A mechanical device designed to reduce friction in a part of a machine where another part turns or slides.

Types of Bearing
• • • •

Plain Bearings Ball Bearings Roller Bearings Thrust Bearings

Selection of Bearing Type
The following points are a guide to applictions to which the various types of bearings are best suited: 1. Ball bearings are generally used for small to medium size loads and are suitable for high speed operation. 2. Roller bearings are preferable for large or relatively heavy loaded applications or if the bearings are liable to shock loading or vibration. 3. If good alignment between shaft and housing cannot be guarunteed, selfaligning ball bearings or spherical roller bearings are to be preferred and in some cases are essential. 4. Ball thrust bearings are intended to carry thrust loads only. At high speeds a deep groove or angular contact bearing is generally more suitable even under relatively heavy thrust loads. 5. Rigid roller journal bearings cannot carry thrust loads since they are designed to permit axial displacement of the shaft within certain limits. 6. A single self-aligning bearing cannot support a tilting movement. 7. Spherical roller thrust bearings, in addition to very heavy thrust loads, can carry considerable simultaniously acting radial loads. 8. Spherical roller bearings and taper roller bearings are useful for dealing with heavy combined radial and thrust loads, whilst deep groove and angular contact ball bearings serve the same purpose in lighter load applications. 9. Needle roller bearings are useful in lightly loaded applications where it is desirable to have as small an outside diameter as possible. 10. Separable bearings, i.e. taper roller bearings and single row angular contact bearings, must have both inner and outer races located axially. These types of bearings should only be used on short shafts which are not subject to appreciable alterations in length due to temperature variation. Once the type of bearing to be used has been selected with regard to application, the bearing size can be determined by the nature and magnitute of loads and the requirement with regard to speed, life and reliability. Factors in bearing Selection Relative movement between machine components

If the working fluid in a bearing adheres to or "wets" the bearing surfaces then some load may be carried. Small outside diameter as compared to rolling element bearings. Fluid is pumped under pressure into the bearing.most common alloys are copper tin.running properties not as good as copper based alloys but cheaper.. therefore the bearing will operate whether static or rotating.In a hydrodynamic bearing a fluid is drawn into the region between the moving parts of the bearing by the virtue of its adhesion to the surfaces of the bearing and its viscosity and due to the shape of the bearing surfaces a pressure is generated within the fluid which keeps the bearing surfaces separated. Materials . Not suitable for heavily loaded applications but useful where lubrication is inconvenient.Lubricated bearings • • • Whitemetal . The separating film is only generated when the there is relative motion in the bearing. 3. copper lead. Boundry Lubrication. Copper Based alloys .. Quietness of operation.In a hydrostatic bearing the load is carried by fluid pressure generated outside the bearing.Dry bearings operate without a significant fluid film to separate the moving surfaces therefore low friction materials.. steel or cast iron.Sintered bronze is a porous material which can be impregnated with oil. phosphor bronze: harder and stronger than whitemetal: can be used un-backed as a solid bearing.e. Low cost.Plain Bearings Plain (journal) bearings are used in many applications and have the following advantages :1. or materials impregnated with a lubricant. Types of plain bearing Hydrostatic. Good capacity to absorb shock loading. when the shaft is rotating. graphite or Ptfe.usually used as a lining bonded to bronze. i.Dry bearings • Sintered bronze . Hydrodynamic. 5. 4. Dry Bearings. must be used. Boundary lubrication will apply at low speeds but as the speed increases some degree of hydrodynamic lubrication will be needed.. Will take oscillating motion. Materials . . 2. Aluminium based alloys .

Plain Bearing Guidelines In general.This bearing contains more balls than the standard type and can therefore take heavier radial loads but only . Rigid single row bearing with filling slots for balls.Basic type of bearing widely used.. Nylon .• • Ptfe . Dry bearings of the impregnated sintered bronze type are available in stock sizes and these should be used if possible. Mechanically weak material which has a tendancy to flow and is seriously affected by high temperatures.75 .5 Two short bearings well spaced are better than one long one. The bearing provides location of the shaft in relation to the housing when provided with suitable means of clamping. plain bearings should be kept as short as possible in order to avoid long controlled diameters and highly finished portions on the shaft.similar to Ptfe but slightly harder: used only in very light applications..1. The balls run in comparatively deep grooved tracks which make the bearing suitable for both radial (journal) load and axial thrust load. Ball Bearings The object of ball bearings (and roller bearings) is the substitution of pure rolling motion for plain sliding friction. Length/diamter ratio of 0.suitable only in very light applications. Types of Ball bearing Rigid single row ball bearing.

Rigid double row bearing. Requires accurate location if used in conjunction with another bearing.limited thrust..For heavy radial loads and to provide greater rigidity. Self aligning double row bearing.For applications in which slight deflections cannot be avoided when rotating... Aligning single row bearing.This bearing will correct inital angular misalignment between shaft and housing but is not designed to accommodate shaft deflection or misalignment when rotating. .

Angular contact single row bearing. May be used in pairs to accommodate thrust in either direction.. Roller Bearings ..Used to take heavy thrust in either direction and some radial load. Duplex bearing. Adaption sleeve bearing..This bearing is mounted on a tapered split sleeve to simplify assembly on long shafts etc.Gives precise axial location under thrust load.

. for although one track of the race is lipped. .. the other race is plain and the bearing does not locate the shaft axially.This type of bearing has a lip on one side and a loose plate on the other to simplify assembly ans dismantling of components and to locate the shaft axially.Basic type of roller bearing commonly used for heavy radial loads. Lipped roller bearing.This bearing has either one or two lips on both races and will locate axially in one or both directions but will not take appreciable thrust. No thrust can be taken. Loose side plate bearing. Types of Roller bearing Rigid single row roller journal bearing..The object of roller bearings (and ball bearings) is the substitution of pure rolling motion for plain sliding friction.

Single row bearings can be used in pairs to take thrust in both directions.Provide a small diameter.. .Aligning roller bearing.. This arrangement has the advantage that by providing adjustment to the clamping of the inner races the internal clearance of the bearings can be regulated while also providing a means of taking up wear. Needle roller bearing..To correct initial misalignment but not deflection under load.These bearings will take appreciable radial loads and thrust loads in one direction (single row) or both directions (double row). Taper roller bearings. light bearing load for assemblies in which space and weight are restricted.

Spherial roller bearing..For applications where high load capacity is required together with the capability to absorb slight deflections when rotating. Thrust Bearings . thus enabling the combination of small outside diameter and the facility of taking thrust in one direction. Combined Needle Roller and Thrust bearing This bearing provides the needle roller bearing with a means of taking axial loads.

will correct initial misalignment but not deflection under load.This bearing will take thrust in both directions.. Aligning thrust bearing.Basic type with a shallow grooved track in each washer. . Double row thrust bearing... Types of Thrust bearing Single row rigid thrust bearing. The load is taken axially in one direction only. Has a limited speed range. Flat track thrust bearing.For very low speed and light load applications in which the shaft may be offset axially..The object of thrust bearings is to support thrust and axial loads .

Some things to consider when selecting bearings Load on bearings The load may either be radial (journal) or axial (thrust) or may be a combination of the two.Taper roller thrust bearing. 4. Torque reactions in power transmission Reactions due to centrifugal force. out of balance and inertia loads Weight of machinery components supported by the bearing Reaction due to tension in belts. Radial Load is applied at Right Angles to the axis of the shaft Axial Load is applied Parallel to this axis of the shaft In order to calculate the load on a bearing the origin of the load must be known.This bearing will take appreciable thrust loads together with some radial load. this can be one or a combination of the following :1. 3..Will take thrust and radial loading and accommodate misalignment when rotating. etc . 2.. Spherial roller thrust bearing.

.... Friction The friction coefficient will very considerably with load...0..............0.. Speed and Life The speed and required life of the bearing must be determined....... this usually being the only weight of components supported by the bearing.These loads must resolved into one radial load and the larger the axial load (if there is one in each direction) : this then gives the dynamic loading of the bearing.0015 microns Taper and Spherical roller bearings . Each manufacturer uses a different optimum speed and life on which the dynamic capacity is based.... therefore it is necessary when dimensioning a shaft or housing to consult the manufacturer's catalogue which will usually quote limits to be applied for various fits.. therefore no general formulae can be given..0.................0....0018 microns ...0013 microns Single row deep groove ball bearings .. Diametral Clearance This is the total distance through which the inner race can move relative to the outer race in a radial direction. Fit of Bearings on Shaft and in Housings The fit of a bearing in a housing or on a shaft can affect the diametral clearance....0... speed and lubrication but the following values give a guide to values applicable to normal operating conditions and favourable lubrication :Self-aligning ball bearings ... Bearings are usually manufactured with what is known as normal of two dot (00) diametral clearance but bearings with larger or smaller diametral clearance can be supplied at extra cost.....0010 microns Cylindrical roller bearings with flange guided rollers ........ The static loading of the bearing must also be calculated. speed and life related (by the formulae given) to the dynamic capacity quoted in the catalogue... the speed quoted in rev/min and the life in hours or millions of revolutions.............. The manufacturer's catalogue should be consulted and the load..0011 microns Thrust ball bearings ......

Seals All bearings on rotating machinery must be provided with adequate sealing arrangements. Circulatory System .g. must be provided with a drain hole.e.For high speed and high temperature operation where heat dissipation is essential. this should be fitted on the opposite side to that of the filling cup or nipple. Wick bears on some part which will throw oil into the bearing. or built-in shields and seals incorporated in the bearings. The oil is atomised before entering the housing. Oil is circulated by pump in closed ciruit. A drain should be provided in order that contaminated gases can be ejected. Oil Mist .Into a ball sealed nipple for machinery operating at high speed for short and infrequent periods. Drip Feed . picks up oil and throws it onto the bearing. Wick Feed .For very high speeds: small quantities of oil are blown into the bearing housing by compressed air.The values quoted are for running friction and it can be expected that friction during starting will be higher. Grease cannot be used to dissipate heat from a bearing. Oil Bath .Can be used for higher speeds than the oil bath method. or pump feed injection to supply a large number of bearings simultaneously at intervals. .Oil is fed under pressure through system by pump. Any seal which bears on rotating component will increase friction considerably.Alternative to drip feed for high speed applications.Suitable for moderate speeds. Grease must usually fed to the bearing by grease cup or grease gun injection to provide periodical replenishment. oil level maintained at a predetermined level. These can take the form of external shields and seals in which the devices are incorporated in the assembly external to the bearings. Forced Lubrication . gearboxes up to medium size in which the bottom rims of the lowest gears run in oil and splash the remaining components. Oil Thrower . Usually provided with a sight glass and a drain hole to prevent overfilling. Splash . Metered supply of oil drips into housing. Lubrication Provision must be made for lubrication of all rolling element bearings. Oil lubrication can be provided by :• • • • • • • • • Hand Feed . Lubrication can be either grease or oil.Thrower rotates in oil bath (maintained at a constant level). providing a generous flow and good heat dissipation.

but not oil is employed as lubricant are : felt washers. and the arrangement can therefore make repeated use of accurate surfaces Oscillating Movement If only an oscillatory movement is required. . some additional arrangments can be used in which the geometric layout prevents continuous rotation. seals for oil lubrication are synthetic rubber (also suitable for grease).Seals used when grease. piston ring seals and labyrinths: the last two only for horizontal applications. Constraint applied to the movement . Constraint applied to the movement .About a line Continuous Movement The movement will be rotation. Relative Movements Relative movement between machine components and the constraints applied. grease grooves and labyrinths. and the arrangement can therefore make repeated use of accurate surfaces Oscillating Movement If only an oscillatory movement is required.About a Point Continuous Movement The movement will be rotation. some additional arrangments can be used in which the geometric layout prevents continuous rotation.

Therefore one surface must be long and continuous.Constraint applied to the movement . moving component must usually be supported on a fluid film or rolling contact for an acceptable wear rate. The shorter.Along a line Continuous Movement The movement will be translation. and to be economically attractive must be fairly cheap. . the arrangement can make repeated use of accurate surfaces and more mechanisms become economically attractive. Oscillating Movement If the transitional movement is a reciprocation.

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