# REVIEW PHYSICS

In
30 MINUTES
PART - I
Mechanics
Position, Velocity
Acceleration
Newton's Laws
Mass
Work Enegy &
Power
Forces
Gravity
Periodic motion
Physical Units
Errror
Vector
Polar
Axial
Circular
Motion
Conservation
Laws
Conservatiom
of energy
Work-Energy
Principle
Conservation of
momentum
Conservation
of angular
momentum
Orbits
Rotation
Torque
Differentiation
Integration
Calculus in
Physics
Motion analysis
Maxima & Minima
Problem
Graphical analysis
Variable PQ
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c
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using
such as
Includes
like and
and
n
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s
a
d

i
c
a
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e
and
and
uses
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Page-1
PHYSICS
Mechanics
Properties of Matter
Heat & Thermodynamics
Sound Wave
Electrostatics
Current Electricity
Magnetism
Optics
Electronics
Modern Physics
Vectors
Magnitude A A A A
Direction
A A A
ojection Component
i A j
then its a A A
Dot produc B B
x y z
y
y x
x y
ition: R = A + B= B+ A, A B= A + ( B)
Unit Vector : A =
A
A
of cosines : cos =
A
cos =
A
cos =
A
of A along B= A. B
Component of B along A = A. B, If A = A
ngle with the x - axis is = tan
t : A. B= ABcos A. B= A A A
x y z
x
-1
x y
        

  
   
   

, :
, ,
Pr :

  
,
( / )
,
2 2 2

z
uct : A A A = 0,
A
parallelogram =|A B|,
Area of a triangle =
1
2
|A B|
B
Cross prod B AB n
B
i j k
A A A
B B B
Examples W F r P F v E A B A
v r r F v
dr
dt
a
d r
dt
dv
dt
E
Area of a
i
x
j
y
k
z
z
x y z
x y z
E B
   
 

   
    

 

 
 

sin  ,
  
: . , . , . , . ,
, , , , ,
  

2
2
volume of a parallelopiped :V = A B C)
  
. (
Units, Dimensions and Measurements
SI
u n u n n
M
M
L
L
T
T
Average of
x x
N
Absolute e
x x Mean absolute error x
a b c
n
i m
units : Time period(s), Length - metre (m),
Mass - kilogram(kg), Amount of substance - mole(mol),
Temperature - kelvin(K), Electric currnet - ampere (A),
Luminous intensity - candela (cd)
Dimensional Analysis : Uses (i) To check the accuracy
of a given relation. (ii) Te derive a relation between
different physical quantities. (iii) To convert a physical
quantity from one system to another system.
n
Value : x =
x
rror in each measurement :
| x
1
1
i

2 2 2 1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
,
. . . . .
| | |, :
|

x
N
Fractional error
x
x
Combination of errors
If f
x y
z
f
f
a
x
x
b
y
y
c
z
z
i
i
a b
c
|
,
: , :
| | | | | |

then maximum fractional
error in f is
error. percentage
the is smaller t, measuremen a in figures t significan
of number the is Greater (g) ts. measuremen
component the in figures t significan of number
minimum the contains result the ts measuremen of
quotient and product the In (f) ts. measuremen
component the in places decimal of number
minimum the contains result the t, measuremen
of difference and sum the In (e) . instrument
the of count least the to equal is instrument
measuring a of accuracy of limit The (d)
figures. t significan of number
the counting while counted not are t measuremen a
of side hand left on zeros the and 10 of powers The (c)
3. is figure t singifican of number the then kg, 3320 is
t measuremen a In Ex. figures. t significan in counted
not are and ambiguous are zeros final of number
the point, decimal no contains t measuremen a If (b)
number. pure a for not and t measuremen a for
only quoted are figures t Significan (a) : Important
Motion in One Dimension
|displacement| distance travelled : Average speed :
V=
s s 2v
V
Instantaneous velocity : v=
dr
dt
instantaneous speed, Average acceleration :
a
ous accelerationa=
dv
dt
- dimension a=
dv
dt
1 1
1
1
1
1
av

s
t t
s
s
v
s
v
If s s d then V
v
v v
If t t t then v
V
Average velocity V
r r
t t
V V
v v
v v
t t
Instantane
In one
dv
dx
av av
2
1 2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
, , ,
, ,
: ,| |
,
| |
,
,

 

 

v,

v
u
0
v
u
x
x
2 2
n
2 2 2
) v ( f
vdv
x x OR
f(v)
dv
t f(v), a
velocity of function a as varies on Accelerati
, dx ) x ( f 2 u v : f(x) a
ofdistance function a as varies on Accelerati
dt ) t ( f u v : f(t) a time of function
a as varies on Accelerati on accelerati variable
with moving is body A ) 1 n 2 ( a
2
1
u s
t ) v u (
2
1
s , as 2 u v , at
2
1
ut s at, u v
relations following the of any Use n accleratio
constant with moving is body A ut s
acc. zero or velocity constant with moving
is body A problem the in about talked
being is that Motion of form the out Check
th
0 ) v v ( ) r r ( : ships of collision for Condition
v v v : velocity Relative
B A B A
A B BA

   
  
River cros
v v
v
v
t
x
v
drift on o v x
Boat
v
v v t
x
v
w b
w
b
b
b
b
sul t b
b
sing : Boat keeps its
direction perpendicular
to water current : v
pposite bank distance = (v
toreach directly opposite to starting point :
sin =
v
R
w
w

2 2
1
,
tan , (min.)
/ )
, cos ,
cos
Re tan

Projectile Motion
Thrown fro
gx
u
T
u
g
R
u
g
H
u
g
i
g
Thrown fro
R u
h
g
y h
gx
u
Magnitude
gh Angle
gh
u
Projectile
m the ground : y = tan
Range in maximum when = 45 ,
(ii) Ranges are same for projection angles
and (90 ),
(iii) Velocity at top most point is = ucos
(iv) tan = gT² / 2R, (v)
H
T
m a height h (horizontally thrown) :
T =
2h
g
of
velocity at ground = u at which
it strikes the ground:
on inclined plane : T =
2usin
2
2

2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2
2
8
2
2
2
2
cos
,
sin
,
sin
,
sin
( )
, , ,
,
tan ,
0
0
0
2
0
)
cos
,
) cos
cos
g
R
g

2u sin
2
R inclined
R horizontal
at
max
max
sin

1
4 2
0
0

Circular Motion
Uniform
r
a r
F
mv
r
F m r r v r a
Cyclist ma
rg
Circular Motion : v = r,
a =
v
king a turn : tan =
v
2
2

, ,
, , . , .

2
2
2
0 0
   
Car making
rg
v
rg
R R
Non uniform ci
v
r
a
dv
dt
Motion in
T mg v v g
v g v g
Condition g
Condition
g v g
s
inner wheel outer wheel
T
B A B
A B
A
a turn on level road :
v =
safe velocity on turn, v =
gdr
2h
rcular motion :
Centripetal acceleration a
tangential acceleration :
Resultant acceleration : a = a a
a vertical circle : For lowest
point A and highest point B ,
T
for oscillation : v
for leaving circular path :
r
r
2
T
2
A
A

,
: tan
:
,
max.
,
,
, ,
,

2
2
2 2
6 4
5
2
2 5

 

 
NLM & Friction
Resultant force : F =
for equilibrium :
F F F
(Newton' s) : F = ma, F = dp / dt
Impulse : p = F t, p
3 1 2
2
F F F F
Condition
F F F F F
Lamy s Theorem
P Q R
Second Law
p Fdt
Third law Newton' s F F
Contact force
F
m
M m
F F
Intertial mass m
F
a
Grav mass m
F
g
FR
GM
G
1
2
2
2
1 2
1 2 3 1 2
1
1
2
12 21
12 21
1
2
2

cos
( ), | |
' :
sin( ) sin( ) sin( )
,
( ) :
:
,
: ,
. :
,

  

 

m m
No Interti
then Pseudo force F ma
Centrifugal
r
m r
Lift oblem Apparent w
for lift m
m m
m m
g a
m
m m
g
force on p
m m g
m m
T
m m
m m
g
a
m m
m m
g
force on pulley
m m
m m
g
G 1
0
2
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
2 1
2 1
1 2
1 2
2
2
4

al frame : If frame
acceleration = a
force =
mv
eight W= M(g a
oving up, for lift moving down),
Pulley Problems : T =
ulley =
0
2
0

, ,
Pr : )
(
,
,
,

Page-2
s
Mg
F wall against object
an balance to
required Force

s
s max
tan friction
of Angle
N ) f (

cos g - gsin a
plane inclined
an, on sliding
body a of . Acc
k
Dynamics of Rigid Bodies
Average an
t t t
Instantane
lation bet
Average
t t t
Instantane
d
dt
lation bet r
a v r
Equations t
t t
Centre of
R
gular velocity : =
ous angular velocity : =
d
dt
ween v, and r : v= r, v= r, v= rsin
agnular acceleration : =
ous angular accelertion : =
d
dt
ween linear and angular acceleration : a
for rotational motion : =
mass:
2 1
2
T
0

2 1
1
2 1
2
2
0
2 2
0
2
1
2
2

Re
,
Re
( )
,
,
  
     
x
v
cm
cm cm

m x m x
m m
m v m v
m m
a
m a m a
m m
a
dv
dt
d x
dt
v
dx
dt
cm
cm cm
cm
cm
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
2
2
,
, ,
,
 

 
 

P
t of masses about CM is zero,
inertia :
gyration : k = I / M
square distance
Kinetic energy of rotation : K=
1
2
entum: L
cm

MV m v
F Ma m a F If F a V const
Also momen m r m r m r
Moment of I m r I r
m m
m m
Radius of k r r r n,
k root mean
I I K
Angula mom
cm i i
ext cm i i i ext cm cm
i i
i i
n

,
, , , .
,
, ,
( )
, ( .... ) /
, / ,
0 0
0
2
1 1 2 2
2 1 2
1 2
1
2
2
2 2
2 2

= r p=rpsin =mvd
Torque: = r F=rFsin , Relation between and L : =dL / dt
Relation between L, I and , : L=I , K=
1
2
pulse : L= t
Rotational Work done : W= d = Power : P= .
xes theoroem : I =I
inertia of some objects : Ring: I =MR
I =
1
2
MR
av
C
2
2
 
 

 

I
L
I
I
If then I I Angular Im
Rotational
Perpendicular axes theorem I I I
Parallel a Md
Moment of axis
z x y
2
2
1 1 2 2
2
2
0
,
, ,
,
: ,
,
( ),
(

diameter
MR MR
),
,
I =2MR (tangential to rim,
perpendicular to plane),
I =
3
2
MR (tangential to rim, parallel to diameter)
Disc : (In the same order to axes as for ring) I =
1
2
I =
1
4
2
2
2 2
I MR I MR Cylinder : MR
MR MR
Solid sphe MR MR
ML B
Cube I Ma
Angulardisc I MR R Circular cone I MR
MV I

3
2
5
4
1
3
2
3
5
3
2
5
7
5
12
1
6
1
2
3
10
1
6
1
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
, ,
( ), (
,
,
( )
, :
: ( ), :
: (
1
2
rod: I =
1
12
end)
Hollow sphere : I I
re : I I
Rectangular plate: I
axis)
Rolling without slipping on a horiozontal surface :
Kinetic energy : K=
1
2
dia tangential
dia tangential
c

2 2
2
2
1
2
1 , , V R K MV
k
R

Inclined p
R
Acceleration a
g
k R
time taken
R
g
Simple pendulum T
L
g
Compound p I M k T
k
g
L k
imum time period T k g Time perio T R g
Time perio R g R
Time perio L
lane :Velocity at bottom :V =
2gh
1 + (k
to reach bottom : t =
2s(1 + k
endulum : T = 2
I
Mg
d for ring
d for disc T , minimum time period for disc T
d for a rod of length I pivoted at one end T
2
2
/ )
, :
sin
/
/ )
sin
, :
, ( ),
( / )
, /
min , / , / ,
/ . /
/
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
0
1
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 3 2 1 414
2 2 3

 
 
g
Work, Energy, Power&Conservation law
Work done Fdx
Conservative force W W F dr
Potential energy U W F
dU
dx
Gravitational force U mgh, U
GMm
R h)
Spring PE U kx U k x x
Kinetic energy K W mv mv K mv
Total mech
U K U
Work done
x
ab ab
f i
f i i
:W = F. d = Fdcos , W =
anical energy : E = K + U
Conservation of energy ; K = - U, K
by all forces = KE
Work done by conservative forc
x
f
1
 

2
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
2 2 2
0
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

: , .
: , ,
:
(
: , ( )
: ,
. .

es = - U
Power: P=F. v,
Tractive force : F=P / v
Equilibrium condition : For equilibrium
dU
dx
equil. U(x) =min., dU/ dx =0,d
U(x) =max., dU/ dx =0,
d
uilibrium : U(x) =constant,dU/ dx =0
d
f a paritcle U(x) : v =
2
m
Momentum: p=mv, F=dp / dt
Conservation of momentum : F
of gun : V
2
2
2
net
G
P W t dW dt
For stable U dx posi
For unstable equil.
U dx negative
For neutral eq
U dx
Velocity o E U x
thenP P
coil speed
m
m
v
f i
B
G
B

/ /
/ .
/ ,
/ ,
( ( ))
,
Re , Im

 

  
0
0
0
2
2
2
pulse p F t
u u v v
For elasti u v u
Ceofficient of resti
v
u u
e perfectly elastic
e perfectly inelastic e inelastic
Ballistic pendulumv
M m
m
gh
Rocket equation M
dV
dt
v
dM
dt
V v
M M
M
V v
M
M
Conservation of angu
av
rel rel e
rel e
:
,
, , ,
, ,
: , log ,
log ,

Collision in one dimension :
Momentum conservation : m m m m
c collision, e=1, If both masses equal v
tution : e=
v
lar momentum :
1 2 1 2
1
2
1 2 1 2
2 2 1
1
1 2
0
0
0
1
0 0 1
2
If
s,
exy

0
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
,
, ,
, :
max
min
max
min
then
L L For planet
v
v
r
r
spinning skater I I
I
I
Rotatinal collision
I I
I I
f i
f i
i
f
f
Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple Harmonic Motion F kx a
k
m
x
a x k m F kA a A
Equation o
x
dt
x
Displacement
D
Velocity v A t
v A v A x
x
A
v
A
Acceleration a x a A t
a A F m A
: , ,
, / , ,
:
: cos( ),
, ,
: , sin( )
| | ,
max max
max
max

2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
1
f motion :
d
x = Asin( t + ),
if x = Csin t + Dcos t
then, x = Asin( t + ), with A = C
2
2
sin ,
max
t F m A
2
Springs in series k x k x kx F
k k k
k
k k
k k
T T T T
m k k
k k
f
k k
m k k
Potential energy U U U
applied
:
, ,
,
( )
,
( )
:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2 1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
2
1
2

Dipole mol m m m m
Trosional C I
d
dt
C
I
t
C
I
f
C
I
T
I
C
C r
ecule : = k /
oscillator :

, / ( ),
, , ,
sin( ), , ,
, /

1 2 1 2
2
2
0
4
0
1
2
2 2
Liquid in
Ball in bo
Piston in gas cylinder k
A K
V
T
Vm
A P
isothermal T
Vm
A P
Elastic wire longitudinal k
AY
T
m
AY
Tunnel across earth T
R
g
Magnetic dipole in
MB I C IElectric LCcircuit
LC
General po k
d U
dx
e
x x
x x
U- tube: k = 2A g, T= 2
L
2g
wl : T= 2
R - r
g
magnetic field :
T= 2
I
MB
tential well
dU
dx

,
,
: ,
( ), ( )
( ) : ,
: ,
, / \ / :
,

2
2 2
0
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
0
0

Simple pen
dt
g
dt
g
g f g g
Seconds pendulum T cm
Inf e length p
g
R
T R g
Anharmonic
T A
Tension in
Conical pe T
L
g
Compound p
e
e
dulum : = -mg sin,
d
d
endulum : T = 2
pendulum : T T
string of a simple pendulum :
T = (3mgcos - 2mgcos
ndulum : v = gRtan
endulum :T
2
2
0
0

  

2
2
0
2
0
2 2
0
0
1
2
2
2 99 3
1
1 1
2
1 16
1 16
2

sin
, / , / , /
: sec. , . .
int
, / ,
( / )
( / ),
)
,
cos
= 2
2 (

 

k
g
bar T L g disc T R g
ring T R g
Floating cylinder block k A g T
m
A g
2
2 2 3 2 3 2
2 2
2
/ )
: / , : / ,
: / ,
( ) : ,
Frequency Time perio f T
Energy m A t
Kinetic energy K m A t
K m A
Total
m A E K U
Average PEandKE U m A K m A
E U K Some relations
v v
x x
T
x x
v v
, , ,
sin
: cos ,
,
: ,
, :
max
max max
d : = k / m k / m m/ k
in SHM: Potential energy : U=
1
2
energy: E=K+U=conserved,
E=

1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
,
( ) ( )
A
v x v x
v v

1 2
2
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
Spring masssystem mg kx
T
m
k
T
x
g
Massive sp
k
Cutting a n f nf
Two peices with n then
k
n k
n
k k n k k k
Springs in parallel k k k
T
m
k k
If T m k T m k
T T T
T
T T
T

: ,
,
/ )
,
/ ,
, ,
( )
, ( ) ,
: ,
,
/ , / ,
,
0
0
0
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
1
2
2 2
3
1
1
2
2 2
1 1 1

ring : T= 2
m+ (m
spring : k = nk, T = T
of lengths
s
0
1 2 1 2
1 2
   
 

T
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
,
Damped oscillator : A = Ae
factor : Q = m
for critical damping : b = 2m
-bt / 2m
0
0

0
2 2
2 ( / )
/
,
b m
Quatility b
Condition
Page-3
Find the value of applied
force F and limiting force app
of Static Friction (f ) s
If F >f app s
then body moves
If F > f then body does not app s
move and the force of
friction f = Fapp
If F = f app s
then body is on the verge of
motion (still in equlibrium)
EITHER
with constant Velocity
OR
with an Acceleration a
F > f = 0 app k
or F = f app k
F – f = ma app k
On a level
Track
On an inclined
Plane
Applied
Pull = fk
f = mgsinû k
On a level
Track
On an inclined
Plane
F – µmg= ma app
or F + m (a+µ g) app k
F – µmg = ma app
or F = m(a+µ gcosû) app k
Gravitation
Kepler s law
L
m
v r v r Law of per r
T
GM
r
Inertial a m
pendulum time period formula T
m L
m g
G
G
' : (i)
. . , (ii)
,
,
:
max min min max
Law of orbits : orbits are elliptical
(ii) Law of areas : equal area swept in equal time (derivable
from conservation of angular momentum)
A
A
iods : T
nd Gravitational Mass : m
2
1

2
4
2
3
2
2
3
1

Newton' s law of g
m
r
G N m kg
dF
F
dr
r
Acceleration due to weight W mg
ravitation : F=
Gm
gravity : g =
GM
R
1
2
2
2
11 2 2
6 67 10
2
,
. . / ( ) , ,
,

Variation
ii
GM
R
no effect)
GM
R
R
g g R m s
If
exact g g
h
R
if h R
g g
g
h
R
equator pole
of mg :
(i) due to shape g
due to rotation of earth :
g , R
or duration of day T=24 / 17=1.4h
then objects would float on equator.
(iii) At a height h above earth's surface
g =
GM
(R+h)
equator >g
pole equator
2
pole
( )
(
, . /
( ), ,

2 2
2
2 2
0
0 034
17
1
2
2

Accelerationof moon g GM R g
Gravitational field g F m g
GM
r
r outside
g
GM
R
rr Inside Grav energy &
dU
dr
Grav Potential V r
GM
r
Grav Potential energyof systemof masses
TwoParticles U
Gm m
r
ThreeParticles U
Gm m
r
Gm m
r
Gm m
r
Escapevelocity v
GM
R
R
G
gR
SatelliteOrbital velocity v
GM
r
v
R
R h)
v
m m m earth
e
e
e
: /
: / ,  ( )
 ( ), .
. : ( )
. :
: ,
:
:
,
:
(

2
0
2
1 2
1 2
12
1 3
13
2 3
23
0
0
1
6
2 8
3
3
2

Grav. forceF=

v
if h R
Timeperiodof statellite T
R h)
GM
T
R
g
if h R
Energyof satellite Kinetic K
GMm
r
Potnetial U K
Total E
U
K Binding BE
GMm
r
Geosynchronous satel
GM
R h)
h
GMT
R h km
e
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
4
4
36000
3
2
3
2
1 3
( ),
:
(
,
( )
: : , : ,
, :
(
, ,
/

lite : T=24h, T
2
Intermolecular forces : Attractive component F
1
r
mponent : F
1
r
potential energy : U=
A
r
above molecular P. E.), r
g energy U range 4r
lecular diameter r
of molecular force
tension: T=
Force
length
surface tension
surface area
alesce to form one big drop : R = n
n
m
12
0
0 0
0
1/3

Re , ( , , ),
,
,
,
( ( / ) ,
/ , ,
. ,
,
,
/
pulsive co m n m n
F
A
r
B
r
Intermolecular
B
r
F
dU
dr
Bond length for A B
The bindin B A Molecular
Average mo Å
Range Å
Surface
F
T
W
A
n drops co r
E n
i
2 2
2
4
25
10
13 7
6
1 6
2

( ), , / ,
, ( ),
/
/
/
4 4
1
1
4 1 4
1 1
2 2 1 3
1 3
2 1 3 3

r T E R T E E n
E
E n
E R T n E R T
r R
f f i
i

Intermolecular forces and Surface tension
Increase
r R
Shape of l horizontal
If F
F
as for wat
F
as for wat
F
as for mer
F
obtuse if F F If F F
Excess pre T
R R
Liquiddrop P
T
R
Cavity or
Soap bubbles P
T
R
P P
a
e
c
c
c
a c c a c
excess
excess in
in Temperature : =
3T
s
iquid surface :
er - silver)
Concave : If F er - glass),
Convex : If F cury - glass)
Angle of contact : acute : if F
ssure : General formula: P
air bubble in liquid=
2T
R
a
a
a
excess

1 1
2
2
2
2
2 90 2
1 1
2
4
1 2

,
:
(
(
(
/ ,
: / , , /
,
: , ,
: ,
out
out
T
R
essure ins
P hdg
T
r

4
2
Pr ide in air bubble at a depth
h in a liquid: P
in
Forces bet
R
F AT
r R
If separat
F AT d
rR
R r
U tube h h
T
dg r r
Jaeger s method
T
rg
H hd Coalesce
n n P V P V P V
P V T S R R R
ween two plates with thin water film
separating them : P= T
1
r
ion between plates is d, then
P=
2T
d
of curvature of
common filmR
of two soap bubbles :
n
int
1

1 1 1
2
2 1 1
2
3 4 0
1 2
1 2
2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3
0 3 1
2
2
2
,
, /
:
: , ' :
( ),
, ,
,

Elasticity
Stress Stress
Tensile or
Tangential shearing
Stearing s
For shear stress strain,
F
A
For volume
P
V V
Elongation
L g
Y
Bulk modul P K P
Stress due
: ,
,
,
,
,
:
( / )
,
,

Deforming force
Cross - sectional area
longitudinal stress = F / r
or stress = F / A,
Hydrostatic stress = F / A = Pressure
Strain : Tensile or longitudinal strain =
L
L
train = , Volume strain =
V
V
Hooke' s law : stress = Y strain, Y =
FL
A( L)
elasticity : stress = K strain, K =
Compressibility : =
1
K
of a wire due to its own weight :
=
1
2
MgL
YA
us of ideal gas : K
to Heating / Cooling of
2
isothermal

1
2
2
a clamped rod
Thermal stress = Y ( t), Force = YA ( t)
Torsion of a cylinder : r = , torque = C
Work done in stretching : W= (1 / 2) stress strain volume,
W=
1
2
energy stored : U = W=
1
2
(strain) (volume)
Potential energy stored per unit volume : u =
1
2

 
,
( ,
( )
( )
( ) (
restoring
Y strain) volume W
stress
Y
volume
Potential stress
stress strain)
2
2
1
2
Poission' s ratio : lateral strain =
lateral strain
longitudinal strain
theoretical limit),
= 0.2
ween Y, , K, , Y= 3K(1 2 ),
Y= 2 (1+ ),
1
Y
constant k = Yr
0

D
D
r
r
longitudinal strain
L
L
eriments
lation bet
K
Interatomic force
,
, ,
. (
. (exp )
Re
,

1 05
0 4
1
9
1
3
Page-4
Cont.part-2&3