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Article I Summary the congress, which is made up of the Senate and the House, is granted all legislative power.

. the House is reelected every two years by each state. Each member has to be at least 25 years old, has to have been a citizen of the US for at least 7 years, and has to be a member of the state theyre representing. The number of representatives is determined by the population of the state, but cant exceed 1 for every 30,000 and each state will have at least one. The house chooses their speaker and officers, and has sole power of impeachment. The senate gets 2 senators from each state chosen by the state. They serve for 6 years and get 1 vote each. Theyre divided into three classes. The first class seats are vacated after 2 years, the second after 4, and the third after 6- so that new senators can be chosen every 2 years. You have to be 30, be a citizen for 9 years, and have to be an inhabitant of your state. The VP is the president of the senate but doesnt get a vote unless its equally divided. The senate has power to try all impeachments. States decide how to hold their elections, but congress can alter any regulations. The congress must always meet on the first Monday in December of each year. The house and the senate judge qualifications of their own members. A majority of membership is required for a quorum. They can set their own procedural rules and kick out members with a 2/3 vote. They must publish official records of their proceedings. Neither the house nor senate can take extended vacations without the others approval. Congressmen are paid by the government with a self-appointed salary. They also cant be charged with a crime for anything they say in congress. People serving in executive or judicial branches cannot also serve in congress. All tax and tariff regulation has to come from the House, but the senate can still amend bills. Bill to law: passed by both houses of congress, sent to and signed by president, law. If vetoed by president, it goes back to congress where a 2/3 vote can override veto. If not signed after 10 days, the bill becomes law. If congress adjourns less than ten days after sending the president a bill, he can apply a pocket veto and refuse to sign it and it wont be law. congress can tax, and congress controls money, its value, punishment for counterfeiting, and its coining. They can also levy tariffs but are not allowed to charge more between states. They are also allowed to go into debt to pay for government programs and services, can regulate commerce with other nations and among states, set up post roads and post offices, set up copyrights and patents, set up lower level federal courts, punish piracy, declare war, raise armies and a navy, set rules for armed forces, call militia, set up a national capital of the US outside of states jurisdiction, and have an elastic clause that is their implied powers. congress is blocking international slave trade. You cant be held in jail without facing legitimate charges (habeas corpus). You cant pass a law that says that certain people are guilty of a crime and impose punishment. No head taxes or taxes on stuff exported from states, as well as no shipping charges between states. Congress has control over government spending. Also, we cant develop an aristocracy. only the federal government has the power to conduct foreign diplomacy and print money. States cant start acting like independent countries. States cant change tariffs on imports from other states. They also arent allowed to start their own wars or run their own money.

Article II Summary The president has executive power. Each state gets a number of electoral votes equal to the entirety of the senators and reps. No one but a natural born citizen can be president and they must be 35 years old and have lived in the US for fourteen years. If the president dies in office, see 25th amendment for changes. Being president is a paid position and they receive a preset salary that cant be changed during their term. Its currently set at $400,000 + a $50000 expense account. There is a very specific oath that the president must say- I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. the president is commander in chief of the military. They are also the boss of the heads of all civilian departments of government. He can pardon people convicted of certain crimes. They can negotiate treaties with foreign governments with 2/3 senate ratification, and nominate appointed officials of the government (inc. executive and judicial branches) with senate approval. They can also appoint people to government positions without the senates approval if the senate is out of session, called recess appointments. They cant last longer than the next session of congress. The president has to report to congress on the state of the union through the state of the union address in January. They can call congress into special session when its on recess if they need to. They have to faithfully execute the laws of the US and they have to grant commissions to all military officers. If the president is bad or messes up or is found guilty of treason, bribery, or other high crimes by congress, he can be impeached and removed from office. Article III Summary the Supreme Court is a thing and has all judicial power and can create inferior courts federal courts can decide cases involving federal law, disputes between states, and between residents of states. Original jurisdiction = the court hears a case in the first instance. Appellate jurisdiction = court hears case only upon appeal of a previous decision from a lower court. Someone accused of a crime in federal court has the right to have his trial heard by a jury of his peers rather than a sole decision by a judge. treason is declaring war against the US or giving aid and comfort to enemies. Conviction of treason needs two witnesses or a confession in open court. The government cannot punish the relatives or descendants of someone convicted of treason. Maximum punishment for treason is death. Article IV Summary each state has to recognize the laws, records, and court rulings of the other states. states cant discriminate the residents of other states. States that capture fugitives from justice have to send them back to their own state for trial. Slave clause slaves who escaped into freedom in the north were required to be sent back to owners. new states can be admitted into the union but all the states have to agree. Any western territories that arent states are under direct control of congress. the federal government ensures that each state must maintain a representative form of government, no state is allowed to become a dictatorship. The fed govt protects all states from military attack and has to come to aid if uprisings.

Article V Summary the constitution can be amended through a formal process established by the framers in 1787. For an amendment to take effect, it first needs to be officially proposed by a 2/3 vote in both house, then ratified by of the state legislatures. Article VI Summary the new US govt established by the constitution promised to take on all debts of the national govt of the articles of confederation. constitution is the supreme law of the law and nothing can be passed to trump the constitution. Treaties ratified by senate are also the supreme law of the land. all government officials must swear an oath to support the constitution of the US. Article VI Summary many state ratifications are needed in order for the proposed Constitution to take place in the United States and how a state could go about ratifying the Constitution. Before the Constitution, all of the states were following the government that was created in the Articles of Confederation.

Amendments The 11th Amendment more clearly defines the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court concerning a suit brought against a state by a citizen of another state. The 12th Amendment redefines how the President and Vice-President are chosen by the Electoral College, making the two positions cooperative, rather than first and second highest vote-getters. It also ensures that anyone who becomes Vice-President must be eligible to become President. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the United States. The 14th Amendment ensured that all citizens of all states had not only rights on the federal level, but on the state level, too. It removed the three-fifths counting of slaves in the census. It ensured that the United States would not pay the debts of rebellious states. The 15th Amendment ensures that race cannot be used as criteria for voting. The 16th Amendment authorizes the United States to collect income tax without regard to the population of the states. The 17th Amendment shifted the choosing of Senators from the state legislatures to the people of the states. The 18th Amendment abolished the sale or manufacture of alcohol in the United States. This amendment was later repealed (taken back/erased).

The 19th Amendment ensures that gender cannot be used as criteria for voting. Simply said: women can now vote. The 20th Amendment set new start dates for the terms of the Congress and the President, and clarifies how the deaths of Presidents before swearing-in would be handled. The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment. The 22nd Amendment sets a limit on the number of times a President could be elected - two four-year terms. The 23rd Amendment grants the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.) the right to three electors in Presidential elections. The 24th Amendment ensured that no tax could be charged to vote for any federal office. The 25th Amendment clarifies even further the line of succession to the Presidency, and establishes rules for a President who becomes unable to perform his duties while in office. The 26th Amendment guarantees that any person 18 or over may vote. The 27th Amendment requires that any law that increased the pay of legislators may not take effect until after an election