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# Trigonometry

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The Canadarm2 robotic manipulator on the International pace tation is operated by controlling the angles of its !oints" Calculating the final position of the astronaut at the end of the arm re#uires repeated use of trigonometric functions of those angles"

Trigonometry
\$istory %sage Functions &enerali'ed Inverse functions Further reading
Reference

## Identities ()act constants Trigonometric tables

Laws and theorems

## *a+ of sines *a+ of cosines *a+ of tangents

,ythagorean theorem
Calculus

## Trigonometric substitution Integrals of functions -erivatives of functions Integrals of inverse functions

vde

Trigonometry .from &reek trignon /triangle/ 0 metron /measure/123 or from anskrit trikon /triangle/ 0 miti /measurement/ 4 trikonmiti1235 is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships bet+een their sides and the angles bet+een sides" Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, +hich describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as +aves" The field evolved during the third century 6C as a branch of geometry used e)tensively for astronomical studies"173 Trigonometry is usually taught in middle and secondary schools either as a separate course or as part of a precalculus curriculum" It has applications in both pure mathematics and applied mathematics, +here it is essential in many branches of science and technology" 8 branch of trigonometry, called spherical trigonometry, studies triangles on spheres, and is important in astronomy and navigation"

Contents
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2 \$istory 2 9vervie+ o 2"2 ()tending the definitions o 2"2 :nemonics o 2"7 Calculating trigonometric functions 7 8pplications of trigonometry ; tandard identities < 8ngle transformation formulae = Common formulas o ="2 *a+ of sines o ="2 *a+ of cosines o ="7 *a+ of tangents o ="; (uler>s formula ? ee also

## @ Aeferences o @"2 6ibliography B ()ternal links

 History
:ain article: \$istory of trigonometry

The first trigonometric table +as apparently compiled by \$ipparchus, +ho is no+ conse#uently kno+n as /the father of trigonometry"/ 1;3 8ncient (gyptian and 6abylonian mathematicians lacked the concept of an angle measure, but they studied the ratios of the sides of similar triangles and discovered some properties of these ratios" The ancient Cubians used a similar methodology"1<3 The ancient &reeks transformed trigonometry into an ordered science"1=3 8ncient &reek mathematicians .such as (uclid and 8rchimedes5 studied the properties of the chord of an angle and proved theorems that are e#uivalent to modern trigonometric formulae, although they presented them geometrically rather than algebraically" Claudius ,tolemy e)panded upon \$ipparchus> Chords in a Circle in his Almagest"1?3 The modern sine function +as first defined in the Surya Siddhanta, and its properties +ere further documented by the <th century Indian mathematician and astronomer 8ryabhata"1@3 These &reek and Indian +orks +ere translated and e)panded by medieval Islamic mathematicians" 6y the 2Dth century, Islamic mathematicians +ere using all si) trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and +ere applying them to problems in spherical geometry" 8t about the same time, Chinese mathematicians developed trigonometry independently, although it +as not a ma!or field of study for them" Eno+ledge of trigonometric functions and methods reached (urope via *atin translations of the +orks of ,ersian and 8rabic astronomers such as 8l 6attani and Casir alF-in alF Tusi"1B3 9ne of the earliest +orks on trigonometry by a (uropean mathematician is De Triangulis by the 2<th century &erman mathematician Aegiomontanus" Trigonometry +as still so little kno+n in 2=th century (urope that Cicolaus Copernicus devoted t+o chapters of De re olutionibus orbium coelestium to e)plaining its basic concepts"

-riven by the demands of navigation and the gro+ing need for accurate maps of large areas, trigonometry gre+ to be a ma!or branch of mathematics"12D3 6artholomaeus ,itiscus +as the first to use the +ord, publishing his Trigonometria in 2<B<"1223 &emma Frisius described for the first time the method of triangulation still used today in surveying" It +as *eonhard (uler +ho fully incorporated comple) numbers into trigonometry" The +orks of James &regory in the 2?th century and Colin :aclaurin in the 2@th century +ere influential in the development of trigonometric series"1223 8lso in the 2@th century, 6rook Taylor defined the general Taylor series"1273

 Overview
In this right triangle: sin A 4 aGcH cos A 4 bGcH tan A 4 aGb" If one angle of a triangle is BD degrees and one of the other angles is kno+n, the third is thereby fi)ed, because the three angles of any triangle add up to 2@D degrees" The t+o acute angles therefore add up to BD degrees: they are complementary angles" The shape of a triangle is completely determined, e)cept for similarity, by the angles" 9nce the angles are kno+n, the ratios of the sides are determined, regardless of the overall si'e of the triangle" If the length of one of the sides is kno+n, the other t+o are determined" These ratios are given by the follo+ing trigonometric functions of the kno+n angle A, +here a, b and c refer to the lengths of the sides in the accompanying figure:

Sine function .sin5, defined as the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse" Cosine function .cos5, defined as the ratio of the ad!acent leg to the hypotenuse" Tangent function .tan5, defined as the ratio of the opposite leg to the ad!acent leg"

The hypotenuse is the side opposite to the BD degree angle in a right triangleH it is the longest side of the triangle, and one of the t+o sides ad!acent to angle A" The ad acent leg is the other side that is ad!acent to angle A" The opposite side is the side that is opposite to angle A" The terms perpendicular and !ase are sometimes used for the opposite and ad!acent sides respectively" :any people find it easy to remember +hat sides of the right triangle are e#ual to sine, cosine, or tangent, by memori'ing the +ord 9\$FC8\$FT98 .see belo+ under :nemonics5" The reciprocals of these functions are named the cosecant .csc or cosec5, secant .sec5, and cotangent .cot5, respectively" The inverse functions are called the arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent, respectively" There are arithmetic relations bet+een these functions, +hich are kno+n as trigonometric identities" The cosine, cotangent, and cosecant are so named because they are respectively the sine, tangent, and secant of the complementary angle abbreviated to /coF/"

With these functions one can ans+er virtually all #uestions about arbitrary triangles by using the la+ of sines and the la+ of cosines" These la+s can be used to compute the remaining angles and sides of any triangle as soon as t+o sides and their included angle or t+o angles and a side or three sides are kno+n" These la+s are useful in all branches of geometry, since every polygon may be described as a finite combination of triangles"

##  "#tending the definitions

Fig" 2a F ine and cosine of an angle I defined using the unit circle" The above definitions apply to angles bet+een D and BD degrees .D and JG2 radians5 only" %sing the unit circle, one can e)tend them to all positive and negative arguments .see trigonometric function5" The trigonometric functions are periodic, +ith a period of 7=D degrees or 2J radians" That means their values repeat at those intervals" The tangent and cotangent functions also have a shorter period, of 2@D degrees or J radians" The trigonometric functions can be defined in other +ays besides the geometrical definitions above, using tools from calculus and infinite series" With these definitions the trigonometric functions can be defined for comple) numbers" The comple) e)ponential function is particularly useful"

e! 0 iy 4 e!.cosy 0 isiny5"
ee (uler>s and -e :oivre>s formulas"

## &raphing process of y 4 csc.!5 using a unit circle"

 \$nemonics
8 common use of mnemonics is to remember facts and relationships in trigonometry" For e)ample, the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios in a right triangle can be remembered by representing them as strings of letters, as in 9\$FC8\$FT98: Sine 4 Opposite K Hypotenuse Cosine 4 %d!acent K Hypotenuse Tangent 4 Opposite K %d!acent 9ne +ay to remember the letters is to sound them out phonetically .i"e" / 9\$FC8\$FT9F 8/5"12;3 8nother method is to e)pand the letters into a phrase, such as /Some Old Hippy Caught %nother Hippy Trippin> On %cid/"12<3

##  Calculating trigonometric functions

:ain article: &enerating trigonometric tables Trigonometric functions +ere among the earliest uses for mathematical tables" uch tables +ere incorporated into mathematics te)tbooks and students +ere taught to look up values and ho+ to interpolate bet+een the values listed to get higher accuracy" lide rules had special scales for trigonometric functions" Today scientific calculators have buttons for calculating the main trigonometric functions .sin, cos, tan and sometimes cis5 and their inverses" :ost allo+ a choice of angle measurement methods: degrees, radians and, sometimes, grad" :ost computer programming languages provide function libraries that include the trigonometric functions" The floating point unit hard+are incorporated into the microprocessor chips used in most personal computers have builtFin instructions for calculating trigonometric functions"

##  %pplications of trigonometry

e)tants are used to measure the angle of the sun or stars +ith respect to the hori'on" %sing trigonometry and a marine chronometer, the position of the ship can be determined from such measurements" :ain article: %ses of trigonometry There are an enormous number of uses of trigonometry and trigonometric functions" For instance, the techni#ue of triangulation is used in astronomy to measure the distance to nearby stars, in geography to measure distances bet+een landmarks, and in satellite navigation systems" The sine and cosine functions are fundamental to the theory of periodic functions such as those that describe sound and light +aves" Fields that use trigonometry or trigonometric functions include astronomy .especially for locating apparent positions of celestial ob!ects, in +hich spherical trigonometry is essential5 and hence navigation .on the oceans, in aircraft, and in space5, music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of financial markets, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medical imaging .C8T scans and ultrasound5, pharmacy, chemistry, number theory .and hence cryptology5, seismology, meteorology, oceanography, many physical sciences, land surveying and geodesy, architecture, phonetics, economics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer graphics, cartography, crystallography and game development"

##  Standard identities

Identities are those e#uations that hold true for any value"

##  %ngle transformation formulae  Common formulas

Triangle +ith sides a,b,c and respectively opposite angles A,",C Certain e#uations involving trigonometric functions are true for all angles and are kno+n as trigonometric identities. ome identities e#uate an e)pression to a different e)pression

involving the same angles" These are listed in *ist of trigonometric identities" Triangle identities that relate the sides and angles of a given triangle are listed belo+" In the follo+ing identities, A, " and C are the angles of a triangle and a, b and c are the lengths of sides of the triangle opposite the respective angles"

##  Law of sines

The law of sines .also kno+n as the /sine rule/5 for an arbitrary triangle states: +here # is the radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle: 8nother la+ involving sines can be used to calculate the area of a triangle" &iven t+o sides and the angle bet+een the sides, the area of the triangle is:

8ll of the trigonometric functions of an angle \$ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at %"

##  Law of cosines

The law of cosines .kno+n as the cosine formula, or the /cos rule/5 is an e)tension of the ,ythagorean theorem to arbitrary triangles: or e#uivalently:

##  Law of tangents

The law of tangents:

##  "uler&s formula

(uler>s formula, +hich states that ei! 4 cos! 0 isin!, produces the follo+ing analytical identities for sine, cosine, and tangent in terms of e and the imaginary unit i:

&enerali'ed trigonometry *ist of triangle topics Trigonometric functions 8ryabhata>s sine table *ist of trigonometric identities

Trigonometry in &alois fields %nit circle %ses of trigonometry mallFangle appro)imation kinny triangle

 References
2" 2" 7" ;" <" =" ?" @" B" 2D" 22" 22" 27" 2;" 2<" ' /trigonometry/" 9nline (tymology -ictionary" http:GG+++"etymonline"comGinde)"phpLsearch4trigonometry" ' /trikonmiti/" anskrit -ocuments" http:GGsanskritdocuments"orgGarticlesG8ncient\$induCivili'ation:athematics-as"html" ' A" Cagel .ed"5, &ncyclo'edia o( Science, 2nd (d", The &ale &roup .2DD25 ' 6oyer .2BB25" /&reek Trigonometry and :ensuration/" p" 2=2" ' 8 history of ancient mathematical astronomy: in three parts" 6y 9tto Ceugebauer" pg" ?;; ' /The 6eginnings of Trigonometry/" Autgers, The tate %niversity of Ce+ Jersey" ' :arlo+ 8nderson, Mictor J" Eat', Aobin J" Wilson .2DD;5"/Sherlock )olmes in "abylon* and other tales o( mathematical history/" :88" p"7=" I 6C D@@7@<<;=2 ' 6oyer p22< ' 6oyer p27?, p2?; ' &rattanF&uinness, Ivor .2BB?5" The #ainbo+ o( ,athematics* A )istory o( the ,athematical Sciences" W"W" Corton" I 6C DF7B7F72D7DF@" ' &roundbreaking cientific ()periments, Inventions, and -iscoveries ' William 6ragg (+ald .2DD@5"/From -ant to )ilbert* a source book in the (oundations o( mathematics/" 9)ford %niversity ,ress % " p"B7" I 6C D2B@<D<7<7 ' Eelly -empski .2DD25"/Focus on Cur es and Sur(aces/" p"2B" I 6C 2<B2DDDD?N ' Weisstein, (ric W", / 9\$C8\$T98/ from :athWorld" ' Foster, Jonathan E" .2DD@5" ,emory* A .ery Short /ntroduction" 9)ford" p" 22@" I 6C D2B2@D=?<D"

 (i!liography

6oyer, Carl 6" .2BB25" A )istory o( ,athematics . econd (dition ed"5" John Wiley O ons, Inc"" I 6C D;?2<;7B??" Christopher :" *inton .2DD;5" From (udo)us to (instein: 8 \$istory of :athematical 8stronomy " Cambridge %niversity ,ress" Weisstein, (ric W" /Trigonometric 8ddition Formulas/" Wolfram :athWorld" Weiner"