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A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time. 
Timeline of the History of Mathematics
History of science
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry. The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greek μάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction". Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics. Chinese mathematicsmade early contributions, including a place value system. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, likely evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and was transmitted to the west via Islamic mathematics. Islamic mathematics, in turn, developed and expanded the mathematics known to these civilizations. Many Greek and Arabic texts on mathematics were then translated into Latin, which led to further development of mathematics in medieval Europe. From ancient times through the Middle Ages, bursts of mathematical creativity were often followed by centuries of stagnation. Beginning inRenaissance Italy in the 16th century, new mathematical developments, interacting with new scientific discoveries, were made at an increasing pace that continues through the present day.
1 Prehistoric mathematics 2 Babylonian mathematics 3 Egyptian mathematics 4 Greek mathematics 5 Chinese mathematics 6 Indian mathematics 7 Islamic mathematics 8 Medieval European mathematics 9 Renaissance mathematics 10 Mathematics during the Scientific Revolution
 Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France. ellipses. Modern studies of animal cognition have shown that these concepts are not unique to humans.000 years old. which he dates to after 10. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known demonstration of sequences of prime numbers or a six month lunar calendar.o o 10. found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo).000 Years. magnitude. may be as much as 20. and "many". and some numbers that are almost multiples of 10. and the currently oldest undisputed mathematical usage is in Babylonian and dynastic Egyptian sources. All of the above are disputed however. Such concepts would have been part of everyday life in hunter-gatherer societies.000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. with prime numbers probably not being understood until about 500 BC. dated between35."  Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone. and form. incorporate geometric ideas such as circles. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula.000 BC. Peter Rudman argues that the development of the concept of prime numbers could only have come about after the concept of division. "two". Thus it took human beings at least 45. The Ishango bone. but not of numbers larger than two. It has been claimed that megalithic monuments in Englandand Scotland.2 20th century 11.000 years from the . The idea of the "number" concept evolving gradually over time is supported by the existence of languages which preserve the distinction between "one". He also writes that "no attempt has been made to explain why a tally of something should exhibit multiples of two. In the book How Mathematics Happened: The First 50.2 18th century 11 Modern mathematics o o o 11.3 21st century 12 Future of mathematics 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links Prehistoric mathematics The origins of mathematical thought lie in the concepts of number.000 and 20. suggest early attempts to quantify time. and Pythagorean triples in their design. prime numbers between 10 and 20.1 17th century 10.1 19th century 11.000 BC. discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35. dating from the 3rd millennium BC.
attainment of behavioral modernity and language (generally thought to be a long time before that) to develop mathematics as such. Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the people of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the days of the early Sumerians through theHellenistic period almost to the dawn of Christianity. quadratic and cubic equations. Mesopotamia. and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. once again became an important center of study for Islamic mathematics. From around 2500 BC onwards. and the calculation of regular reciprocal pairs. our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s. and 360 (60 x 6) degrees in a circle. and cover topics which include fractions. From this derives the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute. The tablets also include multiplication tables and methods for solving linear and quadratic equations. Some of these appear to be graded homework. The earliest traces of the Babylonian numerals also date back to this period. dated to 1800 BC. Later under the Arab Empire. The earliest evidence of written mathematics dates back to the ancient Sumerians. They developed a complex system of metrology from 3000 BC. tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist. Babylonian . the Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems. It is named Babylonian mathematics due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study. Written in Cuneiform script. 60 minutes in an hour. especially Baghdad. Babylonian mathematics were written using a sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system. In contrast to the sparsity of sources in Egyptian mathematics. Babylonian mathematics Main article: Babylonian mathematics See also: Plimpton 322 The Babylonian mathematical tablet Plimpton 322. The Babylonian tablet YBC 7289 gives an approximation of √2 accurate to five decimal places. The majority of recovered clay tablets date from 1800 to 1600 BC. algebra. as well as the use of seconds and minutes of arc to denote fractions of a degree. who built the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.
 It is an instruction manual for students in arithmetic and geometry. It also shows how to solve first order linear equations as well as arithmetic and geometric series. that of the number 6). geometricand harmonic means. See. an equivalent of the decimal point. Greeks. it also contains evidence of other mathematical knowledge. result 28. In addition to giving area formulas and methods for multiplication. You are to take one third of 6. You will find it right. result 2. They lacked. dated to c. Greek replaced Egyptian as the written language of Egyptian scholars. and simplistic understandings of both the Sieve of Eratosthenes and perfect number theory (namely. the Babylonians had a true place-value system. The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind papyrus (sometimes also called the Ahmes Papyrus after its author). Egyptian mathematics Main article: Egyptian mathematics Image of Problem 14 from the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. arithmetic. result 56. Also. which were apparently intended as entertainment. and Romans. You are to square 2. You are to double 4. From the Hellenistic period. where digits written in the left column represented larger values. much as in the decimal system. including composite and prime numbers. You are to add the 16. unlike the Egyptians. dated to c.advances in mathematics were facilitated by the fact that 60 has many divisors. result 16. when Arabic became the written language of Egyptian scholars. You are to square this 4. however. Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian language. It consists of what are today called word problems or story problems. result 4. division and working with unit fractions. it is 56. also from the Middle Kingdom period. the 8. You are to take 28 twice. 1650 BC but likely a copy of an older document from the Middle Kingdom of about 2000-1800 BC. 1890 BC. One problem is considered to be of particular importance because it gives a method for finding the volume of a frustum: "If you are told: A truncated pyramid of 6 for the vertical height by 4 on the base by 2 on the top. Mathematical study in Egypt later continued under the Arab Empire as part of Islamic mathematics. Another significant Egyptian mathematical text is the Moscow papyrus. and the 4. The problem includes a diagram indicating the dimensions of the truncated pyramid. result 8." . and so the place value of a symbol often had to be inferred from the context.
All surviving records of pre-Greek mathematics show the use of inductive reasoning. from Italy to North Africa. by contrast. The diagram accompanies Book II. 507 BC). 624–c. Although the extent of the influence is disputed. . ThePythagoreans are generally credited with the first proof of the theorem. Greek mathematics was much more sophisticated than the mathematics that had been developed by earlier cultures. 582–c.Finally. used deductive reasoning. Greek mathematics Main article: Greek mathematics The Pythagorean theorem. The Greeks used logic to derive conclusions from definitions and axioms. Greek mathematics refers to the mathematics written in the Greek language from the time of Thales of Miletus (~600 BC) to the closure of the Academy of Athens in 529 AD. repeated observations used to establish rules of thumb. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Greek mathematics of the period following Alexander the Great is sometimes called Hellenistic mathematics. that is. found at Oxyrhynchusand dated to circa AD 100. Greek mathematicians. and astronomy from Egyptian priests. the Berlin papyrus (c. According to legend.546 BC) and Pythagoras of Samos (c. they were probably inspired by Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics. but were united by culture and language. Pythagoras traveled to Egypt to learn mathematics. Proposition 5. One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements. and used mathematical rigor to prove them. 1300 BC) shows that ancient Egyptians could solve a secondorder algebraic equation. geometry. Greek mathematics is thought to have begun with Thales of Miletus (c.
algebra and solid geometry. that of a line as "breadthless length"). he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. In the 3rd century BC. such as number theory. that of definition. Plato also discussed the foundations of mathematics. whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number". came from. theorem. Euclid arranged them into a single. such asEudoxus of Cnidus. It was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics". while the latter enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances in geometry. and it was from this school that the leading mathematicians of the day.Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. In addition to the familiar theorems of Euclidean geometry.322 BC) contributed significantly to the development of mathematics by laying the foundations of logic. The analytic method is ascribed to Plato. His Platonic Academy. the premier center of mathematical education and research was the Musaeum of Alexandria. clarified some of the definitions (e. in Athens. by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The Pythagoreans are credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem. and reorganized the assumptions. 300 BC) taught. Though he made no specific technical mathematical discoveries. theElements was meant as an introductory textbook to all mathematical subjects of the time. As a result. and proof. Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) is important in the history of mathematics for inspiring and guiding others. The Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. and with the proof of the existence of irrational numbers. Aristotle (384—c.355 BC) developed the method of exhaustion. though the statement of the theorem has a long history. Although most of the contents of the Elements were already known. It was there that Euclid (c. axiom. The former allowed the calculations of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures.g. and wrote the Elements. a precursor of modern integration and a theory of ratios that avoided the problem ofincommensurable magnitudes. including proofs that the square root of two is irrational . Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School. while a formula for obtaining Pythagorean triples bears his name. coherent logical framework.  The Elements introducedmathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today. became the mathematical center of the world in the 4th century BC. widely considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. and with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. Eudoxus (408–c. Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to approximate the value of pi.
 He also coined the terminology in use today for conic sections. He also showed one could use the method of exhaustion to calculate the value of π with as much precision as desired. such as Isaac Newton.287–212 BC) of Syracuse. and in it he derives many theorems concerning conic sections that would prove invaluable to later mathematicians and astronomers studying planetary motion. 310⁄71 < π < 310⁄70. Because she was a woman. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria (AD 350 . used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series.and that there are infinitely many prime numbers. ellipsoid. obtained formulas for the volumes of surfaces of revolution (paraboloid. Archimedes (c. showing that one can obtain all three varieties of conic section by varying the angle of the plane that cuts a doublenapped cone. Apollonius' treatment of curves is in some ways similar to the modern treatment. hyperboloid). in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus. optics. and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. He also studied the spiral bearing his name. "ellipse" ("deficiency"). and "hyperbola" ("a throw beyond"). and mechanics. 262-190 BC) made significant advances to the study of conic sections. and obtained the most accurate value of π then known. widely considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity. but only half of his writings survive. She succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. 276-194 BC) devised the Sieve of Eratosthenes for finding prime numbers. such as conic sections. Archimedes himself placed far greater value on the products of his thought and general mathematical principles. He regarded as his greatest achievement his finding of the surface area and volume of a sphere. His work Conics is one of the best known and preserved mathematical works from antiquity. namely parabola ("place beside" or "comparison"). the Christian community in Alexandria punished her for her presumption by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells (some say roofing tiles). Eratosthenes of Cyrene of Cyrene (c. which he obtained by proving these are 2/3 the surface area and volume a cylinder circumscribing the sphere. and some of his work seems to anticipate the development of analytical geometry by Descartes some 1800 years later. While neither Apollonius nor any other Greek mathematicians made the leap to coordinate geometry. spherical geometry. Apollonius of Perga made significant advances in the study of conic sections. The 3rd century BC is generally regarded as the "Golden Age" . While he is also known for his contributions to physics and several advanced mechanical devices. Euclid also wrote extensively on other subjects. Around the same time.415). Apollonius of Perga (c.
100 AD) pioneered spherical trigonometry throughMenelaus' theorem. a landmark astronomical treatise whose trigonometric tables would be used by astronomers for the next thousand years. His main work was the Arithmetica. Diophantus made significant advances in algebra. such as Pierre de Fermat. 10–70 AD) is credited with Heron's formula for finding the area of a scalene triangle and with being the first to recognize the possibility of negative numbers possessing square roots. particularly indeterminate analysis. in the centuries that followed significant advances were made in applied mathematics. Chinese mathematics Main article: Chinese mathematics Counting rod numerals . which is also known as "Diophantine analysis". the Arithmetica being the first instance of algebraic symbolism and syncopation.of Greek mathematics. and the most accurate value of π outside of China until the medieval period.  Nevertheless. Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. AD 90-168). Diophantus also made significant advances in notation. The most complete and influential trigonometric work of antiquity is the Almagest of Ptolemy (c. and to him is also due the systematic use of the 360 degree circle. Ptolemy is also credited with Ptolemy's theorem for deriving trigonometric quantities. who arrived at his famous Last Theorem after trying to generalize a problem he had read in theArithmetica (that of dividing a square into two squares). TheArithmetica had a significant influence on later mathematicians. largely to address the needs of astronomers. During this period. a collection of 150 algebraic problems dealing with exact solutions to determinate and indeterminate equations. most notably trigonometry. Menelaus of Alexandria (c. Heron of Alexandria (c. The study of Diophantine equations and Diophantine approximations is a significant area of research to this day. Following a period of stagnation after Ptolemy. with advances in pure mathematics henceforth in relative decline. 190-120 BC) is considered the founder of trigonometry for compiling the first known trigonometric table. the period between 250 and 350 AD is sometimes referred to as the "Silver Age" of Greek mathematics.1416. 3.
It consists of 246 word problems involving agriculture. though a date of about 300 BC appears reasonable. and additional ciphers for powers of ten.The oldest extant mathematical text from China is the Chou Pei Suan Ching. This decree was not universally obeyed. apparently in use several centuries before the common era and well before the development of the Indian numeral system.The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. the Emperor Qin Shi Huang (Shi Huang-ti) commanded all books in the Qin Empire other than officially sanctioned ones be burned. The most important of these is The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. Early Chinese mathematics is so different from that of other parts of the world that it is reasonable to assume independent development. and provided a small number of geometrical theorems as well. Rod numerals allowed the representation of numbers as large as desired and allowed calculations to be carried out on the suan pan. but as a consequence of this order little is known about ancient Chinese mathematics before this date. After the book burningof 212 BC. in Xu Yue's Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures. the number 123 would be written using the symbol for "1". variously dated to between 1200 BC and 100 BC. followed by the symbol for "3". This was the most advanced number system in the world at the time. compiled by the followers of Mozi (470–390 BC). the Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) produced works of mathematics which presumably expanded on works that are now lost. then the symbol for "2" followed by the symbol for "10". employment of geometry to figure height spans and dimension . but existed in part under other titles beforehand. In 212 BC. The date of the invention of the suan pan is not certain. followed by the symbol for "100". 330 BC. TheMo Jing described various aspects of many fields associated with physical science. or Chinese abacus. one of the earliest surviving mathematical texts from China(2nd century AD). Of particular note is the use in Chinese mathematics of a decimal positional notation system. Thus. the so-called "rod numerals" in which distinct ciphers were used for numbers between 1 and 10. the full title of which appeared by AD 179. The oldest existent work on geometry in China comes from the philosophical Mohist canon c. business. but the earliest written mention dates from AD 190.
and includes material on right triangles and values of π. though at this point far more mathematical ideas were entering China than leaving. which remained the most accurate value of π for almost the next 1000 years. but no known mathematical documents survive from this civilization. The Precious Mirror also contains a diagram of Pascal's triangle with coefficients of binomial expansions through the eighth power. The high water mark of Chinese mathematics occurs in the 13th century (latter part of the Sung period). Even after European mathematics began to flourish during the Renaissance. though both appear in Chinese works as early as 1100. The Chinese also made use of the complex combinatorial diagram known as the magic square and magic circles. surveying. engineering.ratios for Chinese pagodatowers. He also established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. dated between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE. European and Chinese mathematics were separate traditions. and a mathematical formula for Gaussian elimination. The most important text from that period is the Precious Mirror of the Four Elements by Chu Shih-chieh (fl. dealing with the solution of simultaneous higher order algebraic equations using a method similar to Horner's method. with significant Chinese mathematical output in decline from the 13th century onwards. with the development of Chinese algebra. in the 5th century AD Zu Chongzhi computed the value of π to seven decimal places. and gave a value of π accurate to 5 decimal places. . Though more of a matter of computational stamina than theoretical insight. Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci carried mathematical ideas back and forth between the two cultures from the 16th to 18th centuries. 1280-1303). Indian mathematics Main article: Indian mathematics See also: History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system The numerals used in the Bakhshali manuscript. described in ancient times and perfected by Yang Hui (AD 1238–1298). It created mathematical proof for the Pythagorean theorem. Brahmi numerals (lower row) in India in the 1st century CE The earliest civilization on the Indian subcontinent is the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC in theIndus river basin. Liu Hui commented on the work in the 3rd century AD. Their cities were laid out with geometric regularity.
and others. which imply several different approximations of the value of π. transformations. The next significant mathematical documents from India after the Sulba Sutras are the Siddhantas. though with no feeling for logic or deductive methodology. In the 7th century. Pāṇini (c. Several centuries later. in Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta. as was the case in Ptolemaic trigonometry. a slim volume. and give a statement of the Pythagorean theorem. and for the first time. 770) that Islamic mathematicians were introduced to this numeral system. there is a lack of continuity in Indian mathematics. the preoccupation with temple functions points to an origin of mathematics in religious ritual. the words "sine" and "cosine" derive from the Sanskrit "jiya" and "kojiya". such as squares. and describes the formation of a matrix. His notation was similar to modern mathematical notation. In the 5th century AD. which they adapted as Arabic numerals. intended to supplement the rules of calculation used in astronomy and mathematical mensuration. parallelograms. Pingala's work also contains the basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers (calledmātrāmeru). they compute the square root of 2 to several decimal places. Halayudha's commentary on Pingala's work contains a study of the Fibonacci sequence and Pascal's triangle. list Pythagorean triples.  As with Egypt. 5th century BC) formulated the rules for Sanskrit grammar. it is in the Aryabhatiya that the decimal place-value system first appears. In addition. As in China. Though about half of the entries are wrong. Islamic scholars carried knowledge of this number system to Europe by the 12th century. astronomical treatises from the 4th and 5th centuries AD (Gupta period) showing strong Hellenistic influence. They are significant in that they contain the first instance of trigonometric relations based on the half-chord. Through a series of translation errors. In the 10th century. It was from a translation of this Indian text on mathematics (c. rather than the full chord. It is not known to what extent the Sulba Sutras influenced later Indian mathematicians. written in verse.The oldest extant mathematical records from India are the Sulba Sutras (dated variously between the 8th century BC and the 2nd century AD).  The Sulba Sutras give methods for constructing a circle with approximately the same area as a given square.His discussion of the combinatorics of meters corresponds to an elementary version of the binomial theorem. rectangles. Aryabhata wrote the Aryabhatiya. as is the case in modern trigonometry. and recursion. significant advances are separated by long periods of inactivity. and used metarules. indicating Mesopotamian influence. All of these results are present in Babylonian mathematics. he lucidly explained the use of zero as both a placeholder and decimal digit. and it has now displaced all older number systems throughout the world. and explained the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. Brahmagupta's identity and Brahmagupta's formula. Brahmagupta identified the Brahmagupta theorem. Pingala (roughly 3rd-1st centuries BC) in his treatise of prosody uses a device corresponding to a binary numeral system. the Muslim mathematician Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Aryabhatiya as a "mix of common pebbles and costly crystals". . appendices to religious texts which give simple rules for constructing altars of various shapes.
North Africa. Madhava also found the Madhava-Gregory series to determine the arctangent. Algoritmi.In the 12th century. The word algorithm is derived from the Latinization of his name. the Middle East. nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala. since much like the status of Greek in the Hellenistic world. In the 14th century. This is the operation which al-Khwārizmī originally described as al-jabr. the mean value theorem and the derivative of the sine function. and in parts of India in the 8th century made significant contributions towards mathematics.14159265359. derivatives. Iberia. To what extent he anticipated the invention of calculus is a controversial subject among historians of mathematics. His algebra was also no longer concerned "with a series of problems to be resolved. the founder of the so-called Kerala School of Mathematics. found the Madhava–Leibniz series. that is. and. were instrumental in spreading Indian mathematics and Indian numerals to the West. but an exposition which starts with . most of them were not written byArabs. computed the value of π as 3. In the 9th century. the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. and the wordalgebra from the title of one of his works. using 21 terms. He also discussed the fundamental method of "reduction" and "balancing". Islamic mathematics Main article: Mathematics in medieval Islam See also: History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system Page from The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing by Muhammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī (c. Bhāskara II lived in southern India and wrote extensively on all then known branches of mathematic. In the 16th century. Madhava of Sangamagrama. Arabic was used as the written language of non-Arab scholars throughout the Islamic world at the time. Al-Kitāb almukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing). AD 820) The Islamic Empire established across Persia. Although most Islamic texts on mathematics were written in Arabic. Jyesthadeva consolidated many of the Kerala School's developments and theorems in the Yukti-bhāṣā. the Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī wrote several important books on the Hindu-Arabic numerals and on methods for solving equations. referring to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation. He gave an exhaustive explanation for the algebraic solution of quadratic equations with positive roots. and he was the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake. Persians contributed to the world of Mathematics alongside Arabs. His work contains mathematical objects equivalent or approximately equivalent to infinitesimals. the Madhava-Newton power series to determine sine and cosine and the Taylor approximation for sine and cosine functions. written about 825. the Kerala School did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration. along with the work of Al-Kindi. However. Central Asia. Progress in mathematics along with other fields of science stagnated in India with the establishment of Muslim rule in India. His book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals.
Ghiyath al-Kashicomputed the value of π to the 16th decimal place. a book about what he perceived as flaws in Euclid's Elements. Ibn al-Haytham was the first mathematician to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers. The historian of mathematics. Other achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this period include the addition of the decimal point notation to the Arabic numerals. In the late 11th century. He performed an integration in order to find the volume of a paraboloid. He was also the first to find the general geometric solution to cubic equations. and was able to generalize his result for the integrals of polynomials up to the fourth degree. al-Kindi's introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis. During the time of the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empire from the 15th century. frequently justified by Plato's Timaeus and the biblical passage (in the Book of Wisdom) that God had ordered all things in measure." He also studied an equation for its own sake and "in a generic manner. which henceforward explicitly constitute the true object of study. and the sum of integral cubes. He thus came close to finding a general formula for the integrals of polynomials. Medieval European mathematics Medieval European interest in mathematics was driven by concerns quite different from those of modern mathematicians. He also wrote influential work on Euclid's parallel postulate. praised Al-Karaji for being "the first who introduced the theory of algebraic calculus. F. using a method that is readily generalizable for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers.primitive terms in which the combinations must give all possible prototypes for equations. and weight. which was a special case of the methods given many centuries later by Ruffini andHorner. the discovery of all the modern trigonometric functionsbesides the sine." Also in the 10th century. In the 13th century. Kashi also had an algorithm for calculating nth roots. insofar as it does not simply emerge in the course of solving a problem. who used it to prove the binomial theorem. the development of Islamic mathematics became stagnant. the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham. He was also very influential in calendar reform. but is specifically called on to define an infinite class of problems. the beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyamand the development of an algebraic notation by al-Qalasādī. where he extends the methodology to incorporate integer powers and integer roots of unknown quantities. Woepcke. In the 15th century. Pascal's triangle. One driving element was the belief that mathematics provided the key to understanding the created order of nature. Nasir al-Din Tusi (Nasireddin) made advances in spherical trigonometry. . Something close to a proof by mathematical induction appears in a book written by Al-Karaji around 1000 AD. and number. especially the parallel postulate. but he was not concerned with any polynomials higher than the fourth degree. Abul Wafa translated the works of Diophantus into Arabic. Omar Khayyam wrote Discussions of the Difficulties in Euclid." Further developments in algebra were made by Al-Karaji in his treatise al-Fakhri.
. represented the total distance traveled. a gap of more than a thousand years. translated into Latin by Robert of Chester. One of the 14th-century Oxford Calculators. De institutione musica. See also: Latin translations of the 12th century These new sources sparked a renewal of mathematics.Boethius provided a place for mathematics in the curriculum in the 6th century when he coined the term quadrivium to describe the study of arithmetic. In a later mathematical commentary on Euclid's Elements. it were moved uniformly at the same degree of speed with which it is moved in that given instant". and music. in 1202 and updated in 1254. Bradwardine's analysis is an example of transferring a mathematical technique used by al-Kindi and Arnald of Villanova to quantify the nature of compound medicines to a different physical problem. a free translation from the Greek of Nicomachus's Introduction to Arithmetic. and discussed many other mathematical problems. Thomas Bradwardine proposed that speed (V) increases in arithmetic proportion as the ratio of force (F) to resistance (R) increases in geometric proportion. astronomy. Nicole Oresme at the University of Paris and the Italian Giovanni di Casali independently provided graphical demonstrations of this relationship. writing in the Liber Abaci. rather than practical. In the 12th century. Fibonacci. His works were theoretical. including al-Khwārizmī's The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing . Herman of Carinthia. and a series of excerpts fromEuclid's Elements. asserting that the area under the line depicting the constant acceleration. translated in various versions by Adelard of Bath. One important contribution was development of mathematics of local motion.. and Gerard of Cremona. The 14th century saw the development of new mathematical concepts to investigate a wide range of problems. The work introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe. William Heytesbury. lacking differential calculus and the concept of limits. Bradwardine expressed this by a series of specific examples. He wroteDe institutione arithmetica. European scholars traveled to Spain and Sicily seeking scientific Arabic texts. Heytesbury and others mathematically determined the distance covered by a body undergoing uniformly accelerated motion (today solved by integration). Oresme made a more detailed general analysis in which he demonstrated that a body will acquire in each successive increment of time an increment of any quality that increases as the odd . produced the first significant mathematics in Europe since the time ofEratosthenes. but although the logarithm had not yet been conceived. and the complete text of Euclid's Elements. stating that "a moving body uniformly acquiring or losing that increment [of speed] will traverse in some given time a [distance] completely equal to that which it would traverse if it were moving continuously through the same time with the mean degree [of speed]". we can express his conclusion anachronistically by writing: V = log (F/R). proposed to measure instantaneous speed "by the path that would be described by [a body] if. also derived from Greek sources. geometry. and were the basis of mathematical study until the recovery of Greek and Arabic mathematical works.
together with a solution for the quartic equations. and to aid the education of their sons.Gerolamo Cardano published them in his 1545 book Ars Magna. There is probably no need for algebra in performing bookkeeping operations. Pacioli introduced symbols for plus and minus for the first time in a printed book. the teaching of the subjects and the books published often intended for the children of merchants who were sent to reckoning schools (in Flanders and Germany) or abacus schools (known as abbaco in Italy). 1495. the development of mathematics and of accounting were intertwined. the total quality acquired by the body increases as the square of the time. In Summa Arithmetica.numbers. "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" (Italian: "Details of Calculation and Recording"). as a source of pleasure from the mathematical puzzles it contained. Luca Pacioli's "Summa de Arithmetica. Scipione del Ferro and Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia discovered solutions for cubic equations. symbols that became standard notation in Italian Renaissance mathematics. Since Euclid had demonstrated the sum of the odd numbers are the square numbers. In Italy. During the Renaissance. While there is no direct relationship between algebra and accounting. It was written primarily for. but for complex bartering operations or the calculation ofcompound interest. It included a 27-page treatise on bookkeeping. Geometria. Summa Arithmetica was also the first known book printed in Italy to contain algebra. . Ratio and Proportion") was first printed and published in Venice in 1494. (Museo di Capodimonte). Renaissance mathematics Portrait of Luca Pacioli. discovered by his studentLodovico Ferrari. where they learned the skills useful for trade and commerce. a painting traditionally attributed to Jacopo de' Barbari. a basic knowledge of arithmetic was mandatory and knowledge of algebra was very useful. It is important to note that Pacioli himself had borrowed much of the work of Piero Della Francesca whom he plagiarized. merchants who used the book as a reference text. and sold mainly to. during the first half of the 16th century. Geometry. Proportioni et Proportionalità" (Italian: "Review of Arithmetic. In 1572 Rafael Bombelli published his L'Algebra in which he showed how to deal with the imaginary quantities that could appear in Cardano's formula for solving cubic equations.
contained the first systematic treatment of decimal notation. Independently. applied mathematics began to expand into new areas. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz developed calculus and much of the calculus notation still in use today. which influenced all later work on the real number system. in Cartesian coordinates. the rewards were infinite. this foreshadowed the development of utility theory in the 18th–19th century. Kepler's calculations were made simpler by the contemporaneous invention of logarithms by John Napier and Jost Bürgi. first published in Dutch in 1585. In addition to the application of mathematics to the studies of the heavens. Isaac Newton discovered the laws of physics explaining Kepler's Laws. on the grounds that even if the probability of success was small. with hiswager. Through his position as Brahe's assistant. Driven by the demands of navigation and the growing need for accurate maps of large areas. Galileo observed the moons of Jupiter in orbit about that planet. Bartholomaeus Pitiscus was the first to use the word. Pascal. The analytic geometry developed by René Descartes (1596–1650) allowed those orbits to be plotted on a graph. Building on earlier work by many predecessors. whether rational or irrational. Science and mathematics had become an international endeavor. Mathematics 17th during the Scientific Revolution century The 17th century saw an unprecedented explosion of mathematical and scientific ideas across Europe. Regiomontanus's table of sines and cosines was published in 1533. Simon Stevin (1585) created the basis for modern decimal notation capable of describing all numbers. Pascal and Fermat set the groundwork for the investigations of probability theory and the corresponding rules of combinatorics in their discussions over a game of gambling. In some sense. using a telescope based on a toy imported from Holland.Johannes Kepler was first exposed to and seriously interacted with the topic of planetary motion. publishing his Trigonometria in 1595. trigonometry grew to be a major branch of mathematics. and brought together the concepts now known as infinitesimal calculus. 18th century . Kepler succeeded in formulating mathematical laws of planetary motion. which would soon spread over the entire world.Simon Stevin's book De Thiende ('the art of tenths'). Tycho Brahe had gathered an enormous quantity of mathematical data describing the positions of the planets in the sky. with the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. attempted to use the newly developing probability theory to argue for a life devoted to religion.
Other important European mathematicians of the 18th century included Joseph Louis Lagrange. and the calculus of variations. Modern 19th mathematics century Throughout the 19th century mathematics became increasingly abstract. he named the square root of minus 1 with the symbol i. The most influential mathematician of the 18th century was arguably Leonhard Euler. He gave the first satisfactory proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra and of the quadratic reciprocity law. combinatorics. algebra. where the parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry no longer holds. and he popularized the use of the Greek letter to stand for the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. The Russian mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich . and on the convergence of series. He made numerous contributions to the study of topology. His contributions range from founding the study of graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem to standardizing many modern mathematical terms and notations. in the age of Napoleon did important work on the foundations of celestial mechanics and on statistics. in pure mathematics he did revolutionary work on functions of complex variables.Leonhard Euler by Emanuel Handmann. differential calculus. graph theory. Leaving aside his many contributions to science. as evidenced by the multitude of theorems and notations named for him. For example. In the 19th century lived Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry This century saw the development of the two forms of non-Euclidean geometry. who did pioneering work in number theory. and Laplace who. and complex analysis. in geometry. calculus.
In 1897. Boolean algebra is the starting point of mathematical logic and has important applications in computer science. where uniqueness of parallels no longer holds. the Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai. In the later 19th century. Mathematicians had vainly attempted to solve all of these problems since the time of the ancient Greeks. to construct the side of a cube twice the volume of a given cube. Abel and Galois's investigations into the solutions of various polynomial equations laid the groundwork for further developments of group theory. Hensel introduced p-adic numbers. Cantor's set theory. The 19th century saw the beginning of a great deal of abstract algebra. which generalizes the ideas of curvesand surfaces. the limitation of three dimensions in geometry was surpassed in the 19th century through considerations ofparameter space and hypercomplex numbers. a Norwegian. nor to construct a square equal in area to a given circle. for the first time. Augustin-Louis Cauchy. and the rise of mathematical logic in the hands of Peano. the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1883. William Rowan Hamilton in Ireland developed noncommutative algebra. which enabled the rigorous treatment of the notion of infinity and has become the common language of nearly all mathematics. the Quaternion Society. which unifies and vastly generalizes the three types of geometry. Whitehead. Bertrand Russell. E. David Hilbert.Lobachevsky and his rival. Elliptic geometry was developed later in the 19th century by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann. the Circolo Matematico di Palermo in 1884. Brouwer. initiated a long running debate on the foundations of mathematics. and Karl Weierstrass reformulated the calculus in a more rigorous fashion.N. The British mathematician George Boole devised an algebra that soon evolved into what is now called Boolean algebra. here no parallel can be found and the angles in a triangle add up to more than 180°. in which the only numbers were 0 and 1. In the 20th century physicists and other scientists have seen group theory as the ideal way to study symmetry. special-interest society. in the context of a vector controversy. was formed in 1899. Riemann also developed Riemannian geometry. Niels Henrik Abel. Georg Cantor established the first foundations of set theory. and A. The 19th century saw the founding of a number of national mathematical societies: the London Mathematical Society in 1865. the limits of mathematics were explored. Other 19th century mathematicians utilized this in their proofs that straightedge and compass alone are not sufficient totrisect an arbitrary angle. J. . Bernhard Riemann. Hermann Grassmann in Germany gave a first version of vector spaces. and he defined the concept of a manifold. In this geometry the sum of angles in a triangle add up to less than 180°. independently defined and studied hyperbolic geometry. proved that there is no general algebraic method for solving polynomial equations of degree greater than four (Abel–Ruffini theorem). and the American Mathematical Society in 1888. the Société Mathématique de France in 1872. and the associated fields of abstract algebra. Also. a Frenchman. The first international. On the other hand. and Évariste Galois. L.
including Jean Dieudonné and André Weil. These problems. A group of French mathematicians.  . Paul Cohen and Kurt Gödel proved that the continuum hypothesis isindependent of (could neither be proved nor disproved from) the standard axioms of set theory. attempted to exposit all of known mathematics as a coherent rigorous whole. 10 have been solved. An example is the classification of finite simple groups (also called the "enormous theorem"). Wolfgang Haken and Kenneth Appel used a computer to prove the four color theorem. 7 are partially solved. publishing under the pseudonym "Nicolas Bourbaki". Mathematical collaborations of unprecedented size and scope took place. In a 1900 speech to the International Congress of Mathematicians. Today. building on the work of others.20th century A map illustrating the Four Color Theorem The 20th century saw mathematics become a major profession. The remaining 4 are too loosely formulated to be stated as solved or not. and filling tens of thousands of pages. and 2 are still open.s in mathematics are awarded. Every year. In 1976. The resulting several dozen volumes has had a controversial influence on mathematical education.D. formed a central focus for much of 20th century mathematics. spanning many areas of mathematics. and jobs are available in both teaching and industry. In 1998 Thomas Callister Hales proved the Kepler conjecture. proved Fermat's Last Theorem in 1995. Andrew Wiles. Notable historical conjectures were finally proven. whose proof between 1955 and 1983 required 500-odd journal articles by about 100 authors. David Hilbert set out a list of 23 unsolved problems in mathematics. thousands of new Ph.
and new areas of mathematics were developed to deal with this: Alan Turing's computability theory.Newtonian (red) vs. Lie theory with itsLie groups and Lie algebras became one of the major areas of study. optimization and other areas of operations research. data analysis. topological spaces etc. at first mechanical analog machines and then digital electronic machines. model theory. Entire new areas of mathematics such as mathematical logic. The speed and data processing abilities of computers also enabled the handling of mathematical problems that were too time-consuming to deal with by pencil and paper calculations. by extending the field of real numbers to the Hyperreal numbers which include infinitesimal and infinite quantities. the Fast Fourier . Knot theory greatly expanded. Applications of measures include the Lebesgue integral. and Mandelbrot's fractals. Kolmogorov's axiomatisation of probability theory. Measure theory was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.topology. Grothendieck and Serre recast algebraic geometry using sheaf theory. Non-standard analysis. leading to areas such as numerical analysis and symbolic computation. The development and continual improvement of computers. which had fallen into disrepute in favour of the theory of limits. In the preceding centuries much mathematical focus was on calculus and continuous functions. signal processing. and ergodic theory. rehabillitated the infinitesimal approach to calculus. introduced by Abraham Robinson. and John von Neumann's game theory changed the kinds of questions that could be answered by mathematical methods. Quantum mechanics led to the development of functional analysis. the concept of an abstract structure was itself abstracted and led to category theory. fixed point theory. complexity theory. Some of the most important methods and algorithms of the 20th century are: the simplex algorithm. Large advances were made in the qualitative study of dynamical systems that Poincaré had begun in the 1890s. Other new areas include. Einsteinian orbit (blue) of a lone planet orbiting a star. Laurent Schwarz'sdistribution theory. Claude Shannon's information theory. singularity theory and René Thom's catastrophe theory. but the rise of computing and communication networks led to an increasing importance of discrete concepts and the expansion ofcombinatorics including graph theory. allowed industry to deal with larger and larger amounts of data to facilitate mass production and distribution and communication. All kinds ofstructures were abstracted using axioms and given names like metric spaces. As mathematicians do. withrelativistic precession of apsides Differential geometry came into its own when Einstein used it in general relativity.
He also made major investigations in the areas of gamma functions. Kurt Gödel found that this was not the case for the natural numbers plus both addition and multiplication. truth necessarily outruns proof. 21st century . As in most areas of study. was decidable. modular forms. as measured by joint authorship of mathematical papers. an Indian autodidact who conjectured or proved over 3000 theorems. including properties of highly composite numbers. deep insights were made about the limitations to mathematics. Hence mathematics cannot be reduced to mathematical logic. i. was in fact incompletable. the explosion of knowledge in the scientific age has led to specialization: by the end of the century there were hundreds of specialized areas in mathematics and the Mathematics Subject Classification was dozens of pages long. there are true statements that cannot be proved within the system. known as Peano arithmetic. which leads to the Erdős number of a mathematician.e.) A consequence of Gödel's two incompleteness theorems is that in any mathematical system that includes Peano arithmetic (including all of analysis and geometry). could be determined by some algorithm.Transform. this system. the partition function and its asymptotics. i. This describes the "collaborative distance" between a person and Paul Erdős. One of the more colorful figures in 20th century mathematics was Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan (1887– 1920). the Kalman filter from control theory and the RSA algorithm of publickey cryptography. it was proved the truth or falsity of all statements formulated about the natural numbers plus one of addition and multiplication. Paul Erdős published more papers than any other mathematician in history.e. and mock theta functions. working with hundreds of collaborators. Mathematicians have a game equivalent to the Kevin Bacon Game. error-correcting codes. divergent series. and David Hilbert's dream of making all of mathematics complete and consistent needed to be reformulated. At the same time. including the notion of prime number. by the end of the century. More and more mathematical journalswere published and. (Peano arithmetic is adequate for a good deal of number theory. In 1929 and 1930. hypergeometric series and prime number theory. The absolute value of the Gamma function on the complex plane. the development of the world wide web led to online publishing. In 1931.
"Euclid of Alexandria" p. Most mathematical journals now have online versions as well as print versions. 119) ^ Eves. . and in 2003 the Poincaré conjecture was solved by Grigori Perelman (who declined to accept any awards). ISBN 0-03-029558-0. first popularized by the arXiv. There is an increasing drive towards open access publishing. See also List of important publications in mathematics History of algebra History of calculus History of combinatorics History of geometry History of logic History of mathematical notation History of number theory History of statistics History of trigonometry History of writing numbers Kenneth O. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. Saunders. the Clay Mathematics Institute announced the seven Millennium Prize Problems. Howard. the application of mathematics to bioinformatics is rapidly expanding. 2. Future of mathematics Main article: Future of mathematics There are many observable trends in mathematics. the volume of data to be analyzed being produced by science and industry. computers are ever more important and powerful. May Prize Timeline of mathematics prime numbers irrational numbers Mathematics education References a b 1. ^ (Boyer 1991.In 2000. the most notable being that the subject is growing ever larger. facilitated by computers. is explosively expanding. 1990. and many online-only journals are launched.
html 11. London.140—148 8. ^ Robert Kaplan.P.). Dover Publications. pp. 1963. 5. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated." . Historia Mathematica. Teubner. Heath. 1: "In the case of mathematics. 3) 13. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press. 1991. Dover. p. (2005). and the Babylonian triangle parameter equations". 5.mcs. ^ Neugebauer. ISBN 978-0-486-22332-2. ^ George Gheverghese Joseph. ^ Heath. ^ Lebombo Bone . 6. it is the Greek contribution which it is most essential to know. p. 1999 10. 1981. Universalgeschichte der Zahlen. 1986. Friberg. Retrieved 2006-05-06." 7. ^ Sir Thomas L.Penguin Books.Pierre Simon Laplace http://www-history. London.uk/HistTopics/Indian_numerals. The Crest of the Peacock: NonEuropean Roots of Mathematics. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. ^ a b Williams. ^ "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (2 ed.ac. Chap.stand. Pythagorean triples.3. ^ A. "Methods and traditions of Babylonian mathematics. Scott W. pp. SUNY Buffalo mathematics department. "Geschichte der Mathematik im Mittelalter".Mathematicians of the African Diaspora. A Manual of Greek Mathematics. 4. pp. Plimpton 322. ^ An old mathematical object 16. A Manual of Greek Mathematics. 277—318. "The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero". ^ Mathematics in (central) Africa before colonization . IV "Egyptian Mathematics and Astronomy". pp. 71–96. ^ J. Leipzig. ^ Georges Ifrah. 15. Frankfurt/New York. for it was the Greeks who first made mathematics a science. Juschkewitsch. "The Oldest Mathematical Object is in Swaziland". Archimedes and Apollonius. the importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of Antiquity. Otto (1969) .from Wolfram MathWorld 14. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions.428—437 9. 1964 12. 8. "Origins" p. Campus.
Mathematicians of the African Diaspora 29. "The metrology and geometry of Megalithic Man". "Ionia and the Pythagoreans" p. Third Millennium Mathematics. ^ Egyptian Papyri 28. 1990. ^ Egyptian Algebra . 20. Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics. ^ Eves. p. 1988. 19. ed. ^ Thom. Third Millennium Chronology. ISBN 0-521-33381-4. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ Howard Eves. ^ (Boyer 1991. Mount Kisco.. ^ (Boyer 1991. pp. ^ (Boyer 1991. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. ^ Rudman. 24) 21. 99) 34. 43) 37. University of British Columbia. "Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science". ^ Aaboe. ^ (Boyer 1991. 23. Alexander. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 2000. "Egypt" p. 75. ^ Martin Bernal.L.. ^ Bill Casselman. Ruggles. Peter Strom (20007). Colonial Hill. Retrieved 2008-09-26. St. ^ Marshack. 24. pp. p.Australian Academy of Medicine and Surgery 31. "Ionia and the Pythagoreans" p.000 Years. Lawrence University. .17. 35. "Egypt" p. ed. ^ Egyptian Mathematical Papyri . How Mathematics Happened: The First 50. Shank. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. 30–31. ISBN 0-03-029558-0 33. New York: Random House. "Mesopotamia" p. ISBN 0-03-029558-0. 36. Prometheus Books. 18. Howard.Mathematicians of the African Diaspora 32. Alexander (1991): The Roots of Civilization. Records in Stone: Papers in memory of Alexander Thom. 49) 38. 25) 22. ^ AAMS .N. 19) 30. Saunders. "Mesopotamia" p. 1990. ^ Duncan J. ISBN 978-1-59102-4774. "One of the Oldest Extant Diagrams from Euclid". ^ Egyptian Unit Fractions 27. NY. ^ (Boyer 1991. pp 132-151 in C. Asger (1998). 64. Melville (2003). Cambridge University Press. 72–83 in Michael H. 11) 25. and Archie Thom. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. ^ Egyptian Unit Fractions at MathPages 26. Saunders.
except The Bible. ^ (Boyer 1991.Bk VI: Chap. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. Saunders. ^ (Boyer 1991. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. 164) . 130) 55.C. 102) 52. "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. 131 pages. 88) 43. 1990. 162) 66. 137) 59. "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. ^ James R. "Apollonius of Perga" p. 146) 61. "Euclid of Alexandria" p.. "The Pentagram and the Discovery of an Irrational Number". 145) 60. 126) 56. 93) 46. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. "Euclid of Alexandria" p. "Apollonius of Perga" p. 152) 62. "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. 120) 54. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p. 40. 1 . 175) 65. ^ a b (Boyer 1991... "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. 156) 63. 100) 49. ^ Howard Eves. ^ S. 163) 68. The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal. 121) 58. ^ Ecclesiastical History. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. "Archimedes of Syracuse" p. ^ (Boyer 1991. 2007. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. ^ (Boyer 1991. Roy. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ (Boyer 1991. 87) 44. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p.39. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. has been more widely used. ^ Kurt Von Fritz (1945). 91) 47. "Euclid of Alexandria" p. 41. 86) 42. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p. ISBN 0-03-029558-0 p. 92) 45. ^ (Boyer 1991." 51. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p. ^ (Boyer 1991. 15 53. 125) 57. ^ (Boyer 1991. ISBN 1904275-25-7 67. The Annals of Mathematics. ^ (Boyer 1991. 98) 48. Complex numbers: lattice simulation and zeta function applications. Harwood Publishing. "Apollonius of Perga" p. 104) 50. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. 161) 64. ^ (Boyer 1991. "Apollonius of Perga" p. ^ (Boyer 1991. "The Discovery of Incommensurability by Hippasus of Metapontum". "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. Choike (1980). ^ (Boyer 1991. "The Age of Plato and Aristotle" p. p. 141: "No work.
196) 76. E. Helaine. xxvii. (2007).. ^ a b c (Boyer 1991.11418685.202216.F.1389). Andrew.0044.. Maria P. 1156/361 (3. Warren S. Boca Raton. 87. "The Accomplishments of Ancient Indian Mathematicians". p. ^ (Boyer 1991. Indian Journal for the History of Science. Robertson. Canton. Wright. "China and India" p. 207) 84. ^ a b (Boyer 1991.). ^ J. 183) 74. 205) 82. Andrew. 79. Jones & Bartlett Learning.J. Kulkarni. 178) 71. "China and India" p.. ^ (Boyer 1991. K. 202) 80. and 339/108 (3. "Revival and Decline of Greek Mathematics" p. Ubiratan (2000). ^ a b c (Boyer 1991. ISBN 0-8493-7189-9 2 . 181) 73. Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. 206) 83. Journal of Indian Philosophy. DOI:10.. E. 13 1 (1978): 32-41 86. Science and Civilisation in China.125). Johannes (2001). Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-western Mathematics. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (3 ed. D'Ambrosio. 168) 70.F. 25/8 (3. 180) 72. 194–199 77. Robertson. "China and India" p. of St. ^ (Boyer 1991. pp. "China and India" p. ^ Needham. 900/289 (3..). ^ J. Connor.. "The Value of π known to Śulbasūtras". P. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 0-7637-5995-3. Puttaswamy. 411–2. Springer. Connor. ^ a b c d (Boyer 1991. Scotland  88.. p. Extract of page 27 81. 198) 78. ^ (Boyer 1991. "China and India" p. "Panini and Euclid: Reflections on Indian Geometry". Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.69. Scott. ^ Sanchez. The Indian Sulba Sutras Univ.. ^ (Boyer 1991. ^ Bronkhorst.J. (Springer Netherlands) 29 (1–2): 43–80. of St. "Revival and Decline of Greek Mathematics" p. pp. ISBN 1-4020-0260-2 85. Microcontroller programming : the microchip PIC. ^ Katz 2007. ^ Zill. "China and India" p. ^ T. "China and India" p. "Revival and Decline of Greek Mathematics" p. The Indian Sulba Sutras Univ. Julio.). inSelin. 3. Dennis G. 201) 75. Scotland  The values for π are 4 x (13/15) (3. ^ (Boyer 1991. "Greek Trigonometry and Mensuration" p. ^ R. Wright. "Revival and Decline of Greek Mathematics" p.1023/A:1017506118885 89. Joseph (1986). (2009). 37.).
It is generally thought that this was the Brahmasphuta Siddhanta. ^ W. Grattan. 780) that Ptolemy's astrological Tetrabiblos was translated into Arabic from the Greek. they had. 2007. 12) Quote: "There is no evidence that the Indian work on series was known beyond India. 1991 pp 298 .Indian Mathematics. Gold and Pingree assert  that by the time these series were rediscovered in Europe. Penguin Books. Math for poets and drummers. known to the Arabs as the Sindhind. ^ (Boyer 1991. The Heritage of Thales. this Siddhanata was translated into Arabic. p 126 99. until the nineteenth century. "By 766 we learn that an astronomical-mathematical work. pp 118 . Journal of Indian Philosophy 35. been lost to India. or even outside Kerala. ^ Plofker 2009 pp 217 . p.90. ^ Rachel W. 226. Divakaran. 210) 95. George Gheverghese Joseph. and it was not long afterwards (ca. although it may have been theSurya Siddhanata. A few years later. 209) 94. "China and India" p. perhaps about 775.253 100. P. S.433. ISBN 0-387-94544-X 91. I. Hall. "China and India" p. "China and India" p.198. London. ^ Plofker 2009 pp 197 . and arc tangent had been passed down through several generations of disciples. Baltimore and London. 208) 93. 293 Quote: "It is not unusual to encounter in discussions of Indian mathematics such assertions as that ―the concept of differentiation was understood [in India] from the time of . 1994. The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics. 101. pp 417 . The expansions of the sine. "China and India" p. ^ (Boyer 1991.130 in Companion History of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences. The first textbook of calculus: Yukti-bhāṣā. ^ Boyer (1991). ^ (Bressoud 2002. ^ Plofker 2001.300. Lambek.Guinness. "The Arabic Hegemony". Math Horizons 15 (2008) 10-11. 1995. Springer. p. 92. ^ P. Johns Hopkins University Press. was brought to Baghdad from India." 97. 211) 96." 102. ^ (Boyer 1991. Takao Hayashi. cosine. Anglin and J. ^ a b (Boyer 1991. p. ed. ^ Plofker 2009 182-207 98. but they remained sterile observations for which no one could find much use. for all practical purposes.
in the 1830s.. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish. 285)). and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus. 562 Quote:"One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration. not to mention that of its derivative or an algorithm for taking the derivative. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current . as in the examples we have seen... The matter resurfaced in the 1950s. The differential ―principle‖ was not generalized to arbitrary functions—in fact.D. 293). the explicit notion of an arbitrary function. or that ―we may consider Madhava to have been the founder of mathematical analysis‖ (Joseph 1991. presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus. in about 1400 A. and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited. but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. have even inspired suggestions of a possible transmission of mathematical ideas from the Malabar coast in or after the 15th century to the Latin scholarly world (e. particularly between early European calculus and the Keralese work on power series. is irrelevant here" 103. however. in (Bag 1979. . The points of resemblance.g.. but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians.. or that Bhaskara II may claim to be ―the precursor of Newton and Leibniz in the discovery of the principle of the differential calculus‖ (Bag 1979.Manjula (. of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. It should be borne in mind. ^ Pingree 1992. 294). . 300].. To speak of the Indian ―discovery of the principle of the differential calculus‖ somewhat obscures the fact that Indian techniques for expressing changes in the Sine by means of the Cosine or vice versa. remained within that specific trigonometric context. p.. in the 10th century)‖ [Joseph 1991. that such an emphasis on the similarity of Sanskrit (or Malayalam) and Latin mathematics risks diminishing our ability fully to see and comprehend the former.. in which Whish's article was published. it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus.
173–174 Quote:"How close did Islamic and Indian scholars come to inventing the calculus? Islamic scholars nearly developed a general formula for finding integrals of polynomials by A. They were apparently only interested in specific cases in which these ideas were needed. 79. on the other hand. 107. 106. ISBN 978-818069-335-9. at least in any of the material that has come down to us. and turn the calculus into the great problem-solving tool we have today. ^ Gandz and Saloman (1936). The sources of Khwarizmi's algebra. isbn = 9781-85172-061-3 Space and eternal life. Daisaku (1998). they were not interested in any polynomial of degree higher than four. Martial traditions of North East India." 104. 1000—and evidently could find such a formula for any polynomial in which they were interested. 230) "The six cases of equations given above exhaust all possibilities for linear and quadratic equations having positive root. Ikeda. . ^ (Boyer 1991." 108. So systematic and exhaustive was alKhwārizmī's exposition that his readers must have had little difficulty in mastering the solutions. There is no danger. It does not appear. "The Arabic Hegemony" p. were by 1600 able to use ibn al-Haytham's sum formula for arbitrary integral powers in calculating power series for the functions in which they were interested. But. Sristidhar. show the connection between them. p. 173. p. pp. ^ Wickramasinghe. however. They were certainly the ones who were able to combine many differing ideas under the two unifying themes of the derivative and the integral. So some of the basic ideas of calculus were known in Egypt and India many centuries before Newton. Byomakesh (2006). pp. By the same time.D. 263–77: "In a sense. ^ Dutta. it appears. Osiris i. Concept Publishing Company. therefore." 105. Journeyman Press. Nalin Chandra. Indian scholars. ^ Katz 1995. that either Islamic or Indian mathematicians saw the necessity of connecting some of the disparate ideas that we include under the name calculus. they also knew how to calculate the differentials of these functions.mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution. Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called "the father of algebra" than Diophantus because Khwarizmi is .. Tripathy. that we will have to rewrite the history texts to remove the statement that Newton and Leibniz invented calculus..
John (1981) "The De Institutione Arithmetica and the De Institutione Musica". Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. ^ (Boyer 1991. the wordmuqabalah is said to refer to "reduction" or "balancing" . 463– 87 in Robert L. 111. Benson and Giles Constable. John J. ^ O'Connor. ^ Wisdom. 112. 114. The Development of Arabic Mathematics. 115. Benson and Giles Constable. 11–12. ISBN 0-7923-25656. 118. R. ^ Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny. ^ Rashed. Boethius: His Life. Mathematics Magazine 68 (3): 163–74. . Robertson. pp. the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. Edmund F.the first to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own sake. ^ Caldwell. History of Mathematics: An Introduction. ^ Victor J. University of St Andrews. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 119. "The Transformation of the Quadrivium".. 1970). 113. (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. ^ Folkerts. Katz (1998)... 255–59.ISBN 0-321-01618-1.. The word al-jabr presumably meant something like "restoration" or "completion" and seems to refer to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation. pp. "Translations and Translators". (Oxford: Basil Blackwell). Paris. Springer. 117. 1982). ed. Menso. 421– 62 in Robert L. 109. and Influence. pp. "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India". traité d'Algèbre par Abou Bekr Mohammed Ben Alhacan Alkarkhi. 11:21 116. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Angela (1994). Extrait du Fakhri. but the usual interpretation is similar to that implied in the translation above." 110. "The Arabic Hegemony" p. Woepcke (1853). Armstrong. 229) "It is not certain just what the terms al-jabr andmuqabalah mean. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 1982). pp. "Boethius" Geometrie II. ^ F. ^ Victor J. OCLC 29181926. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory of numbers". ^ Guy Beaujouan. Thought. Addison-Wesley. 135–54 in Margaret Gibson.that is. Katz (1995). "Abu'l Hasan ibn Ali al Qalasadi".
ed. 421–40. John E. ^ Eves. ^ Clagett.W.120. 124. ISBN 0-03-029558-0. 1990. Marshall (1961) The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. 1–2 129. 123. Albrecht: On the curious historical coincidence of algebra and double-entry bookkeeping. ^ Grant... p. pp. ^ Nicole Oresme. "Questions on the Geometry of Euclid" Q. 125. 379. Marshall (1961) The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. p. 224–27. W. Mathematics and Its Applications to Science and Natural Philosophy in the Middle Ages. 214 –15.the concepts of calculus. ^ Clagett. The Rainbow of Mathematics: A History of the Mathematical Sciences. ^ Murdoch. ^ Clagett. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 560–65. Saunders. 130. Business & Financial History Conference. 332–45. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press). (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press). ISBN 0-39332030-8.. 236. Ivor (1997). ". ^ Heeffer. at pp. Ghent University. pp. Foundations of the Formal Sciences.(are) so far reaching and have exercised such an impact on the modern world that it is perhaps correct to say that without some knowledge of them a person today can scarcely claim to be well educated. 14.. eds. Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions. November 2009.7  128. pp. Murdoch (1987). Marshall (1961) The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. (1969) "Mathesis in Philosophiam Scholasticam Introducta: The Rise and Development of the Application of Mathematics in Fourteenth Century Philosophy and Theology". Howard. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ISBN 0-521-32260-X. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. ^ Grattan-Guinness. Edward and John E. p. ^ Clagett. 122. Greg Stoner & Patricia McCarthy: "The market for Luca Pacioli’s Summa Arithmetica" (Accounting. ^ Alan Sangster. 121. pp. 284. September 2007) p. in Marshall Clagett. Norton. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press). Cardiff. 1968)." .. Marshall (1961) The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. 126.. in Arts libéraux et philosophie au Moyen Âge (Montréal: Institut d'Études Médiévales). (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press). 127. 382–91. 210.
Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics . Howard. rev. 132. ISBN 0-47154397-7). Sir Thomas (1981). (1937). ^ Mathematics Subject Classification 2000 Mathematics portal Further reading Aaboe.131. Palermo: Palumbo Pp. 2006. ISBN 0-8218-39675. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times . A History of Mathematics. David M. Simon and Schuster. Richard J. Mathematics in the Time of the Pharaohs. Bell. fourth revised edition. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/788860170217|788860170217]]. Men of Mathematics. A Concise History of Mathematics.228. Ivor (2003). (1972). ISBN 978-0-8218-3967-6. A History of Greek Mathematics. An Introduction to the History of Mathematics. ISBN 0-8018-7397-5. ^ Maurice Mashaal. Bourbaki: A Secret Society of Mathematicians. Asger (1964). ISBN 0-03-029558-0. Addison-Wesley: 1998. Struik. C. New York: Random House. Aldo (2006). A History of Mathematics: An Introduction. D. E. 1990. Dover Publications. Books on a specific period Gillings. (1987). Boyer.. chi era costui? Vita e opere dei matematici incontrati a scuola. MA: MIT Press. Katz. Cambridge. 2nd Edition. by Uta C. Eves. Kline. New York: Wiley. Morris. Scimone. Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences.. New York. Talete. 1989 ISBN 0-471-09763-2 (1991 pbk ed. Burton. ISBN 0-486-24073-8. American Mathematical Society. Merzbach. B. Saunders. J. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Grattan-Guinness. Heath. Victor J. Dover. The History of Mathematics: An Introduction. T. . 2nd ed. McGraw Hill: 1997.
Williams. van der Waerden. New York: Hyperion. Joyce.. Princeton. Agnes Scott College). 384. Menninger. Mathematicians of the African Diaspora (Scott W. Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics (Jeff Miller). ISBN 0-262-13040-8. NJ: Princeton University Press. University of Southampton) Discusses the origins of the modern mathematical word stock. The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900. University of St Andrews. Mathematical Words: Origins and Sources (John Aldrich. L. Collections of material on the mathematics between the 17th and 19th century. An award-winning website containing detailed biographies on many historical and contemporary mathematicians. Contains information on the history of mathematical notations. pp 385-514. 685 pages. Clark University). (2007). ISBN 0-691-12067-6. Mesopotamia. Books on a specific topic Hoffman. Victor J. Robertson. Kim (2009). O'Connor and Edmund F. 1983. Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations . . (1969). Katz. Documentaries BBC (2008). History of Mathematics (Simon Fraser University). The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdős and the Search for Mathematical Truth. (1990). Mathematics in India: 500 BCE–1800 CE. Springer. Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. B. Karl W. Articles on various topics in the history of mathematics with an extensive bibliography. India. Pp. Wilkins. Plofker. The History of Mathematics (David R. Contains information on the earliest known uses of terms used in mathematics. ISBN 0-691-11485-4.. ed. ISBN 0-387-12159-5. as well as information on notable curves and various topics in the history of mathematics. University at Buffalo). ISBN 0-674-40341-X. MIT Press. China. Biographies of Women Mathematicians (Larry Riddle. Trinity College.. Scotland). Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols (Jeff Miller). Paul. Stigler. Princeton. Stephen M. History of Mathematics Home Page (David E. 1998 ISBN 0-7868-6362-5. Belknap Press. and Islam: A Sourcebook. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive (John J. Dublin). The Story of Maths. The Mathematics of Egypt. NJ: Princeton University Press.
Knoxville) History/Biography The Math Forum (Drexel University) History of Mathematics[dead link] (Courtright Memorial Library). History of Mathematics Web Sites (David Calvis. Organizations Journals International Commission for the History of Mathematics Directories Convergence. Rockey. Baldwin-Wallace College) History of mathematics at the Open Directory Project Historia de las Matemáticas (Universidad de La La guna) História da Matemática (Universidade de Coimbra) Using History in Math Class Mathematical Resources: History of Mathematics(Bruno Kevius) History of Mathematics (Roberta Tucci) links View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Submit ratings Categories: History of mathematics . the Mathematical Association of America's online Math History Magazine Links to Web Sites on the History of Mathematics(The British Society for the History of Mathematics) External History of Mathematics Math Archives (University of Tennessee. Fred Rickey's History of Mathematics Page A Bibliography of Collected Works and Correspondence of Mathematicians archive dated 2007/3/17 (Steven W. Cornell University Library).
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