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xxxxxxxxxxxx Teacher: XXXXXXXXXX Marijana Nikolic
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS OF TEMPERATURE
By: TIJANA SEKULIC Source: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7l.html
Pronunciation: S Pronunciation
Directions: Practice Pronouncing this sound by saying the word pairs and example sentences and words from this reading
Word Pairs Sin-tin, sue-two, sand-tan, bus-but, mass-mat Example sentence: Sick swimmers sneeze and sink. Examples from this reading: Accumulates Possible Terrestrial Accepted
Directions: Study the following keywords and definintions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. in the air -(id) - Current, exerting an influence. altitude -(n) - Distance above sea level. annual -(adj) - Once a year. inversion -(n) - Change of order so that the first shall become last and the last first. phenomenon -(n) - An unusual or noteworthy event. possible -(adj) - Can be done thermal -(adj) - Related to heat and temperature. accumulates -(v) - To gather more and more, little by little.* terrestrial -(adj) - Related to the planet Earth. prevent -(v) - Stop something from happening. formation -(n) - Organized group. freezing -(v) - Stop all motion or action. radiation -(n) - Energy given off as waves or as sub-atomic particles. pollution -(n) - A contaminant that makes something unclean. horizontal -(adj) - A flat line that runs left to right rather than up and down.
Which words are the hardest? Focus on the tough ones!
Directions: Read the following passage carefully.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Underline important parts of the text. Circle words or phrases in the text that you don’t know. Put a question mark (?) next to statements you have a question about. Put a check mark (✓ ) next to statements that you agree with.
THE VERTICAL DIVISION OF TEMPERATURES
Since the air is mostly heated by the surface below, the temperature slowly drops with the altitude. This drop averages 0.6*C every 100 m, and mostly depends on the latitude, season and humidity. It decreases with the increases in the latitude in winter and when there is more water vapour in the air. This drop in the air temperature every 100 m is called thermal gradient. It is possible to work out the annual cycle of air temperature at different altitudes where there are no meteorological observations, by thermal gradient.
In the median and high latitudes the annual temperatures are higher above the ocean than above land and they fall more slowly with the increase in latitude above the ocean. There are mostly annual isotherm maps and isotherm maps of extreme months – January and July. As the land and the ocean get warm and cold at different rates the isotherms are curves. since they create favourable conditions for smog formation. in the town of Stewart . It is most frequent in valleys and deep gorges where the cold and heavy air accumulates coming down the steep mountain sides. In America. The July isotherms are turned towards the North above the warm continents in the southern hemisphere. North Africa and Arabia. In the southern hemisphere in the Antarctica. It is not in line with the geographic equator. -77. it is moved towards the North because there is more land in the northern hemisphere. the air which is in contact with the surface gets colder than the air at higher altitudes. Also. The sea currents affect the appearance of these curves. when the weather is calm and clear. usually at night. The temperature inversions are also important when it comes to air pollution especially above big cities. The so-called 'cold pole' is in the Sakha Republic. so there are no conditions for the convective air flow (rising).There are cases when the temperature doesn't fall but rises with the altitude.1*C. The lowest temperatures are recorded in the eastern Siberia and Greenland. In Oymyakon in Siberia. 2) 3) Identify 2 details that are not very important to the main idea of the passage. which is the absolute maximum air temperature in the shade. The warm Golf Current moves them in the eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean towards the north.+55.3*C was recorded on 24th August 1960. January is the warmest month with the highest temperatures recorded in the inland of Australia. thus the isotherms are curved towards the North. This inversion can be seen in a relatively thin layer of the air and can be very harmful for the crops and the fruit trees in bloom. whereas above the land they are turned towards the South. This is because they create very stable air layer where they develop. The isotherm maps in January show that it is significantly warmer above the ocean than above the land at the same latitude in winter. The annual isotherm are drawn based on the median annual air temperatures. In the Russian station 'Vostok' .8*C was recorded. These lines are called isotherms.0*C. San Luis in Mexico is the warmest place on Earth with +57. They show that temperatures fall from the equator towards the poles. whereas the cold current in the South Atlantic pushes them towards the equator. -88. in the eastern part of this frozen continent. . In the southern hemisphere.8*C recorded on 11th August 1933. the absolute amplitude. We can conclude that the fluctuation of the temperature on the Earth is 146. they use strong motors to move the air and prevent overcooling. 1) Identify 3 important supporting details that contribute to the main idea of the passage. The same temperature was recorded in El Azizi in Libya in 1922. 1) 2) Write 1 brief paragraph summarizing the main idea of the passage. or during winter also during the day. when the terrestrial radiation is pronounced. the villagers burn wet hey to create a layer of smoke to lower the radiation from the surface and protect the plants from freezing. This phenomenon is called the temperature inversion. The line that connects the places with the highest annual temperatures on the Earth is called the thermal equator. instead. This is the absolute minimum air temperature on our planet. The 'Heat Islands' are above California. Use the important details to support your discussion of the main idea. The January isotherms in the northern hemisphere are turned towards the North above the sea. For this reason. THE HORIZONTAL DIVISION OF TEMPERATURES The horizontal division of temperatures on the Earth's surface is given in lines that connect the places with equal air temperatures in maps. there is a 'cold pole'. in 1938. while above the colder oceans they are turned towards the South. with the average January temperature below -50*C. however this was not officially accepted as it was not recorded by a meteorological station.
in the air altitude annual inversion phenomenon possible ." How is the simple present used in the sentence(s) below? Directions: Identify how the simple_present is used in the sentence(s) below 1. Word Roots & Stems Rule: The prefix re adds "again" or "back" to the meaning of a word.. Directions: Identify the word that ends with re. just as in the models. refill re + fill Refill the cup if you spill the water. reorganize ____________ ________________________________________________ reheat ____________ ________________________________________________ Vocabulary Practice FILL IN THE BLANK Directions: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence. They show that temperatures fall from the equator towards the poles. 4. 1. Habits: "I drink coffee every morning. in 1938.8 * C was recorded. Conditions: "Today is sunny. The sea currents affect the appearance of these curves. General truths: "The sun rises in the east. reapply re + apply He wasn't accepted this year but he will reapply next year. 1." 2. they use strong motors to move the air and prevent overcooling.Focus on Grammar The simple present is used in 3 cases." 3. This is one of the most common prefixes and can be correctly added to most verbs.in each sentence and write it on the line. In America. 3.77. In Oymyakon in Siberia. The lowest temperatures are recorded in the eastern Siberia and Greenland. 2. Directions: Fill in the blanks below.
7. 28. 2. If it helps. 5. B. 12. _______ Once a year. exerting an influence. _______ Distance above sea level. 6. E. 10. It is _______________ that we will be getting a new president next week. 14. 21. 30.000 feet. _______ Related to heat and temperature. 17. _______ An unusual or noteworthy event. 18. I. Lightning is a natural _______________ that kills people each year. 26. 19. _______ Current. 16. over the years. x-rays. The top of desk is _______________ as it runs left to right. MATCHING Directions: Write the letter of word that matches the definition on the line. _______ Stop something from happening. C. _______ Organized group. _______ Change of order so that the first shall become last and the last first. N. H. feel free to also draw a line between the definition and the matching word. 25. The _______________ blanket keeps her warm in the winter. D. 11.thermal radiation accumulates pollution terrestrial horizontal prevent formation freezing 1. The locked door _______________ed her from going in. _______ A contaminant that makes something unclean. He only bought one book a week but. The _______________ of those words will cause the sentence to not make sense. J. Carbon dioxide produced by burning fossile fuels is a major source of _______________ in the atmosphere. _______ A flat line that runs left to right rather than up and down. These are not _______________ rocks. Christmas is an _______________ holiday. he _______________ many. Alpha particles. 13. It is _______________ to sail around the world. 8. The soccer players were in an offensive _______________. 24. 23. and visible light are all different forms of _______________. gamma rays. _______ Stop all motion or action. F. they must be from another planet! 4. 20. L. little by little. _______ Can be done 22. 27. _______ Related to the planet Earth. The company had to _______________ hiring to lower expenses. 15. M. 3. G. K.* 29. O. _______ To gather more and more. _______ Energy given off as waves or as sub-atomic particles. 9. A. The plane flew at an _______________ of 30. in the air altitude annual inversion phenomenon possible thermal accumulates terrestrial prevent formation freezing radiation pollution horizontal .
32. . Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. 38.WRITE YOUR OWN SENTENCES Directions: For each of the words in the box. 36. 41. 37. 35. 43. 39. 45. write an original sentence using the word. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word. 40. in the air thermal radiation altitude accumulates pollution annual terrestrial horizontal inversion prevent phenomenon formation possible freezing 31. 34. 42. 44. 33.
Instruct students to read the passage silently and complete the questions independently.SOME Students will be asked to orally demonstrate knowledge of new words. accumulates 14. Students will be able to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering questions which require basic understanding and interpretation of the content. Depending on the population: Read the entire passage aloud. Ask students to volunteer to read parts of the passage aloud. and use the words in the vocabulary list below. SOME students will be given an opportunity to share their answer aloud. phenomenon 11. Share ALL Students will read the passage or follow along as the passage is read. pronounce. individual and choral repitition. in the air 7. Model and emphasize pronunciation. to model phrasing and fluency. annual 9. prevent 5. while working with students who need more literacy help. Some students may benefit from being challenged to think of their own minimal pair. Give students who need extra help the opportunity to practice in smaller groups or individually. altitude 8. Pause at key moments and model good reading strategies through a think aloud. Standards addressed: Vocabulary: 1. SOME students will be able to recognize and identify the sound in other words they know. calling on individual students at random. Review defintions Sample Questioning: In your own words. radiation 2. Ask students to complete the questions by doing Think. ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increase in pronunciation skills by successfully pronouncing the new sound during choral or individual repetition.LESSON: Aim: Grade: 9 Subject: Prepared by: Marijana Nikolic Objectives: Students will be able to understand. Reading & Comprehension Questions Students will read the passages of and demonstrate comprehension of the content by question. Introduction of vocabulary Introduce the new words from the vocabulary list in above (see Objectives) by modeling pronunciation. or develop a physical action to increase the student’s ability to remember the new words. terrestrial 15. thermal 13. ALL Students will strive to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering the questions. formation 6. Pair. inversion 10. possible 12. horizontal 4. Individual and choral repetition. Who can think of a time when this word might be used? Can you use this word in a sentence? What’s the antonym (opposite) of this word? When appropriate. associate a visual image to cue to understanding of the word. give different types of learners an opportunity to write down the new words. explain the definition. . Struggling students may need additional instruction on how to make new sounds. Alternate choral and individual repetition. ALL Students will be able to increase their understanding and awareness of the new words. freezing Activity Description Differentiation Guide Assessment Pronunciation Practice: S Introduce key phoneme with minimal pairs. pollution 3.
Practicing New Vocabulary Students will be given a chance to practice applying new vocabulary by completing cloze sentences. Fill-in-the-blank Answer Key: 1) thermal 2) altitude 3) terrestrial 4) prevent 5) in the air 6) possible 7) freeze 8) radiation 9) formation 10) phenomenon 11) annual 12) inversion 13) accumulated 14) pollution 15) horizontal Matching Answer Key: A. Give students need time to work on completing their own practice sentences for the grammatical structure. flash cards). have students work in pairs or small groups. -15 . ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increased mastery of the grammar structure by independently writing sentences that correctly employ simple_present. Example quick assess: 3 new pieces of information from text. -6 G. -3 J. -9 L. Students who get more than two of the cloze sentences wrong should be asked do other reinforcement (i. which was used in the reading. Summary Instructor will review the objectives of the lesson with the class a whole. -1 H. Word Building: Roots and Stems Students will be encouraged to take away a word-attack strategy from this lesson by reviewing -y. Students will write 5 original sentences using simple_present. Invite early finishers to put their sentences on the board or challenge them to not only use the grammar structure.Grammar Students will review the usage of and then identify simple_present in sentences from the reading.e. -8 N. -12 E. When appropriate. -10 F. -5 B. ALL students will be able to recognize the suffix -y and understand The suffix y changes a noun into an adjective. The summary can be completed as quick discussion or by asking student to summarize in their notes. -2 C. Students complete this section of worksheet independently prior to group review of the answers. -11 D.. -14 O. Students may benefit from having time to complete this portion of the worksheet individually or in pairs. -13 I. 2 new words. like dirty. but also include the vocabulary from the lesson in their sentences. -4 K. 1 question about what they learned. -7 M. ALL Students will increase their familiarity with the new vocabulary and their ability to successfully use these new words in context.