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CC2413 Fundamental

Psychology to Health Studies

Lecture 1 & 2
The Evolution of Psychology
Lecturer:

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Lesson Plan
(A) Course Overview
(B) Pretest
(C) Definition, Aims, & Scope
(D) What do Psychologists do?
(E) Contemporary
Perspectives
(F) Conclusion, References, &
Web Resources

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(B) Pretest
A Pretest of Your Psychological Knowledge
& Conceptions of Psychology

Read each statement below and decide whether you


think it is generally “True”, generally “False”,
except for the last question.

威脅自殺)
1. The people who threaten suicide (威脅自殺
威脅自殺 are
rarely the ones who actually commit suicide
(自殺)
自殺 .

2. Typically, we use only 10% of our brains.

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(B) Pretest
3. Infants can recognize their own mother’s voice on
the day of birth.

被僱眠),
被僱眠 people can be made to
4. When hypnotized (被僱眠
perform feats of strength (successful completion of
something needing skill, strength or courage) that
would ordinarily be impossible.

5. After finishing a test, you should:


a) go back, rethink your answers, and consider
changing some of them
直覺)
直覺
b) stick with your first impulse (直覺

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(C) Definition, Aims, & Scope: What?

 Psyche (心靈): the human mind


 Includes behaviors and mental processes
包括行為與心理過程
 Actions, thoughts, feelings, experiences, etc.
行動、思考、情感、經驗等

 ~ology (科學研究) : the scientific study


 Systematic (系統性),
 Objective (客觀性),
 Well-controlled (受控制的)

Psychology is ______________ (以經驗或觀察為依據的)


以經驗或觀察為依據的)
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(C) Definition, Aims, & Scope: Why?
• Psychology Aims at…
1) Description: What is happening?
描述
2) Explanation: Why is it happening?
解釋
3) _____________: What will happen again?
預測
4) Control / Change: How can it be
changed?
改變
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Sex and drugs youth culture leaves Women's
Commission in shock Patsy Moy Friday, August 21, 2009
• (The Standard) … A survey of 2,966
secondary students in May by the Hong
Kong Association of Sexuality Educators,
Researchers and Therapists revealed
that about 10 percent were aware of
or knew students involved in
compensated dating - a thinly-veiled
form of prostitution in which young girls
have sex for gifts and/or money.

• In addition, 45 percent believed


compensated dating was merely a social
activity.
http://tv.on.cc/index.html?s=3&ss=mv3&i=ONS-090822-11240-
99&d=1250877581 (22-08-2009 / Source: ontv)
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(C) Definition, Aims, & Scope: What?
Psychological
aspects
•Feelings (情緒)
•Thinking (思考)
•Motivation (動機)
Social aspects •Personality (人格)
•Interpersonal
relationships (人際關係) Biological aspects
•Culture (文化)
Genetics (基因) & Brain
•Environment (環境) functioning (腦部運作)
個體)
個體
Human as a bio-psychosocial entity (個體
Behaviors: ______________________ & nature-and-nurture
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(D) What do Psychologists do?
Professional Fields
 ____________________ psychologists (臨床心理學家)
 Assess and treat mental disorder
評估與治療心理異常
 Counseling psychologists (輔導/ 諮商心理學家)
 Assist those in distress
幫助他人面對生活上或成長的困難
 Educational psychologists (教育心理學家)
 Work with schools and students
以學校及學生為服務對象

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(D) What do Psychologists do?
Professional Fields
 Industrial/Organizational psychologists (工業/組
織心理學家)
 Work with business and industry
應用心理知識服務工商業機構
 Experimental psychologists (實驗心理學家)
 Conduct research in psychology
利用科學實驗方法研究人類心理

健康心理學家)
健康心理學家
 _____________ psychologists (健康心理學家
– Work in health-care settings
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(D) What do Psychologists do?
Professional Fields

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(D) What do Psychologists do?
Major Academic Areas
生 Genetic factors, role of brain and endocrine system
Physiological (生
理) Psychology
Experimental Laboratory research: e.g., sensation, perception,
Psychology learning, emotion and motivation
Psychometrics Psychological testing and statistical analyses

認知),
認知
Cognitive (認知 Memory, information processing, reasoning,
Psychology intelligence, etc.
Developmental Human development across lifespan
Psychology
Personality Consistency and distinctiveness of individuals’
characteristics
Social Interpersonal and social influences
Psychology
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(E) Contemporary Perspectives
A Brief review on the development of the field
1) Psychodynamic model
(心理動力學/ 精神分析 Psychoanalysis)
2) Behavioral model (行為學派)
3) Humanistic model (人本主義學派)
4) Cognitive model (認知心理學派)
5) Biopsychological model (生理心理學派)
6) Evolutionary model (進化論學派)
7) Sociocultural model (社會文化學派)

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
A Brief review on the
development of the field
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Father of Psychology
___________
Established the 1st formal
laboratory for psychological
research in Germany in 1879
結構主義)
結構主義
Structuralism (結構主義
– focuses on structure or the most
basic elements of the mind/brain

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
A Brief review on the
development of the field
William James (1842-1910)
Wrote the first textbook in
Psychology “Principles of
Psychology” (1890)
功能主義)
功能主義
Functionalism (功能主義
– Focuses on the function or
purpose
___________________of behavior
and consciousness and how the
mind allows people to adapt to
the changing environment

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
心理動力學)
心理動力學
1) Psychodynamic Model (心理動力學

 Believes behavior to be motivated by inner


forces (innate instincts) over which an
individual has little control
相信人的行為是由內在本能所驅動而產生
的;人的意志或自控能力相對較少
unconscious
Emphasizes on __________________
processes influencing behavior
強調「潛意識」對外在行為的影響
 Sigmund Freud (founder of Psychoanalysis)
精神分析學派創始人:佛洛伊德
精神分析學派 佛洛伊德

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
行為學派)
行為學派
2) Behavioral Model (行為學派
Focuses on observable behavior &
stimulus-response (S-R)
relationships
着重可被觀察的行為及刺激-反應
刺激 反應的關係
反應
Emphasizes on the importance of
environmental forces (e.g. reward,
punishment) in shaping behavior
行為被外在環境力量 (如奬勵、懲罰)所塑造
Key figures: J. B. Watson (founder
of Behaviorism), B.F. Skinner
華森、
華森、史基納
創始人:華森

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
人本主義學派)
人本主義學派
3) Humanistic Model (人本主義學派
Believes people in control of their
lives - ________________
相信人能控制自己的生命 - 自由意志
Emphasizes on personal growth, &
unique qualities of humans
強調個人成長
個人成長及獨特性
個人成長 獨特性
Self-actualization (自我展現)
Early founders: Abraham Maslow,
Carl Rogers
創始人:馬斯洛 馬斯洛、
馬斯洛、羅吉斯

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
認知心理學)
認知心理學
4) Cognitive Model (認知心理學
Focuses on how people know,
understand & think about the world
探討人如何認識、了解及思考外在世界
___________ = mental processes
involved in acquiring knowledge
認知是獲得知識的心理過程 (郭靜晃等《心
理學》指出,「認知是經驗的組織與解釋意
義的過程」,頁35)
Key figures: Piaget, Chomsky
代表人物:皮亞傑
皮亞傑、
皮亞傑、瓊斯基
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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
生理心理學派)
生理心理學派
5) Biopsychological Model (生理心理學派

Views behavior from the


perspective of biological
events occurring in the body
(e.g., brain activity,
hormones, & genetics)
從生理功能 (如腦部活動、內分
泌、遺傳) 探討人的行為
Key figures: James Olds, (L) Normal Brain Image
(R) Alzheimer's Brain image W/ arrows
Roger Sperry
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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
PET Scans show the brain activity of normal people
engaged in different activities

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
進化論學派)
進化論學派
6) Evolutionary Model(進化論學派

 Examines behavioral processes in terms of


their _________________ value for
members of a species over the course of
many generations
物競天擇)
物競天擇 favors
 Natural selection (物競天擇
behaviors & physical characteristics that
enhance organisms’ reproductive success
 Key figures: David Buss, Martin Daly

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(E) Contemporary Perspectives:
社會文化學派
社會文化學派)
7) Sociocultural model (社會文化 學派

 Focuses on the all interpersonal,


societal, cultural (文化) , and
ethnic factors that affect one’s
behavior or cognition
 Key figures: Lev Vygosky,
Urie Bronfenbrenner

Prostration (五體投地)
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(F) Conclusion, References,
& Web Resources
Overview of the subject / course

Introduction to Psychology
What? Why? Scope?

Major Philosophical Issues


Free will (freedom) vs. Determinism
自由意志與決定論

The Mind-Brain problem


心或腦的問題
Barack Obama, “Yes, we can”
The Nature (heredity) vs. Nurture (environment) debate
先天及後天的爭論
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(F) Conclusion, References,
& Web Resources
Focus of the Next lecture
How do we study psychology?

Research Methods (研究方法) (Ch. 2)

Questions & Answers (問題及答複)

END OF LECTURE
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(F) Conclusion, References,
& Web Resources
***Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2009).
Psychology (International edition, 2nd ed).
Upper Saddle River, N.J. :
Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Kalat, J. W. (2002). What is psychology? In
Introduction to psychology (6th ed., pp. 3-27).
Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning.
Weiten, W. (2008). The evolution of psychology. In
Psychology: Themes and variations (Briefer version,
7th ed, pp. 1-31). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth/Thomson.
*** Assigned Readings - Ch. 1 pp.2-20, 40,41,
Appendix B1-14
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(F) Conclusion, References,
& Web Resources
General Topics
• 1) Psychology, First edition
– http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_ciccarelli_psychology_1
– Online quizzes, glossary, flashcards, web links, etc., for each
chapter are available on this book site.

• 2) Psychology: Themes & Variations, Briefer version – Book


Companion Site
– http://www.wadsworth.com/cgi-
wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20bI&flag=in
structor&product_isbn_issn=9780495100584&discipline
number=24
– Quizzes of each chapter, cool stuff (e.g. experiments &
psychological tests, etc.), & many useful web links (e.g. research,
careers, organizations, etc.) related to psychology are available in
this book site.

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(F) Conclusion, References,
& Web Resources
Resources from PolyU Library
• 3) Subject Guide for Psychology
– http://www.lib.polyu.edu.hk/subject_guides/psycho.
html
– This subject guide introduces you to some sources of information
in Psychology held in the Pao Yue-Kong Library of The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University. All of the materials can be found in the
Library Catalogue.
• 4) Internet resources – Social Studies
– http://www.lib.polyu.edu.hk/internet/soc_hum.html
– with many web links to local/Hong Kong social service/community
organizations
• 5) Databases
– http://www.lib.polyu.edu.hk/electdb/cdsubjec.htm#
SOCIAL
– Check under Social sciences/Sociology – resources on research
reports, articles, or books, etc.

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