate ratin / unless taps are pro.)J of eac+ ot+er.olt input/ 7. +an transformers . ?n transfor'ers rated below 1 =4* sin le p+ase/ t+ere is a turns ratio co'pensation on t+e low .% .e re!erse connected7 • Dr"8t"pe distribution transfor'ers can be re.erse connected wit+out a loss of =4* ratin / but t+ere are certain li'itations. +an #/ <* transformers .olts. E9a'ple: * transfor'er wit+ a .olt pri'ar" transfor'er wit+ a 7. For e9a'ple/ if a .olt pri'ar" windin will beco'e t+e output or . &+en parallelin t+ree p+ase transfor'ers/ t+e sa'e precautions 'ust be obser. Special desi ns are required for t+is ser.olta es are used/ a circulatin current e9ists in t+e closed networ1 between t+e two transfor'ers/ w+ic+ will cause e9cess +eatin and result in a s+orter life of t+e transfor'er. $n addition/ i'pedance .olta e.olta e t+an t+e na'eplate .-% .ice/ due to t+e +i +er losses and resultant +eat rise.olta es are equal. &+en operatin below t+e rated .olta e ratio. $f unequal .olt secondar".-% .

erters or p+ase s+iftin de. 44. Deter'ine t+e capacit" required in .C( (square root of () t+en di.olts/ t+en 7.7 .olts pri'ar" and 7.olta e required. For e9a'ple: if t+e load is .olta e of appro9i'atel" 7)% .olts 9 load a'ps 9 1.% equals P>%% 4*.• • • For e9a'ple/ a s'all sin le p+ase transfor'er +a.olts secondar"/ would actuall" +a.e a no load .-% . Deter'ine w+et+er taps are required. Deter'ine secondar" .in a na'eplate . 0+ase con.>% .olts/ and a full load .olta es..ert sin le p+ase power to t+ree p+ases.olt8a'peres. * 1% =4* (1%/%%% .olta e of 7.olta e would consequentl" be appro9i'atel" .ices suc+ as reactors and capacitors are required to con.olta e is 7. *L&*RS SELEC# #HE #6*DSF?6!E6 L*6KE6 #H*D #HE *C#.ide b" 1%%%.% .olta e of .olts at full load.% .% a'peres/ suc+ as a 'otor/ and t+e secondar" . 4/.) 87)% =4* sin le p+ase 7)8)%% =4* t+ree p+ase .% . +an Transformers de!elop T-ree A-ase power from a Single A-ase source7 • No. 0. #aps are usuall" specified on lar er transfor'ers. #+e transfor'er output will be sin le p+ase.% 9 .erse/ t+e transfor'er will not be +ar'edL +owe.ided on #ransfor'ers as follows: Do lu sQlead t"pe connection on %87) =4* sin le p+ase %81) =4* t+ree p+ase :us8bar ter'inations(drilled to DE!* standards) (C.olt8 a'peres) transfor'er is required.olts) for sin le p+ase. 5-at terminations are pro!ided7 • • • • • • • 0ri'ar" and Secondar" #er'inations are pro.olts.*L L?*D. #+is is done for safet" purposes and allows for e9pansion/ in case 'ore load is added at a later date.e used on a T-ree A-ase source7 • Hes.olta e (. <ow do you select transformers7 • • • • • • • Deter'ine pri'ar" .er/ t+e output .8wire.% . >.olta e will be lower t+an is indicated b" t+e na'eplate.olt source/ t+en t+e output .olts at no load and appro9i'atel" . For ( p+ase =4*/ 'ultipl" rated . *s t+e =4* beco'es s'aller/ t+e co'pensation is reaterQresultin in lower output .% . #+is is done b" 'ultipl"in t+e load current (a'peres) b" t+e load .olta e and frequenc". &+en one atte'pts to use t+ese transfor'ers in re. *n" sin le p+ase transfor'er can be used on a t+ree p+ase source b" connectin t+e pri'ar" leads to an" two wires of a t+ree p+ase s"ste'/ re ardless of w+et+er t+e source is t+ree p+ase (8wire or t+ree p+ase . $f t+e 7.olt windin were connected to a 7. +an a Single A-ase Transformer .

5-y is impedance important7 • • • • • • • $t is used for deter'inin t+e interruptin capacit" of a circuit brea1er or fuse e'plo"ed to protect t+e pri'ar" of a transfor'er.olta e re ulation at .olta e drops to P) .J i'pedance/ to be operated fro' a . $f t+e secondar" is s+ort circuited (faulted)/ t+e followin capacities are required: Dor'al Full Load Current 54olt *'ps / \ ( 9 Line 4olts5 C)/%%% 4* / \ ( 9 Line 4olts \ ( 9 . For e9a'ple: * transfor'er deli. #+is is usuall" e9pressed in ter's of percenta e.J/ dependin on t+e si<e and t+e application for w+ic+ t+e" are used.olta es are not e9ceeded. #+e transfor'er i'pedance (V) 5 )J.%% H< t+an >% H<.olta e is not used in t+e calculation.%% H< wit+ no li'itations pro.-% 4 5P% *'ps !a9i'u' S+ort Circuit Line Current 5 Full Load *'ps / )J5 P% *'ps / )J 51/-%% *'ps #+e brea1er or fuse would +a. E1ample) Deter'ine t+e interruptin capacit"/ in a'peres/ of a circuit brea1er or fuse required for a C) =4*/ t+ree p+ase transfor'er/ wit+ a pri'ar" of .olts.e re ulation fro' 7J to .e used at -ig-er fre uencies7 • #ransfor'ers can be used at frequencies abo.e a 'ini'u' interruptin ratin of )7% a'ps at .*'ps / .e used for T-ree A-ase applications7 .*'peres !a9i'u' S+ort Circuit *'ps 5 Full Load *'ps / .ers 1%% .e t+e e9istin a'bient or surroundin te'perature. '/.olts at full load/ t+e re ulation would be )J.4'.-% . +an Single A-ase Transformers .ided na'eplate .olta e.e less . • • • • '4. #+e reason is t+e pri'ar" circuit of t+e transfor'er is t+e onl" windin bein interrupted. 5-at is meant .olts.e >% H< up t+rou + ..e a 'ini'u' interruptin ratin of 1/-%% a'ps at . E1ample) Deter'ine a 'ini'u' circuit brea1er trip ratin and interruptin capacit" for a 1% =4* sin le p+ase transfor'er wit+ . 48.olts at no load and t+e .J5 )7% *'p #+e brea1er or fuse would +a. NITE) #+e secondar" . Calculate as follows: Dor'al Full Load Current 5 Da'eplate 4olt *'ps / Line 4olts 5 1%/%%% 4* / .J 57%. Distribution transfor'ers enerall" +a. 49.-% 4 5 7%.y regulation in a transformer7 • • • 4olta e re ulation in transfor'ers is t+e difference between t+e no load . +an #/ <* transformers .er/ >% H< transfor'ers will +a. 5-at is temperature rise in a transformer7 • #e'perature rise in a transfor'er is t+e te'perature of t+e windin s and insulation abo. Howe..-% .olts.olta e and t+e full load .-% .-% .olt >% H< source.olts delta and secondar" of 7%-R/17% .

aries fro' appro9i'atel" 1%J on s'all si<es of about 1 =4* and s'aller to appro9i'atel" .iation for :asic $'pulse Le.) t+at a transfor'er will tolerate wit+out brea1down.olt'eter will be t+e su' of t+e +i + and low .alent t+ree p+ase capacit" w+en properl" connected of t+ree sin le p+ase transfor'ers is t+ree ti'es t+e na'eplate ratin of eac+ sin le p+ase transfor'er. 84. *ll transfor'ers 'anufactured in t+is catalo / >%% .olta e. #+ree p+ase transfor'ers are so'eti'es not readil" a.• • Hes.J on lar er si<es of C)% =4*.el of a transfor'er is a 'et+od of e9pressin t+e . #+e e9citin current on 'ost li +tin and power transfor'ers .olta e ter'inal unconnected.er be connected w"e pri'ar" to w"e secondar"/ since t+is will result in unstable secondar" . #+ree sin le p+ase transfor'ers can be used in delta connected pri'ar" and w"e or delta connected secondar". • • '>. #ransfor'ers >%% . 5ill a transformer c-ange T-ree A-ases to Single A-ase7 .olta e obtained fro' t+e pri'ar" windin in relation to t+e secondar" windin .olts and below/ will wit+stand t+e DE!* standard :$L ratin / w+ic+ is 1% =4.ices.olts and below are nor'all" connected in additi.e front .)J to .olta e and one low . #+e e9citin current is 'ade up of two co'ponents/ one of w+ic+ is a real co'ponent and is in t+e for' of losses or referred to as no load wattsL t+e ot+er is in t+e for' of reacti.olta e sur e (li +tnin / switc+in sur es/ etc. 5-at is polarity? w-en associated wit. #+e equi. $'pulse tests are dielectric tests t+at consist of t+e application of a +i + frequenc" steep wa.olta e windin s.olta e appearin across a .a transformer7 • • 0olarit" is t+e instantaneous .olta e and low . #+is assures t+e user t+at +e will not e9perience brea1downs w+en +is s"ste' is properl" protected wit+ li +tnin arrestors or si'ilar sur e protection de. #+e :asic $'pulse Le. For e9a'ple: #+ree 1% =4* sin le p+ase transfor'ers will acco''odate a (% =4* t+ree p+ase load '0. &+en t+e transfor'er is e9cited/ t+e resultant .L and -ow does it apply to transformers listed in t-is catalog7 • :$L is an abbre.es one +i + .olta e between windin s/ and between windin s and round. #+e" s+ould ne.el. #+is lea. 5-at is B. 5-at is e1citing current7 • E9citin current/ w+en used in connection wit+ transfor'ers/ is t+e current or a'peres required for e9citation.e polarit" Q t+at is/ w+en tested t+e ter'inals of t+e +i + .olta e windin s on t+e left +and side are connected to et+er/ refer to dia ra' below. 0olarit" is a ter' used onl" wit+ sin le p+ase transfor'ers. #+is is useful w+en connectin sin le p+ase transfor'ers in parallel for t+ree p+ase operations.ailable w+ereas sin le p+ase transfor'ers can enerall" be found in stoc1. • • 8/.e power and is referred to as =4*6.

E.erload will result in a drop of t+e transfor'er output .olta e is low t+e torque and t+e +orsepower of t+e 'otor will drop proportionatel" to t+e square of t+e .olta e at t+e 'otor ter'inals.olta e caused b" t+is 'o'entar" o.en ti'es nor'al runnin current/ t+e resultant lower .erloadin is actuall" beneficial in t+at a cus+ionin effect on 'otor startin is t+e result. 0lease contact t+e factor" for two p+ase applications. #+e o.PJ of t+e 'otor na'eplate ratin .ere startin o. ?. #+ere is no wa" t+at a transfor'er will ta1e t+ree p+ase in and deli.er current de. 89.er/ circuits a.olta e. <ow are transformers si*ed to operate T-ree A-ase induction type s uirrel cage motors7 • • • #+e 'ini'u' transfor'er =4* ratin required to operate a 'otor is calculated as follows: !ini'u' #ransfor'er =4* 56unnin Load *'peres 9 1.olta e were to drop to C%J of no'inal/ t+en 'otor +orsepower and torque would drop to C% J squared or . 8'. $f t+e a'pere ratin of t+e 'otor and transfor'er o.C(9 !otor ?peratin 4olta e / 1%%% NITE) $f 'otor is to be started 'ore t+an once per +our add 7%J additional =4*.ersa usin standard dual wound transfor'ers. #+is condition is 'ore pronounced w+en one transfor'er is used to power one 'otor and t+e runnin a'peres of t+e 'otor is in t+e .e to se.oid +a.en t+ou + t+e inrus+ or startin current is fi.ice falls wit+in t+e 'otorEs )%J 60! draw require'ents/ a proble' is li1el" to de. $f t+e 'otor is used for startin a +i + torque load/ t+e 'otor 'a" sta" at appro9i'atel" )%J of nor'al runnin speed #+e underl"in proble' is low .icinit" of t+e full load a'pere ratin of t+e transfor'er.er sin le p+ase out w+ile at t+e sa'e ti'e presentin a balanced load to t+e t+ree p+ase suppl" s"ste'.er+eatin of t+e 'otor and/or transfor'er would occur/ possibl" causin failure of eit+er co'ponent. #+ere are/ +owe. For e9a'ple: $f t+e .ailable to c+an e t+ree p+ase to two p+ase or .er current de.ice .e applied to motor loads7 • #+is is an e9cellent application for air cooled transfor'ers. Care s+ould be e9ercised in si<in a transfor'er for an induction t"pe squirrel ca e 'otor as w+en it is started/ t+e loc1 rotor a'pera e is appro9i'atel" ) to C ti'es t+e runnin load a'pera e.eral 'otors are bein operated fro' one transfor'er/ a. $f t+is is i'practical/ t+en si<e t+e • • • • • • • . +an air cooled transformers .elop. #+is se. #+e followin precautions s+ould be followed: &4(&+en one transfor'er is used to operate one 'otor/ t+e runnin a'peres of t+e 'otor s+ould not e9ceed >)J of t+e transfor'erEs full load a'pere ratin .olta e. &'( $f se.in all 'otors start at t+e sa'e ti'e.• • • * transfor'er will not act as a p+ase c+an in de. &+en t+e .ice 'a" not open under inter'ediate 'otor a'pere loadin conditions.ice w+en atte'ptin to c+an e t+ree p+ase to sin le p+ase.

5-y are Small Distri.alent in solenoid or 'a netic contactor applications w+ere inrus+ currents can be t+ree to ei +t ti'es as +i + as nor'al sealed or +oldin currents but still 'aintain nor'al . solidly grounded system . t+e neutral return current fro' one source s+ould not 'i9 wit+ or return to anot+er source.olta e will drop rapidl" on 'o'entar" o.transfor'er so t+at t+e total runnin current does not e9ceed >)J of t+e transfor'erEs full load a'pere ratin . !eans eart+in t+e neutral furt+er downstrea' is not correct.8pole and not bot+).er two independent sources/ w+ere t+e neutral of one source and t+e neutral of anot+er source s+ould not 'i9. • Deutral $solation is 'andator" w+en "ou +a. $ndustrial control transfor'ers are desi ned especiall" for 'aintainin a +i + de ree of re ulation e. #+is results in a lar er and enerall" 'ore e9pensi. (Dote t+at onl" eit+er t+e inco'er or t+e bus coupler needs to be .pole switc+es are used in c+an in o. $t is for t+is reason t+at 0CC $nco'ers B :us Couplers are nor'all" . *lso as per $EC standard t+e neutral of a distribution s"ste' s+all not be eart+ed 'ore t+an once. #+is is 'ost pre. #+e e9a'ples are electricit" board power suppl" and standalone enerator suppl" etc.80ole.ncomers 3 Bus +ouplers are normally 9:Aole.erloads of t+is t"pe 'a1in t+e' unsuitable for +i + inrus+ applications.olta e at t+is 'o'entar" o. 8$.e transfor'er. • • • • • &'( NG= grounded system !s. #+is is necessar" because if "ou do not +a. (pole or .ution Transformers not used for . • • Electrical K3A Aart:9 Electrical Questions and Answers Part-4 &4( 5-en Neutral .en at ei +t ti'es nor'al load. *s a 'andator" point t+e neutral of an" transfor'er etc are to be eart+ed/ si'ilarl" t+e neutral of a enerator also +as to be eart+ed.e a !ains Suppl" Source and a Stand8b" 0ower Suppl" Source. Distribution transfor'ers are desi ned for ood re ulation up to 1%% percent loadin / but t+eir output .ndustrial +ontrol Applications7 • $ndustrial control equip'ent de'ands a 'o'entar" o. &+ile parallin (under uncontrolled condition) t+e neutral current between t+e 7 sources will cross and create trippin of an"one source brea1er.e neutral isolation and t+e neutrals of bot+ t+e sources are lin1ed/ t+en w+en onl" one source is feedin and t+e ot+er source is ?FF/ durin an eart+ fault/ t+e potential of t+e ?FF SourceEs Deutral wit+ respect to eart+ will increase/ w+ic+ 'i +t +ar' an" 'aintenance personnel wor1in on t+e ?FF source.erload capacit" of t+ree to ei +t ti'es nor'al capacit".solation is re uired7 Ir A++ .erloaded condition.

entin droplet of water/ice to fall on botto' conductor.e t+is proble'/ as at t+e instant of an eart+ fault/ t+e faulted p+ase oes to neutral potential and t+e +i + fault current would in.ariabl" cause t+e ?.solatingE? and DS-ielded 5indingE transformers7 • • • $nsulatin and isolatin transfor'ers are identical.ent bi birds fro' bu'pin t+eir +eads a ainst t+e o.er+ead line w+en t+e" sit on t+e wire below.er current or s+ort circuit protection de. :ecause/ if "ou opt for i'pedance eart+in / durin an eart+ fault/ t+ere will be appreciable . &$( 5-at is t-e difference .olta e and of reacti. () #+e re ulation of s"ste' .olta e 'i +t circulate enou + current in a person accidentall" co'in in contact wit+ t+e faulted equip'ent/ as to +ar' +is e.idin t+e in feed t+at is/ double secondar" transfor'ers.olta es. &#( 5-y Don6t 5e Break Neutral in A+ +ircuits7 . o !utual inductance 'ini'i<ation. 7) #+e interconnection of se.olta e present between t+e faulted bod" B t+e neutral/ t+e 'a nitude of t+is .e power b" 'eans of a s"nc+ronous capacitor connected to t+e ter'inals of one windin . $n solid eart+in / "ou do not +a.nsulatingE? D.olta e bein deter'ined b" t+e fault current 'a nitude and t+e i'pedance . * s+ielded transfor'er includes a 'etallic s+ield between t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s to attenuate (lessen) transient noise.er/ t+ere are certain constraints in a s"ste' w+ic+ calls for a tertiar" transfor'er windin especiall" in t+e case of considerable +ar'onic le.etween D.((4) "ou 'ust do onl" Solid Eart+in of t+e s"ste' neutral. o 0re.alue.eral power s"ste's operatin at different suppl" . #ertiar" windin is 'a" be used for an" of t+e followin purposes: 1) #o li'it t+e fault le.el on t+e L4 s"ste' b" subdi.ice to operate in sufficientl" quic1 ti'e before an" +ar' could be done. #+e clearance fro' ot+er p+ase.en causin deat+. >1 (1) (a). #+is is b" $E 6ules 1P)>/ 6ule Do.• • • • $n $ndia/ at low . • • • &9( T-e transmission tower construction 2iddle arm is longer t-an t-e upper and lower arm • • #o pre. #+is . #+ese ter's are used to describe t+e separation of t+e pri'ar" and secondar" windin s. &8( Transformer tertiary winding • 0ro. Dote t+at/ L4 s"ste's can be +andled b" non8tec+nical persons too.idin a tertiar" windin for a transfor'er 'a" be a costl" affair. o #o pre.ent a bro1en upper line fro' fallin on one or 'ore of t+e p+ase lines below.el (. Howe.olta e le.els in t+e distribution s"ste'.

MAT.alue 5 'otor =4 ratin .anta e to +a.in t+e appearance of ]no powerE w+en in fact t+e equip'ent was still li.e two catenar" eart+ conductors/ one eac+ side of t+e trans'ission tower as t+e" protect t+e power lines below in a better 'anner.e tower pictures in a 0ost because of a C6.%%C in !^) 2inimum .STAN+E AND AILA=. Ser. E9a'ple/ for a ) =4 'otor/ t+e 'ini'u' p+ase to round ('otor bod") insulation is ) H 1 5 > 'e 8o+'.er rap+ics upload proble')/ specifics would include: • • • • . E9a'ple/ for a ) =4 panel/ t+e 'ini'u' insulation is 7 9 ) 5 1% 'e 8o+' .NDEN &'in $6 at .NSFLAT.alue H 1 (For L4 and !4 !otor).nsulation =esistance / Aolari*ation .nde1) • • • • • • • 2otor . $n so'e cases it is t+us an ad. $tEs a bit li1e as1in ]w+" donEt we brea1 t+e Eart+ connectionE $t was stupid and dan erous/ as it was possible for t+e neutral fuse to blowL i.alue as a return pat+ in t+e e.en eart+ electrodes (unless in a dr" sand" desert site). &. &it+out specifics/ (and "ou could not presentl" i.e.nsulation =esistance) #+e acceptable 'e 8o+' . $t is li1ewise nor'al to run catenar" (aerial eart+ conductors) for at least 11! out fro' all substation structures.( .nsulation =esistance) #+e acceptable 'e 8o+' . $n li +tnin 8prone areas it is often necessar" to +a.e t+e power conductor lines/ at a sufficient distance and position t+at a li +tnin stri1e will not +it t+e power conductors.2EN For 'ost windin s 'ade before about 1PC%/ all field windin s/ 61 'in 5 14H1 61 and ot+ers not described below For 'ost dc ar'ature and ac 'in 5 1%% windin s built after about 1PC% (for' wound coils) 61 'in 5 ) For 'ost 'ac+ines wit+ rando' 8wound stator coils and for'8 wound coils rated below 114 (-) 5-at met-od is used for Arotection of Lig-ting in Transmission Line and Building7 • • • • Transmission Line Lig-tning Arotection G General: #+e trans'ission line towers would nor'all" be +i +er t+an a substation structure/ unless "ou +a.EEE 98 G .IN =ES.IN .e t+e catenar" eart+ conductors abo. Aanel Bus .e catenar" eart+in alon t+e full distance of t+e trans'ission line. Eart+ !ats are essential in all substation areas/ alon wit+ dri. #+ose eart+ wires to be properl" electricall" to eac+ supportin trans'ission tower/ and bonded bac1 to t+e substation eart+ s"ste'.ent of sa" and equip'ent eart+ bein fault". $t is i'portant to +a.alue 5 7 9 =4 ratin of t+e panel.• • Deutral is connected to eart+ at so'e point/ t+us it +as so'e .nsulation =esistance TEST SAE+.e a 'ulti8store" structure at "our substation.

• • • • • Structure Lig-tning Arotection G General: *t t+e Substation/ it is nor'al to +a.er/ t+at a 1%8+p 'otor wit+ a 1. 7. ).it" Du'ber of Li +tnin Da"s E9pected 4olta e H Current of a local li +tnin stri1e ?t+er I *d.erload conditions.ice factor is not a 17. (.es t+e En ineerin Staff ood statistics for future substation desi n.7)) wit+out e9ceedin specified te'perature rise.en abo.es "ard wor1in condition 0rotects fro' fire w+ic+ cause due to oil spilla e fro' transfor'er and also protects fro' wild +abitat. .7) ser. &44(Transformer . &>( 5-at is ser!ice factor7 • Ser. 1. Location Countr" Site soil t"pe and resisti. $n so'e older outdoor substation structures/ air8brea1 isolator switc+es are often at a .ertical electrodes bonded to t+e structure/ and proFectin up fro' t+e +i +est points of t+e structure/ wit+ t+e location and nu'ber of t+ose electrodes to be sufficient t+at if a li +tnin stri1e arri. For e9a'ple/ if a 1%8+p 'otor +as a 1.ice factor s+ould onl" be used for s+ort8 ter' o.) +p (1% 9 1.) +p/ its insulation life could be decreased b" as 'uc+ as two8t+irds of nor'al.e its rated load in t+is 'anner/ t+e 'otor 'ust be supplied wit+ rated . $f t+e 1%8+p 'otor is operated continuousl" at 17. $f "ou need a 17.e . =eep in 'ind/ +owe.7) ser.. Dote t+at w+en bein dri.ise please.ody eart-ing and Neutral eart-ing connections .)8+p 'otor/ bu" oneL ser. #+e substation nor'all" +as a Li +tnin Counter I w+ic+ re isters a stri1e on t+e structure or connected catenar" eart+ conductors/ and t+e at+erin of t+at infor'ation (Li +tnin Da"s/ nu'ber per Da"/!ont+/Rear/ *'pera e of eac+ stri1e) i.Hard -elps in • • • • 6educin Step and #ouc+ potentials durin S+ort Circuit Faults Eli'inates t+e rowt+ of weeds and s'all plants in t+e "ard $'pro.ed/ it would alwa"s be a .ice factorL it will successfull" deli.er 17.olta e and frequenc".ice factor is t+e load t+at 'a" be applied to a 'otor wit+out e9ceedin allowed ratin s. >.)8+p 'otor.er" +i + point in t+e structure/ and in t+ose cases s'all structure e9tension towers are installed/ wit+ electrodes at t+e tapered pea1 of t+ose e9tension towers. • &4/( Fse of Stones/Gra!el in electrical Switc.ertical eart+ed electrode w+ic+ would be struc1/ rat+er t+an an" electrical equip'ent. #+e e9tension towers are nor'all" >%%'' square appro9i'atel" until t+e e9tension tower c+an es s+ape at t+e tapered pea1 and in so'e cases proFect upwards fro' t+e eneral structure 7 to > 'eters/ wit+ t+e electrode so'e 7 to ( 'eters proFectin upwards fro' t+e top of t+e e9tension tower.

er" s'all so t+e fault current pea1s out.er t+e increasin use of non8linear loads w+ic+ produce +ar'onics +as 'ade t+is practice dan erous/ so for e9a'ple t+e current require full si<e neutrals.le must . $t used to be co''on practice to install reduced neutral supplies/ and cables are a.ailable wit+ sa" +alf8si<e neutrals (re'e'ber a neutral is alwa"s necessar" to pro.:od" eart+in needs separate pits. "ault current B !oltage / a O c (c) is also . Eart+in does not recei.• • • #+e eart+in 'ust +a. "ault current B !oltage / a O . #+e neutral conductor is a separate issue.e conductor ets bi er/ its i'pedance drops si nificantl" below t+at of t+e e9ternal eart+ loop i'pedance (a)L w+en quite lar e (+ere in C%''7) its i'pedance can be i nored. $t 'a" ne. Howe.ide 'ini'u' resistance pat+ for bod"/ Rou can also ensure t+at t+e resistance between two different eart+in pits in "our co'pan" is +a.o!e dia .e same si*e7 A.olta es).in al'ost ne li ible resistance/ so bot+ are redundant.el" w+ic+ can also be connected to t+e eart+ rid . $ndeed/ in bi . *t t+is point t+ere is no 'erit in increasin t+e eart+ cable si<e i.e conductor in fault (c) #+e i'pedance of t+e eart+ cable.e. w+ere neutral is rounded t+rou + i'pedance or resistance/ t+e len t+ of bod" eart+in increases t+at ti'e/ so better to use separate eart+in pit w+ic+ will pro. if neutral is directl" eart+ed t+en t+e sa'e eart+in point can be used for bod" eart+in too/ but in case of bi si<e trans. $n $ndia $t is 'andator" as per $E rules t+at u +a. *s t+e acti.er be in use in its life ti'e.e conductor and t+erefore 'ust be si<ed for continuous full load. &4'( 5-y t-e up to dia .e conductor (b) is s'all/ its i'pedance is 'uc+ 'ore t+an (a)/ so t+e eart+ (c) cable is si<ed to 'atc+. $n a (8p+ase s"ste'/ if balanced/ no neutral current flows./mmJ li!e conductors t-e eart.etween Ground and Neutral7 . $t is defined as an acti. *n eart+ cable nor'all" carries no load/ and under fault conditions will carr" a si nificant instantaneous current but onl" for a s+ort ti'e I 'ost 6e ulations define %.e only dia . #+e 'a nitude of eart+ fault current depends on: (a) #+e e9ternal eart+ loop i'pedance of t+e installation (i./mmJ7 • #+e current carr"in capacit" of a cable refers to it carr"in a continuous load.e. :ut if and w+en a fault occurs it s+ould be in condition. $ts si<e t+erefore is defined b" different calculatin para'eters.e. O c Dow w+en t+e acti.conductor need to .ca.1 to ) sec I before t+e fuse or brea1er trips. "es for s'all trans./mmJ li!e conductors? t-e eart.ide sin le p+ase .0S installations need to install double neutrals and eart+s for t+is reason. i.e as 'uc+ attention as one would desire.e 'ini'u' resistance. be"ond t+e suppl" ter'inals) (b) #+e i'pedance of t+e acti. • • • • • • • • • • &48( T-e difference .e 7 neutral eart+ pits e9clusi.

ide t+e 41 b" t+e rated pri'ar" .olta e (t+at if "ou applied it to one side of t+e transfor'er w+ile t+e ot+er side of t+e transfor'er is s+ort circuited/ a full load current s+all flow in t+e t+e s+ort circuited side)/ to t+e full load current.ast/ o'nipresent conductor of electricit"/ in case of fault/ so t+at t+e fault current returns to t+e source neutral t+rou + t+is conductor i.olta e in pri'ar" side and increase t+e .alue is t+e percenta e i'pedance of t+e transfor'er.er be used as neutral. !ore t+e JV of transfor'er/ 'ore copper used for windin / increasin cost of t+e unit.e.olta e we will et t+e s+ort circuit i'pedance of t+e transfor'er wit+ refereed to pri'ar" or V%1.ices (*''eter) (7) *ppl" low . *t least at substations. For ettin t+e percenta e i'pedance we need to use t+e for'ula 5 V%1M#ransfor'er !4* / (Square of 0ri'ar" line . ELC:/ 6CD etc) wor1 basicall" on principle t+at t+e p+ase currents are balanced wit+ neutral current. !easure t+e pri'ar" .ide t+e pri'ar" .olta e (41).els s+all increase tre'endousl"/ da'a in t+e windin B core.olta e . :ut s+ort circuit le.er/ cost increases si nificantl" wit+ increase in JV.er" sensiti.els will reduceL 'ec+anical da'a es to windin s durin s+ort circuit s+all also reduce. $t was percei.• • • • • DE.olta e dip for 'otor startin and 'ore . #+e protection de.suall" if t+e switc+es at +o'e are on t+e p+ase and not neutral (e9cept at t+e !C: sta e). :ut s+ort circuit fault le.ed to utili<e t+is . e.ices (e. *nd t+ese are 1ept .en b" nature w+ic+ is a. Kround s+ould ne. #+is . 5-at is impedance of a transformer7 $t 'eans t+e ratio of t+e .olta e re ulation (J c+an e of . &+en we di.ailable free of cost.olta e so t+at t+e secondar" current is t+e rated secondar" current of t+e transfor'er. &49( • • • • • • • • • &4$( 5-y a neutral grounding contactor is needed in diesel generator7 .e i. Follow t+e steps below: (1) S+ort t+e secondar" side of t+e transfor'er wit+ current 'easurin de.DD is t+e E*6#H on w+ic+ we stand. $n a pol"8p+ase s"ste'/ as its p+ase relations+ip wit+ all t+e t+ree p+ases is t+e sa'e/ (i.#6*L is t+e ori in of all current flow. $f eart+ is not used for t+is purpose/ t+en one +as to la" a lon . *n" one assu'es t+e once t+e switc+ is off/ it is safe (t+e safet" is ta1en care of in ( wire s"ste'/ but a ain 'ost of t+e fi9tures are on 7 wire) I +e will be s+oc1ed at t+e accidental touc+in of wire in case t+e floatin neutral is floatin too 'uc+.e.olta e 41 wit+ t+e full load . #+e +i + .en 'inute currents are supposed to trip t+ese. (() Di. . $n case "ou use round wire as t+e neutral/ t+ese are bound to trip if t+e" are t+ere I and t+e" 'ust be t+ere.alue of JV +elps to reduce s+ort circuit current but it causes 'ore .olta e).olta e of t+e transfor'er and 'ultipl" b" 1%%.ariation) fro' no load to full load. Lower JV 'eans econo'ical desi ns.) as it is not biased towards an" one p+ase/ t+us re'ainin neutral/ t+atEs w+" it is called neutral. ?ne aspect is safet" I w+en so'eone touc+es a neutral/ "ou do not want +i' to be electrocuted. &+ereas/ K6?. . Lon 'etallic conductor for t+e purpose/ t+us increasin t+e cost. Howe.

Deutral contactors s+all be interloc1ed in suc+ a wa" t+at onl" one contactor s+all re'ain closed durin parallel operation of enerators.olta e.en)L Cross section of C# cable to be used: > ''_ 8copper (assu'ed)L C# cable resistance: %. $ 5 14*/ (%.• • • • • • • • • #+ere wonEt be an" current flow in neutral if DK is loaded equall" in ( p+ases/ if t+ere an" fault (eart+ fault or o.1) 14 0ower transfor'er capacit": 7)%% 14* ( i.e t+e sa'e c+aracteristics.er load) in an" one of t+e p+ase/ t+en t+ere will be . • For +i + i'pedance rela"s (differential or restricted eart+ fault rela"s)/ ]Class @E current transfor'ers are reco''ended to be used. *t t+at ti'e +ea. Step 4) +alculation of +T =ated Arimary +urrent 1. 7.en)L #ransfor'er J i'pedance (V): >J (assu'ed)L Len t+ of cable fro' neutral C# to t+e rela" located at L4S0: 7%% ' ( i. (ii) Durin independent operation/ neutrals of bot+ enerators are required in low .e a si nificant effect on .e restricted eart+ fault protection (6EF) for bot+ t+e enerators w+ilst in operation. ).D balanced load in DK.1)X1. &4#( +alculate t-e si*e t-e +T on t-e neutral point of t-e secondary side of 44//.nput data) 11/%.94$ k@ Transformer • • • 1. (iii) required to ac+ie. #+e followin is an e9a'ple to si<e t+e C#: . selectin 1 * secondar" current/ as t+e cross section and len t+ of pilot wires can +a. #+is contactor can be ter'ed as 2neutral contactor3. So neutral in rounded to i. Durin independent operation of an" enerator its neutral contactor s+all be closed... 7.e low resistance pat+ to fault current.olta e Diesel Kenerator sets intended for parallel operation s+all 'eet t+e followin conditions: (i) Deutral of onl" one enerator needs to be eart+ed to a.oid t+e flow of <ero sequence current.ided in neutral to eart+ circuit of eac+ enerator." current flow t+rou + t+e neutral/ it is sensed b" C# and trips t+e DK.%%(7 ^/' (fro' 'anufacturer data). *n electrical s"ste' consistin of 'ore t+an two low . Select t+e secondar" current of t+e C# 4 or $ A.olta e switc+board to obtain t+ree p+ases/ . (.C(7) 5 7)%%/ (%.11 */ C# wit+ pri'ar" current of 9/// A to be selected. Solution: Considerin t+e require'ent of eart+in neutral of onl" one enerator/ a contactor of suitable ratin s+all be pro. wire s"ste' includin p+ase to neutral .1)X1..C-.C(7) 5 (. 0lease note t+at bot+ C#s (neutral B p+ase) s+all +a.. ?peration of neutral contactors s+all be preferabl" 'ade auto'atic usin brea1er au9iliar" contacts. .

&e will use 1 * in t+is e9a'ple.er. C# transfor'ation ratio 5 . #+rou + fault current..)P * (rounded to $0/// A) Step 8) +alculation of t-e Cnee @oltage of t-e +T &@kp( 41p 5 (79 $ft9 (6ctH6w)/C# transfor'ation ratio) &+ere: (.en b" t+e rela" 'anufacturer/ as eac+ rela" 'anufacturer +as its own for'ula.anta es are attributed to rounded s"ste's/ includin reater safet"/ freedo' fro' e9cessi. . 7..1)X1. • 1.781PP1 (Kreen :oo1) states: 2Du'erous ad.3 .C(79 V) $ft 5 7)%%/ (%. Rou 'a" calculate t+e 41p as abo.%>) 5 )CP>-. "ault +urrent $ft 5 14*/ (%. 7. #o calculate t+e stabilit" . -. Step ') +alculation of ma1.^ ).7/ $EEE Std 1.olta e (4s)/ to ensure stabilit" of t+e protection durin 'a9.t+e required 1nee . • • • 41p 5 (79)-%%%9 (1.%7 ^) i. C# transfor'ation ratio 5 C# 0ri'ar" Current/C# Secondar" Current >.en b" t+e 'anufacturer)/ for t+e purpose of illustration/ we will use a t"pical 6ct . 6ct: is t+e C# resistance (to be i.alue in t+is e9a'ple (1.%%% */ for C# wit+ 1 * secondar" current.C(7X%.olta e/ "ou s+ould follow t+e related for'ula i.olta e t+at can occur on un rounded s"ste's durin arcin / resonant or near8resonant round faults/ and easier detection and location of round faults w+en t+e" do occur..%%%/15 . • 1.%%%)5 ##.7-)/. 6w: total C# cable resistance5 79 cable len t+ (7%% ') 9 wire resistance5 797%%9%.e s"ste' o.en b" one of t+e C# 'anufacturers..e usin a C# wit+ secondar" current of ) */ and "ou will notice t+e difference in t+e 41p..olta e of t+e C# and t+erefore t+e si<e and cost of t+e C#.%%%/)5 -%% */ for C# wit+ ) * secondar" currentL or/ C.( 5-y do we ground t-e wye windings of transformers and generators7 • $n section 1..%7H1. @ #+e 41p of t+e C# s+ould be +i +er t+an t+e settin of rela" stabilit" . &4.%%(75 1.7. &+en t+e rela" is located so'e distance fro' t+e C#/ t+e burden is increased b" t+e resistance of t+e pilot wires.1)X1. C# transfor'ation ratio 5 .

el unless it is ot+erwise specified U3 #+is is due to . • :" 2not roundin /3 letEs assu'e to an un rounded s"ste'. Howe.olta e w+ile at t+e sa'e ti'e a.ere flas+/ arc burnin / and blast +a<ard fro' an" p+ase8to8 round fault. $n addition/ se.• • • • • • • • • $f "ou effecti.n rounded s"ste's can be e9tre'el" unsafe/ as per our pre.) #o reduce t+e arc blast or flas+ +a<ard to personnel w+o 'a" +a. #+e consequence of doin t+is is t+at "ou +a.er. &40( 5-at are t-e results of if we do not ground a 90//'.e a.@? 8:p-ase? 9: wire diesel generator set7 Take into consideration t-e two options of switc-ing or not switc-ing t-e neutral.el" round t+e neutral/ "ou +a.er" +i + eart+ fault currents.er" low <ero8sequence i'pedance wit+in t+e enerator/ w+ic+ causes .3 $tEs best to not onl" round t+e neutral/ but also to round t+rou + +i +8 resistance (t"picall" )*) for all s"ste's less t+an >%%4 and 'ost s"ste's fro' >%%4 to )14..er/ it is al'ost alwa"s an issue as t+e . (.iousl" cited e9cerpts fro' t+e $EEE :uff and 6ed :oo1s. For enerators >%%4 or below/ t+is 'a" not be an issue.e +i +er initial round8fault current t+an (8p+ase fault current if t+e enerator +as a solidl" rounded neutral.oided t+e +a<ards wit+ solidl" rounded s"ste's.e now replaced +a<ards.(/ states t+e benefits of resistance roundin : 2#+e reasons for li'itin t+e current b" resistance roundin 'a" be one or 'ore of t+e followin : (1) #o reduce burnin and 'eltin effects in faulted electric equip'ent/ suc+ as switc+ ear/ transfor'ers/ cables/ and rotatin 'ac+ines. ()) #o reduce t+e 'o'entar" line8.3 For t+is reason/ $EEE Std 1.. (7) #o reduce 'ec+anical stresses in circuits and apparatus carr"in fault currents. .-. *ccordin to DE!*/ t+e enerator is required to wit+stand onl" t+e (8p+ase current le.78 1PP1 (Kreen :oo1)/ in section 1.olta e dip occasioned b" t+e clearin of a round fault.1/ t+e $EEE Kreen :oo1 states: 2. For s"ste's 'ore t+an )14/ low8resistance roundin (t"picall" 7%%* or . $n section 1.er+eatin in t+e enerator • • • . (() #o reduce electric8s+oc1 +a<ards to personnel caused b" stra" round8 fault currents in t+e round return pat+. $n fact/ t+ese faults are often si nificantl" +i +er t+an (8p+ase faults.el" solidl" roundin "our enerator.. $n section C.%%*) is used.eral enerator set 'anufacturers require resistance roundin / since t+e enerators are not rated for round faults..181PP( (6ed :oo1) states: 2* safet" +a<ard e9ists for solidl" rounded s"ste's fro' t+e se./ $EEE Std 1.7. :" li'itin t+e round fault to )*/ "ou +a. #+e resistor also si nificantl" reduces an" circulatin currents/ w+ic+ are t"picall" triple +ar'onics/ leadin to reduced o.olta e class increases. (>) #o secure control of transient o.e Fust replaced t+e +a<ards associated wit+ un rounded s"ste's wit+ new +a<ards in t+e for' of arc flas+ / blast +a<ards/ w+ic+ are associated wit+ solidl" rounded s"ste's.nli1e a transfor'er U a enerator will usuall" +a.oidin t+e s+utdown of a fault" circuit on t+e occurrence of t+e first round fault (+i +8resistance roundin ). $n bondin "our neutral to t+e rounded c+assis/ "ou are effecti.e accidentall" caused or w+o +appen to be in close pro9i'it" to t+e round fault.

ia a solid connection to t+e 'ain ser.ice ratin equals or e9ceeds 1/%%%* (-((14*)/ 7(%. $n case of a sinusoidal wa. *ccordin to t+e DEC/ w+en t+e ser.ices rated 1/%%%* or 'ore/ but itEs optional in ot+er confi urations t+at donEt include round8fault protection.e a ser. $tEs not alwa"s necessar" to separatel" round t+e enerator neutral conductor.e/ t+e for' factor is appro9i'atel" 1. Dowada"s t+at t+ou +t +as c+an ed and we are usin . &+en t+e . #+is is t+e reason. &+en t+e ser. For solidl" rounded s"ste's/ neutral switc+in is a . (.etween two p-ases it will glow or not7 • • $f t+e .er/ if "ou do/ "ou 'a" need to switc+ a load neutral alon wit+ its p+ase conductors w+en transferrin loads between power sources/ particularl" w+en "ou use round8fault protection.iable option.%% 4 instead of . Howe. Kround8fault current will return onl" to t+e source fro' w+ic+ it ori inates/ pro.idin for coordination of t+e round8fault protection sc+e'e.8wire/ w"e8connected ser.ice lar er t+an 1/%%%*/ t+e DEC requires round8fault protection at t+e 'ain ser.alue ('at+e'atical 'ean of absolute .ice neutral and t+e enerator e9periences a round fault w+ile feedin t+e load/ t+e 'ain ser.era e . So in order to et 1%% at t+e load point t+e" started sendin 11% fro' suppl" side.olta e between t+e two p+ases is equal to t+e la'p .ice falls under t+e require'ents of 7(%.P) requires round8fault protection on t+e ser. $f t+e enerator neutral roundin runs .11).P)/ "ou s+ould round t+e neutral at eac+ source and switc+ it w+ere t+e Code requires round8fault detection coordination.11. • • • .efor').f one lamp connects . #+is will not disconnect t+e arc fault fro' t+e enerator/ and coordination will be lost.alue to t+e a.olta e t+en t+e la'p will low. Circulatin currents are caused b" different pitc+ windin s in enerators. ?n t+e t"pe of la'p. #+e reason is so'et+in +istorical. *lon wit+ t+is/ if "ou +a.e an alternate power suppl"/ "ou 'ust switc+ t+e neutral. $n olden da"s w+en t+e electricit" beco'es popular/ t+e people +ad a 'isconception t+at in t+e trans'ission line t+ere would be a .-%/7CC4/ (8p+ase/ . $f "ou +a..P)(C) F0D Do.alues of all points on t+e wa. &4>( .er/ w+ere a branc+ circuit neutral conductor transfers between sources/ t+e switc+in 'eans s+ould assure t+e neutral conductor switc+in contact does not interrupt current.• • • • windin s. #+e DEC requires round8 fault protection for .% 4/ or 7(% 4 instead of 77% 4. Furt+er'ore/ if t+e neutrals of t+e two sources are separatel" rounded/ "ou 'ust switc+ t+e load neutral conductor to t+e source feedin t+e load/ as per 7(%. &'/( 5-y transmission line 44C! I= 88C@? ##C! not in 4/k! '/k!7 • #+e for' factor of an alternatin current wa.efor' (si nal) is t+e ratio of t+e 6!S (6oot !ean Square) . $t +as not+in to do wit+ for' factor (1.olta e loss of around 1%J.olta e difference is bi it will da'a e t+e la'p and w+en t+e difference is s'aller t+e la'p will low dependin on t+e t"pe of la'p.ice disconnect will open.ice disconnect.ice disconnect. Howe.

I 1H D / B ( H D .1 of in trip ti'e at >%% J $r (sec) %. I 1.1/ %.er" low resistance.%./ )%8>% HV/ are fro' (.) 14 to 1).)/7)/)%/1%%/17)/ 1>% *'p. • • • !ost troubles wit+ Capacitors Q eit+er open or s+ort.%% >(%/-%% *'p I SC )% =* 0rotection release :8Static #rip :8 Continuous adFustable o. * ood capacitor will s+ow low resistance initiall"/ and resistance raduall" increases. 7%% 7)% *'p.%. #+is s+ows t+at C is not bad. !CC:: I !oulded Case Circuit :rea1er.7 / >.y 2ulti 2eter.1 !C: (!iniature Circuit :rea1er) #rip c+aracteristics nor'all" not adFustable/ factor" set but in case of !CC: (!oulded Case Circuit :rea1er)Q#rip current field adFustable. 0ole . * 'ulti 'eter is ood enou +. :" s+ortin t+e two ends of C (c+ar ed b" o+''eter) 'o'entaril" can i.in steps of %.. *n open C will not s+ow an" 'o.suall" Current ran e for *.%7. &''( <ow to +-eck +apacitor .e a wea1 spar1.ailable wit+ ter'inal .) *'p I >( *'p.ailable as Sin e 'odule and used for :8 Du'ber of 0ole :8 ( pole / B ...(/17. in steps of %.e: (1) : 6esisti.) 14 so eneration in 'ultiples of 11 does not arise.• *lso alternators are now a.ailable -%*/ 1%%*/ and 17) *'p. .olta es fro' 1%.%)/%.7 I %.7.% in steps of o. 2+B) !C: are a. I SC 7)/()/>) =* .7 /%.( $nstantaneous pic1 up L8 7 I 1% in steps of 1 in Kround fault pic1 up Disable/ %.er load rated current %.e'ent on o+''eter. &'4( 5-en s-ould 5e use 2olded +ase +ircuit Breakers and 2ini +ircuit Breakers7 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • First of all !C: is !iniature Circuit :rea1er/ since it is 'iniature it +as li'itation for S+ort Circuit Current and *'p 6atin :ot+.e load. 2++B) !CC: are a. #rippin Cur.C. *lso a.ailable as Sin e 'odule and used for :8 Du'ber of 0ole :8 1/7/(/. SC are li'ited 1% =* *pplications are as: I $ndustrial/ Co''ercial and 6esidential application. * s+orted C will clearl" s+ow .) / 7 /( S+ort Circuit :87 I 1% in steps of 1 lr / s+ort ti'e dela" (sec) %.1 of in Kround fault dela" (sec) I %.)/1/ 1. I SC 7)/()/>) =*.C.erload protection ran e )% to 1%% J of t+e rated current Eart+ fault protection can be add on wit+ adFustable eart+ fault pic1 up settin 1) to -% J of t+e current.1 85to %. !icro processor :ased release: ?.e and li +tin load/ (7) C !otor Load/ (() D Hi +l" inducti. )%8>% HV/ is fro' %.suall" Current ran e for *.

Rou et 'a9 current w+en a78b1 will be connected and . #ertiar" windin is 'a" be used for an" of t+e followin purposes: o (1) #o li'it t+e fault le.e to identif" > leads. o (() #+e re ulation of s"ste' .o1 • • • • • $f it is a sin le speed 'otor t+en "ou +a.now "ou will be able to connect it in delta or star.olta e across it and 'easure t+e current. Follow t+e sa'e process to identif" a18a7/ b18b7/ c18c7.&'8( <ow to identify t-e winding starting and ending leads in a motor w-ic.olta es.idin a low8 i'pedance pat+ for t+ird8+ar'onic currents.eral power s"ste's operatin at different suppl" .e'ent on pf. #+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponent of t+e 'a neti<in current 'ust t+us flow t+rou + t+e neutral of a star8 connected windin / w+ere t+e neutral of t+e suppl" and t+e star8 connected windin are bot+ eart+ed/ or around an" delta8connected windin .els in t+e distribution s"ste'.olta e (sa'e as before) and 'easure current.olta e applied between a18b7.es power factor/ but it will +elp depends up on t+e en ine capacit" of t+e alternator/ ot+erwise t+e alternator will be o. &'$( Transformer tertiary winding • 0ro. #+e presence of a delta connected windin also allows current to circulate around t+e delta in t+e e. o $t is desirable t+at a t+ree8p+ase transfor'er s+ould +a.el on t+e L4 s"ste' b" subdi. #+en a ain connect alternate windin s of sa'e two windin s and appl" s'all a'ount of .olta e and of reacti. connect a capacitor to a generator load7 • Connectin a capacitor across a enerator alwa"s i'pro.se $6 tester to identif" ( windin s and t+eir > leads.idin a tertiar" windin for a transfor'er 'a" be a costl" affair.e power b" 'eans of a s"nc+ronous capacitor connected to t+e ter'inals of one windin .er/ t+ere are certain constraints in a s"ste' w+ic+ calls for a tertiar" transfor'er windin especiall" in t+e case of considerable +ar'onic le. C+ec1 in w+ic+ 'ode "ou et t+e 'a9 current and t+en 'ar1 it as a18a7 B b18b7.is -a!ing # leads in t-e terminal . $f t+ere is no delta windin on a star/star transfor'er/ or t+e neutral of t+e transfor'er and t+e suppl" are not bot+ connected to eart+/ t+en line to eart+ capacitance currents in t+e suppl" s"ste' . Howe. .olta es between lines.e one set of t+ree8p+ase windin s connected in delta t+us pro.C. o Since t+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponents in eac+ p+ase of a t+ree8 p+ase s"ste' are in p+ase/ t+ere can be no t+ird8order +ar'onic . &'9( 5-at -appens if .idin t+e in feed t+at is double secondar" #. Secondl"/ do not connect a capacitor across an alternator w+ile it is pic1in up or wit+out an" ot+er load.ent of unbalance in t+e loadin between p+ases/ so t+at t+is unbalance is reduced and not so reatl" fed bac1 t+rou + t+e s"ste'.er loaded due to t+e e9tra watts consu'ed due to t+e i'pro. o (7) #+e interconnection of se. #+en connect an" two leads of two windin and appl" s'all .

(. #+us/ #/ watt .e and below eart+ at a . .lamp glow . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Eac+ bulb w+en independentl" wor1in will +a.rig-test.* >%/7(%5%.olta e drop across it @ $ Nw+ic+ is co''on for all la'psO 5s +i +est power.) o+'s 7(%/%.olta e side.5 )7-.olta e equal in 'a nitude to t+e t+ird8order +ar'onic co'ponent.lamp !oltage rating is '8/@. *nd +i +est resistance will drop +i +est ."ault 3 Fnrestricted Eart.e ."ault protections7 • 6estricted eart+ fault is nor'all" i.ides an added reason for t+e use of a delta connected tertiar" windin .( Difference . E.el" 6esistance of eac+ bulb fila'ent is (4/$ 5 6) 7(%/%..el" Dow/ w+en in series/ current flowin in all bulbs will be sa'e.7>%P * respecti. $f t+e neutral of t+e star8connected windin is uneart+ed t+en/ wit+out t+e use of a delta tertiar"/ t+is neutral point can oscillate abo. &'#( .->P>5 7>.ents t+is it is so'eti'es referred to as a stabili<in windin .->P> * 1%%/7(%5%.ul. #+e ener " released will be $76 #+us/ li +t output will be +i +est w+ere resistance is +i +est.. 'ostl" on low .olta e will contain t+e +ar'onic distortion.efor' will be undistorted/ t+e circulatin t+ird8order +ar'onic currents flowin in t+e neutral can cause interference wit+ teleco''unications circuits and ot+er electronic equip'ent as well as unacceptable +eatin in an" liquid neutral eart+in resistors/ so t+is pro. noEs C#s are usin one eac+ on p+ase and one in neutral.P. Hi +est . So 'ini'u' power dissipated across it as 'in current @ equal 4olta e across 5s 'in power dissipation.o+'s and --1.rig-ter77Eac.a source of '8/@ A+ supply? w-ic. :ecause t+e use of a delta tertiar" pre.f '//watt? 4//watt and #/ watt lamps connected in series wit. will . #+e >%& la'p as it +as +i +est resistance B 'ini'u' current require'ent. For 6EF protection .. Dote to re'e'ber: Lowest power8la'p +as +i +est ele'ent resistance.en if t+e neutral of t+e suppl" and t+e star8connected windin are bot+ eart+ed/ t+en alt+ou + t+e transfor'er output wa.etween =estricted Eart. &'.olta e drop across it in a Series circuit *nd +i +est resistance in a parallel circuit will pass 'ini'u' current t+rou + it..e currents (&/45 $) 7%%/7(%5%..o o lines can suppl" t+e necessar" +ar'onic co'ponent.(.en to on star connected end of power equip'ent li1e enerators/ transfor'ers etc. $f t+e +ar'onics cannot flow in an" of t+ese pat+s t+en t+e output . $t is wor1in on t+e principle of balanced currents between p+ases and neutral.> o+'s respecti.

olta es to t+e nu'ber of turns in t+e windin deter'ines t+e a'ount of 'a neti<ation.olta e is fi9ed. o Howe.e )14/ L6K is t+e t"pical c+oice in t+at it reduces round8 .isible to t+e na1ed e"e.in erraticall" wit+ respect to its nei +bor/ so "ou can see w+at a 'o. #+erefore t+e a'ount of flu9 at t+e nor'al . o &+" not reduce t+e noise in t+e core b" reducin t+e a'ount of flu9S #ransfor'er .er/ t+e" are sufficient to cause a . $n tec+nical ter's t+e relations+ip is not linear. For 6EF protection 0@ class C#s are usin but for .in / writ+in construction it is w+en e9cited.olta e and current so t+at it beco'es e9tended and contracted twice durin a full c"cle of 'a neti<ation. o #+e e9tensions and contractions are ta1in place erraticall" all o.aries/ so t+e e9tension and contraction is not unifor'. o #+e 'a neti<ation of an" i.nrestricted E/F protection wor1in on t+e principle of co'parin t+e unbalance on t+e p+ases onl".• • . For Differential 0rotection C#s usin on bot+ side H# B L4 side eac+ p+ase/ and co'parin t+e unbalance current for t+is protection also 0@ class C#s are usin . *lso/ increasin (or decreasin ) 'a neti<ation does not affect t+e 'a netostriction equi. $n eit+er case/ t+e resistance c+osen 'ust be suc+ t+at t+e desired let8 t+rou + round8fault current is abo.alentl".er a s+eet and eac+ s+eet is be+a.en point on t+e s+eet .el of noise and . #+is ratio of . #+e de ree of flu9 deter'ines t+e a'ount of 'a netostriction and +ence/ t+e noise le. &+en t+e 'a neti<ation is ta1en awa"/ it oes bac1 to its ori inal condition. ?n s"ste's abo.e c+ar in current.e t+e s"ste' capaciti. *ppl"in .olta e. &'0( 5-y do transformers -um7 • #ransfor'er noise is caused b" a p+eno'enon w+ic+ causes a piece of 'a netic s+eet steel to e9tend itself w+en 'a neti<ed.olta e to a transfor'er produces a 'a netic flu9/ or 'a netic lines of force in t+e core. For s"ste's between >%%4 and )14/ we can use eit+er H6K or L6K arran e'ents. * transfor'er is 'a neticall" e9cited b" an alternatin .ibration. #+is also fi9es t+e le.6EF )07% C#s usin .ibration/ and consequentl" noise.=esistance Grounding &<=G( systems7 Also? w-at ratings of resistance &in o-ms( are considered low and -ig. #+is p+eno'enon is scientificall" referred to as 'a netostriction.olta e to turns is deter'ined 'ainl" for econo'ical soundness. :" c+oosin H6K on s"ste's >%%4 or below/ "ou reduce round8fault currents to less t+an 7)*. * transfor'er core is 'ade fro' 'an" s+eets of special steel to reduce losses and 'oderate t+e ensuin +eatin effect.resistance7 • • #+e first para'eter is . • &'>( 5-at are t-e ad!antages and disad!antages of Low =esistance Grounding &L=G( systems compared to <ig.el. o #+e ratio of t+ese .olta es are fi9ed b" s"ste' require'ents. #+ese e9tensions are 'iniscule proportionall" and t+erefore not nor'all" .

7 (:uff :oo1)/ 20rotection and Coordination of $ndustrial and Co''ercial 0ower S"ste's. $f necessar"/ "ou can perfor' a 'ore detailed calculation based on s"ste' co'ponents. (!ost people use a . Durin co''issionin / "ou s+ould deter'ine t+is . 7. For s"ste's between >%%4 and )14/ "ou can use eit+er H6K or L6K.olta e (!4) roundin s"ste's into four cate ories: solidl" rounded/ low8resistance rounded (L6K)/ +i +8resistance rounded (H6K)/ and insulated neutral (un rounded) s"ste's. ?n s"ste's wit+ roundin resistor let8t+rou + currents +i +er t+an 1%* Q or for s"ste's of . $f t+e round fault occurs/ +i + round current passes t+rou + t+e fault.ernin t+is.alue of 7%%* or less.iousl" stated/ t+e desired resistor current ($6) 'ust be reater t+an t+e s"ste' capaciti. *not+er factor is s"ste' continuit". For s"ste's abo. &+en t+e possible total eart+ fault current is suc+ t+at an eart+ fault can be sustained continuousl" wit+out ris1 of furt+er fault da'a e/ t+en t+e s"ste' is considered H6K.= &+ere 6 is neutral roundin resistance/ 4L8D is line8to8neutral . #+erefore/ 'ost people use )* neutral current as a standard. * ood reference is *DS$/$EEE Std.• • • • • • • fault currents to between 7)* and 1/7%%*. Electrical installation codes in . &8/( 5-at are t-e ad!antages and disad!antages of t-e !arious grounding met-ods for medium: !oltage systems in power plants7 • Rou can broadl" classif" 'ediu'8. Rou deter'ine t+e neutral roundin resistance b" usin t+e followin equation: = B @L:N P .e c+ar in current.er" co''on in low .e c+ar in current/ "ou can select t+e resistor let8t+rou + current or desired current.olta e ratin s reater t+an )14 Q t+e faulted feeder s+ould be tripped and t+e fault isolated. *s pre. .arious Furisdictions +a.e c+ar in current 'a" be reater t+an 7)*/ so L6K is al'ost alwa"s used. #+ese are enerall" called L6K s"ste's. E. *n H6K s"ste' allows a distribution s"ste' to continue to operate wit+ one fault/ wit+out t+e faulted feeder bein tripped. #+e decision is t"picall" based on s"ste' capaciti.oid transient o.er.) #+e ne9t para'eter is s"ste' capaciti.olta e.e rules o.alue t+en deter'ines w+et+er to use H6K or L6K.e c+ar in current/ w+ic+ can .olta e s"ste'/ w+ere line to neutral . :ecause t+is is less t+an 1%*/ all >%%4 s"ste's are +i +8resistance rounded. #+is .er" s"ste' +as a capacitance .olta e/ and $6 is round8fault current For s"ste's less t+an >%%4/ t+e s"ste' capaciti. #+e eneral rule of t+u'b for esti'atin t+is c+ar in current is to use 1* per 1/%%%14*. $ts use is . ?nce "ou 1now t+e s"ste' capaciti.olta e is used for sin le p+ase loads.alue b" ta1in an actual 'easure'ent.alue/ 'ostl" due to t+e s"ste'Es cables and sur e arresters/capacitors.ar" fro' 1* to 1%*.3 &4( Solid Grounding) • #+e neutral point of t+e s"ste' is rounded wit+out an" resistance.e c+ar in current is t"picall" 1* to (*.e c+ar in current to a.e )14/ t+e s"ste' capaciti.

$nstead/ t+e neutral is solidl" connected to eart+. • • • &it+ t+e solidl" rounded s"ste'/ t+ere is no intentional i'pedance in t+e neutral8to8eart+ pat+. $n t+is case/ t+e s"ste' trips for t+e round fault.3 #+e p+ase8to8 round .• Direct or solidl" rounded s"ste' s+owin p+ase8to8 round fault and round8 fault current pat+. #+e DEC requires round8fault protection on ser.ice closest to t+e fault 'ust trip and isolate t+e circuit as fast as possible. • . $n t+is s"ste'/ t+e use of line to neutral (sin le p+ase) is pro+ibited.e da'a e. #+is is w+" t+e ter' 2eart+in 3 is so'eti'es used in place of 2 roundin .ice disconnect rated 1/%%%* or +i +er. #+e round fault current is li'ited to in t+e ra e fro' 7)* to >%%* Low8resistance roundin s"ste' s+owin p+ase8to8 round fault and round8 fault current pat+. &'( Low =esistance Grounding) • #+is is used for li'itin t+e round fault current to 'ini'i<e t+e i'pact of t+e fault current to t+e s"ste'.er" +i + fault current flows/ w+ic+ can result in e9tensi. Kround resistor li'its t+e 'a nitude of t+e round8fault current. $f t+e fault is in a rotatin 'ac+ine/ t+en t+ere is a +i + possibilit" of core da'a e and replace'ent costs.olta e re'ains constant durin a round fault/ and t+ere are .ices of 'ore t+an 1)%4 to round/ but not e9ceedin >%%4 p+ase8to8p+ase/ for eac+ ser. #+e protecti.e de. #+e cost associated wit+ t+e downti'e also can be si nificant.

er" s'all current flows to t+e round if round fault occurs.e better ti'e current coordination wit+ t+is t"pe of roundin s"ste'.• &it+ L6K s"ste's/ t+e round8fault current to between 7)* and 1/%%%*.ital/ suc+ as process plant 'otors.(>(()) in H6K s"ste'/ +owe. #+is wa"/ t+e process plant is not interrupted.e a neutral on t+e parallelin bus .=esistance Grounding) • • • • For +i +8resistance roundin / t+ere are two options: (1) $nstall resistance roundin on eac+ sourceL or (7) Deri. &+en round fault occurs in H6K s"ste'/ t+e 'onitorin s"ste's i.el/ so "ou 'ust use e suppression de. #+e neutral roundin resistor needs to be s+ort ti'e rated (usuall" 1% seconds)/ as t+e fault will be cleared b" t+e protecti. Da'a e at t+e fault point is also reducedL t+erefore/ 'aintenance and repair costs are reduced.in its neutral rounded.er/ p+ase to neutral is used wit+ usin t+e additional transfor'er +a.ice continuit" is .ia a <i <a transfor'er/ and t+en add resistance roundin on t+e deri. &4( .ed neutral. $t is used w+ere ser. #+e round fault current is li'ited to 1%* or less.source ) Hi +8resistance roundin s"ste' s+owin p+ase8to8 round fault and round8 fault current pat+. Since t+e round8fault current is s'aller and controlled/ round8fault rela"in still +as t+e require'ent of fast trippin .es alar' and t+e plant operators start t+e standb" 'otor and stop t+e fault" one for t+e 'aintenance. &8( <ig.ices. $n t+e case of round fault of one p+ase/ t+e fault" p+ase oes to t+e round potential but t+e s"ste' doesnEt trip. #+is s"ste' 'ust +a. #+e use of line to neutral (sin le p+ase) is pro+ibited (DEC/ 7)%. #+ere are ot+er two t"pes suc+ as Corner Kroundin (for Delta s"ste') and un rounded s"ste' but t+e" are not co''onl" used. Kround resistor li'its t+e 'a nitude of t+e round8fault • • • • • .nstall resistance grounding on eac.olta adequatel" rated insulation s"ste's and sur is controlled and nor'all" li'ited round on t+e un8faulted p+ases e le.olta e to can increase up to t+e p+ase8to8p+ase . &it+ H6K/ t+e neutral is rounded t+rou + a +i + resistance so t+at . • • Rou also 'ust detect and isolate t+e round fault. #+e . Howe.e a round fault 'onitorin s"ste'.e rela" closest to t+e fault.er/ "ou can ac+ie.

us !ia a *ig*ag transformer? and t-en add resistance grounding on t-e deri!ed neutral. !aintenance costs s+ould be less t+an t+at for a low8resistance roundin s"ste'.current to . 6esistance roundin can t+en be added on t+e deri.en wit+ a p+ase8to8 round fault on one p+ase.e c+ar in current at t+e fault 'ust be less t+an t+at fro' t+e controlled resisti.olta e for an e9tended period. Da'a e at t+e fault location also s+ould be s'all. #+is also allows repairs to be done at a sc+eduled s+utdown of t+e fault" equip'ent.e a neutral. For p+ase8to8 round . #+is per'its ti'e to locate t+e fault w+ile power continuit" is 'aintained. • &it+ an H6K s"ste'/ t+e round8fault current is in t+e 1%* ran e.el Q and not increased be"ond t+at le. Vi <a transfor'er used to deri. $f t+e fault is in a rotatin 'ac+ine/ t+ere usuall" is no iron da'a e in t+e stator. &'( Deri!e a neutral on t-e paralleling . &+en a round fault does occur/ onl" an alar' is raised.ed neutral. #+e intention +ere is to allow t+e s"ste' to operate wit+out trippin / e.er" low le. #+e roundin resistor also needs to be continuousl" rated because it will carr" t+e let8t+rou + current in t+e e.els and allows continuit" of power w+ile locatin t+e fault. *s suc+/ t+e insulation s"ste' needs to be rated for p+ase8to8p+ase .el Q t+e net capaciti.olta es to re'ain at t+e p+ase8to8p+ase le.olta e.ent of a fault for an e9tended period of ti'e. • • • • • .e round8fault current fed fro' t+e neutral roundin . #+e s"ste'/ wit+ one p+ase faulted to eart+/ operates wit+ t+e un8 faulted p+ases now raised fro' eart+ to t+e full p+ase8to8p+ase .

#+ere are ad. #+is is usuall" s'all/ and t+e s"ste' can be operated wit+out trippin .alue +owe.anta es for eac+ option.• :e careful +ere in t+at "ou cannot use t+is neutral for an" loads or connect it to an"t+in e9cept t+e resistor. #+is is usuall" s'all/ and t+e s"ste' can be operated wit+out trippin .er/ t+e s"ste' is onl" rounded if t+e parallelin bus in operation. $n effect/ t+e t+ree p+ases of t+e s"ste' float. Howe. :" +a. &+en a round fault occurs/ t+e fault current is contributed b" t+e s"ste' capacitance to eart+ on t+e un8faulted p+ases.anta es/disad. .n rounded s"ste' s+owin p+ase8to8 round fault and round8fault current pat+.er/ t+e s"ste' is alwa"s rounded. !ost people c+oose option 7 and +a. &+en a round fault occurs/ t+e fault current is contributed b" t+e s"ste' capacitance to eart+ on t+e un8faulted p+ases.olta e/ w+ic+ can be si9 to ei +t ti'es t+e p+ase . :ecause t+e s"ste' is floatin / if t+e round fault is of t+e arcin or inter'ittent t"pe/ t+en t+ere is t+e possibilit" of substantial transient o.olta e.er.e a resistor on t+e parallelin bus &9( Fngrounded System &A-ase To Eart-() • .in a resistor on eac+ source/ t+e total round8fault current is dependent upon t+e total nu'ber of sources in operation. • • • &it+ t+e insulated neutral (un rounded) s"ste'/ t+ere is no intentional connection of t+e s"ste' to round. $f t+e resistor is on t+e parallelin bus/ t+e round8fault current is alwa"s t+e sa'e .

ice. For station ser.olta es of less t+an 1)14/ power continuit" is .olta e/ w+ic+ can be si9 to ei +t ti'es t+e p+ase .ice .olta e t+at is +i +er t+an 1)14/ if t+e .er. $f t+e round fault is an arcin or inter'ittent t"pe/ t+ere is possibilit" of substantial transient o.e would appl"/ e9cept t+e fault s+ould be detected and isolated b" trippin t+e faulted feeder at t+e closest protecti. $f t+is current were 'ore t+an 1%*/ t+en it would be low8resistance roundin . $f t+e let8t+rou + round8fault current is less t+an 1%*/ t+en t+is would be +i +8resistance roundin . • • • • #+e standards and best practices in .n rounded s"ste' s+owin p+ase8to8 round8to8p+ase fault and round8 fault current pat+.e station ser.er" i'portant.• #+ese transients often cause a subsequent failure elsew+ere/ t+us raisin t+e possibilit" of a p+ase8to8eart+8to8p+ase fault/ and leadin to +i + fault current and e9tensi. $n practice/ bot+ station ser. For enerators/ t+e round8fault current is al'ost alwa"s controlled/ and we can e'plo" resistance roundin .olta e is +i +er t+an t+is/ t+en t+e sa'e rule as noted abo.e de.ice and enerators are low8 or +i +8 resistance rounded.e da'a e is seen at t+e two faulted locations. $n power plant applications/ !4 s"ste's occur in two places: eneration and station ser.rid System) . &9( Fngrounded System &A-ase To A-ase To Eart-() • • • .e da'a e.ice at distribution .ice.arious countries enerall" follow *DS$ or $EC standards.olta e. #+e tec+nical literature supports t+ese practices.olta e. *lt+ou + itEs rare to +a. Here/ we would si<e t+e neutral roundin resistor so t+at t+e let8t+rou + round8fault current is +i +er t+an t+e net current fro' t+e distributed capacitance.%%* let8t+rou + current roundin is used. !aintenance costs are t"picall" t+e +i +est a'on t+e four t"pes of roundin s"ste's Q now at least two pieces of equip'ent need repair. #+e resistor let8t+rou + current will be dependent on t+e si<e of t+e enerator and eneration . #"picall"/ )* to . &$( <y. #+ese transients often cause a subsequent failure elsew+ere/ t+us raisin t+e possibilit" of a p+ase8to8eart+8to8p+ase fault. Coordinated trippin is often difficult/ and e9tensi.

• • • $n enerall"/ trippin of Eart+ faults and ?.en if "ou use onl" 1 C#Es for t+e ?. &it+out t+is reduction of current/ t+e enerator would continue to feed ener " into t+e fault w+ile it is co'in to a stop.e but actuall" it is for t+e safet" of t+e C#Es w+en t+e current is passin t+rouw t+e C#Es. &84( 5-y 8No of +urrent transformer in 8 p-ase Star point is grounded.er current and t+e Eart+ Faults 0rotection 6ela" still can operated. $n t+e e. ?peratin of t+e ?. #+is is D?# as w+at "ou e9plain as abo.ent of an internal eart+ fault in t+e stator windin of t+e enerator/ a fast8actin enerator round differential rela" opens t+e low8resistance roundin pat+/ t+us allowin t+e +i + resistance ()* let8t+rou + resistor) to control and lower t+e fault current and reducin t+e stator da'a e caused b" t+e internal round fault after t+e enerator +as been isolated (w+ile it is slowin down). #+erefore/ for t+e eart+ faults protection rela"s operatin / it is t+at/ if t+e total current flowin in to t+e C#Es is D?# equal total current flowin bac1 out of t+e C#Es t+en wit+ t+e differences of t+e lea1a e current/ t+e Eart+ Faults 6ela"s will operated. #+e result would be e9tensi. E. &8'( Aower Transformer Neutral Eart-ing .e stator iron da'a e at t+e round8fault location.er current 0rotection and t+e Eart+ Faults 6ela"s are b" t+e =irc++off Law 0rinciple w+ere t+e total current flowin into t+e points is equal to t+e total of current flowin out fro' t+e point.en t+ese C#Es are not Krounded or Eart+ed/ t+ese o.er current 0rotection or for t+e Eart+ Faults 0rotection/ t+eir neutral point is alwa"s s+orted to eart+.er current 0rotection +as not+in to do wit+ t+e eart+in t+e neutral of t+e C#Es. Here/ two resistors in parallel are used: one of low resistanceL t+e ot+er of +i + resistance ()*). • For C#Es eit+er we use for ( p+ases or 7 p+ase or e.• • • !ore recentl"/ +"brid roundin +as been proposed.

t windin / core burnin . (1)Fault current passin t+rou + round/ step and touc+ potential. (7) Capacit" of transfor'er to sustain round fault current/ w. (() 6ela" co8ordination and fault clearin ti'e.• • • • • #+e followin points need to c+ec1 before oin for Deutral Kroundin 6esistance. !anufacturer s+all be able to i.e t+is data.r. (. .) Standard practice of li'itin eart+ fault current. $n case no data or calculation is possible/ o for li'itin E/F current to (%%* or )%%*/ dependin on senilit" of rela".