Rottnest Island

Management Plan 2003-2008

Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Table of Contents

Foreword PART A. BACKGROUND 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Development of the Plan Format of the Plan Definition of the Area Policy Context Roles and responsibilities of Western Australian Government Bodies

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CHARTS Chart 1 Chart 2 Chart 3 Chart 4 FIGURES Figure 1 4 Rottnest Island Authority Organisation Structure Figure 2 62 Total Number of Visitors to Rottnest Island Arriving by Commercial Ferry or Aircraft (1997/98 - 2001/2) Figure 3 62 Occupancy of Rottnest Island Accommodation per Month 1996/97 - 2001/2) TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Activities and Developments Permitted in the Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zones Rottnest Island Landscaping Materials Rottnest Island Vegetation Types Marine Habitats of Rottnest Island Accommodation Charges Summary of Recreational Mooring Trial System 20 30 38 42 68 83 Rottnest Island Reserve Unvested Lands on Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zoning Scheme Settlement Planning Scheme 5 9 21 24

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PART B. MANAGEMENT PLANNING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme Terrestrial Environment Marine Environment Cultural Heritage Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities Marine Recreation and Facilities Community Involvement and Relations Visitor Support Services Infrastructure and Utilities 16 18 32 42 50 61 78 88 90 93

PART C. IMPLEMENTATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Legislation Research Resources and Funding Implementation Review and Public Reporting 101 102 103 104 105 106 108

APPENDICES Appendix 1 Principles Guiding the Development of the Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme Appendix 2 Implementation Timelines and Responsibilities Acknowledgements 110

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References

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Foreword

organisations and the public sector. Overwhelmingly, we have heard that you, the community of Western Australia, want your Island to retain its unique style, to be managed effectively and sustainably, so it can be enjoyed by future generations of visitors - just as you have enjoyed it. Recommendations contained within the Management Plan demonstrate the Rottnest Island Authority’s commitment to maintaining the Island’s environmental, social and economic values for the coming five years. I would like to acknowledge the Board Members and staff of the Rottnest Island Authority, for their vision and commitment in guiding the development of the Plan through various stages, to its completion. I would also like to thank each person and organisation that responded to the Draft Management Plan. Your active participation has enabled a Plan to be produced that will serve the broader community well over the next five years.

Foreward

Rottnest Island is fondly regarded as a special place by the many Western Australians, and visitors from interstate and overseas, who go there for the day, or an extended stay. There are a lot of different reasons why people visit Rottnest Island. These include relaxing in a coastal setting; enjoying its scenic natural beauty; taking part in a special event; carrying out a research project or participating in a conservation initiative. These different areas of interest reflect the wide range of people who enjoy Rottnest Island’s facilities and services, and who want to ensure it is effectively managed into the future. These different interests and viewpoints were an important consideration for the process involved in compiling the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008. Following the release of a Draft Management Plan in June 2002, the Rottnest Island Authority received more than 700 submissions from individuals, community groups, private

The Hon. Clive Brown MLA Minister for Tourism

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Part A. Background
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Development of the Plan Format of the Plan Definition of the Area Policy Context Roles and Responsibilities of Western Australian Government Bodies 4 7 8 9 10 12

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

1. Introduction

Part A. Background

1.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION Rottnest Island is one of the most popular recreation and holiday destinations for Western Australian families, and is also a popular destination for interstate and international visitors. Approximately 500,000 people visit Rottnest Island every year. Rottnest Island is located on the southwest coast of Western Australia at latitude 32º00 S and longitude 115º30 E, 18 kilometres west of Fremantle. It lies in an approximately east-west orientation, is 11 kilometres long and less than 5 kilometres wide at its widest point. It is an A-Class Reserve declared under the Land Administration Act 1997. The boundary of the Rottnest Island Reserve (the Reserve) contains the terrestrial component of the Island itself and the surrounding sea (refer Chart 1Rottnest Island Reserve). The terrestrial area is approximately 1859 hectares in area, containing 200 hectares of classified ‘Settlement’ area and 200 hectares of salt lakes and swamps. The marine portion of the Reserve constitutes approximately 3810 hectares of sea surrounding the Island and includes several smaller Islands and exposed rocks adjacent to its coast. 1.2 ROTTNEST ISLAND AUTHORITY 1.2.1 Organisation Structure and Powers The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 (the Act) creates the Rottnest Island Authority (the Authority) as a statutory

body to control and manage the Island, reporting to the Minister for Tourism. The Act gives the Authority the power to control and manage the Island for the following purposes: • to provide and operate recreational and holiday facilities on the Island; • to protect the flora and fauna of the Island; and • to maintain and protect the natural environment and the man-made resources of the Island and, to the extent that the Authority’s resources allow, repair its natural environment. The Authority consists of a Chairman appointed by the Governor on the nomination of the Minister for Tourism and five other members appointed by the Governor, also on the nomination of the Minister. The Minister for Tourism also appoints a Deputy Chairman. Members are appointed so that not less than one member is: • a person experienced in conserving the environment;

• a person experienced in preserving buildings of historic value; • a person with sound commercial experience; and • a person who is a regular user of the Island for recreational purposes. The Chief Executive Officer of the Authority is appointed under the Public Sector Management Act 1994 and is responsible for the administration, subject to the control of the Authority, of the day-to-day operations and management of the Island. The Chief Executive Officer is supported in these operations by a staff of 117 people, which may vary in response to seasonal requirements. Rottnest Island Authority staff are managed under three directorates: Conservation and Planning; Tourist Services; and Business Services, as illustrated in Figure 1 - Rottnest Island Authority Organisation Structure.

Figure 1: Rottnest Island Authority Organisation Structure
Chief Executive Officer
Marketing and Communications

Director
Conservation and Planning Environment Planning and Projects Heritage Risk Management Ranger Services Education and Interpretation Services

Director
Tourist Services Visitor Services Accommodation Services Mooring Services

Director
Business Services Contract Management Lease Management Finance Human Resources Information Services

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Chart 1: Rottnest Island Reserve

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part A. Background

1.3 ROTTNEST ISLAND STRATEGIC PLAN The Authority operates under the guidance of its Strategic Plan which incorporates the organisation’s vision, mission, goal and strategies. This Rottnest Island Management Plan (RIMP) gives detail and specific initiatives to the directions and priorities articulated in the Strategic Plan. The Rottnest Island Strategic Plan may be viewed on the Authority’s website www.rottnest.wa.gov.au 1.3.1 Vision The vision Rottnest: Forever Magic, reflects the community’s wish that the unique Rottnest Island experience be preserved for future generations of Western Australians. 1.3.2 Mission The mission is: ‘Rottnest Island provides holidays for Western Australians and other visitors while sustaining the Island’s natural environment and unique heritage.’ 1.3.3 Goals & Strategies The Authority has three goals: • Rottnest Island provides a unique holiday experience that is accessible to Western Australians and other visitors; • Rottnest Island’s environment and heritage are conserved and enhanced as a model of sustainability; • The Authority conducts its business responsibly and in a way that is sustainable and beneficial to the Island.

Fifteen strategies have been adopted to meet these goals in line with the mission and vision. These strategies are: • Conserve and protect the unique Rottnest Island ethos; • Base decision-making processes on customer needs; • Provide equitable access to the Rottnest Island holiday experience; • Provide enjoyable holiday and recreational experiences; • Preserve and enhance the amenity of Rottnest Island; • Manage the impact of natural processes and human activity to protect and conserve the Island’s natural and built environments; • Work with the Western Australian community to ensure that Rottnest Island’s heritage is understood and protected; • Provide affordable options for Western Australian families to stay on Rottnest Island; • Promote the active participation of all visitors in the protection of the Island’s natural and cultural heritage; • Provide information and education services that promote knowledge of the unique Rottnest Island environment; • Secure a resource base for Rottnest Island operations; • Align services provided by the Business Community with the strategic goals of the Authority and the Rottnest ethos; • Develop, operate and maintain Island services on a sustainable basis; • Build on the contribution of volunteers to the Rottnest Island experience; and • Develop Rottnest Island in consultation with the community and stakeholders.

1.4 FINANCIAL POSITION The financial provisions of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 (the Act) are framed in the expectation that the Authority is self-sufficient. In other words, sufficient revenue is to be generated from operations to meet expenses. The organisation’s financial results are reported in Annual Reports. Financial pressures experienced by the Authority over many years have caused loans to be raised that are now in the process of being repaid. These loan repayments have added to the financial pressures and losses in recent years. 1.5 STATUTORY BASIS AND TERM OF THE ROTTNEST ISLAND MANAGEMENT PLAN The Act directs that the Rottnest Island Authority control and manage the Island in accordance with a Management Plan. The Management Plan is a gazetted statutory document that directs the Authority in its management over a period of five years. The Act directs the Authority to review each Management Plan in terms of its ability to meet the statutory purposes of the Reserve, no later than five years after its approval. Based on the review of the Plan, the Authority may determine to reinstate the existing Plan without amendment, amend the existing Plan, or develop a new Management Plan. A review of the Rottnest Island Management Plan 1997-2002 indicated that the development of a new Management Plan was required. In accordance with the Act, the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008 contains a statement of policies and a summary of the operations recommended to be undertaken.

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2. Development of the Plan

The methodology adopted to develop the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008 is based on the requirements of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 (the Act). The development of this Management Plan can be described in four phases.

PHASE 1 - Review of Previous Management Plan The development of the Plan commenced with the review of the Rottnest Island Management Plan 1997-2002. This included both an internal review of that Plan and a community comment process. PHASE 2 - Draft Rottnest Island Management Plan and Community Consultation Phase Based on key inputs from community consultation, a review of the previous Management Plan, and a review of all operations and functions, a Draft Rottnest Island Management Plan was prepared for community consultation. The Authority released the Draft Management Plan for community consultation for a period of three months commencing 27 June 2002. As specified by the Act, the release of the Draft Management Plan was published in the Government Gazette and advertised in two issues of The West Australian newspaper. A further two public advertisements were placed in The West Australian newspaper approximately one month prior to the close of the consultation period. The Draft Management Plan was forwarded to identified interest groups and relevant government departments. Members of the public were able to request a copy of the Draft Management Plan and also view it on the Authority’s website. Copies were available for viewing at the Salt Store on the Island and in the Fremantle

Administration Office. The availability of the Draft Management Plan was advertised with posters around the Island and public comment forms placed in all accommodation units. Over the three month consultation period, the Authority held five public meetings to further clarify issues with the community and generate further awareness of the Draft Management Plan. In addition, representatives of the Authority conducted and attended numerous other meetings with special interest groups. Comments that were faxed, posted or delivered to the Authority prior to the closing date were accepted as formal submissions on the Draft Management Plan. PHASE 3 - Analysis of Community Consultation and Finalisation of Management Plan At the close of the consultation period, the Authority summarised, collated and analysed public submissions and revised the Draft Management Plan in the context of this analysis. A Community Consultation Report was compiled by the Authority, and a final Draft Management Plan was forwarded to the Minister for Tourism for approval. PHASE 4 - Ministerial Approval This Plan has been approved by the Minister for Tourism, and is now in operation. It will direct the management activities of the Authority for the next five years, from 2003-2008.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

3. Format of the Plan

Part A. Background

The Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008 comprises three sections. Part A (this section) is the introductory section which provides background on the process and scope of the Plan, an overview of the Authority, its powers and responsibilities and an overview of the role of other government bodies, policies and legislation.

Part B is the core of the Management Plan. In Part B, the Island’s management has been divided into Chapters of: Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, Terrestrial Environment, Marine Environment, Cultural Heritage, Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities, Marine Recreation and Facilities, Community Involvement and Relations, Visitor Support Services and Infrastructure and Utilities. The introductory chapter of Part B provides an overview of the Authority’s commitment to sustainability. It should be noted that due to the high level of complexity and inter-related management issues, sections of Part B are linked. Numerous cross-references are made in the document to guide the reader to understand the connected nature of these issues. Greatest value will be gained if this Plan is read comprehensively.

Part C provides the framework for implementation of the Plan including funding, resourcing, priorities, responsibilities, timeframes, reporting and monitoring of progress.

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4. Definition of the Area

This section describes the spatial boundary of Rottnest Island for the purposes of the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008 (refer Chart 2 - Unvested Lands on Rottnest Island). The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 states that the Reserve is: (a) ‘The land containing 1,859 hectares comprising Swan Location 10976 on Department of Land Administration Plan No. 16860; and (b) The waters comprising Swan Location 11022 as shown, at the commencement of this Act, on Department of Land Administration Plan No. 16932, including the sea-bed and subsoil beneath such waters, being Reserve No. 16713 in the records of the Department of Land Administration.’

Within the boundary of the Reserve, there are several small land blocks not currently vested in the Authority. These include Swan locations 12523, 12524, 12525, 12526 and 12667, that are vested in the Minister for Planning and Infrastructure; and Swan locations 10613, 10750 and 10614 that are unallocated crown lands. These land portions will be considered part of the Reserve for the purposes of the Management Plan, as action is in place to have them vested in the Authority. All jetties on the Island, apart from the Green Island Jetty at Nancy Cove, are licensed to the Authority from the

Department for Planning and Infrastructure. The Main Passenger jetty was licensed to the Authority in mid 2002 and processes have commenced to improve the operation of this facility. The scope of the Management Plan also includes the airspace above the Reserve. It is acknowledged that this area is not vested in the Authority; however, there is an interest in influencing those using the airspace to ensure that their behaviour is consistent with the management of the land and water on which it impacts.

Chart 2: Unvested Lands on Rottnest Island
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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

5. Policy Context

There are numerous State, National and International policies which influence the management of Rottnest Island. Where appropriate, further detail on these policies is provided in sections relating to specific management issues in Part B of this Plan. 5.1 INTERNATIONAL POLICY International policies relevant to operations on Rottnest Island include: • ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Charter. The ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Charter provides a standard guide for the protection and interpretation of the heritage assets of Rottnest Island. • Agreements between the Government of Australia and the Governments of Japan and China for the protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment (JAMBA & CAMBA), and Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention). These conventions provide protection for migratory bird species. There are migratory bird species listed in these conventions which use Rottnest Island as either a breeding or roosting location. • Convention of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention). As there are no Ramsar Wetlands on Rottnest Island, this Convention is not relevant to the management of the Island. It has been suggested, however, that wetlands worthy of Ramsar listing exist on the Island.

• Convention of Biological Diversity (Rio Convention). Australia ratified this Convention and has subsequently implemented it by developing the National Strategy on the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity. • International Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICOMOS). Australia’s commitment to this Charter is reflected in the Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976, as well as State legislation, the Maritime Archaeology Act 1973, both of which apply to wrecks in the waters of Rottnest Island. 5.2 AUSTRALIAN POLICY Key national policies that influence Rottnest Island operations include: • National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity. This strategy represents Australia’s commitment to the outcomes of the Rio Earth Summit following its ratification in 1993. The strategy is in part implemented through the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. This Management Plan is consistent with the goal of the National Strategy, which is to protect biological diversity and maintain ecological processes and systems.

• National Ecotourism Strategy. The National Ecotourism Strategy defines ecotourism as nature based tourism that involves education and interpretation of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically sustainable. The Strategy addresses issues associated with the management of and planning for ecotourism in Australia and identifies the major elements of ecotourism as the natural environment, ecological and cultural sustainability, education and interpretation and local and regional benefits. • The Burra Charter. The Australian ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance was developed in 1981 and is otherwise known as the Burra Charter. It includes a comprehensive list of definitions of items such as place, fabric, conservation, maintenance, preservation, restoration, reconstruction, adaptation and compatible use. It also introduces the concept of cultural significance, the ‘aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present and future generations,’ and requires this to be defined for each place, and conservation plans to be established and justified prior to any intervention. The Charter also contains conservation principles and processes that are intended as a definition of good practice. The Burra Charter principles are relevant to Rottnest Island’s heritage assets and will be applied within this Management Plan.

Part A. Background 10

• Native Title. Native Title describes the rights and interests of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people on land and water according to their traditional laws and customs. There have been a number of Native Title claims over Rottnest Island, and there is currently one claim that includes the Island. The claim, by the Combined Metropolitan Working Group (CMWG), covers the entire metropolitan area. This claim was registered under the Native Title Act 1993 in May 1993 and is yet to be determined. • The Commonwealth Disabilities Discrimination Act 1992. The Commonwealth Disabilities Discrimination Act 1992 aims to provide uniform protection against discrimination for all people with disabilities in Australia. The Act requires that people with disabilities be able to access any building or facilities that the public is entitled to enter and use, and have access to any services and facilities provided in those facilities. The Act applies to all levels of Government and the private sector, including all Rottnest Island services and infrastructure.

5.3 WESTERN AUSTRALIAN STATE POLICY Key state policies that influence Rottnest Island operations include: • Western Australian Sustainability Strategy. In response to the international and national direction to consider sustainability as a driving issue for all operations, the Department of Premier and Cabinet’s State Sustainability Unit (SSU) is in the process of developing a State Sustainability Strategy for Western Australia. The Draft Sustainability Strategy was released for public comment in September 2002. The Authority will operate in accordance with the policies and principles and other guidelines determined in the resultant State Sustainability Strategy. • Nature Based Tourism Strategy 1997. The Nature Based Tourism Strategy 1997 is the result of a joint effort by the tourism industry, the Western Australian Tourism Commission and the Department of Conservation and Land Management. The Strategy provides the framework for the development of an industry that will deliver long term and wide ranging benefits to Western Australians and visitors through nature based tourism opportunities. As a destination for nature based activities, the Authority is guided by this Strategy. • Western Australian Volunteering Compact. A key commitment of the Western Australian Government’s Valuing Volunteers policy was to develop a compact that will provide a framework for effective cooperation

between the government and the volunteering community. The compact is currently being developed in consultation with the community. The compact will support the value of volunteers and encourage volunteering in Western Australia. Many volunteer groups are active contributors to the management of Rottnest Island. The compact will guide the Authority in its continued effort to embrace and enhance the contribution of volunteers to the Island. • State Commitment to a New and Just Relationship between the Government of Western Australia and Aboriginal Western Australians. In October 2001 the Chair of the ATSIC State Council and the Western Australian Premier signed a Statement of Commitment to a new and just relationship between the Government of Western Australia and Aboriginal Western Australians. The Statement of Commitment sets out an agreed set of principles and a process for improving the relationship between and the delivery of government services to Aboriginal people in Western Australia. • State Disability Services Act 1993. The State Disability Services Act 1993 requires State Government public authorities to have a Disability Services Plan and to report on the implementation of the Plan’s access initiatives each year in their Annual Reports.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

6. Roles and Responsibilities of Western Australian Government Bodies

The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 states that the Authority ‘has the power to do all things that are necessary or convenient to be done in connection with the management and control of the Island under this Act.’ The Authority also has the power to make regulations in this regard. The Act also states that the application of other written law to, and in relation to, the Island is not affected by the vesting of the control and management of the Island in the Authority or the conferral of any power on the Authority by this Act. The roles and responsibilities of other Government bodies are applicable on Rottnest Island. There are several Government bodies that have a particularly relevant role to Rottnest Island. These are described below. 6.1 DEPARTMENT FOR PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE The Department for Planning and Infrastructure plays a significant role in both the terrestrial and marine portions of the Rottnest Island Reserve. The Department for Planning and Infrastructure is responsible for all boating regulations including licensing, safety standards, marker buoys and jetties. Through the administration of the Marine Act 1982 the Department for Planning and Infrastructure has responsibility for ensuring the safety of all vessels in State Territorial waters. The Department chairs and supports the Western Australian (National Plan) State Committee for Combating Marine Oil Pollution which provides the mechanism

Part A. Background

to coordinate the management of marine pollution incidents. The Department for Planning and Infrastructure is also responsible for the maintenance of all gazetted roads on Rottnest Island, under the Road Traffic Act 1974. 6.2 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Under the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987, the Department of Health is responsible for monitoring environmental health standards on Rottnest Island. The Department’s objective in relation to Rottnest Island is ‘to provide an efficient and effective environmental health service to the Rottnest Island Authority, business community, visitors and residents of Rottnest Island so that the provision of environmental health is maintained at the highest possible standard at all times.’ As part of its mandate, the Department of Health has a role in environmental monitoring, pollution control, food safety, disease control, health education, waste disposal, pest control, chemical control and building management. The Department also has a role in addressing environmental health considerations in relation to festivals, special events and emergency incidents. Environmental health officers visit the Island regularly to undertake various inspections relating to these areas of the Island’s operations.

6.3 WESTERN AUSTRALIAN POLICE SERVICE The Western Australian Police Service is responsible for the application of a number of Acts, including the Police Act 1892, on Rottnest Island. The Western Australian Police Service is the lead agency in the enforcement of law and emergency management procedures on Rottnest Island and its waters. The Police Service operates a station on the Island staffed by resident Police Officers. 6.4 DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, WATER AND CATCHMENT PROTECTION The State Government is creating a new integrated environmental protection and natural resource management agency for Western Australia. The Department of Environment, Water and Catchment Protection will be formed by the amalgamation of the Department of Environmental Protection, the Water and Rivers Commission and the Keep Australia Beautiful Council. This new Department will control marine and terrestrial pollution and provide advice to the Minister for the Environment on issues relating to protection of the environment. Several Rottnest Island operations such as the water supply, wastewater treatment and the landfill site operate under licence agreement with the Department of Environmental Protection and the Water and Rivers Commission, which will now be with the Department of Environment, Water and Catchment Protection. This Department will also be responsible for ensuring the protection and conservation of the Island’s groundwater resources.

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6.5 DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND LAND MANAGEMENT The Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) was established under the Conservation and Land Management Act 1984. The Department of Conservation and Land Management administers the Wildlife Conservation Act and Regulations 1950 that aim to conserve Western Australia’s native flora and fauna. The Act can also allocate special status to species, providing a higher level of protection. Native terrestrial flora and fauna that exist in the Reserve are protected under this Act, meaning that they may not be injured, killed or removed from the Island. 6.6 DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES The Department of Fisheries is responsible for the management of Western Australia’s fish, marine and aquatic resources and pearling industry, while protecting and conserving the various related ecosystems. The responsibilities and the management tools are provided to the Department through its primary legislation, the Fish Resources Management Act 1994. In particular, the Department of Fisheries manages and regulates commercial and recreational fishing activities within the marine portion of the Reserve and has the lead role in enforcement of fisheries legislation.

6.7 WESTERN AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM The major functions of the Western Australian Museum are to preserve significant and representative examples of Western Australia’s heritage for the enrichment of present and future generations; investigate the natural and cultural world; and share ideas and information on natural and cultural heritage through a variety of public programs. The WA Museum consists of several branches, a number of which have a role on Rottnest Island. The Western Australian Museum’s maritime division is responsible for the protection of pre-1900 shipwrecks and artefacts under the Marine Archaeology Act 1973. Shipwrecks over 75 years old are declared and protected under the Commonwealth Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976. These Acts combine to protect valuable State and Commonwealth maritime heritage sites, both above and below the water. The two Acts aim to preserve the integrity of Australian shipwrecks for the benefit of the community’s present and future generations. The Western Australian Museum through the Museum Act 1969 also has the task of documenting the fauna of Western Australia. The Western Australian Museum’s Natural Science division has undertaken considerable work in documenting the marine fauna of Rottnest Island.

6.8 DEPARTMENT OF INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS The Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 is administered by the Department of Indigenous Affairs. The Department is responsible for the administration of Aboriginal sites of significance and of indigenous material culture. Rottnest Island is the location of 17 Aboriginal sites and the Authority has a responsibility to notify the Department of Indigenous Affairs of any developments that may have an impact on these sites. Additional sites may be located as a result of further study or ground disturbing work on the Island, or new information may come to light requiring the extent of some sites to be revised. 6.9 HERITAGE COUNCIL OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA The Heritage Council of Western Australia is the State’s advisory body on heritage and was established through the Heritage of Western Australia Act 1990. The Heritage Council encourages and provides for the conservation of places that are significant to the cultural heritage of Western Australia. The Authority is responsible for the conservation of a large number of significant cultural heritage places representing the layers of historical use of the Island. Many of these sites are listed on the Western Australian Heritage Register. Any development of or interference to these listed places requires approval from the Heritage Council.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part A. Background

6.10 WESTERN AUSTRALIAN TOURISM COMMISSION The Western Australian Tourism Commission (WATC) is a statutory authority of the Western Australian Government and is the pre-eminent body responsible for the promotion, development and marketing of tourism in Western Australia. Rottnest Island is an attractive destination and considered an icon of the State’s tourism infrastructure. The Island is often featured in high profile by the WATC in its State promotional campaigns. The Authority works with the WATC in liaising with transport providers to and from Rottnest Island, facilitating visiting journalist and agent familiarisations, and by providing opportunity for positive State tourism development and growth.

6.11 DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY AND RESOURCES The Department of Industry and Resources is the administrator of the Mining Act 1978 and Petroleum Act 1967. Although it is considered unlikely that significant mining would ever be approved on the Island itself, such proposals may be presented. It is the Department’s role to assist the Minister for State Development to allocate mining titles and to monitor and assess activities on the titles when granted. 6.12 DISABILITY SERVICES COMMISSION The Disability Services Commission provides information and advice to the Rottnest Island Authority to assist the development of Rottnest Island as a universally accessible Island.

6.13 DEPARTMENT OF FIRE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES The Fire and Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia (FESA) is a statutory authority declared under the Fire and Emergency Services Act 1988 and also administers that Act, the Bush Fires Act 1954 and the Fire Brigades Act 1942. FESA provides training for the emergency services on Rottnest Island and fire and public safety advice on Island facilities for the protection of residents and visitors. Since 1999, the Fire Service on Rottnest Island has been a registered Private Brigade with FESA in accordance with the Fire Brigades Regulations. The private brigade is referred to as the Rottnest Island Fire and Rescue Service.

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Part B. Management Planning
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme Terrestrial Environment Marine Environment Cultural Heritage Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities Marine Recreation and Facilities Community Involvement and Relations Visitor Support Services Infrastructure and Utilities 16 18 32 42 50 61 78 88 90 93

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

1. Introduction

Part B. Management Planning

1.1 GENERAL Part B is the core section of the Management Plan. In this section the operations of the Island are explored and the direction of management for the Island over the next five years is documented. The major management areas of the Authority are addressed separately in the following sections: Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, Terrestrial Environment, Marine Environment, Cultural Heritage, Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities, Marine Recreation and Facilities, Community Involvement and Relations, Visitor Support Services and Infrastructure and Utilities. Within each chapter, necessary background is provided, key management issues are documented and recommendations relevant to the management of the Reserve are specified. To gain the greatest level of understanding of the management strategies recommended in this Management Plan, it is important that the reader considers the background information and issues that are documented, in conjunction with the resultant recommendations. Although there have been many factors that have influenced the recommendations of this Management Plan, the underlying principle of this Plan is the requirement and commitment to ensure the sustainability of Rottnest Island and the services and facilities it provides to the Western Australian community. Therefore, it is important that the concept of sustainability on Rottnest Island is clearly articulated.

1.2 ROTTNEST ISLAND AS A MODEL OF SUSTAINABILITY The elements of sustainability have always been a dominant factor in the management of Rottnest Island. The development of this Plan has allowed the Authority to formalise its commitment to sustainability and demonstrate the relevance of this concept to Rottnest Island. Sustainability is the concept that seeks to integrate short- and long-term economic, social and environmental effects in all decision making. For Rottnest Island sustainability means that the Authority will control and manage the Island in a way that ensures that its resources and experiences are available for future generations. This interpretation has generated the following drivers of the recommendations contained within this Management Plan. Maintenance of the Rottnest Island social experience The social value of Rottnest Island is well understood by the Authority. This social value is often called the "Rottnest Island ethos" and can be described in terms of the self-directed, simple, nature-based and family-oriented experience, very much dependent on a high degree of natural amenity and space. It is also heavily based on the management practices of the Authority that have promoted a high level of access to the Island for Western Australians. The maintenance and protection of the Rottnest Island experience

is an important aspect of achieving sustainability, and the objective to maintain this social experience has led to recommendations in this Plan. These recommendations are based on specified limits to further development, maintaining the current style and range of services and facilities, and improvements that retain the essential elements of the Rottnest ethos and provide a quality holiday and recreation experience. Protection of the Natural Environment and Heritage Asset Rottnest Island is an A-class Reserve with many significant and valuable terrestrial and marine resources. It also has highly significant cultural heritage values that reflect the many facets of Western Australia’s development. The continued management, repair and enhancement of these resources is a fundamental goal of sustainability and a key focus of this Plan. Precautionary Management of Capacity The Island’s resources are more constrained than on the mainland and there are complexities, expenses and potential impacts associated with the use of these resources. Furthermore, the sustainable level of use of Island resources is not well defined. These factors combine to justify the implementation of a precautionary approach to the management and use of resources such as power, water and space, and to the exploration of methods to manage the impact of Island visitors.

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Generation of Viable Economic Environment The Rottnest Island Authority faces financial pressures that constrain and limit its operations. During the life of the Plan the Authority will seek to improve its operations, increase its revenue and continue to meet its obligations to provide affordable family holiday services and conserve the natural and built environment. Management of Seasonality of Visitors The highly seasonal nature of activity and business on Rottnest Island has environmental, social and economic implications. The high numbers of visitors during peak times can have an impact on the social amenity of the Island, and can also potentially lead to environmental impacts through excessive demand on resources. This seasonality also leads to economic issues such as the need to manage staff levels and deal with heavy resource demands in peak times and low turnover in off-peak times. Demonstration of Sustainability through Interpretation The demonstration of sustainable management on Rottnest Island through a range of interpretative vehicles is a key element of the Authority’s vision of sustainability. This will be achieved through an interpretation strategy that allows visitors to fully appreciate and understand the values of the Island and how their actions and activities impact on those values.

1.2.1 Recommendations • Develop Rottnest Island as a model of sustainability. • Develop and commence implementation of an interpretation strategy that allows visitors to fully appreciate and understand the values of the Island, and which communicates its sustainable management practices. • Promote, demonstrate and integrate environmental technologies where they meet the social and cultural requirements of the Island and are economically viable and relevant.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

2. Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme

Part B. Management Planning

2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Purpose of the Zoning Plan and Planning Scheme This section describes the Zoning Plan for the Reserve and Planning Scheme for the Settlement. The concept of developing spatial plans for the management of Rottnest Island is important for a number of reasons: • understanding how different parts of the Reserve are being used allows the creation of Zones that ensure activities are compatible with the environment and with each other; • planning in this manner ensures that long-term strategic decisions are made, reducing the threat of costly, ad hoc decisions; • at the scale of the Settlement, planning is also important to ensure that optimal and functional use is made of the built and natural environment and to ensure that appropriate services and facilities are provided. Although these spatial plans have been developed in the context of the five-year Management Plan, the Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme have been developed to give long-term direction to the development and management of Rottnest Island. Several plans that have been prepared previously for Rottnest Island have been used as inputs into the Reserve Zoning Plan and the Settlement Planning Scheme. Relevant outcomes and recommendations of those plans have been reconsidered and incorporated into the Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme.
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The development of the Reserve Zoning Plan was based on a number of overriding principles that are contained in Appendix 1. 2.2 ROTTNEST ISLAND RESERVE BOUNDARY 2.2.1 Definition of the Rottnest Island Reserve Boundary The boundary of the Reserve was discussed in Part A, Chapter 4 Definition of the Area. There have been no pressures to deviate from the current Rottnest Island Reserve boundary. The Authority has no intention of proposing amendments to the boundary of the Reserve during the life of this Management Plan. It is noteworthy that although the boundary is well illustrated on maps and charts, currently it is not described in terms of geo-positioning reference points. Considering that this boundary is irregular, marine based and unmarked, it is difficult for users of the Marine Reserve to determine whether a given point is inside or outside the boundary of the Reserve. Describing its boundary by way of geo-positioning reference points would improve the understanding of the location of the boundary of the Reserve. 2.2.2 Purpose of the Reserve The current gazetted purpose of the Rottnest Island A-Class Reserve is ‘public recreation’. This purpose does not reflect the complete objectives of the Reserve as established by the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987,

which include the protection of flora and fauna and the maintenance and protection and, where possible, repair of the natural and man-made resources. The Rottnest Island Management Plan 1997-2002 recommended an amendment to the Reserve purpose to fully reflect this situation. Further consideration has been given to this matter and the Authority is pursuing an amendment to the purpose of the Reserve to: for the purposes of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987. 2.2.3 Areas Not Vested in the Authority There are areas within the boundary of the Reserve that are not vested in or controlled by the Authority. These include three blocks of unallocated crown lands and five blocks vested in the Minister for Planning and Infrastructure (refer Chart 2 Unvested Lands on Rottnest Island). The transfer of responsibility for these lands has commenced. 2.2.4 Recommendations • Define the boundary of the Rottnest Island Reserve in terms of a series of geo-positioning data points. • Amend the Rottnest Island Reserve purpose to ‘for the purposes of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987.’ • Incorporate Swan Locations 12523, 12524, 12525, 12526, 12667, 10613, 10750 and 10614 into the Rottnest Island Reserve.

2.3 ROTTNEST ISLAND RESERVE ZONING PLAN 2.3.1 Current Zones The Island is currently separated into three Zones that were established in the Rottnest Island Management Plan 1997-2002. These are the Settlement Area, Natural Area and Marine Area. These Zones recognise the division between the Settlement area that includes Thomson Bay, GeordieLongreach-Fays Bays and Kingstown, and the natural area where the provision of accommodation is not permitted. They also recognise the division between the land and sea that is self-evident. As specified in the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987, accommodation development is limited to the Settlement Zone (displayed in Chart 2 - Unvested Lands on Rottnest Island). Development in any other area of the Island can only occur if approved by the Minister or if provided for in this five-year Management Plan. The limit of the Settlement Zone is well illustrated on charts but has not been defined geographically. The Authority has identified a need for a more comprehensive planning scheme that provides greater definition of the terrestrial and marine environments, to appropriately manage natural resources and activities throughout the areas.

2.3.2 Terrestrial Zoning Plan 2.3.2.1 Description of Terrestrial Zones The zoning system for the terrestrial environment is a formalisation and documentation of existing management measures and uses of the Island and does not propose new uses or activities for any areas. This system will ensure that necessary facilities are provided throughout the Island without impacting on the amenity and experiences that are valued by Rottnest Island visitors. This will be achieved by implementing the following zones as illustrated in Chart 3 - Terrestrial Zoning Plan . Settlement Zone: The limit of the Settlement area that includes Geordie/Longreach and Fays Bay, Thomson Bay and Kingstown. This Zone represents an area of high intensity of use where the development of accommodation facilities is permitted. The boundary of the Settlement Zone is still relevant to the management of Rottnest Island and will be maintained for the life of this Plan, although there is a need to define this geographically. Natural Zone: The area that is managed for conservation and low level activity compatible with the preservation of environmental values. The majority of the area outside the Settlement Zone is classed as the Natural Zone, and contains several smaller areas of Activity Nodes, Permanent Environmental Exclusion Zones and Temporary Environmental Exclusion Zones.

Activity Nodes: Areas outside the Settlement Zone that are managed for low to medium level activity compatible with the environmental and social values of those areas. Within these Nodes, public facilities will be provided for medium scale functions, events and activities. These areas will relieve the Natural Zone of pressure from such activities and from the effects of the construction of public facilities and services. Activity Nodes include Oliver Hill, Wadjemup Hill Lighthouse area, Parker Point, Salmon Point, Parakeet and Little Parakeet Bay, City of York Bay, Green Island, Strickland Bay, Narrow Neck, Stark Bay and West End Boardwalk area. These areas generally contain existing built facilities capable of providing for low to medium level activity. Wadjemup Hill and Oliver Hill contain heritage items and buildings of significance that may lend them to becoming areas of increased activity outside the Settlement Zone. The Authority is considering the development of these areas to enhance the visitor experience.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Environmental Exclusion Zone, Permanent: Areas of the terrestrial environment closed permanently for the purposes of protecting terrestrial and freshwater environmental values such as fragile and ecologically significant wetlands. Such Zones may be located anywhere on the Island, including within the Settlement Zone, where this level of protection is warranted. The exact location of Permanent Environmental Exclusion Zones will be determined and implemented over the life of the Plan.

Environmental Exclusion Zone, Temporary: Areas of the terrestrial environment closed periodically or temporarily for the purpose of protecting terrestrial and freshwater environmental values such as for dune rehabilitation, protection of plantation areas and seasonal breeding areas. Such Zones may be located anywhere on the Island, including within the Settlement Zone, where this level of protection is warranted.

Temporary Environmental Exclusion Zones will include woodland restoration areas, areas being used by migratory seabirds and areas that are subject to harsh erosion processes. The exact location of Temporary Environmental Exclusion Zones will be determined and implemented as required. Management of activities and development in these Zones are described in Table 1 - Activities and Development Permitted in the Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zones.

Part B. Management Planning

Table 1: Activities and Development Permitted in the Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zones

Activity

Settlement Zone

Natural Zone

Activity Nodes

Environmental Exclusion Zone, Permanent No Special No Special4 Special4 No
4

Environmental Exclusion Zone, Temporary No Special4 No Special4 Special4 No

Public Access1 Escorted Access
2

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No No Yes No

Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes

Accommodation Built Facilities (other than accommodation) Vehicle Access (on designated roads and tracks only) Approved Events and Functions
3

Notes: 1. Public Access - Available to the public. 2. Escorted Access - Access only permitted while in the company of a Rottnest Island Authority Officer e.g. organised tour or escorted party of a smaller nature. 3. Approved function or events Including weddings, parties, conferences, festivals and sporting events. 4. Limited for the purpose of conservation and risk management.

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Chart 3: Terrestrial Zoning Plan

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

2.3.2.2 Signage Effective signage is a key form of information for visitors but can also negatively impact on the Island’s amenity. There are numerous signs on Rottnest Island both within the Settlement Zone and the Natural Zone. There is a need to rationalise signage and investigate other mechanisms of disseminating information to visitors. 2.3.2.3 Recommendations • Define the Rottnest Island Settlement Zone boundary in terms of a series of geo-positioning data points. • Implement the Terrestrial Zones as described in Chart 3 - Terrestrial Zoning Plan that comprise the Settlement Zone, Natural Zone, Activity Nodes and Permanent and Temporary Environmental Exclusion Zones, and manage in accordance with Table 1 - Activities and Development Permitted in the Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zones. • Investigate the feasibility of the development of Wadjemup Hill Activity Node for the interpretation of military, maritime and environmental heritage. • Investigate the feasibility of the development of Oliver Hill Activity Node for the interpretation of military, maritime and environmental heritage. • Develop and implement a signage plan for Rottnest Island. 2.3.3 Marine Management Strategy The marine portion of the Reserve contains many features of conservation and social value. This results in it being a highly popular recreation area, used for a wide variety of recreational pursuits. There is a need to manage the Reserve to ensure that conflicts between recreational pursuits are addressed and

Part B. Management Planning

that environmental values are protected. Current forms of management of the Marine Reserve include (refer Chart 1Rottnest Island Reserve): • Fishing regulations gazetted under the Fishing Resources Management Act 1994 (refer Part A, Chapter 6 Roles and Responsibilities of Western Australian Government Bodies), including: - Two no-fishing zones within the marine portion of the Reserve: Kingston Reef and Parker Point Reef; - Speargun prohibition within a portion of the Reserve; - Commercial Western Rock Lobster fishing prohibition within a portion of the Reserve; - Other recreational fishing regulations that are developed, implemented and enforced by the Department of Fisheries. • Portions of Thomson Bay, Geordie Bay, Longreach Bay, Marjorie Bay and all of Little Parakeet Bay and the Basin zoned for no anchoring, no boating and no daylight fishing. These management measures are designed to protect natural values of the marine environment, but are less effective at protecting social values of the Reserve. Furthermore, the Authority is concerned about the health of the marine environment given the level of activity that occurs in the Reserve. The Authority wishes to review the current marine management regime and investigate the need to implement further measures to protect the Reserve. The Authority is committed to maximising equity of access and opportunity for a quality experience among recreational users of the Reserve, while protecting its

environmental values. This objective will be pursued through the development of a marine management strategy, which may involve the development of regulations under the Fish Management Act 1994. The marine management strategy will be pursued in coordination with the Department of Fisheries and in consultation with relevant stakeholders. Commercial fishing within the Reserve is inconsistent with its explicit legislated purpose, of ‘public recreation.’ 2.3.3.1 Recommendations • Develop and implement a marine management strategy that promotes equity of access and opportunity for a quality experience among recreational users of the Marine Reserve, protecting its environmental values, in coordination with the Department of Fisheries and in consultation with relevant stakeholders. • Pursue restrictions on commercial fishing in coordination with the Department of Fisheries. 2.4 SETTLEMENT PLANNING SCHEME The Settlement Planning Scheme is limited to the boundary of the Settlement Zone and is based on a series of precincts that are separated according to core function. The precincts are illustrated in Chart 4 - Settlement Planning Scheme. These are: • Arrival and Departure Precinct (1) • Commercial Precinct (2) • Visitor Accommodation Precincts (3a, 3b, 3c, 3d) • Staff Accommodation Precinct (4) • Kingstown Precinct (5) • Services and Operations Precincts (6a, 6b, 6c) • Recreation Precincts (7a, 7b, 7c)

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For each precinct, this Plan provides a description of the area, documents issues associated with the management of the area and makes recommendations for management. 2.4.1 Arrival and Departure Precinct

2.4.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Arrival and Departure Precinct include: • The vistas of the Island as viewed from the Arrival and Departure Precinct • have high historical and social value. The Arrival and Departure Precinct is in need of appropriate shelter for passengers waiting to board ferries. Access from the jetty through the Arrival and Departure Precinct has improved in recent years; however, areas of conflict involving pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles still remain. Conflict areas include the jetty, the barge area, Colebatch Avenue and the road from the base of the jetty to the Visitor and Information Centre, particularly the crossover on this road between the Visitor and Information Centre and the Dôme Café. These conflicts will continue to be managed by the Authority over the life of the Plan by developing and enforcing vehicle nogo and no parking areas. The temporary solution of two lanes on the jetty to relieve congestion and conflict between visitors and the luggage and barge functions appears to be effective, and the Authority will consider mechanisms to formalise and improve this remedy. Vehicle movement and parking on Henderson Avenue adds to congestion in this precinct and unnecessary movements will be prohibited by the Authority to reduce this problem.

• For first-time visitors to Rottnest Island, orientation to Island services and facilities can be difficult. This is a whole of Island issue but is most prevalent in the Arrival and Departure Precinct. • The absence of elements which aid in the direction of flow of visitors from the jetty can lead to congestion at service points during peak times. • There is an absence of a central facility for orientation and interpretation. • Signal Hill is a fragile area that is susceptible to erosion caused by trampling. 2.4.1.3 Recommendations • Develop the Arrival and Departure Precinct to provide for a visitorfriendly experience. • Investigate and implement methods to improve the orientation of visitors arriving on the Island to their required first point of contact and other points around the Island. • Establish appropriate shelter for ferry passengers in the Arrival and Departure Precinct. • Develop a conceptual model for a purpose-built interpretation facility on Rottnest Island. • Seek external funding for the establishment and operation of an interpretation facility on Rottnest Island in consultation with relevant groups with a historical interest in the Island. • Develop and implement a strategy for Signal Hill to reduce erosion from trampling and to manage risk issues.

2.4.1.1 Description The Arrival and Departure Precinct is that part of the Settlement Zone that includes the first contacts both visually and physically, for visitors to the Island. The ‘arrival’ sequence and how it has evolved is very much a part of the Rottnest Island experience. The departure sequence is also significant. Key elements of this precinct are the Main Passenger Jetty, Visitor and Information Centre, Accommodation Office and the seawall. This precinct also includes the vacant land on the western side of Colebatch Avenue, between Henderson Avenue and Forrest Avenue. Two of the Settlement’s most prominent landscape features also fall within the bounds of the Precinct: Signal Hill and the hill south of the Tearooms. These two features provide natural landscape breathing spaces. Buildings and lands in this precinct will be reserved for facilities and services that support the arrival function. As the precinct contains the primary point of arrival to and departure from the Island, the landscape and materials used here ‘set the scene’ and should thereafter be employed consistently throughout the area of the Settlement Zone.

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Part B. Management Planning

Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

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2.4.2 Commercial Precinct 2.4.2.1 Description This precinct surrounds the Arrival and Departure Precinct and forms the commercial core of the Settlement Zone. The precinct includes three main areas that are the retail shopping area; the dining area including the Dôme Café and the Tearooms; and the Rottnest Island Hotel and Lodge area. It should be noted that the Rottnest Island Hotel is not only an important area of the Commercial Precinct, but also forms a significant visual element of the arrival vista as it has always been one of the most visible elements of the Settlement from the sea. This precinct also includes Heritage Common, adjacent to the retail shopping area, that is used for events and is a visual extension of the shopping area. The museum and library are also included in this precinct. 2.4.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Commercial Precinct include: • Bicycle riding through the mall continues despite signs at all entry points that indicate that riding in this area is prohibited. • Vehicular traffic through the Commercial Precinct is higher than preferred because there is no alternative route to service the shops and accommodation north of the jetty. • The museum service is a valuable but under-utilised asset of the Island experience.

• The library service is a valuable but under-utilised asset of the Island experience. • The Commercial Precinct contains staff accommodation that is inappropriate for this area. • Some shops have limited accessibility to people with disabilities. 2.4.2.3 Recommendations • Maintain the Commercial Precinct to provide commercial services to enhance visitor experience and improve access for people with disabilities. • Investigate the feasibility of the construction of a vehicular route connecting the Service Precinct 6a to the Golf Club and the south side of the Settlement to link the north and south of the Settlement, eliminating the need for vehicles to move through the core pedestrian area. • Investigate the feasibility of establishing an additional food outlet in the Commercial Precinct, which provides value-for-money food options utilising and promoting Western Australian produce. • Develop and implement strategies to enhance the library service. • Develop and implement strategies to enhance the museum service.

2.4.3 Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct 2.4.3.1 Description The Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct is the northernmost accommodation area within Thomson Bay. The Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct is very popular with Island holiday-makers. At the north of Bathurst Precinct are the Bathurst Lighthouse and Lighthouse Keeper’s Cottage. These buildings are highly significant from a heritage perspective and are also an important and highly recognisable symbol of Rottnest Island. 2.4.3.2 Issues Several issues are associated with the management of the Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct: • The coastline of this precinct is a particularly hazardous area, experiencing potentially dangerous rockfalls; and as a result it has been fenced along its full length. • The continued preservation and conservation of the Lighthouse and Lighthouse Keeper’s Cottage is a high priority. 2.4.3.3 Recommendations • Manage the Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation. • Provide appropriately designed beach access paths and approaches in the Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct. • Maintain and preserve the Bathurst Lighthouse and Lighthouse Keeper’s Cottage without additional development.
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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part B. Management Planning

2.4.4 North Thomson 2.4.4.1 Description The North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct contains a particularly high number of heritage sites. Perhaps the most significant of these is the area of Vincent Way, including both the cottages and the road above the seawall that have been recognised as the oldest intact streetscape in Australia. The front row of villas at North Thomson is one of the first visible elements of the Island’s landscape. The 1920s bungalows exist in a refurbished state side by side with 50s-era buildings and an array of brick cottages. Most of the brick cottages have been recently upgraded. This precinct contains the earliest family accommodation in the Settlement. The early beachfront villas represent the best interpretation of the modern holiday experience in terms of facility and form. Curved, meandering roads lead holidaymakers through the precinct, and the retention of this random approach and permeability is desirable. The visual prominence of this precinct requires that it be considered within the context of the surrounding environment with careful integration of the landscape and its cultural and historical values. This precinct also contains the highly significant Aboriginal burial grounds established during the period in which the Island was an Aboriginal Prison (refer Part B, Chapter 5 - Cultural Heritage). The camping ground and two areas of camping cabins are also located within the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

2.4.4.2 Issues The management of the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct includes the following issues: • There are notably degraded accommodation units in this precinct, particularly units on Kelly and Abbott Streets and the Allison Camping Cabins. The management of these areas is addressed in Part B, Chapter 6 Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities. • The Hire Services Shed and offices are inappropriately located in this precinct. • The full extent of the Aboriginal burial grounds has been questioned and there may be further locations in this vicinity that require protection. This issue is addressed in Part B, Chapter 5 - Cultural Heritage. • This area currently contains staff accommodation that is inappropriately located for this area (refer Section 2.4.7 of this Chapter) • There are opportunities for the location of Youth Hostel Facilities in the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct. 2.4.4.3 Recommendations • Manage the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation. • Relocate the Hire Services Shed and the Office from the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to the Services Precinct or the Commercial Precinct. • Investigate the feasibility of relocating the Youth Hostel facility from Kingstown Barracks to the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

2.4.5 South Thomson 2.4.5.1 Description The South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct is principally an accommodation area favoured by young families. The waterfront units in this precinct occupy a highly desirable location. The area is quiet and suits the nature of its occupancy well. 2.4.5.2 Issues The management of the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct includes the following issues: • The South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct has reached its capacity in terms of accommodation units. • This precinct is adjacent to a fragile dune system that is subject to beach erosion pressures and requires protection from further development. • Beach access must be appropriately controlled in this area. 2.4.5.3 Recommendations • Manage the existing accommodation stock in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation. • Continue to provide access to the beach via purpose-built designated accessways and stairs in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct. • Monitor beach erosion in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

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2.4.6 Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct 2.4.6.1 Description Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct provides a unique style of accommodation, and all units have an exceptional outlook. The accommodation here is constructed very close to the shoreline. A bus service caters for visitor movement. 2.4.6.2 Issues Management of the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct includes the following issues: • Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay accommodation requires refurbishment. This is addressed under Part B, Chapter 6 - Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities. • The design of roads in this area has led to inconsistent traffic movement patterns. • Beach access is a critical management issue in this fragile coastal area. • Fays Bay headland is highly degraded. 2.4.6.3 Recommendations • Manage the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation. • Review and realign roads, tracks and traffic flows in the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct to improve amenity and traffic flow. • Improve beach access in the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct. • Restore and rehabilitate Fays Bay headland.

2.4.7 Staff Accommodation Precinct 2.4.7.1 Description Some Island staff are accommodated in the area defined in this Plan as the Staff Accommodation Precinct. However, there is also a large number of staff who are inappropriately accommodated throughout the Settlement area, adjacent to visitor accommodation and commercial facilities. It is proposed to develop this area, which currently has the highest concentration of staff housing, as a Staff Accommodation Precinct. This area is defined by Parker Point Road to the north and contains accommodation to the east of Brand Way in addition to the power house residences to the west of Brand Way. This is the precinct where the majority of the Island’s residents currently live. Much of the existing accommodation is set back from the road or in landscaped areas and has poor amenity and landscape conservation value. Between dwellings, the landscape has been allowed to deteriorate. 2.4.7.2 Issues Issues associated with development of a Staff Accommodation Precinct include: • Staff are currently accommodated, sometime inappropriately, in other precincts. • Parker Point Road is the main pedestrian and bicycle track out of the Settlement Zone to this precinct but is also heavily used by vehicles. • Some staff accommodation is in poor condition.

2.4.7.3 Recommendations • Develop a Plan for a dedicated Staff Accommodation Precinct including the relocation of staff from other precincts to this area. • Investigate the feasibility of the development of an additional road along the Railway Track to limit the use of Parker Point Road by vehicles. 2.4.8 Kingstown Barracks Precinct 2.4.8.1 Description Kingstown Barracks nestles between the primary dunes of the Bickley Point headland. The use of Kingstown Barracks as budget accommodation for groups and as an education centre has seen its facilities maintained but not restored or improved. This precinct has several significant values. It is a military heritage site of note. Kingstown Barracks was built in 1938-39, during World War II, and at the time it was the only military building established offshore in Australia (refer Part B, Chapter 5 - Cultural Heritage). More recently, Kingstown Barracks has become the location of the Island’s Environmental Education Centre that forms a significant part of many schools’ education programs. A hostel facility and commercial catering centre are also located at Kingstown Barracks.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

2.4.8.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of Kingstown Barracks Precinct include: • The education services provided at Kingstown Barracks are highly valued by the many schools that utilise them. • Kingstown Barracks is poorly utilised at certain times of the year. • Kingstown Barracks is not well interpreted and utilised by visitors, other than those staying at this location. • Kingstown Barracks Precinct contains a number of high maintenance significant heritage buildings. 2.4.8.3 Recommendations • Maintain and improve the use of Kingstown Barracks as an Environmental Education Centre primarily for school groups. • Develop a business plan for Kingstown Barracks that capitalises on other opportunities for the use of this area and improves its economic viability.

Part B. Management Planning

2.4.9 Service and Operation Precinct 2.4.9.1 Description The Service and Operation Precinct on Rottnest Island comprises four areas, three of which are contained within the Settlement Zone. The main area is the service compound that is located to the west of the Staff Accommodation Precinct and contains the bus depot, recycling facility and power plant. A second Service and Operation area contains the wastewater treatment plant just south of the Basin. A third area located around Mt Herschel contains the bituminised catchment area, desalination plants and water collection tanks, and is the site for a proposed wind turbine. Finally, the landfill is located at Forbes Hill, outside the boundary of the Settlement Zone. 2.4.9.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Operations and Services Precinct include: • Potential noise, odour and visual amenity concerns are typically associated with such facilities; however, these appear to be well managed. • Material collection areas are visible from the walk to Vlamingh lookout and these areas require ongoing management to minimise potential impacts. 2.4.9.3 Recommendation • Control noise, odour and visual impact around the Service and Operation Precinct.

2.4.10 Recreation Precinct 2.4.10.1 Description The Recreational Precinct will contain facilities for sports, holiday activities and events. The Recreational Precinct is separated into three areas. The major area is that containing the two dominant recreational facilities, namely the oval and the Rottnest Island Country Club. This area could be developed as a significant area for recreation within the Settlement Zone. The Basin and Pinkys Beach comprise a Recreation Precinct adjacent to the Country Club and oval area, but are used in quite a different manner to the Country Club recreation area. The third area of the Recreational Precinct is the Army Jetty area. This area has previously been proposed as an alternative barge landing location. Without structural modification to the jetty area, sea swell would make landing here dangerous on some days in winter months. There is a need for this area to be maintained and utilised as an alternative delivery site for large-scale special goods. However, during the extensive periods when its function as a barge landing site is not required, the area in the immediate vicinity of the Army Jetty can be utilised for recreation, functions and events.

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2.4.10.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Recreation Precinct include: • There is congestion in the Commercial Precinct and Arrival and Departure Precinct because of the large number of facilities and services located within those areas. The development of an additional recreational sub-centre, near the Country Club, containing a significant number of services and facilities, may draw people away from existing congested precincts and lead to a greater utilisation of the Country Club area. • Limited promotion and the absence of grassed fairways reduce the popularity and utilisation of the Country Club and Golf Course. • The Recreational Precinct may be developed to provide the necessary facilities to satisfy the current perceived need for youth oriented activities on Rottnest Island. 2.4.10.3 Recommendations • Develop and implement a plan for the development of a Recreation Precinct based around the Country Club. • Promote and enhance golf on Rottnest Island and undertake a feasibility study into the sustainable greening of the golf course, with a view to implementation.

2.5 ROAD DESIGN AND VEHICLE USE 2.5.1 Roads and Tracks 2.5.1.1 Background Roads and tracks are used by visitors as pathways for exploring the Island. Roads and tracks formalise and streamline visitor access to sensitive outer bay and inland areas and are therefore considered environmental management tools. Roads and tracks also provide access for Island staff to carry out environmental management tasks and access for emergency purposes. 2.5.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of roads and tracks include: • There are many tracks that have been created outside the Settlement Zone which are not necessary for the protection of the Island and are creating a negative environmental and aesthetic impact. • There is a demand for further development of the Island’s coastal walking trail, although its extension beyond Narrow Neck could impact on values in that location. • As there is no stormwater drainage system, hardened surfaces such as roads and paving may increase the potential for water erosion. The Authority manages this issue in the establishment of new hardened surfaces. 2.5.1.3 Recommendations • Review, rationalise and where necessary realign tracks in areas outside Settlement Zone. • Extend and enhance the existing Rottnest Island coastal walk trail.

2.5.2 Vehicles 2.5.2.1 Background Vehicles are prohibited on the Island except for those necessary for the operation of facilities and services, and the low number of vehicles is considered a major attraction for visitors. The Authority operates bus and coach tour services, and visitors and residents are not permitted to bring vehicles to the Island. 2.5.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of vehicles include the following: • There are visitor complaints about the number of vehicles. The amount of vehicle movement is increased by the very high level of movement created by luggage delivery and collection and cleaning of accommodation. • Some vehicles are over-sized for their intended use and the style of many is urban and not consistent with the Island’s relaxed environment. • Insufficient designated parking-bays results in vehicles parked in inappropriate, highly visible areas in the Settlement Zone. The creation of designated parking places for Island operations would reduce this impact. 2.5.2.3 Recommendations • Restrict vehicle numbers, size and type to the minimum required to carry out necessary operations and actively encourage alternatively powered vehicles, as replacements are required.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part B. Management Planning

2.6 LANDSCAPE MATERIALS 2.6.1 Background Materials are required for landscaping within the Settlement Zone, including roadway, paving and retaining walls among others. Various different styles of landscaping have been introduced to the Settlement Zone over several periods of development including those documented in Table 2 - Rottnest Island Landscaping Materials. 2.6.2 Issues Issues associated with the use of landscape materials on the Island include the following: • There is a need to be consistent with respect to the landscaping materials employed and these should be sympathetic with heritage elements. 2.6.3 Recommendation • Implement an approved range of landscape materials for Rottnest Island.

2.7 PUBLIC FURNITURE 2.7.1 Background Public furniture is provided throughout the Settlement Zone. This mainly includes benches, playground furniture, shade shelters and other seating, tables and bus stop furniture. 2.7.2 Issues Issues associated with the provision of public furniture on the Island include the following: • There is a need to be consistent with public furniture provided, which should be sympathetic to the heritage element of the Settlement Zone and also be functional to meet visitor needs. 2.7.3 Recommendation • Define and implement a furniture style for the public open spaces of the Settlement Zone and around the Island that meets customer needs and is consistent with and sympathetic to the heritage elements of Rottnest Island.

Table 2 - Rottnest Island Landscaping Materials

Function Roadways Cycle/pedestrian ways Pathways Paved areas Landscaping walls Activity spaces Fences

Landscape Material Black bitumen Black bitumen; stabilised crushed limestone/sand Soft black bitumen; stabilised crushed limestone/sand Unit format ‘Rottnest Crete’; Limestone paving slabs Limestone and/or rendered brick in painted in Rottnest Island ochres Grass, reticulated, woodchipped, sand Timber post and rail; Timber post and rail and wire mesh where required for animal exclusion

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2.8 SETTLEMENT VEGETATION 2.8.1 Background The Settlement Zone contains numerous plant species that, while introduced, are of cultural heritage value. Plantings, including avenues of trees, create important ambience in the Settlement Zone. Vegetation at ground level within the Settlement is minimal as a result of a lack of water, quokka damage, overuse and dense shade. 2.8.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the vegetation in the Settlement include: • The maintenance of trees and their associated vistas can only be undertaken by inter-planting seeds from the existing stock, adapted to the Island’s harsh environment. • Lawned areas lead to enlarged population levels of quokkas as they utilise grass as a food source. • Due to quokka grazing, fencing is an essential element of landscaping. • Lawn areas require a high level of irrigation that draws valuable water supplies away from essential demands. 2.8.3 Recommendations • Retain existing Settlement vegetation including trees, ground cover and shrubs. • Maintain existing canopy lines within the Settlement Zone, particularly along the ocean frontage where they are a key element of the vista.

2.9 COLOUR 2.9.1 Background The Rottnest ochre colour is a highly recognisable element as it dominates the colour-scape of the Island. The colour was introduced to cover the original whitewashed limestone walls which created an extreme glare. The colour was generated by adding rusted nails to the wash and so originally there was a range of different intensities of Rottnest ochre on the buildings of the Island, although all were of a similar hue. 2.9.2 Issues Issues associated with the colour-scape of the Settlement buildings include the following: • The use of the historical range of colours on the Island adds historical relevance and appropriate colour to the Settlement vista. 2.9.3 Recommendation • Define and implement a colour scheme that maintains the character of Rottnest Island.

2.10 LIGHTING 2.10.1 Background Lighting is a definite requirement in the Settlement Zone for visual and risk reasons. Lighting has been added to over a period of several years with no comprehensive plan for location or style. 2.10.2 Issues Issues associated with the management and provision of public space lighting on the Island include the following: • The progressive nature of lighting installations has resulted in a range of styles being used that has led to visual inconsistency. • Inappropriate lighting could lead to risk issues. 2.10.3 Recommendation • Develop and implement a lighting plan that addresses location and style of lighting.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

3. Terrestrial Environment

Part B. Management Planning

3.1 INTRODUCTION The natural environment of Rottnest Island is a reflection of its separation from the mainland for between 6,500 and 10,000 years, and of influences from the many roles that the Island has had over its 170 years of settlement. The terrestrial environment contains many reminders of the pre-developed landscape but the relative abundance and distribution of most characteristics are altered from pre-settlement state. Over recent years, substantial attention has been devoted to the protection, enhancement and restoration of the environmental values of Rottnest Island. The Authority’s environmental management charter is formalised in the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 that states that the purposes of the Island’s management include: • Protecting the flora and fauna of the Island; and • Maintaining and protecting the natural environment and, to the extent that the Authority’s resources allow, repairing its natural environment. The management of the Island’s facilities and services is intrinsically linked to environmental management. This section should be read in conjunction with other chapters of this Management Plan that address the management of facilities and activities. Particularly relevant chapters of Part B are Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, and Chapter 6 - Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities.

3.2 GEOLOGY, LANDFORMS AND SOILS 3.2.1 Background Rottnest Island is the largest and northernmost of a chain of limestone Islands and reefs on the continental shelf near Perth. The Island was connected to the mainland during the last Glacial period when the sea level was 130 metres lower than at present. With the rise in sea level from 10,000 to 6,500 years ago, the Island became separated from the mainland. The terrestrial component of Rottnest Island is composed of marine and dune limestone and sand formed during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods up to 140,000 years ago. The highly calcareous Pleistocene dunes have been cemented to form the Tamala limestone formation that is extensive across the Island (Playford and Leech 1977). The dune terrain varies from high parabolic dunes to low, gently undulating limestone flats. Marine limestone was formed during the last interglacial event 120 to 130 thousand years ago and comprises fossil coral and shell species. This occurs at Fairbridge Bluff. Holocene coastal dunes have formed around the margins of the Island and overlie much of the limestone. Foredunes occur at the landward margins of most sandy bays and interface with extensive parabolic dunes that occur on the south and southwest coast and minor parabolic dunes on the north and northwest coasts. The dunes

are highly calcareous, partially lithified in places, and display minimal soil development (Hesp et al 1983). Soils on the Island are low in nutrients and the use of fertilisers in the Natural Zone is limited to protect this natural state. The Island overlies the Perth basin, a large geological structure that extends from the south coast to Geraldton and is a known gas and oil source. As such, there may be future proposals for titles to allow for exploration near to or even on the Island. The Department of Industry and Resources is responsible for the consideration of such proposals, in consultation with the Authority. A system of salt lakes and swamps occurs in the central and northern parts of the Island. The salt lakes probably originated as collapsed cave formations that were subsequently inundated due to rising sea levels. They were sheltered marine environments about 6,500 to 7,000 years ago and with the closure of marine connections, became highly saline lakes. Shell, sand and mud flats and terraces adjoin the lake margins. Sites of limestone with geological heritage significance have been listed on the National Heritage Register. One of the most important features of the geology of the Island is the evidence of higher sea levels in the recent past, especially from 5,900 to 4,800 years ago when sea level was about 2.4 metres higher than it is today. That sea level eroded a shoreline platform that is very well displayed around the salt lakes. At that time Rottnest Island consisted of at least 10 separate Islands.

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Four sites on Rottnest Island have been proposed to be included in the Register of the National Estate. These are Fairbridge Bluff, Herschell Quarry, Salmon Point, and elevated platforms that are probably areas that partially coincide with the Rottnest Island lake formations. Three other areas that may warrant similar recognition and protection are Barker Swamp, Parker Point (including its Pocillopora Reef) and Wilson Bay. Sensitive marginal habitats occur on the Island between major geological formations. These are highly vulnerable to human impacts, particularly the coastal areas and wetland margins. The Reserve Zoning Plan recognises this vulnerability and contains controls on development in sensitive marginal environments (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). 3.2.2 Values Rottnest Island has the following geological, landform and soil values: • Sites of geological significance contained on the Register of the National Estate and additional sites that have been proposed for inclusion. • Evidence of higher sea levels in the recent past, especially from 5,900 to 4,800 years ago when the sea level was about 2.4 metres higher than it is today, especially around the salt lakes. • Significance as the largest and northernmost of a chain of limestone Islands and reefs on the continental shelf near Perth. • Geological formations of the Island supporting a diverse range of terrestrial habitats.

3.2.3 Issues Issues relevant to the management of the Island’s geological, landform and soil values include: • The Island contains a number of coastal formations that are a hazard to visitors. This issue is addressed in Part B, Chapter 9 - Visitor Support Services. • Erosion can threaten the geological and landform value of coastal margins, and major erosion events are currently occurring in isolated areas of the Island. • As Rottnest Island is a low nutrient environment, the addition of fertilisers requires careful management. 3.2.4 Recommendations • Develop and implement a strategy for the protection and rehabilitation of coastal landforms. • Review and implement the interpretation program featuring the Island’s geology, landforms and soils. 3.3 HYDROLOGY 3.3.1 Background Groundwater The shallow unconfined aquifers on the Island contain two significant freshwater lenses. One is located to the west of the central lighthouse and salt lakes and is known as the Wadjemup Aquifer. The other is located in the vicinity of Oliver Hill, known as the Oliver Hill Aquifer.

The Wadjemup Aquifer contains a lens of freshwater overlying a zone of saline water. The top of the lens is at its highest elevation about 0.35 metres above sea level and the maximum thickness is about 10 metres. The zone of mixed water below the lens is about 15 metres thick. The Wadjemup Aquifer has played a major role on the Island as a source of potable water. Groundwater from the aquifer is abstracted via the Island’s borefield system. Until recently the aquifer provided 70 percent of the Island’s potable water supply. With the installation of a second desalination plant in 2002, the proportion of water provided by the aquifer has been reduced to 20 percent. There are several issues relevant to the abstraction of groundwater for potable water supply and these are addressed in Part B, Chapter 10 - Infrastructure and Utilities. Although the Oliver Hill Aquifer includes a small lens of potable groundwater, it is insufficient to warrant development. Surface Water Rottnest Island is the only Western Australian Island with naturally occurring, permanent deep lakes. The six permanent salt lakes are extensive, covering about 200 hectares or about 10.5 percent of the Island’s surface (Playford and Leech, 1977) and ranging from two to seven metres in depth (Bunn and Edward, 1984). Rottnest Island originally contained eight seasonally fresh to brackish ephemeral swamps that carried water in winter and dried out in summer.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part B. Management Planning

Most of the swamps have been affected by human activities. In the early 1970s five of the swamps (Bickley, Bulldozer, Lighthouse, Parakeet and Salmon) were mined for marl. The removal of marl deepened the swamp creating permanent water bodies and allowing saline groundwater to seep in, increasing the salinity of the swamps. Riflerange Swamp has been subject to nutrient enrichment, possibly from previous golf course fertilisation practices, and Aerodrome Swamp has in the past been mown on one side (Saunders and de Rebeira, 1993). Only Barker Swamp remains in an essentially undisturbed state. The Authority has recently approved a schedule for the rehabilitation of the five swamps mined for marl, with three scheduled for rehabilitation during the life of this Management Plan. Finally, four ephemeral freshwater pools (Garden North, Corio, Gull Wash and Frog Pool) and several freshwater seeps occur on the Island around the margins of the salt lakes. There is a possible relationship between the freshwater seepage around Barker Swamp and the Island’s freshwater aquifer; however, more research is required to determine the nature and extent of this relationship (Playford, pers comm.). Similarly, the seepage at Lighthouse Swamp may be connected to that aquifer. Research to date has not recorded a relationship between the aquifer and other wetlands on the Island. The relationship between the

Island’s groundwater, surface water and rainfall levels and the relations of these to abstraction rates is not well defined. Physical disturbance of wetlands from direct human activities can have subsequent impacts on the water quality and habitat value for communities occupying these areas. The Reserve Zoning Plan (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme) manages this by prohibiting use of and public access to the Island’s wetlands, except as part of a supervised tour. A nitrogen-rich plume emanating from the Rottnest Island landfill is threatening the water quality and ecology of Lake Herschel and associated freshwater seeps. Trees have been planted in the path of the plume in an attempt to absorb the nutrients. 3.3.2 Values Rottnest Island has the following hydrological values: • The Wadjemup aquifer is valued as a significant source of potable water for Rottnest Island. • Rottnest Island is the only Western Australian Island with permanent deep lakes. • Possible links between the aquifer and wetlands give the aquifer significant ecological value. • Because of its relatively undisturbed state, Barker Swamp is representative of pre-disturbance swamp conditions. • The Island’s wetlands provide habitat and a water source for a range of flora and fauna.

3.3.3 Issues Groundwater Issues associated with the management of the Island’s groundwater resources include: • The lack of definition of the relationship between rainfall, the aquifer and the Island’s wetlands limits the Authority’s ability to determine appropriate management actions to protect the hydrological values of the Island. • The development of recreation and holiday facilities on Rottnest Island, requiring the installation of utilities and infrastructure, has brought with it isolated incidents of groundwater contamination. All infrastructure and utilities on the Island are managed to limit groundwater impacts. Surface Water Issues associated with the management of the Island’s surface water resources include: • Management of the nutrient plume emanating from the landfill is required to protect the water quality of Lake Herschel. • The past treatment of swamps is linked with the suspected decline in reptilian and amphibian fauna populations. Rehabilitation of the swamps may have significant positive effects on these fauna. 3.3.4 Recommendations • Undertake research into the relationship between rainfall, groundwater and the wetlands of Rottnest Island. • Protect, preserve and interpret Barker Swamp as a primary example of the

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• • • • •

pre-disturbed condition of Rottnest Island swamps. Protect, conserve and interpret Rottnest Island lakes, swamps, freshwater seeps and surrounding vegetation. Monitor water and salinity levels within swamps and freshwater seeps on Rottnest Island. Rehabilitate Lighthouse Swamp. Rehabilitate Parakeet Swamp. Rehabilitate Salmon Swamp. Develop a Plan for the rehabilitation of Bulldozer and Bickley Swamps. Develop and implement a Plan to interpret the rehabilitation of Rottnest Island swamps. Manage the nutrient plume from Rottnest Island’s landfill to ensure minimal impact to the water quality and other values of Lake Herschel.

At a local scale, the Island can be classified into distinct areas of common distinguishing aesthetic characteristics known as landscape Character Units. Five landscape Character Units can be identified for Rottnest Island, four of which are contained within the Natural Zone and one within the Settlement Zone. The Character Units are briefly described below. Marine Character Unit: Comprises marine waters adjoining the Island’s coast and the embayment areas that contain these waters. This Character Unit also includes views of adjacent islands and rocks located within the Reserve. Coastal Landscape Character Unit: Comprises a broad Zone of variable width, extending from the onshore waters to the landward boundaries of active marine erosional weathering. The boundaries coincide with the outer Islands, onshore reef landforms and the inner stable dune and associated vegetation communities. Hinterland Landscape Character Unit: Comprises the remaining stabilised coastal dune limestone lands, inland from the Coastal Landscape Character Unit. Lakes Landscape Character Unit: Comprises the extensive swamp and salt lakes system with associated shoreline flats, salt marshes, and relic sand/shell terraces and flats. Settlement Landscape Character Unit: Comprises the major built-up areas of the Island, including the Thomson, Kingstown, Geordie and Longreach Bay Settlement and

accommodation facilities. This unit includes the European plantings such as the Norfolk pines which contribute to the vista and character of the Settlement Zone. This section deals exclusively with the four natural landscape elements of Rottnest Island. The management of the Settlement Character Unit is addressed in Part B, Chapter 5 Cultural Heritage. 3.4.2 Values Rottnest Island holds several landscape values including the following: • There is an unusually high diversity of the landscape Character Units, particularly given the small size of the Island. • The inland, coastal and marine vistas associated with the range of character units are a key element of the visitor experience and contribute to the appreciation of the Island. 3.4.3 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Island’s landforms include: • Alterations to the existing diversity and nature of Character Units will have an impact on the visitor experience on Rottnest Island. • Fire, grazing and various other forms of habitat modifications have significantly disturbed the hinterland landscape Character Unit. • Any development, particularly development that screens existing vistas or modifies the nature of the landscape, has the potential to negatively affect the vista and landscape values of Rottnest Island.
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3.4 LANDSCAPE AND VISTAS 3.4.1 Background The term ‘landscape’ refers to the appearance or visual quality of an area as determined by its geology, soils, landforms, vegetation, water features and land use history. On a broad scale, Rottnest Island is typical of other semi-arid and Mediterranean landscapes of the Western Australian coastline. In the overall State context, Rottnest Island lies within the Swan Coastal Plain Landscape Character Type - one of 39 distinct broad-scale landscape areas located throughout Western Australia (Department of Conservation and Land Management, 1994).

Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part B. Management Planning

• The addition of natural or built landscape elements that are not consistent with the landscape characteristic may adversely affect the value of the various Character Units. 3.4.4 Recommendations • Revise and commence the implementation of plans for outer bays to minimise negative impact on the diversity and values of the Island’s landscape and vistas. • Develop and implement a Plan to effectively manage and interpret the values of the Island’s natural landscapes. 3.5 ATMOSPHERE 3.5.1 Background Air Pollution The Authority is committed to the management of air pollution on Rottnest Island. The Authority is a signatory to the National Greenhouse Challenge and the State Cleaner Production Statement, and is an affiliate to the global Green Globe process. There are positive benefits that will arise from State, National and global commitments to the management and reduction of greenhouse gases. Contributors to greenhouse gases include vehicles, boats, plant, equipment and wood heaters. The power station is the largest contributor to greenhouse emissions on the Island. The Authority is taking advantage of several opportunities to reduce the

production of greenhouse gas emissions, including the planned construction of a wind turbine which will reduce the existing reliance on diesel generated power. This issue is addressed in Part B, Chapter 10 Infrastructure and Utilities, Section 10.5 - Energy. Alternative powered vehicles are now available in the market and are currently being trialed on Rottnest Island. Wood heaters are being phased out and replaced with alternative sources of heating. Odour The Rottnest Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, landfill and composting site have the potential to cause odour, but have not been observed to be an issue to date. Noise Vehicles, plant, equipment and aircraft are major contributors to the noise levels on Rottnest Island. Some vehicles on the Island are considered noisy, particularly when used early in the morning or late in the evening. Noisy plant machinery on the Island is appropriately located to prevent noise impacts and is not considered an issue. Noise from aircraft impacts on the amenity of the Island at certain times of the year. The amount of air traffic is a result of the Island’s positioning beacon that makes it an attractive destination for training schools. The commercial aircraft carrying passengers to the Island are thought to be only a minor contributor to aircraft noise impacts.

3.5.2 Values The clean air and relative quietness of Rottnest Island contributes to its popularity as a recreation and holiday destination. 3.5.3 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Island’s atmospheric conditions include: • The small number of vehicles on the Island contributes to a relatively clean atmosphere. The low level of air pollution and noise makes the exhaust and noise from the few vehicles on the Island noticeable. • The management of the airspace above the Reserve is important as aircraft noise affects the Island’s amenity. 3.5.4 Recommendations • Develop and implement strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Rottnest Island in accordance with the National Greenhouse Challenge actions. • Eliminate wood fires in Authority accommodation and replace them with an alternative environmentally sensitive and cost-effective source of accommodation heating. • Investigate options to reduce the impact of aircraft noise. 3.6 TERRESTRIAL FLORA & FAUNA 3.6.1 Background Rottnest Island experienced significant changes in vegetation composition through the Pleistocene and early-tomid Holocene periods. As the sea level

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rose and fell the Island alternated between being a non-coastal mainland site with sea levels 130 metres lower than at present and a coastal Island when sea levels were at least three metres higher than at present. The vegetation would have fluctuated from being dominated by Tuart woodland to being dominated by coastal Heath (Chappell, 1983; Churchill, 1960; Marchant and Abbott, 1981). In addition to the provisions of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987, all of Rottnest Island’s indigenous flora and fauna are protected by the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. 3.6.2 Terrestrial Habitats Terrestrial areas of Rottnest Island have been classified into six distinct habitat types described below. Coastal habitat The coastal habitats of Rottnest Island are characterised by resilient vegetation that acts to stabilise dunes and protect areas further inland. Coastal areas are the most exposed on the Island and are also popular destinations for visitors. The combination of visitors and weather extremes places pressure on coastal habitats. Woodland habitat Woodland species, including Rottnest Island Pine, Tea Tree and Summer Scented Wattle, once covered twothirds of the Island. Historical evidence of this includes Vlamingh’s observations and aerial photographs taken since 1941. The coverage of woodland on the Island is now considerably less. There are

several factors likely to have contributed to the decline in woodland areas including sheep grazing, settlement development, fire, timber cutting for firewood and construction purposes and quokkas grazing on regenerated areas. A 20-year Woodland Restoration Strategy is in its fifth year of implementation on Rottnest Island. This will shortly be revised to improve the result of reforestation efforts. Grass and heathland habitat In 1998, grasslands and heathlands occupied 62 percent of the total Island area. The total area of grass will decrease as woodland restoration increases and is likely to fall to 40 percent of the Island. Salt lake habitat Although Rottnest Island is small compared to other Australian coastal Islands, it is unique in that it possesses a salt lake complex. The lakes contain columnar algal stromatolites and microbial mats on the lake bottom up to 10cm thick in areas. Stromatolites represent the earliest record of life on earth, dating from some 3,500 million years ago. Brine shrimp exist in the lakes supporting a wide variety of permanent, vagrant and migratory birds feeding at Rottnest Island. The salt lakes are a particularly important habitat for numerous bird species including internationally important migratory bird species. The international Ramsar Convention to which Australia is a signatory recognises and provides protection for habitats of protected migratory bird species. Wetlands on Rottnest Island

are home to many internationally protected migratory birds but these areas are not covered by this convention. There may be benefits from listing the Island’s wetlands on the Ramsar Convention. Three butterfly species and localised quokka populations rely on the salt lakes for food and habitat. Swamps and freshwater pool habitat The swamps and freshwater pools are a significant habitat. The three frog species found on Rottnest Island rely on the swamps and pools for food and breeding grounds. Many other fauna rely on the swamps and freshwater pools especially during summer months. Freshwater lens and seep habitat Freshwater seeps are important for a number of species of flora such as water thyme (Hydrilla verticillata). This flora supports a range of fauna including two lizard species, one of which is uncommon (Bassiana trillineata) and is confined to damp places. A species of native couch, Sperogulus verginicus, is also commonly found around the seeps. Localised quokka populations use the seeps as a source of fresh drinking water. The Rock Parrot (Neophema petrophila) and White Fronted Chat (Epthianura albifrons) depend on these sources of water as does the Australian Shelduck (Tardorna tadornoides) which defends them as part of its brooding territory. The Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) also utilises the seeps as a freshwater source to wash.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Relationship between Habitats and the Reserve Zoning Plan As described above there are several sensitive ecological habitats on the Island. The Reserve Zoning Plan manages the impact to these areas, by restricting access where necessary. In particular, the Reserve Zoning Plan controls public access to wetlands, woodland restoration areas, dune

rehabilitation areas and sensitive bird breeding sites, in order to minimise negative impacts from associated activities (refer Part B, Chapter 2 Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). The Zoning Plan also minimises activities in the sensitive areas of the Natural Zone by the establishment of Medium Use Activity Nodes.

Part B. Management Planning

3.6.3 Terrestrial Flora The range of vegetation types on the Island is described in Table 3 - Rottnest Island Vegetation Types.

Table 3 - Rottnest Island Vegetation Types

Vegetation Type Coastal Dense Heath

Description The coastal dense heath comprises the ‘mobile’ dune community that occurs on beach backshores, foredunes and blowouts, and the ‘stable’ dune community chiefly comprising parabolic dunes.

Acanthocarpus preissii and Stipa flavescens (Low Dense Heath) Acacia littorea

This community covers approximately one-third of the Island, although the two dominant species (Acanthocarpus preissii and Stipa flavescens) are present within many of the other communities. The community is extensive because Stipa and Acanthocarpus rapidly re-grow from root crowns following fire and are unpalatable to quokkas (O’Connor et al, 1977). The Acacia littorea (formerly A. cuneata) community occurs on shallow limestone headlands and Holocene parabolic dunes. Dense stands of A. littorea may die out from the centre and regenerate as seeds become established.

Acacia rostellifera (Low Forest or Closed Scrub): Melaleuca lanceolata/ Callitris preiseii (Low Forest)

The Acacia rostellifera community occurs as a low forest in the Island’s sheltered eastern portion, and as a wind-pruned closed scrub in the less sheltered western portion. The community was extensive on the Island prior to 1930 but now occurs as small, scattered thickets because of extensive recurrent wildfires and excessive grazing by quokkas (Rippey and Rowland ,1995). The Melaleuca lanceolata/Callistris preiseii association formed the Island’s original vast woodland vegetation type. Melaleuca lanceolata grows in many forms including low closed forest and closed scrub. Callistris preiseii has declined markedly to the extent that this association is no longer very well represented on the Island. Re-establishment of this association is an objective of the Woodland Restoration Strategy.

Templetonia retusa (Dense Heath)

The Templetonia retusa (dense heath) vegetation primarily occurs on shallow limestone ridges surrounding the salt lakes at the eastern end of the Island. Where it is dense it is generally the only species present and where less dense may have an under-storey of perennials.

Pittosporum phy lliraeoides (Low Forest) Saline and Brackish

Pittosporum phylliraeoides was formerly mapped as part of the Templetonia dense heath. It dominates certain areas and has also invaded some areas (for example Geordie Bay and Little Parakeet) (White and Edmiston, 1974). This community extends around the margins of the salt lakes and brackish swamps. It is particularly extensive on the northwest

Water Marsh Community margin of Lake Baghdad. Mixed Succulent Mat Community This mat community principally occurs on exposed limestone headlands and on a few sandy scree slopes around the coast. The community is characterised by low spreading scrubs, often succulent, and some annual species. The introduced annual Gasoul crystallinum forms an extensive association along the western cliff-edge of Cape Vlamingh. Nitraria billardieri Community This dense spreading succulent scrub forms homogeneous stands on limestone cliffs at Cape Vlamingh and on some offshore stacks and Islands.

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3.6.4 Terrestrial Fauna Mammals Only two native mammal species remain on Rottnest Island: the quokka (Setonix brachyurus), and the White Striped Mastiff Bat (Tadarida australis). The quokka is one of the most recognisable symbols of Rottnest Island and is an attraction for visitors. In addition to being protected by the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, the quokka is also a declared threatened species. Rottnest Island carries the largest existing population of quokkas, estimated at between 8,000 and 12,000 individuals. Hunting by Aboriginal prisoners on Rottnest Island up until the 1920s kept quokka numbers low. The combined impact of subsequent protection and ample supply of food led to a quokka population increase. The increased grazing by quokkas has now contributed to a decline in the Island’s overall woodland area to the extent that trees and shrubs are unable to regenerate without protective fencing. The presence of the white striped mastiff bat on Rottnest Island was recorded from a deceased specimen found in 1997. Since then, live specimens have been handed in by visitors and seen and heard in the Kingstown area (Wright pers comm, 2001).

Birds Rottnest Island has a rich bird fauna with 112 species having been recorded on, over or around the Island (Saunders and de Rebeira,1985 and 1993). Of these, around 49 species occur regularly on the Island, including a number of transequitorial migrant species (Saunders and de Rebeira, 1993) which breed in the Arctic Circle and spend the northern winter feeding around the Island’s salt lakes. Important habitats for birds on the Island include coastal breeding grounds for the breeding migrant Fairy Tern (Sterna nereis) and Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) and the salt lakes and swamps that are important for the large number of water birds, especially migratory species (Saunders and de Rebeira, 1993). There have been three recorded bird extinctions and ten immigrations of birds to the Island. All of the extinctions and seven migrations have been directly related to human influence (Saunders and de Rebeira, 1985). Isolated populations of Red Capped Robins and Golden Whistlers occur in the Island’s Melaleuca woodlands. These species are no longer present on the Swan Coastal Plain or on Garden Island. The Honeyeater on the Island is significantly larger than mainland individuals of the same species.

Reptiles and Frogs Reptiles and frogs are an integral part of Rottnest Island’s terrestrial ecosystem. Seventeen species of reptiles (two geckoes, two legless lizards, 12 skink lizards and two snakes) and three species of frogs occur on Rottnest Island (Brooker et al, 1995, and Smith, 1997). Due to its isolation for 6,500 years and the rigorous conditions on the Island, local genetic adaptations have taken place and some Island populations have diverged from their mainland ancestors. As a result of this, there are two endemic subspecies on the Island which are the Rottnest Island Bobtail (Tiliqua rugosa knowi) and the Rottnest Island Dugite (Pseudonaja affinis exilis). The Salmon-bellied Skink (Egernia napoleonis) and another skink, Lerista lineata, may represent extinctions that have occurred since European settlement, with no sightings since 1959 and 1930 respectively (Storr 1989; Brooker et al, 1995). A number of other skink species and one of the legless lizards were described as rare or uncommon in 1985 (Storr, 1989); however, little recent data is available. Of particular note is the skink Acritoscincus trilineatum, which is limited to areas of damp soil and may be affected by a reduction in the extent of freshwater seeps. The three frog species on Rottnest Island are the Southern Moaning Frog (Heleioporus eyrei), the Squelching Froglet (Crinia insignifera) and the Western Green Tree Frog (Litoria moorei). These frog species rely on the swamps and pools for food and breeding grounds.
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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part B. Management Planning

Butterflies At least 16 species of butterflies have been recorded on the Island (Williams, 1997 and Powell, 1998). While some of these species are considered uncommon, none is considered rare or endangered. All butterfly species on Rottnest Island are found on the mainland. Spiders, insects and other arthropods Little research has been undertaken on the terrestrial arthropods of Rottnest Island. These groups are an important part of the ecosystem, particularly as a food source. At least 15 species of spiders and 42 species of ants have been identified on the Island. Pests and Feral Animals There are a number of pests and introduced species found on the Island. These include cats, black rats, house mice, peafowl, galahs, magpies, silver gulls, ravens, pheasants and two species of exotic doves. Peafowl and pheasant are introduced but these species are relatively benign in terms of their impact on the natural environment, and are also valued cultural heritage elements of the Island. The other species of birds are likely to have migrated from the mainland but their numbers have increased to the extent that they are considered pests and detract from the visitor experience. Cats and rodents can severely impact on native fauna by preying on them or competing for food or territory. Feral cats on Rottnest Island have been greatly reduced, and possibly eliminated as a result of the eradication program.

At various times over the Island’s history horses, sheep, cattle, cats, dogs, poultry and caged birds have been allowed on Rottnest Island. Under current management arrangements the transport of exotic species to the Island is prohibited. Weeds Several weed species are prevalent on the Island both within and outside the Settlement Zone. These may have the potential to out-compete native species within all habitat types. Plant Diseases Plant diseases have not been well researched on Rottnest Island, although the canker fungus that kills the aerial parts of plants is evident on some of the Island’s tuart trees. Armillaria sp, an indigenous species of mushroom producing pathogen that causes infection, is present on Garden Island but has not been detected on Rottnest Island.

3.6.5 Values Various aspects of habitats, flora and fauna have value on Rottnest Island: • Quokkas and White Striped Mastiff Bats are highly valued as the two remaining terrestrial mammals of Rottnest Island. • Rottnest Island contains many examples of diverged fauna subspecies as a result of the Island’s isolation. • Remnant woodland habitats represent the original dominant vegetation type at the period of settlement. • Rottnest Island provides habitat for several uncommon, rare or significant fauna species - Swamps and freshwater seeps provide the only remaining habitats on the Island for three frog species and some lizard species. - Melaleuca sp. woodlands of the Island are an important habitat for several isolated populations of Red Capped Robins and Golden Whistlers, which are now absent from the Swan Coastal Plain and Garden Island. - Internationally protected breeding sites for migratory bird species occur around the Island including the coastal and wetland areas that are possibly worthy of international Ramsar Wetland status. Migratory bird species are protected under international agreements applicable to Rottnest Island. • Stromatolites represent the earliest record of life on earth, dating from some 3,500 million years ago. • Coastal vegetation stabilises dune systems and protects against erosion. • The ability of wildlife to be viewed and appreciated at distances closer than on the mainland due to the history of human contact is an important aspect of visitor enjoyment.

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3.6.6 Issues Issues associated with the management of Rottnest Island’s terrestrial habitats, flora and fauna include: • Threatened and endangered species inhabit Rottnest Island. • Habitat management is critical to the preservation of the Island’s unique and rare fauna and flora species. • Any future development that does not pay due regard to the terrestrial floral and faunal values of Rottnest Island could threaten important species by either modifying or removing their habitats. • Rehabilitation of the Island’s swamps and the restoration of woodlands are critical elements in the reversal of human impacts on the Island. • Management of quokkas with respect to the woodland restoration program is critical. • A woodland restoration program intended to restore the relative distribution of vegetation on the Island prior to human habitation will reduce the present coverage of other vegetation types. • Heavy human use of a particular area or habitat type may make those areas vulnerable to impact. • In Rottnest Island’s dry environment, fire is a threat to all habitats. Fire is particularly a threat to woodland communities as these have lengthy regeneration periods. • Currently the firebreak system is based on historic tracks and breaks in vegetation. The absence of a more strategic system considering prevailing winds, potential for erosion •

and sensitive areas is a threat to the Island’s habitat and property values. Erosion processes threaten the coastal habitat value of Rottnest Island as many important flora and fauna occur in this area. Weed species have the potential to out-compete native species within all habitat types. Some pest species, particularly silver gulls and ravens, diminish the visitor experience while others may compete with native Rottnest Island species. Rottnest Island’s environment provides an opportunity to increase the awareness and appreciation of flora, fauna and their habitats.

3.6.7 Recommendations • Review and implement the Woodland Restoration Strategy, in the context of a vegetation management strategy. • Assess and manage all developments on the Island to minimise possible threats to the habitats, flora and fauna of Rottnest Island. • Review and implement a plan for the interpretation of the flora and fauna of Rottnest Island. Develop and implement a fire management plan for Rottnest Island that recognises key ecological areas of protection, in coordination with the Fire and Emergency Services Authority. Implement an effective weed management program for Rottnest Island, based on existing procedures. Implement an effective feral animal eradication program, based on existing procedures. Encourage research on Island flora and fauna, particularly that which contributes to the management of plant diseases on Rottnest Island. Investigate the benefits of pursuing Ramsar wetland classification for Rottnest Island wetlands used by migratory bird species.

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4. Marine Environment

Part B. Management Planning

4.1 INTRODUCTION Rottnest Island lies just inside the 50metre water depth contour of the continental shelf. Approximately 30km west of Rottnest Island the sea bottom rapidly descends to approximately 4000m. A reef, which reduces the depth of the water to 10m, extends between the eastern tip of Rottnest Island and Garden Island. Rottnest Island’s marine biota has been the subject of much study. A collection of some 30 research papers relating to marine biota was published in 1993 (Wells et al 1993a; 1993b).

The environmental management of the Marine Reserve is intrinsically linked to the management and control of the facilities and recreational activities that occur in the marine environment. This section should be read in conjunction with Part B, Chapter 7 - Marine Recreation and Facilities that deals with management actions relating to these. The Reserve Zoning Plan (established in Part B, Chapter 2 Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme) also influences the outcomes and recommendations of this chapter and should be read to gain a full appreciation of the set of management tools recommended for the marine environment.

4.2 BACKGROUND 4.2.1 Marine Habitats Eight habitat categories within the marine waters of the Reserve have been described. These are outlined in Table 4 - Marine Habitats of Rottnest Island below. In the shallow (<10m), subtidal regions algae and seagrasses proliferate. Inter-tidal zones consist of limestone rock platforms and small sandy beaches. In sheltered bays, seagrass meadows support thriving communities and provide nurseries for juvenile marine species. Rottnest Island boasts the most southerly occurring tropical coral assemblages in the State.

Table 4: Marine Habitats of Rottnest Island

Habitat Type 1. Sand 2. Seagrass 3. Seagrass (1) 4. Seagrass (2) 5. Mixed seagrass and reef 6. Reef 7. Intertidal platform 8. Reef wash

Dominant Plant Species Sparse seagrasses (Posidonia spp., Heterozostera, Halophila) Amphibolis spp. dominant, Posidonia spp. subdominant Posidonia ostenfeldii, Posidonia coriacea, Amphibolus griffithii Posidonia australis Amphibolus spp, Ecklonia, Sargassum, Algal turf Ecklonia, Sargassum, Algal turf, Amphibolis antarctica, Thalassondendron Algal turf, Sargassum Sargassum, Ecklonia, Algal Turf

% Area 20 7 3 1 10 45 4 9

These habitat types are described in more detail on the following pages.

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Sandy bottom These areas consist of bare sand or sparsely populated patches with smaller seagrass species. These areas of sandy patches often contain a large diversity of microorganisms. Seagrass and algae communities Seagrasses have been classified into four communities that may also incorporate the macroalgae species. Of the eight species of seagrasses that appear in the Reserve, five are large southern Australian species that form extensive, secure meadows that occupy over 60 percent of the habitat. Seagrass and algae are the major primary producers in the marine system and sustain many other marine animals and decomposers either directly or indirectly. Seagrass meadows act as a substrate for colonisation by plants and animals that further contribute to the food chain (Walker, 1985). The larger marine plant species do not support much direct grazing but instead break down after detachment and support organisms that feed on decaying and decomposing matter. These, in turn, support life higher in the food chain (Walker, 1985). Seagrass is also an integral structure of the bay environment. Meadows provide protection by reducing current flow, resulting in sediment trapping and stabilisation that decrease the potential for erosion.

Intertidal platform and reef communities This group is further divided into three marine habitats: the reef, the reef/rocks awash and intertidal platforms. The reef and reef/rocks awash support similar habitats, but are separated by the degree of exposure to wave action and turbulence (Rottnest Island Authority, 1985a). Reef communities are rarely exposed by low tides and are located in areas of lower turbulence, although there are areas around the Island that are subject to harsh environmental conditions. In contrast, reef/rocks awash are often exposed at low tide and usually have waves breaking on them. Intertidal communities are highly exposed to wave and tidal impact and, as a result, can only support plants capable of withstanding both this turbulence and conditions of extreme heat in summer. 4.2.2 Marine Fauna Rottnest Island’s wide variety of habitats provide for a diverse marine fauna. A significant value of Rottnest Island’s marine fauna is its unique mixture of tropical and temperate species including several species endemic to Western Australia. This species mix is related to a variety of factors that influence the waters of Rottnest Island (Wells and Walker, 1993). West End is particularly important for illustrating this unique species diversity. A study of tropical/temperate mollusc ratios and their spatial variability on Rottnest Island and the mainland coast

found that tropical species favour the west end of the Island over the east end (Wells, 1985). The distribution of tropical mollusc species at West End is unique to Perth. As these species are near to their southernmost distribution limits they are particularly susceptible to environmental disturbance (Wells, 1985). It has been suggested that the zoogeographic importance of tropical species at Rottnest Island is a general faunal feature and not restricted to molluscs (Wells, 1985). The southward flowing Leeuwin Current is thought to be the mechanism allowing planktonic larvae of tropical species to reach Rottnest Island and survive. This may account for the preference of tropical fauna species for West End. Currents are also thought to be the reason for the distinction between habitat and fauna types on the northern and southern coasts of Rottnest Island. It is noteworthy that there is no portion of the northern marine environment of the Reserve that is currently protected from various potential human-induced impacts. Coral Communities Coral reef areas are important habitats for many marine species, particularly as a nursery site for juvenile life forms. They also provide sites for breeding, reproduction, and protection for a diversity of marine organisms. The coral representation at Rottnest Island is diverse but typically not dense. Rottnest Island is the southern most location of the coral Pocillopora damicornis, located at Pocillopora Reef
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Part B. Management Planning

(southern coast near Salmon Point) (Hutchins, 1985, Wells et al., 1993a, Wells et al., 1993b). Another 25 species of coral have been recorded (Veron and Marsh, 1988) with most present as isolated colonies. The most diverse coral communities at Rottnest Island are located at the southern end of the Island, in particular Kitson Point, Salmon Point and Parker Point (Marsh, 1985). In addition to Pocillopora, Rottnest Island is the southernmost limit of three other hermatypic coral species or genera (Porites, Acropora and Alveopora) and two ahermatypic Tubastereai species (Marsh, 1985). The areas from Parker Point to Salmon Point and from Nancy Cove to Kitson Point are also significant for the preservation of coral, and an increase in the diversity of coral species has been observed over the last ten years. Fish There are approximately 420 recorded fish species in the waters surrounding Rottnest Island (Hutchins, pers data). These range from reef-dwelling gobies to pelagic species such as the mackerels, although reef dwelling species form the majority (Hutchins, 1979). Approximately 20 percent are endemic to Western Australia, 25 percent are tropical, and the remainder are warm temperate southern Australian species (Hutchins, 1979). Parker Point has the largest amount of tropical fish activity, centered on the 100m long reef of Pocillopora coral (Hutchins, 1985). The Island contains numerous examples of fish activity including Buffalo Bream
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algal polygon behaviour and fish cleaning stations - areas where fish visit to have their scales cleaned by other fish. 4.2.3 Marine Flora A total of 355 species of marine plants have been identified in the waters surrounding Rottnest Island (Huisman and Walker 1990). Included in this are eight species of seagrass, 54 species of green algae, 71 species of brown algae and 222 of red algae (Rottnest Island Authority, 1995). Biogeographically, the marine flora of Rottnest Island has a different distributional pattern to the fauna. Almost two-thirds of the algae are temperate species and 17 percent are endemic to Rottnest Island. In contrast to the fauna, only 3 percent of the flora are Indo-west Pacific and 11 percent are warm temperate species. The distinct change from the western end to the eastern end of Rottnest Island (as displayed by the fauna) is not evident in the algae either. It has been speculated that this is due to the much shorter lives of the propagules of algae in comparison with the planktonic larvae of animals (Hoffman, 1987). The dominant seagrass species belong to the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis. These are large southern Australian seagrasses capable of forming extensive stable meadows. The remaining smaller species colonise more readily, but they are less stable in a stressed high-energy environment (Wells et al., 1993a; Wells et al., 1993b). Rottnest Island has a notably high level of seagrass diversity.

Storm-tossed seagrass dominates Island beaches in winter. Decaying seagrass is recognised as an important contributor to the ecosystem as it provides habitat for a variety of insects and food for fish. 4.3 VALUES The values of the marine environment of Rottnest Island are many and include: • There is a unique mixture of tropical and temperate fauna and flora species, with a prominent component of endemic Western Australian species. • The Island has the southern-most occurring assemblages of tropical corals in the State and possibly the nation. • The Island is the southernmost location of the coral species and genera: Pocillopora damicornis, Porites, Alveopora and Acropora; and two ahermatypic Tubastereai species. • There is a particularly diverse coral mix in the areas of Kitson Point to Nancy Cove and Parker Point to Salmon Point. • Reef and seagrass habitats support marine fauna and flora by providing sites for breeding, spawning, feeding and shelter and in particular is home to juveniles of marine species. • Coral reef habitats in particular are important for the maintenance of tropical fauna at high latitude. • Reef, seagrass and shipwrecks have social value in that they provide popular sites for recreational activities. • Marine habitats support recreational and commercial fisheries through the provision of breeding and nursery sites and habitats for species targeted by these groups.

• Seagrass meadows reduce water flow and stabilise subtidal sediments, preventing erosion. • Seagrass and algae are important primary producers in the marine system sustaining other marine animals either directly or indirectly. • The Marine Reserve contains a notably high species diversity of seagrass. • The clarity and high water quality of Rottnest Island Reserve waters contribute to this area being a popular diving and swimming location, and to the health of the environment. • Numerous fragile submerged limestone structures, which represent previous geological periods, are valued diving and snorkelling sites.

4.4 WATER QUALITY 4.4.1 Issues Water quality around Rottnest Island can be affected by various marine-based or land-based activities. These include the discharge of boat-based sullage, fuel and oil spills and land-based discharges, as discussed below. Liquid waste from vessels A major concern for the Authority has been the discharge of boat-based liquid wastes into the bays of Rottnest Island. In particular, concerns relate to the discharge of ‘black water’ (that includes human waste and waste from marine sanitation devices), bilge water and ‘grey water’ (the term used to describe dirty water from showers, hand basins and kitchens). The discharge of liquid waste has the potential to increase concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, viruses, and introduce chemicals, fats and oils to the marine environment. Rottnest Island has the potential to be more susceptible to liquid waste impacts than most metropolitan marine areas as boats occupy its bays for extended periods on overnight stays, and often there is a concentration of boats in a bay further increasing the potential for impact. The flushing characteristics of a bay can also influence the potential impact of liquid waste discharge into a particular area. Some peak boating periods coincide with calm sea conditions leading to increased residence times and minimal dispersion of discharged substances.

The introduction of bacteria and viruses into popular swimming areas can result in a serious public health risk. The Authority undertakes regular water quality monitoring in accordance to ANZECC guidelines for primary contact (eg. swimming). Monitoring data has revealed that there have been incidents where ANZECC guidelines for primary contact have been exceeded. These incidents usually occur in areas of high boat concentration and times of low flushing, for example around Easter holidays. Nutrient enrichment from liquid waste can potentially lead to phytoplankton blooms, and subsequently to light reduction. This can lead to anoxic conditions resulting in widespread death of flora and fauna, a localised reduction in species diversity, and an unpleasant smell of rotting seaweed (Walker, 1985). Research to date on the impact of liquid waste at Rottnest Island, has concentrated on bacterial loads with respect to public health. As no research has been conducted on nutrient enrichment, there is no evidence of any effect from the discharge of liquid waste from boats on seagrass populations in the Reserve. However, there is some evidence of this elsewhere. Nutrient rich sludge input is known to have increased epiphyte densities enough to restrict light levels reaching seagrass meadows at other locations, leading to a seagrass population decline.

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Left unmanaged, the impact of liquid waste discharge will continue to increase with the predicted increase in boat activity and boat size in the Reserve. The Authority has introduced a strategy for the management of waste discharge from vessels. This strategy is aligned with approaches being undertaken elsewhere in Western Australian and other States. The strategy establishes a zoned approach to the management of waste discharge from vessels. In Zone 1, there is to be no discharge of blackwater, solid waste, fuel, oils or lubricants. The discharge of greywater is allowed in Zone 1 pending further research into its impact at Rottnest Island. In Zone 2, there is to be no discharge of solid waste, fuel, oils or lubricants. Discharge of waste from approved Marine Sanitation Devices (any toilet and associated pumping or holding tanks onboard a vessel to receive, treat, retain or discharge human body wastes) and discharge of greywater is permitted in Zone 2. Currently Zone 1 includes the waters of Rottnest Island bays and Zone 2 includes all the waters of the Rottnest Island Reserve except for the embayment areas. The Authority intends that from 2005/2006 the entire waters of the Rottnest Island Reserve will be Zone 1. Fuel and oil spills Fuel and oil spills are known to have potentially significant impacts on marine flora and fauna through impacts to the water quality. Minor fuel and oil spills in the Reserve occur approximately six to eight times per year. No major spill is known to have occurred in the waters
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Part B. Management Planning

of Rottnest Island. Potential sources of an oil or fuel spill at Rottnest Island include fuel jetty leaks or spills, boat accidents and wrecks, illegal discharge of contaminated bilge water and oil spills from vessels in transit. The Authority participates in the local emergency procedures that deal with spills of this nature. Land-based impacts There is potential for the past and present land-based activities to impact on the water quality of Rottnest Island bays. In particular, septic toilets around the Island have the potential to leach nutrients and bacteria into the marine environment. There is no intended land-based discharge into the environment with the exception of the saline water by-product of the desalination system. The Authority continues to minimise the unintended release of contaminates or nutrients into Rottnest Island bays. 4.4.2 Recommendations • Implement the Rottnest Island policy on waste discharge from vessels. • Develop and implement a water quality monitoring program for Rottnest Island bays, to test for bacteria and nutrients. • Manage Island infrastructure to minimise land-based discharge of nutrients and debris into the marine environment. • Review the Rottnest Island fuel and oil spill plan. • Investigate the provision of a waste receptor facility for liquid waste discharge from vessels.

4.5 VESSEL MOVEMENTS 4.5.1 Issues Environmental management issues associated with the movement of vessels within the Reserve include: • Movement of vessels has the potential to stir up bottom sediments, reducing the amount of light penetrating the water. This can affect seagrass, coral and algal populations that are reliant on sunlight for photosynthesis. • Light restriction can subsequently initiate short term or long term population reductions, and has been known to be a major cause of seagrass decline in Western Australia. • The stirring up and oxidisation of sediments can release nutrients and other materials trapped in the sediment, again leading to localised nutrient enrichment and/or contamination. Increased sedimentation can also cause harm through increasing the level of siltation on corals and other bottom dwelling organisms, resulting in a smothering effect. • As there has been no research into the relationship between vessel activity and sediment movement at Rottnest Island, it is unknown whether such effects are occurring. The most concentrated area of activity in this regard is the main passenger jetty where there is high movement of commercial ferries.

4.5.2 Recommendation • Undertake research on the impact of vessel movements on Rottnest Island’s marine habitats, particularly in relation to movement of large vessels. 4.6 MOORING DAMAGE

environment, particularly when located over sensitive habitats. • The level of impact of the current mooring design on the marine habitats of Rottnest Island has not been assessed. 4.6.2 Recommendations

However, anchoring does occur in nonsand areas as a consequence of lack of skill, poor visibility or disregard for the Guide. Accepting that the Marine Act 1982 allows that anchorage may occur anywhere in the event of an emergency, the Authority will pursue increased protection from anchoring by making it an offence to anchor on areas other than sand. Commercial diving and fishing charter vessels regularly anchor within the Reserve and there is concern about the impact of repeated anchoring by these vessels at popular sites. This issue is addressed in Part B, Chapter 7 Marine Recreation and Facilities.

4.6.1 Issues There are 899 moorings within the Marine Reserve. The original unregulated moorings at Rottnest Island were of a design that resulted in the creation of a high number of scour circles, from 30 to 300m2 in area around the anchor point. It is estimated that this resulted in the loss of 18 percent of seagrass from Rocky Bay from 1941-1982, and a further 13 percent from 1981-1992 (Hastings et al., 1995). Moorings are now subject to standard environmental criteria set by the Authority (Rottnest Island Mooring Policy, 1997). This includes ensuring that the bottom apparatus cannot move and that the riser chain does not scour the seafloor. Mooring licensees are required to have their mooring assessed annually, against criteria, by a mooring contractor. Environmental management issues associated with the moorings located within the Marine Reserve include: • It is recognised that moorings cause less environmental impact than the alternative of repeated anchoring. The provision of mooring facilities in the Reserve reduces the amount of anchoring and is considered an environmental management tool. However, it must be recognised that despite the improvement in design, moorings may still have some level of impact on the sea bottom • Maintain the use of moorings in designated Rottnest Island bays as an environmental management tool. • Develop and implement a research program to monitor the level of environmental impact from the current mooring apparatus design. 4.7 ANCHOR DAMAGE 4.7.1 Issues

4.7.2 Recommendation Both drop anchoring and beach anchoring are permitted in the Reserve. Beach anchoring is not considered to be a major issue in terms of environmental impact but is a public amenity issue. Issues associated with beach anchoring are addressed in Part B, Chapter 7 Marine Recreation and Facilities. Drop anchoring on bottom habitats and limestone areas cause physical and biological damage to the fauna, flora and structures. This can cause further visual impacts that detract from the quality of diving or snorkelling experiences. Repeat anchoring at popular sites can severely disturb both ecological and structural habitat elements. The Authority’s Marine and Boating Guide requests that boaters do not anchor on areas other than sand. • Prohibit the anchoring of boats in the Rottnest Island Reserve on areas other than sand.

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Part B. Management Planning

4.8 PHYSICAL DAMAGE FROM DIVERS AND SNORKELLERS 4.8.1 Issues Unskilled or careless divers and snorkellers can cause environmental damage through physical contact between the diver and the marine habitat. Divers and snorkellers can also increase sedimentation and cause corals to become covered with silt. 4.8.2 Recommendation • Develop and implement a campaign to promote environmentally benign diving techniques to divers and snorkellers in the Rottnest Island Reserve.

4.9 FISHING 4.9.1 Issues Recreational fishing Recreational fishing is a popular pursuit in the Marine Reserve. For some, recreational fishing is the primary reason for entering the Reserve, generally on a day trip basis. For others, recreational fishing is one of the many pursuits enjoyed while holidaying on the Island. Several forms of recreational fishing occur in the Reserve including line fishing, spearfishing, craypotting and abalone fishing. As considered in Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, recreational fishing in the Reserve is subject to management controls administered by the Department of Fisheries. The level of fishing pressure within the Reserve and the impact of this on fish stocks and marine communities is unknown. The Authority is committed to increasing its understanding of the recreational fishing activity and potential impacts of this within the Reserve in order to ensure that appropriate management measures are determined. Research that is required to develop an understanding of these issues will be closely linked to the development of a Marine Management Strategy as described in Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme.

Commercial fishing A commercial fishing exclusion zone occurs within the marine portion of the Reserve, applying to net fishing and Western Rock Lobster fishing. The extent of the commercial exclusion zone means that there are areas within the Reserve where commercial fishing is permitted and occurs. Allowing commercial fishing to occur within the Reserve is inconsistent with the explicit legislated purpose of the Reserve being for ‘public recreation’. Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme recommends prohibition of commercial fishing within the Reserve. 4.9.2 Recommendation • Develop and implement a research program to monitor fish stocks and gain an understanding of the level of recreational fishing in the Rottnest Island Reserve.

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4.10 REEF WALKING 4.10.1 Issues Reef walking can be a popular activity in coastal areas. Although this allows close observation of reef species, it can be dangerous, and without appropriate care and management can also be destructive. The level of reef walking around the Island is not well known. The impact of this activity on the specific reef species that exist on Rottnest Island is similarly not well understood. 4.10.2 Recommendation • Raise awareness and understanding among Island visitors of the adverse impacts of reef walking on marine habitats and species.

4.11 MARINE LITTER 4.11.1 Issues Marine litter is a growing problem on many coasts including on Rottnest Island. Marine litter has an aesthetic impact that detracts from the visitor experience, and some forms can cause physical damage to marine fauna. While most Western Australians are responsible in regard to the disposal of litter, littering does occur throughout the Settlement and outer bays of Rottnest Island as a result of both landbased and marine-based activities. School groups conduct an annual collection and survey of marine litter on Rottnest Island. 4.11.2 Recommendations • Develop and implement a strategy to reduce the occurrence of locally generated marine litter in the Rottnest Island Reserve. • Implement an annual program to collect litter in Rottnest Island bays.

4.12 CORAL BLEACHING 4.12.1 Issues Coral bleaching is the phenomenon whereby the usually brightly coloured coral polyps lose their colour by expelling the symbiotic plant cells which would normally reside inside individual polyps. As a result the coral takes on a white, bleached look. There are many theories on the cause of coral bleaching, some of which attribute it to stress, possibly as a result of seawater temperature increases. Coral bleaching has been observed on coral reefs worldwide. True coral bleaching has been observed to only be a minor problem at Rottnest Island. Most of the bleaching has occurred in deeper waters affecting the temperate coral species Coscinaraea. 4.12.2 Recommendation • Encourage research on the occurrence and extent of coral bleaching in the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve.

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Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

5. Cultural Heritage

Part B. Management Planning

5.1 INTRODUCTION The history of Rottnest Island has provided it with a rich and significant cultural heritage. First records of human occupation of Rottnest Island are from more than 6,500 years ago when the Island was still attached to the mainland, and Aboriginal people inhabited the area. Since its initial European exploration from the 18th Century and its settlement in 1829, Rottnest Island has been through a number of stages of development and has been used for a variety of purposes. Rottnest Island allows a number of aspects of Western Australian history to be appreciated in the one area. A visitor can experience military, European, colonial, Aboriginal, maritime, recreational and social heritage on Rottnest Island, which to a certain extent is reflective of the development of the State of Western Australia. This section addresses the cultural heritage management of Rottnest Island. There are, in addition, numerous natural heritage values on the Island such as remnant woodlands and these are discussed within Part B, Chapter 3 - Terrestrial Environmental.

A brief summary of the colonial history of Rottnest Island is as follows (Considine, Griffiths and Richards, 1994): Pre 6500 years ago Aboriginal occupation. 1658 - 1829 European exploration. 1829 - 1838 European settlement, pastoral, fishing and salt gathering. 1838 - 1844 Aboriginal prison, farming, pastoral and salt gathering. 1844 - 1849 Aboriginal prison and pilot service, farming, pastoral and salt gathering. 1849 - 1855 Pilot service and lease, farming, pastoral and salt gathering. 1855 - 1903 Aboriginal prison, Governors’ Residence and Boys’ Reformatory, pilot service and lease, farming, pastoral and salt gathering. 1903 - 1936 Recreational use, internment. 1917 Rottnest Island was declared an A-Class Reserve under the Permanent Reserve Act 1899 and the Rottnest Board of Control was formed. 1936 - 1985 Recreational use and military training. 1985 onward Recreational use.

Rottnest Island’s cultural heritage is an important element of the visitor experience and Rottnest Island product, and is highly valued by the Authority. The Authority has commissioned studies into the significance and management of cultural and natural heritage and has produced Conservation Plans for Thomson Bay Settlement, Kingstown Barracks, Governors’ Summer Residence and an Interpretation Plan for the Thomson Bay Settlement. In addition to these studies, an audit of the built heritage items of Rottnest Island both within and outside the Settlement Zone was undertaken in 2002.

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5.2 HISTORY OF ROTTNEST ISLAND In order to understand the heritage values of Rottnest Island, it is necessary to have knowledge of the various phases of the Island’s history. While it is not possible to detail the history of all activities that have occurred on Rottnest Island in this document, it is possible to describe major periods of the Island’s development according to functions and themes. The major layers of human activity can briefly be described as Aboriginal occupation, maritime history, early colonial settlement, Aboriginal penal establishment, Boys’ Reformatory, Governors’ Residence, recreational history and military function. 5.2.1 Aboriginal Occupation Artefacts have been found at a number of sites on Rottnest Island pre-dating 6,500 years ago and are possibly tens of thousands of years old, indicating previous Aboriginal occupation of this area prior to the separation of the Island from the mainland. Since the most recent rise in sea levels from 10,000 to 6,500 years ago, the Island has been separated from the mainland. The local Aboriginal people were not sea-faring and did not have vessels capable of making the crossing from the mainland and therefore did not traditionally inhabit the Island following the rise in sea level. Known to local Aboriginal people as Wadjemup, the Island is believed to be a place of spirits and is of significance to Aboriginal communities.

There are 17 sites on Rottnest Island listed under the Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972-1980. This Act makes it an offence to alter an Aboriginal site in any way without written permission from the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs. 5.2.2 Maritime History Rottnest Island’s waters contain a number of shipwrecks - a legacy of the uncharted navigational voyages that occurred during the early exploration of the southwest coast of Australia. The earliest discovery of Rottnest Island by Europeans is credited to Dutch navigators during the 17th century in their search for a shorter route from the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia. The first Europeans to actually land on the Island are believed to have been Samuel Volkerson and his crew of the Dutch ship Waeckende Boey while searching for survivors of another Dutch ship the Vergulde Draek in 1658. William de Vlamingh, who in 1696 was the next recorded European visitor to Rottnest Island, gave the Island its name after the abundance of quokkas he saw, mistaking them for rats. More than thirteen ships have been wrecked within the waters of Rottnest Island (refer Chart 1- Rottnest Island Reserve). These wrecks are protected under Commonwealth legislation, Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976, as well as State legislation, Maritime Archeology Act 1973. Plaques have been located next to the wrecks and are complemented by onshore plaques indicating their locations.

The operation of the pilot station is another major element of the maritime history of Rottnest Island. The Rottnest Island Pilot Station operated between 1848 and 1903. Pilots were experienced sailors whose job was to guide ships around dangerous reefs and into Fremantle harbour mainly to deliver supplies to the Swan River Colony. Over its 55 years of operation, the Rottnest Island Pilot Station used a number of different boats. Generally, the boat types used were a double-ended whaleboat, a slightly larger lugger and a small dinghy. Lighthouses played a key role in the pilot boat operations by providing a communication link between the pilot boat station and incoming ships. The Island’s first lighthouse was completed in 1851 and was constructed by Aboriginal prisoners, under the supervision of the Prison Superintendent. Half a century later it was replaced with a new, taller lighthouse on Wadjemup Hill; and a third was built in 1899 at Bathurst Point after the loss of 11 lives when the ship, the City of York, was wrecked. The Bathurst Point and Wadjemup Hill lighthouses remain today (refer Chart 1Rottnest Island Reserve). A secure boathouse, established in 1846, was the first building constructed for the pilot service. This was built at the northern end of the seawall. Six years later, quarters for the pilot crew were added to the top of the boathouse. In 1859 another boathouse was built and still remains today. The last pilot left Rottnest Island in 1903, ending more than 55 years of piloting, and a new
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system was established with a signal station set up near Bathurst Lighthouse for the Fremantle Harbour Trust. It was dismantled in 1904 and then erected near Wadjemup lighthouse. Once a vessel was sighted, the news was telephoned to the lighthouse in Fremantle and the new, steam-powered pilot boat dispatched from there. The signal station remained in operation until 1949 when compulsory pilotage was abolished, effectively making the signal station on Rottnest Island redundant. The signal station was restored in 2002. In 2000, a special exhibition on the Rottnest Island Pilots was established, involving the development of a replica whaleboat, now housed in the 1859 pilot boathouse. This exhibition is interpreted by the Rottnest Island Voluntary Guides Association. 5.2.3 Early Colonial Settlement The first Europeans took up residence on Rottnest Island shortly after the first settlement of the Swan River Colony was established in 1829. Rottnest Island was considered to be of interest as a place with potential for salt harvesting, farming and fishing. In December 1830, Benjamin Smyth surveyed Rottnest Island for the Surveyor General. A plan for the township to be known as Kingstown was proposed, containing 177 lots of about 1/3 acre and other lots of 10 acres to be offered to the public. These lots were contained within the area now known as Thomson Bay and extended around to what became Bickley Bay on the site where Kingstown Barracks stands today.

William Clarke and Robert Thomson took up town lots and pastureland and Smyth’s survey of 1831 showed the town lots and sites for various designated purposes. Farming comprised successful cereal cropping and other attempts at establishing vegetable gardens and vineyards. Thomson Bay was named after Robert Thomson, who became a major landholder on Rottnest Island during the 1830s. 5.2.4 Penal Establishment for Aboriginal People Ten Aboriginal prisoners were brought to the Island in August 1838. After a short period when both settlers and prisoners occupied the Island the Colonial Secretary announced in June 1839 that the Island would become a penal establishment for Aboriginal people. The Crown resumed all land on the Island, compensating settlers with land on the mainland. Access to the Island during the prison era was restricted. For almost a century the Island served as a prison for Aboriginal people (except for a short period of closure between 1849 and 1855) during which some 3,700 Aboriginal men and boys, from many parts of the State, were imprisoned. Between 1838 and 1931, it is reported that 369 Aboriginal prisoners died. While most deaths were caused by disease, it is reported that five prisoners were hanged. An Aboriginal cemetery is located within the Thomson Bay Settlement.

Over the prison period, the Aboriginal prisoners constructed a large number of buildings and other structures including the seawall, lighthouses and other heritage buildings, mostly under supervision of Henry Vincent who was Superintendent of the establishment for 20 years. Most of the development took place in Thomson Bay, and of particular significance is the Quod that was the prison accommodation for the Aboriginal men. The Quod is now part of the Lodge, which is operated under a private lease as holiday accommodation until 2018. Closure of the Aboriginal prison was recommended in 1902. It officially closed in 1904 although prisoners were used to build roads and other works on the Island until 1931. Closure of the prison turned the attention of the public and the Government to Rottnest Island’s possibilities as a recreation destination. 5.2.5 Boys’ Reformatory In 1881 the Western Australian Government decided that the Island would be a suitable location to reform young boys who had come into conflict with the law. The Rottnest Island Boys’ Reformatory was opened in 1881 next to the Aboriginal Prison, and operated for 20 years. Carpenter John Watson was asked to construct the Boys’ Reformatory buildings on Rottnest Island and these included a workshop, kitchen, two large dormitories, a school room and four small cells. Upon completion of the building work, Watson decided to stay on as the Reformatory Superintendent and to teach the boys carpentry, joinery and gardening.

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The Reformatory closed in 1901. Since 1909 the Reformatory buildings have been used as holiday accommodation, operated as part of the Lodge. 5.2.6 Governors’ Residence In 1848 Governor Fitzgerald expressed an interest in residing on Rottnest Island so it became the exclusive summer retreat for successive Governors and their friends. Superintendent Vincent’s house was originally used as the Governors’ House but in 1861 Vincent began work on a purpose-built summer residence for the Governor overlooking Thomson Bay. The 1912/1913 summer was the last time the Governor used the Governor’s House on Rottnest Island as a summer residence. It was later converted to flats and used by holiday-makers. Today, it is part of the Rottnest Island Hotel. 5.2.7 Recreation Island From 1902 ferries carried excursionists to Rottnest Island on Sundays. During these times visitors and prisoners were kept well apart. The first public jetty was built in 1906 to the south of Thomson Bay Settlement, where the Army Jetty stands today. Until then passengers and cargo were brought ashore by a lighter. A tram track was laid from the Jetty to Thomson Bay Settlement and horse drawn trams were used to carry visitors and goods. The trams were later replaced by motor vehicles in 1925 and most of the tracks were removed and relocated to the Perth Zoo. Some small portions of the track still remain. In 1907 a scheme for transforming Rottnest Island from a penal settlement to a recreation and holiday Island were

drawn up by the Colonial Secretary’s Department. As part of this scheme the Bickley area began to be modestly developed for public recreation. Timber and hessian camps, a store and a recreational hall were built overlooking Bickley Bay in the vicinity of where Kingstown Barracks stands today. A number of houses in the Thomson Bay Settlement were also made available for use, and the opening season was 1911. The Prison and Boys’ Reformatory were converted to hostel accommodation completed in the 1913/1914 summer season. The Bickley camps were closed in 1911, and in 1913 it was proposed to shift the camp reserve to the Bathurst side of the Settlement. Thirty weatherboard camps were subsequently rebuilt at the Bathurst end of Thomson Bay. More improvements were planned in 1917. A large tearoom and store were erected near the main jetty and wooden bungalows were also constructed close by and on the north side of the jetty. In 1917 Rottnest Island was declared an A-Class Reserve under the Permanent Reserve Act 1899 and the Rottnest Board of Control was formed. The original limestone buildings of Rottnest Island were whitewashed and this created an extreme glare.

To remove the glare, buildings were progressively painted with an ochre colour that was created by putting rusty nails in the white wash paint. Recreational and holiday pursuits have continued on Rottnest Island from this time to the present day except for its closure in 1914 and again from 1940 to 1945 for military functions. 5.2.8 Military Functions Rottnest Island has played a military role in both World War I and World War II and has also had post-war training functions, which are described below. World War I With the start of World War I the Department of Defence commandeered the Island for use as an internment and Prisoner of War camp from 1914 to the end of 1915. In September 1915, the camp held 989 persons, including 841 Austrian and German internees and 148 Prisoners of War. Recreational and holiday pursuits were re-established in December 1915. Preparation for World War II In response to increasing global tensions in the 1930s, the Australian government developed a three-year Defence Development Program that it commenced in 1933. In the Plan, Rottnest Island was identified as being critical to the defence of Fremantle as guns there could engage hostile ships well before they approached the range that would allow bombardment of Fremantle Port.

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Part B. Management Planning

In 1934 the Western Australian Premier officially informed the Rottnest Island Board of Control of the Commonwealth’s intentions for a defence program on Rottnest Island and in 1936 it purchased land at Bickley for this purpose and construction began later that year. The fixtures on Rottnest Island became known as the Rottnest Island fortress and were made up of the Oliver Hill fort with two 9.2-inch batteries guns and quarters at Oliver Hill; Bickley Point fort with two 6-inch batteries and quarters at Bickley; permanent Army Barracks at Kingstown (containing living accommodation for four warrant officers or sergeants and 72 rank and file personnel, cottages for commanders, officers mess, cottages for married non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and gunners, Army institutional buildings, small hospital, dry canteen, workshop, store, railway buildings, and supporting communication and observation structures); a three storey fortress and battery command post building at signal ridge; Port war signal station at signal ridge; observation post and engine rooms. Also constructed by the military at this time were six searchlight emplacements, magazine shell stores, powerhouse, directing station and a railway from the jetty to the 9.2-inch guns. Improvements to the jetty were also undertaken. When the Barracks were completed in September 1937 Rottnest Island was declared a permanent station for troops.

World War II In June 1940 the Island was declared a prohibited area and all recreational activity ended. The declaration was intended to last for three months, but continued for five years until June 1945. During the war period, administrative fire command staff and a coastal artillery gunnery school occupied Rottnest Island. The guns were manned 24 hours a day. In the mid-1940s, the focus of threat moved to Northern Australia, so the fixed defences at the Rottnest Island Fortress were reduced. The 9.2-inch guns were put on a maintenance basis and only the 6-inch gun at Bickley remained manned. The period of intensive military activity on Rottnest Island ended with the guns never being fired at the enemy. Postwar After the war, all military units were disbanded and the guns placed in long term storage. By April 1945 all Thomson Bay buildings had been vacated by the military with the exception of the bakehouse and garage. Approximately 200 Italian internees were sent to the Island for four months to carry out repairs and renovations. In June 1945, the prohibition order on Rottnest Island was lifted but until October only people travelling on commercial vessels could visit the Island. Dismantling of the battery was finalised in March 1953. An artillery maintenance detachment remained on the Island until 1960.

In 1953, the Army decided that it had no further use for Kingstown Barracks, but this changed in early 1955 when it was determined the Barracks’ would continue to be used for training purposes. Training at Kingstown Barracks re-commenced in May 1955. In 1962 it was determined that the use of coastal artillery in the defence of ports was out-moded and coastal artillery guns and ammunitions around the nation were declared for disposal. The 9.2-inch battery on Rottnest Island was saved from disposal because the high cost of removing and shipping the guns to the mainland exceeded their value as scrap metal. In 1967, the Army returned most of its land holdings on Rottnest Island to the Western Australian Government, retaining Kingstown Barracks, the Bickley area and easements necessary to connect water to the Barracks. The Army’s use of Kingstown Barracks declined gradually from the 1960s to the 1970s and then sharply from 1974, to the point in 1979 where it was utilised for only 43 days in the year. In 1984 the Army and the Rottnest Island Board of Control began negotiations for the Board to purchase the remaining Army land and buildings including Kingstown Barracks. This was formalised in an official closing ceremony in December 1984. After successful trials using Kingstown Barracks for environmental education programs over the 1984/1985 summer season, the Board recommended to the Government that the Barracks be used as an environmental education centre. This use continues today.

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5.3 VALUES 5.3.1 General The cultural heritage significance of the Island is of a high order. The National Trust of Australia (WA) formally recognised Rottnest Island as a place of National Heritage Significance by classifying it as a Historic Island in 1993. The previous Rottnest Island Management Plan (1997-2002) recommended that the Authority pursue the concept of World Heritage Status for Rottnest Island. Investigations have revealed that World Heritage listing is not consistent with the values or operation of the Island; however, the Authority will continue to work with the Heritage Council of Western Australian in the management of the Island’s heritage estate. There are buildings that are already included on the State Register of Heritage Places, including: Oliver Hill Battery, Kingstown Barracks, Bathurst Lighthouse and quarters, Thomson Bay settlement, and the Rottnest Island Signal Station. 5.3.2 Aboriginal Heritage Values Aboriginal heritage values on Rottnest Island include: • The Island has cultural heritage values to the Aboriginal community as an area that was once occupied by their ancestors prior to its separation from the mainland. • The Island, and the Settlement in particular, is important to the Aboriginal community in Western

Australia as a whole, and to individual Aboriginal groups from the various regions of the State whose ancestors were prisoners on the Island. • The Quod and the Aboriginal cemetery are of particular heritage significance to Aboriginal people. • The Authority acknowledges that Aboriginal incarceration was a significant part of the history of the Island and is an important issue for Aboriginal people with links to this area. • The Island holds spiritual significance for the Aboriginal community as the place to which the departed spirits of their ancestors travelled. 5.3.3 Maritime Heritage Values There are also maritime heritage values on Rottnest Island: • Numerous shipwrecks within the Reserve have State and National historic value and are protected under State and Commonwealth legislation. • Shipwrecks are popular diving and snorkelling sites. • The Bathurst and Wadjemup lighthouses, lighthouse keeper’s house, pilot boat shed and other remaining structures from this period, represent an important part of Rottnest Island’s maritime history as a permanent pilot boat station. • The Rottnest Island lighthouses have been reported as being in a highly original state.

5.3.4 Settlement and Wadjemup Hill Heritage Values Heritage values of Settlement and Wadjemup Hill buildings, character units, landscapes and vistas are documented below. Buildings • The Rottnest Island Settlement contains a rare example of a large group of buildings constructed in the early and middle part of the 19th century that have not only survived but have been adapted to serve continuous use. • Some of Rottnest Island’s Settlement buildings have significant heritage value being among the oldest in Western Australia, including: - The large body of building works created by Superintendent Vincent and his prison labour force including cottages E, F, G, H and J, the museum, parts of the shops, Manager’s House, the seawall, boathouse, salt store, native prison and chapel. - Remains of the Boys’ Reformatory contained within the Rottnest Island Lodge. - The Rottnest Island Hotel originally constructed as the Governors’ summer residence. - Buildings associated with the penal establishment including the Quod, the superintendent’s quarters and ancillary buildings. - Structures on Signal Hill that were significant in terms of communication with the mainland.

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Character unit and Landscape • The unique aesthetic quality and character of the Island has been formed by the combination of various landscape features and elements including the Settlement layout, topography, buildings and the planting stock. • Several individual sub-components of the Settlement collectively form a significant streetscape, townscape or cultural environment including: - The seafront cottages, seawall and salt store group; - The lighthouse and keeper’s quarters group; - The timber bungalow group; - The museum, native prison, chapel and reform school group; - The unifying planting groups and avenues. • Strong historical vistas within the Settlement Zone have been created by the combination of treelined avenues, stone construction buildings, the sea wall and views of the water. • The Settlement contains numerous landscape elements of historical value including: - Some roads and tracks established in the 19th century which are still in use today. - Vincent Way, identified as the oldest intact streetscape in Australia. - The largely exotic landscape of the Settlement, resulting from rigorous planting programs from 1908 onwards. The natural landscape now also has highly valued social and aesthetic qualities. • There is a high level of authenticity of landscape and streetscape as a result of the lack of infill and modifications.

Part B. Management Planning

Vistas The Settlement and Wadjemup Hill have numerous significant historical vistas including: • The view from the water on approaching Thomson Bay, with vista of the historic seawall and row of historic buildings. This vista has changed very little since the seawall and the buildings were completed in the 1840s. The fact that the row of buildings along the seawall is still intact and that no infill or demolition has been carried out since its construction is unique in Australia and makes this vista highly significant. • The view of the south end of Thomson Bay up to Bickley Point. The vista along the south end of Thomson Bay up to Bickley Point is highly significant as this formed the original arrival vista. • Bathurst Lighthouse and the Basin. The Basin is the most highly frequented bathing beach on the Island, resulting in a large archive of photographs showing the Basin in use since the turn of the last century. It was also the approach Willem De Vlamingh took to explore the Island, hence making it a historical site and vista. • The approach from the seawall between cottages E, J and H and Manager’s House towards the entrance gate of the former Quod. This was the approach taken by thousands of Aboriginal prisoners facing incarceration at the Rottnest Island Prison. The symmetric layout of the Settlement buildings and central

location of the Quod are of great historic significance, especially the crossed paths across what is now known as Heritage Common. The view from the bottom of Signal Hill past the General Store and on to Lomas Cottage. This view has changed very little over time, taking in the heritage-listed General Store and the historic plantings of Moreton Bay Fig trees that have become a distinctive feature of the Thomson Bay Settlement. The view of the peppermint tree-lined path leading towards the Rottnest Island Hotel, formerly the Governors’ summer residence. The Residence was purposely built away from the rest of the Settlement, and peppermint trees were planted after the Governor left his Island summer residence. View of Garden Lake, Herschel Lake and Government House Lake from various vantage points. The vistas taking in Garden Lake, Herschel Lake and Government House Lake from various vantage points have been well documented over the years. Wadjemup Hill / Signal Ridge. The vista from the Signal Station in a north-easterly direction towards the Oliver Hill Gun Battery is of particular significance for the interpretation of the military heritage of the Signal Ridge buildings. It clearly illustrates the function of the Signal Station and Battery Observation Post as part of the World War II coastal defence system. The view of Wadjemup Lighthouse. The view of Wadjemup Lighthouse approaching from the ‘centre road’,

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where the road and the lighthouse framed by vegetation is noteworthy. The lighthouse is the only significant structure outside the Settlement, which together with its central location on the Island has made it an important beacon both on the Island and from the mainland. 5.3.5 Military Heritage Values The Military heritage values of Rottnest Island are as follows: Built heritage • As a result of military occupation, the Island has numerous military structures of historical significance, which are concentrated in Bickley, Oliver Hill and Wadjemup Hill, but also occur in other areas of the Island. • Particularly significant built structures include: - Kingstown Barracks, which contains nineteen extant buildings of substance which are of good to high authenticity and which were the only military buildings established offshore in Australia. Kingstown Barracks has rarity value as it is the only purpose-built permanent Barracks built in Western Australia in a remote location to support coastal defence fortifications and built to accommodate ground-based midtwentieth century weapons. - Searchlight bunkers, observation towers and the signal station at Wadjemup Hill, which have historic significance associated with the military occupation of the Island. - Oliver Hill Battery, which is a rare example of military coastal defence technology of the era 1935-1945.

- The 9.2-inch guns at Oliver Hill Battery, which have particular historic significance as an authentic example of such guns in situ. There is possibly one other example worldwide of an authentic 9.2-inch gun battery with guns in situ. • Apart from individual built structures at Kingstown Barracks, the collection of buildings and other structures forms a significant cultural environment of streetscapes and settings, which contributes to the overall aesthetic character and understanding of the place. • Kingstown Barracks has social heritage value connected with the exservice men and women of the place where they lived and worked during the period of occupation before, during and after World War II, and also to those internees held on Rottnest Island during war periods. • Kingstown Barracks is valued by the community for demonstrating a tangible link with World War II. Vistas • There are numerous historical cultural vistas contained within the Kingstown areas which have been a key part of its landscape since construction, including: - The vistas of the commander’s residence, the officers mess and the clock tower of the main Barracks from Thomson Bay. - The vista along the road to the main entry of Kingstown Barracks that unfolds gradually as the main complex of buildings is approached. - Vistas along the road from the dry canteen toward to the NCO and gunners’ cottages (Governors’ Circle) which are flanked by plantings.

5.3.6 Western Australian Social Heritage Values As a result of its long history as a holiday and recreation destination, Rottnest Island has an important cultural heritage value to Western Australian family groups and others with a close asssociation with the Island. The Island is associated with a deeprooted community sentiment and attachment. Of particular note are the many community groups, associations, schools, clubs and individuals who have had social associations and have participated in its development. The affection of the Western Australian, and particularly Perth-based community, for the Island is also thought to be related to the isolation of these communities from the rest of Australia and the visual connection with the Island from the mainland. The value of Rottnest Island to the Western Australian community is illustrated through the following: • Many community groups give freely of their time to assist in the conservation and enhancement of the Island. • The Island, and the Settlement in particular, has been the subject of much painting, photography, literature and film. • Rottnest Island continues to be a popular destination for family holidays. • To the people of Western Australia, the Settlement at Thomson Bay is one of the State’s most recognisable images. • Some sense of standing is evident in the caution with which Rottnest Island has developed.
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Part B. Management Planning

5.3.7 Moveable Heritage Items and Archaeological Remains There are moveable items and archaeological remains on the Island, which have heritage values: • As a result of the history of Rottnest Island, numerous archaeological remains and moveable heritage items have been located. Items include remnants of previous buildings, human remains, glass spear points crafted by Aboriginal prisoners, art works, bottles, coins, clay pipes, general furniture pieces, household items and tools from earlier times. A collection of moveable heritage items and archaeological remains is displayed in the Rottnest Island Museum. • There are numerous unexplored areas on the Island that could contain archaeological remains. For example, many moveable heritage items may still be present within the sand foundations of the Island and may be discovered either through digging associated with construction or through natural exposure following major wind and rain driven sand movements. • Archaeological remains on the Island will provide further opportunities for discovery and interpretation of past activities on the Island. • The Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 prohibits the removal of any Indigenous cultural material without the proper authority and there are moves to mirror this arrangement for other heritage materials under the Heritage of Western Australia Act 1990.

5.4 ISSUES Resourcing the management of a heritage estate Issues associated with the management of the Island’s heritage estate include: • The restoration and interpretation of heritage requires improved attention. • The magnitude of the heritage asset on Rottnest Island represents a significant community service obligation in terms of protection, maintenance and interpretation. • The complexity of heritage issues on Rottnest Island adds significantly to the costs of heritage management. • Funds for heritage works comes largely from revenue raised and to a lesser extent from grants which have been gained for small projects. • There are missed opportunities in terms of harnessing volunteer efforts for heritage restoration and maintenance works. • Strategic business links could be made between the maintenance of heritage places and the provision of visitor services, through paid interpretation programs. • The quantity of resources required to adequately protect, maintain and interpret the heritage asset is greater than the resources available to the Authority to carry out these tasks.

Maintenance and condition Issues associated with the maintenance of the Island’s heritage estate include: • Limited resources has led to maintenance problems for heritage assets. • As a consequence of Rottnest Island being a public recreation destination, the heritage buildings and structures are subject to constant use and pressure, increasing the need for regular maintenance. • The harsh climatic condition of Rottnest Island adds to these maintenance demands. • The use of poor or inappropriate maintenance treatments in the past has led to the creation of irreversible impacts that have compromised the value of some sites and structures. • Various modifications to the fabric of the remaining Thomson Bay and Kingstown Barracks buildings have been made in order to adapt them to their current function or to better adapt them to the Rottnest Island climate. Some of these changes are intrusive and some are not reversible. • The absence of a comprehensive understanding of the comparative significance and condition of various elements of the heritage estate and of requirements and priorities for maintenance and restoration is limiting the Authority’s ability to manage these assets strategically and effectively. • Access to advice on restoration and maintenance of heritage buildings is severely limited. • There are several heritage buildings that are occupied by independent Island businesses who are responsible for the maintenance of these structures.

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Aboriginal Heritage Issues associated with the management of the Aboriginal heritage on Rottnest Island include: • The Aboriginal heritage of the Island is understated. • The Quod, which is of particular significance to Aboriginal people, is currently under lease as the Rottnest Island Lodge. The lease extends to 2018. • The full extent of the cemetery has been suggested to be greater than that currently protected. • There is one existing Native Title claim on Rottnest Island, which is yet to be determined by the Native Title Tribunal. Vistas, Landscapes and Character Units Issues associated with the management of the Island’s heritage vistas, landscapes and character units include: • Management of landscapes, vistas and spaces is as important as maintenance of individual buildings. Similarly, the maintenance of significant collections of buildings is important in order to maintain overall historic character. • The loss of European plantings or the built landscaping elements that exist in the Settlement Zone would affect the nature of the Settlement Character Unit, including its significant vistas and ambience. The condition of the planting stock is generally mature to over-mature. • There are several historic vistas in and through the Settlement Zone that have been weakened. • Uniform paint colour has diminished the complexity and variety of finishes

and has tended to disguise the history of development and aesthetic subtleties. This issue was addressed in the Settlement Planning Scheme which recommended the development and implementation of a policy of colour scheme which reflects the historical Island colour scheme (refer Part B, Chapter 2 Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). Interpretation Management of the interpretation of the heritage values on Rottnest Island includes the following issues: • Interpretation is one of the Authority’s key tools in terms of raising the appreciation of the heritage asset and influencing people to ensure that their behaviour is consistent with the values of Rottnest Island. • Generally the significance and scale of the heritage value on Rottnest Island is not well appreciated as a result of limited interpretation. • There is an absence of a dedicated purpose-built facility for interpretation on the Island. This was highlighted in the Settlement Planning Scheme and the design and sourcing of funds for a dedicated interpretation facility was recommended (Part B, Chapter 2 Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, Section 2.4.1.). • The current range of brochures and other materials related to heritage are out of date and therefore not effective interpretation tools. • There are opportunities to interpret the heritage estate through heritagefocussed conferences, seminars and

training programs. • There are opportunities to further interpret the heritage asset of Rottnest Island through the Rottnest Island website. • Kingstown Barracks is under-utilised as a contributor to the interpretation of the Island’s Military History. • Several opportunities exist to better interpret Rottnest Island’s maritime heritage, including opening the lighthouses to public viewing and better interpretation of shipwrecks. Moveable Heritage Management of the moveable heritage values on Rottnest Island includes the following issues: • Professional and amateur collectors have removed many moveable heritage items from Rottnest Island. • Hardening of areas has the potential to seal in undiscovered archaeological remains. • Works that involve digging and/or ground disturbance have the potential to uncover archaeological items and should be appropriately managed. • There is no formal program for the exploration of archaeological remains on the Island. • The absence of resources, in particular a curator, has led to difficulties in the appropriate collection and management of historical artefacts.

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Today as history The heritage of Rottnest Island is constantly evolving. Future generations will consider this current period to hold relevance to the history of Rottnest Island. Management and recording of current operations for future interpretation from a heritage perspective include the following issues: • Management should consider the preservation of the social heritage value of Rottnest Island, as created by its history and current use as a recreational area. • Maintenance of good records as practice will contribute significantly to the future understanding and interpretation of the current period of Rottnest Island’s history. • There are numerous opportunities for gaining further heritage records that are not being explored. In particular, oral accounts of people with close associations with the Island are a pivotal but disappearing resource.

Part B. Management Planning

5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS Maintenance and Management • Compile a comprehensive inventory of Rottnest Island’s heritage assets. • Undertake an assessment of the condition and significance of all heritage assets on Rottnest Island. • Develop a priority listing of heritage restoration projects required on Rottnest Island according to condition and significance of assets. • Develop and implement heritage maintenance procedures, in accordance with the Burra Charter (refer Part A, Chapter 5 - Policy Context, Section 5.2), to direct heritage maintenance activities on Rottnest Island. • Develop comprehensive guidelines for the appropriate treatments for landscapes and streetscapes on Rottnest Island in order to maintain associated heritage values. Resources • Develop and implement heritage projects that can be undertaken with the aid of volunteer effort. • Establish a Cultural Heritage Advisory Committee reporting to the Rottnest Island Authority to provide expert advice on heritage issues. Interpretation • Develop an Island-wide integrated heritage interpretation approach that includes business opportunities that support heritage works. • Revise and reissue heritage brochures to enhance the interpretative capability of this medium. • Develop and implement a strategy to increase the profile of Rottnest Island for heritage-focussed conferences,

seminars and training events. • Maintain and enhance opportunities for free-of-charge, self-directed heritage interpretation on Rottnest Island. Aboriginal Heritage • Undertake further ground probing radar work to determine the full extent of the Aboriginal burial grounds. • Relocate any accommodation overlying the established area of the Aboriginal burial grounds. • Investigate and implement mechanisms to further interpret the Aboriginal burial grounds and other areas of Aboriginal significance. • Maintain and enhance relationships with Aboriginal people to further interpret the Aboriginal heritage of Rottnest Island. Moveable Heritage • Develop and implement guidelines for the appropriate archaeological assessment and supervision of ground disturbance and hardening work on Rottnest Island. • Review, assess and enhance the Rottnest Island museum collection. Today as history • Develop and implement a program of recording current features, operations and activities of Rottnest Island. • Undertake a program of recording oral accounts from people with previous and current associations with Rottnest Island.

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6. Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities

6.1 INTRODUCTION Rottnest Island has been managed as a public recreational Island for some 95 years with the first accommodation on the Island established at Bickley around 1907. Recreational pursuits have ceased only for short periods during the First and Second World Wars. The holiday and recreational focus of the Island is now strongly forged in legislation with a function of the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 being to ‘provide and operate recreational and holiday facilities on the Island.’ The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 directs that in the provision and operation of recreational and holiday facilities on the Island, the Authority shall give particular regard to the needs of people usually resident in the State. Further, the Act states that the supply of these facilities should give no preference or advantage to any person or group. These legislative directions have heavily influenced the range and style of facilities provided on the Island.

6.2 VISITOR ADMISSION FEES AND ENTRY TO THE RESERVE 6.2.1 Background This section refers to the individual Admission Fee only and does not refer to the Annual Payment in Lieu of the Admission Fee which is payable by owners of boats and aircraft. Discussion on the Annual Payment in Lieu of Admission Fee for boats and aircraft is contained in Part B, Chapter 6 - Holiday and Recreation Services and Facilities (Section 6.11) and Chapter 7 - Marine Recreation and Facilities (Section 7.3.2). Visitors are charged an Admission Fee for entry to the Reserve. In 2002, the fee was $10.45 per adult and 55c per child (GST inclusive). This fee is a contribution to the provision of public facilities and the overall management of the Island. The Rottnest Island Authority does not have the power to limit entry to the Reserve.

6.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the Rottnest Island Admission Fee and entry into the Reserve are as follows: • As the Admission Fee provides to the Authority funds necessary for the maintenance and management of the Reserve, this fee must continue to be progressively increased in line with the increasing costs of these services. • Being unable to limit entry into the Reserve could cause problems relating to risk management and other difficulties in maintaining control of the area. 6.2.3 Recommendations • Annually adjust the individual Admission Fee commencing 1st July 2003. • Pursue amendment to the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 to allow the Rottnest Island Authority to control entry into the Rottnest Island Reserve.

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Figure 2 - Total Number of Visitors to Rottnest Island arriving by Commercial Ferry or Aircraft (1997/98 - 2001/02)

355000 350000 Visitor Numbers 345000 340000 335000 330000 325000 320000 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02

Figure 3 - Occupancy of Rottnest Island Accommodation per Month 1996/97-2001/02

100% 80% Occupancy 60% 40% 20% 0%

Jul

Aug

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Feb

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1997/98

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6.3 VISITOR NUMBERS AND SEASONALITY 6.3.1 Background Visitor Numbers Currently some 500,000 people visit the Island every year. Approximately 350,000 of these visitors travel to the Island by commercial ferry or aircraft and the remainder by private pleasure craft. Figure 2 displays the number of people arriving on the Island by commercial ferry or aircraft from 1997/98 to 2001/02. Seasonality The visitor profile shows a marked seasonality. This is illustrated in accommodation booking figures that show generally between 90 percent and 100 percent occupancy in the peak months including December, January, February and March; through to around 30 percent in August (Figure 3 Occupancy of Rottnest Island Accommodation per Month 1996/7-2001/2). The lower number of visitors in winter has been attributed to the combination of the weather on the Island and sea conditions experienced on the ferry journey to the Island. The Island also receives a greater number of day-trippers in summer months. On certain days during the peak season there is a very high number of people on the Island. These days include New Years Day, the Rottnest Island Channel Swim, and the Australia Day long weekend. This has the potential to cause congestion and affect the visitor experience.

6.3.2 Issues Visitor Numbers Issues related to the number of Island visitors are as follows: • Ferry passage data indicate that the number of visitors per year has generally increased (Figure 2 Total Number of Visitors to Rottnest Island Arriving by Commercial Ferry or Aircraft (1997/98 - 2001/02). • Accommodation occupancy data also indicate that the occupancy level of Authority accommodation has increased (Figure 3 - Occupancy of Rottnest Island Accommodation per Month 1996/97-2001/02). • The number of visitors to the Island is an issue as human activities have the potential to affect the Island’s natural and social values, and there is a finite level of resources available to support Island operations. The level of impact is dependent not only by the number of visitors, but also the activities and behaviours of those visitors. • The Authority does not have a good understanding of the relationship between visitor numbers, impact on the Island’s environment and demand on resources. Although there is awareness of general seasonal and annual trends, there are limited recorded data on visitor usage patterns and behaviours. Seasonality Issues related to the seasonality of visitors to the Island are as follows: • Seasonality creates management issues in relation to staff and resource

management and business turnover. There could be some benefit from limiting visitor numbers in summer and increasing those in the cooler months, as this would allow an even spread of demand on resources. 6.3.3 Recommendations • Undertake research on the relationship between Rottnest Island visitor numbers and behaviour and environmental, social and economic impacts on Rottnest Island. • Develop and implement plans to increase the number of accommodated visitors in the cooler months. • Manage activities on the Island commensurate with optimum visitor levels.

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6.4 ROTTNEST ISLAND AUTHORITY CORE BUSINESS 6.4.1 Background There is no definite policy in regard to facilities managed by the Authority and those that are operated privately on the Island under lease or license, but a few general trends exist. The Authority tends to limit itself to the supply of services and not products. For example, the Authority has not ventured into the long term management of a bakery or restaurant. The Authority is committed to the direct management and operation of its accommodation facilities, as well as its environmental, educational, Ranger and heritage management role. The retention of the accommodation management role is critical in order for the Authority to maintain control over a facility that plays a significant role in establishing the ethos of the Island, and to ensure equity of access to the community. 6.4.2 Issues Issues relevant to the Authority’s determination to operate an Island service or facility are as follows: • The Authority has a commitment to the maintenance of the Rottnest Island visitor experience. The Authority has an obligation to sustain the Island’s social, cultural and ecological environment that includes ensuring that the needs of visitors are met and that the visitor experience on Rottnest Island is maintained.

6.4.3 Recommendations • Assess business opportunities on a case-by-case basis, giving priority to the requirements to maintain control over the Reserve, preserve the ethos, equity and access, and sustain the Island’s environmental and social values. 6.5 AUTHORITY ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES This section deals exclusively with the operation of Authority accommodation facilities. Private accommodation facilities are addressed in Section 6.6. There are three main issues related to accommodation, which are addressed within this Management Plan. These are the range and style of accommodation, the upgrading of accommodation and the amount of accommodation available on Rottnest Island. 6.5.1 Range and style of accommodation 6.5.1.1 Background Rottnest Island has a range of accommodation types available including villas, bungalows, cottages, units, fibro houses, campsites, camping cabins and the hostel. In addition to guest accommodation, there is residential accommodation for staff and their families who work for the Authority or one of the businesses on the Island. The majority of residential accommodation is owned and managed by the Authority.

All visitor accommodation is contained within the Settlement Zone of the Island (refer Part B, Chapter 2 Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). In accordance with the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987, Authority accommodation is focussed on the needs of families. The changing nature and size of Western Australian families means that the Authority needs to be flexible in the services and facilities that it provides. Accommodation ranges from 4- to 8-bed units and houses. Accommodation is of a modest, selfcatered nature. The Authority is committed to the provision of accommodation with universal access features. Six units have been renovated for ease of access for people with mobility impairment. An access ramp has been constructed to provide easy access to Kingstown Sergeants’ Mess and some dormitory rooms at Kingstown Barracks. 6.5.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the range and style of Authority accommodation are as follows: • The existing style and range of accommodation is an important contributor to the Rottnest Island ethos, and alterations to the existing style and range could have a negative impact on this. • It is important that the Authority is the major supplier of accommodation on the Island in order to maintain the ethos created by this style of accommodation.

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6.5.1.3 Recommendations • Retain the existing range of accommodation on Rottnest Island. • Investigate designs for a Rottnest Island style of holiday cottage in preparation for times when existing cottages require replacement. 6.5.2 Upgrading Accommodation 6.5.2.1 Background As noted previously, facilities provided within Rottnest Island accommodation are modest. This is a consequence of the affordable pricing charter that has been maintained by the Authority. Although the modest forms of accommodation are considered appropriate for Rottnest Island, Authority accommodation and facilities contained within are generally old and in need of refurbishment. A refurbishment program commenced in 1996, as part of a Government commitment to upgrade the Island’s infrastructure. As at June 2002, 44 Bathurst units, 30 North Thomson units, 38 South Thomson Units and 28 Caroline Thomson camping cabins have been refurbished under this program. Customers have provided positive feedback about the standard of refurbished accommodation. 6.5.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the standard and upgrading of Authority accommodation are as follows:

• A high proportion of accommodation has not been refurbished, and there is a clear and strong message from customers that the existing condition of several types of unrefurbished accommodation is below acceptable standards. Many units are cold in winter with their basic facilities not suitable for this time of year. • The proportion of reactive maintenance that occurs in addition to the scheduled maintenance program is considerable and a significant proportion of this could be reduced if dated and aged facilities were refurbished or replaced. • Of the existing un-refurbished accommodation, there are three areas that are highly degraded and in need of improvement: - Accommodation situated on Kelly St and Abbot St (fibro houses and bungalows). This accommodation is in need of major maintenance to the extent that full or partial redevelopment may be a more cost-effective option. - Geordie/Longreach Bay accommodation. The condition of Geordie/Longreach area is degraded and uncomfortable. - Allison camping cabins. Allison camping cabins are highly degraded, poorly designed and landscaped, and lacking in appropriate facilities. • Improved accommodation conditions could increase visitor satisfaction and be done in a manner that heightens the potential for increased use. Improvements could also incorporate best practice environmental standards and minimise ongoing

maintenance burdens. However, within the current revenue earning capacity, it remains a constant challenge for the Authority to fund these refurbishments at a rate consistent with visitor expectations. • There is a perception that the Authority accommodation does not provide specifically for singles and couples. The Rottnest Island Hotel and the Lodge have accommodation that caters for singles and couples but this is not the same style as Authority accommodation. • Rottnest Island is committed to the provision of universal access accommodation. 6.5.2.3 Recommendations • Investigate the feasibility of the redevelopment of the existing Kelly and Abbot Street accommodation, paying attention to environmental and heritage sensitive construction and operation, winter comfort standards, and the flexibility to provide for wider styles of use. • Refurbish the heritage cottages and the Geordie/Longreach units, paying particular attention to environmentally sensitive construction and operation and to winter comfort standards. • Demolish the existing Allison cabins and construct replacement cabins near Caroline Thomson using the existing Caroline Thomson cabin model, paying particular attention to winter comfort standards. • Improve and enhance the universal access features of accommodation and visitor facilities on Rottnest Island.

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6.5.3 Amount of Accommodation 6.5.3.1 Background There are 322 accommodation units on the Island, including cabins, which have the capacity to accommodate a total of 1600 people. In addition to this there are 50 campsites with capacity for 400 people and 326 beds in Kingstown. This leads to a total bed capacity of 2326. When additional folding beds hired by the Authority are considered this brings the total potential sleeping capacity to 3036. Demand for Authority accommodation well exceeds the amount available during peak holiday periods, to the extent that a ballot has been adopted to allocate accommodation. 6.5.3.2 Issues There are two primary concerns with increasing the amount of accommodation on the Island: • The development of new accommodation would increase the number of people able to stay on the Island at any one time, potentially increasing demand on resources, all of which are limited and costly to produce. • With the current available area for accommodation development being the entire Settlement Zone, as specified in the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987, there is potential for considerable development that would be inconsistent with the social and environmental values of Rottnest Island. 6.5.3.3 Recommendations • Determine and implement a defined building envelope within the boundary of the Settlement Zone.
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• Except where otherwise specified, limit construction of accommodation on Rottnest Island to the replacement of existing accommodation, as necessary. 6.5.4 Allocation of Accommodation 6.5.4.1 Regular booking procedures 6.5.4.1.1 Background The Authority operates a customer contact centre with dedicated staff, tailored software and booking procedures for the sale of Authority accommodation. Accommodation can be booked either by phoning the customer contact centre or in person at the accommodation office in Fremantle and on the Island, except for accommodation booked during the peak ballot periods (refer Section 6.9.4.2 of this Chapter). The Customer Contact Centre does not take bookings for the private accommodation establishments on the Island, such as the Hotel and Lodge. Authority accommodation cannot be booked more than a year ahead, with the beginning of each month designated an ‘open day’ for accommodation bookings for that month the following year. Reservations policies prevent the onselling of accommodation or the booking of multiple units. There are also limits on the duration of stay during peak seasons. The Rottnest Island website allows general information about Authority accommodation to be obtained and for payments to be made, and for visitors to check availability of Authority-managed accommodation. Facilities are not yet available to enable on-line bookings.

6.5.4.1.2 Issues The following are issues relevant to the booking of Authority accommodation on Rottnest Island: • The software program used by the customer contact centre (ABBS) is in need of upgrade. Enhanced features, particularly the introduction of a checking and verification capacity, are also desirable. • On ‘open days’ for popular months, there is congestion at both the on-site accommodation office and the customer contact centre. • Further enhancement could be made to the website to move toward online reservations. Currently, visitors can check accommodation availability and gather information on accommodation style and cost. 6.5.4.1.3 Recommendations • Upgrade and improve Rottnest Island accommodation booking software and procedures. • Investigate the feasibility of introducing on-line accommodation booking facilities. 6.5.4.2 Peak accommodation allocation procedures 6.5.4.2.1 Background At most times of the year, accommodation on Rottnest Island is popular. However, in peak times the demand for accommodation far outweighs availability. Historically, these peak times have been the summer, Easter and September/ October school holidays but they now tend to extend into the shoulder months of those periods. During these peak periods accommodation is allocated

through a ballot system. This requires that people wanting accommodation fill in a form available in The West Australian newspaper and on the Authority’s website. The Authority collects ballot forms and an independent operator randomly allocates accommodation to the applicants. 6.5.4.2.2 Issues The following issues are relevant to the present system of accommodation allocation in peak times: • A high degree of administration is required to conduct the accommodation ballot. The Authority will investigate more cost-effective options for administering the accommodation ballot process for the allocation of accommodation during peak seasons. • Monitoring and auditing of the ballot process has identified this as a fair and equitable approach to allocation of accommodation. However, segments of the public perceive the ballot process to be non-transparent. 6.5.4.2.3 Recommendation • Investigate alternative methods to allocate accommodation during peak periods.

6.5.5 Accommodation Charges 6.5.5.1 Background Rottnest Island Authority charges for accommodation vary on a seasonal basis. The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 states that the supply of facilities should not advantage any particular person or group. In the past, the Authority has underpriced its accommodation as a means of achieving affordable access to some facilities. The Authority measures its affordability by undertaking a comparison of the cost of day trips or longer family holidays on Rottnest Island with day trips and holidays at broadly equivalent holiday destinations in the south west of the State. In 2001/2002 the comparative costs of a day trip and family holiday to Rottnest Island were 66 percent and 50 percent less expensive, respectively. Accommodation fee increases over the past five years have been few, and have included two CPI increases and increases in price on the completion of some refurbished units. Over this same period, pensioner concessions have also been introduced and the Caroline Thomson Cabins were refurbished and leased without a price increase.

6.5.5.2 Issues There are issues associated with the current charge structure for Authority accommodation: • Analysis has revealed that the revenue from accommodation does not cover the full cost of providing these facilities. • The Authority has a charter to provide affordable accommodation options for Western Australians who want to holiday on Rottnest Island. The Authority will continue to fulfil this charter by increasing the number of Caroline Thomson-style cabins, providing them with heating, maintaining them to a high standard, and maintaining affordable pricing structures. It will also continue to offer discounted accommodation during off-peak times. • Different visitors to Rottnest Island choose to make use of different services and facilities and the Authority will set prices so that the costs of those services are paid by the users and are not imposed on all visitors.

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6.5.5.3 Recommendations • Implement the schedule of accommodation charges for bookings taken from 1 January 2003 as described in Table 5 Accommodation Charges.

• Charge accommodation booked for off peak periods, which is not part of a discount package, at a 20 percent discount rate. • Annually revise accommodation costs and operations.

Table 5 - Accommodation Charges

Accommodation Style 1 night ($) Campsite Cottage: refurbished, 4 bed (Gem Heritage Cottage) Cottage: refurbished, 6 bed (Gem Heritage Cottage) Cottage: refurbished, 8 bed Cottage: restored, 4 bed Cottage: restored, 6 bed Cottage: restored, 8 bed Villa: refurbished, with view, 4 bed Villa: refurbished, with view, 6 bed Villa: refurbished, with view, 8 bed Villa: unrefurbished, with view 4 bed Villa: unrefurbished, with view, 6 bed Villa: unrefurbished, view 8 bed Units: refurbished, no view, 4 bed Unit: refurbished, no view, 6 bed Unit: unrefurbished, no view, 4 bed Unit: unrefurbished, no view, 6 bed Unit: unrefurbished, no view, 8 bed Fibros Bungalows: 4 bed Bungalows: 6 bed Caroline Thomson Cabins 8 315 400 355 225 270 300 205 225 245 180 205 210 170 195 140 170 210 125 75 85 95

Accommodation Charge Per night for additional nights ($) 8 140 165 185 125 135 170 115 125 150 95 100 110 80 85 65 70 75 40 35 35 50

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6.6 PRIVATELY OPERATED ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES 6.6.1 Background There are two accommodation facilities on Rottnest Island not directly operated by the Authority. These are the Rottnest Island Lodge and the Rottnest Island Hotel. 6.6.2 Issues Issues associated with the accommodation facilities on the Island that are not operated directly by the Authority are as follows: • The Rottnest Island Hotel is managed under contract by an agent. The Authority will consider options for the future development of the Rottnest Island Hotel site, in consultation with the community. The Rottnest Island Hotel will be redeveloped during the life of this Management Plan. • The Lodge is leased and operated privately. The lease for the Lodge extends beyond the life of this Management Plan and is due to expire in 2018. • The Authority will continue to work with the Rottnest Island Hotel and Rottnest Island Lodge to provide appropriate holiday accommodation on Rottnest Island. 6.6.3 Recommendations • Conduct a community consultation exercise to inform the future development of the Rottnest Island Hotel site. • Redevelop the Rottnest Island Hotel facilities informed by community consultation.

6.7 EDUCATION AND INTERPRETATION SERVICES 6.7.1 Background Education and interpretation are recognised as key tools for the management of Rottnest Island and have a role in many of the Authority’s diverse operations. Education and interpretation programs focussing on the natural environment, cultural heritage and sustainable management of the Island are run by the Authority. Education and interpretation refer to the use of information to create awareness and understanding of management issues and the values of the Reserve. Education programs are directed at formal learning groups visiting the Island with an interest in particular topics, while interpretation is aimed at the general visitor who may not have an intention to learn about specific issues and whose main purpose is to enjoy the Island experience. Some interpretive methods include guided and self-guided tours, displays, signage, brochures and talks. More information on these interpretation methods and directions are contained throughout the remaining chapters of this Plan, relating to various areas of the Authority’s operations. In addition to interpretation, the Authority implements an Education Program that offers a range of activities, encouraging active student involvement and hands-on learning. The program is centred at Kingstown Barracks which contains accommodation and a

Discovery Centre. The program has been developed in accordance with the State Curriculum Framework and is aimed at primary and secondary school students. The Rottnest Voluntary Guides Association are active contributors to education and interpretation and offer free of charge tours of various styles around the Island. 6.7.2 Issues Issues associated with the provision of education and interpretation services include: • Education and interpretation are investments in the management and use of Rottnest Island by future generations of visitors. 6.7.3 Recommendation • Continue to provide education and interpretation activities on Rottnest Island. 6.8 SERVICES AND ATTRACTIONS 6.8.1 Background There are a number of visitor attractions provided on Rottnest Island which are used by both day-trippers and holiday-makers. The range of visitor attractions has been dominated by links to the natural and cultural environment resulting in these attractions playing an important role in setting the tone of behaviour and experience of visitors on Rottnest Island. Visitor attractions are used to increase awareness, appreciation and understanding of the Island’s cultural and natural environment.
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Providers of visitor facilities and attractions include the Rottnest Island Authority, the business community and the Rottnest Voluntary Guides Association. The Authority is responsible for the interpretation of heritage sites and environmental activities, providing a range of tours including coach tours and also providing of a range of facilities including the museum, library and Visitor and Information Centre. The Rottnest Voluntary Guides Association conducts free tours for visitors covering a range of subjects and issues. Businesses on the Island provide essential services as well as some tours and attractions. These businesses operate under a lease or license arrangement with the Authority. Businesses on the Island are managed under a variety of arrangements including leases, licences and contracts. Leases are issued to businesses that operate in Authority premises and generally provide their services throughout the whole year. Licences are issued to businesses that do not operate in Authority premises. Traditionally, licensed businesses have provided summer-specific services but more recently, some have operated outside the peak season. The Authority has adopted a standard selection and appointment process for business opportunities on the Island, which involves public advertisement and complies with public sector standards.

There are commercial operations within the Reserve that do not have a lease or licence arrangement with the Authority such as diving and fishing charters (this is considered specifically in Part B, Chapter 7 - Marine Recreation and Facilities). The Authority also recognises the need to provide for non-English speaking visitors, and a Language Services Policy has been developed to ensure language barriers do not prevent visitors enjoying the unique Island experience. Signs on the Island display international symbols and bilingual staff provide language services to visitors. To assist visitors of non-English speaking background staff name badges signify any second languages spoken. This section will address tours including bus tours; however, the bus transport service is addressed in Section 6.9. 6.8.2 Issues 6.8.2.1 Style and Range of Visitor Services Issues associated with the management of the style and range of visitor services on the Island include the following: • The strong link between visitor attractions and heritage and environmental values means the development of appropriate links between heritage maintenance, environmental management and the development of visitor attractions is critical. • The style and range of visitor services contributes to the Rottnest Island ethos. Altering this style and range from its current interpretative,

environmental and cultural heritage focus would compromise the Rottnest Island ethos and alter the visitor experience. • The range of visitor service providers and the range of opportunities means there is a need for coordination and clear direction in regard to the development and provision of visitor services and attractions. • There are some identified gaps in the current range and extent of visitor services. Customer feedback has advised there is a demand for an additional takeaway food venue that provides choice and value for money, a ‘traditional style’ ice-cream shop and after dark activities for youth. There are also gaps in the telecommunications network on the Island while in peak seasons there is an under-supply of bicycle racks. 6.8.2.2 Management of Businesses Issues associated with the management of the Island’s privately operated businesses include the following: • The Authority maintains control over the Reserve, its property, lands and surrounding waters. • In general, it is considered that licences have been a successful strategy for the Authority, attracting small business operators to the Island who have provided an array of activities during peak visitor periods. • The provision of winter services through licence arrangements may assist the Authority to reduce the level of seasonality by attracting a greater number of visitors to the Island during winter months.

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• It is considered that the existing selection process for business opportunities on the Island is open, transparent and appropriate to determine the ability of a business to deliver quality products and services to visitors. 6.8.2.3 Tours This section will address issues associated with guided tours, including coach tours (note that bus services of the Bayseeker and Shuttle Bus are addressed under Section 6.9 of this Chapter): • Guided tours increase visitor knowledge and positively influence behaviour. Some guided tours are provided with the use of a bus and some are walking based. • Coach tours add to the number of vehicles, but provide the only opportunity for certain groups to discover the outer bays of the Island. Furthermore, coach tours are a managed way for people to experience the natural environment with minimal impact. • Coordination between the various groups responsible for offering tours is required to ensure an optimum balance of products. 6.8.2.4 Visitor and Information Centre The Rottnest Island Visitor and Information Centre provides information and advice to visitors to Rottnest Island. The following issues are associated with provision of services by the Visitor and Information Centre: • The existing Visitor and Information Centre is inadequate in terms of size,

range of services and ability to meet peak demands. There are also some universal access issues associated with the Visitor and Information Centre that need to be addressed. • The current range of brochures provided by the Visitor and Information Centre is not considered adequate interpretation tools. • The range of merchandise sold by the Visitor and Information Centre is limited. • There are opportunities to be explored in terms of the range of merchandise available, as well as alternative ordering mechanisms such as mail order and on-line ordering. 6.8.2.5 Impacts of Visitor Services The impact of visitor services is an issue: • The Authority has a limited understanding of the impact of tours and visitor attractions on the Island’s environment, the level of influence they have on visitors, and how they shape visitors’ enjoyment and understanding of the Island. 6.8.2.6 Charges for Visitor Services and Facilities Issues associated with the charges for visitor services and facilities are as follows: • Many visitor services currently provided do not operate on a costrecovery model. • Given the provision of self-guided free interpretative opportunities, guided tours and services could be sold at cost recovery rates while maintaining a high level of access to Island experiences.

6.8.3 Recommendations • Develop and implement a Plan for visitor services and attractions which is consistent with the Island’s purpose and based on the principles of environmental, social and economic sustainability. • Provide a range of visitor services and attractions that are available on a selfdirected, free-of-charge basis. • Maintain and enhance the services provided by businesses operating on Rottnest Island. • Provide and enhance language services to non-English speaking visitors. • Develop and implement a research program to determine the impact of services and attractions on the Rottnest Island environment and its visitors. • Develop and implement a Rottnest Island Merchandising Plan. • Increase the number of bicycle racks on Rottnest Island. • Develop and implement a telecommunications plan. • Determine and provide recreation facilities targeted at youth. • Undertake a review of charges for the full range of tours and visitor services.

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6.9 TRANSPORT SERVICES 6.9.1 Range of Services 6.9.1.1 Background This section deals only with the passenger services that are to be primarily for transport and are not considered ‘tours’. Tours are addressed in Section 6.8 of this Chapter. The Authority operates several transport services on the Island, which are for the primary purpose of the carriage of passengers. Primary services are the Bayseeker bus service that carries people from the Settlement to the outer bays of the Island (refer Chart 1- Rottnest Island Reserve), and the Shuttle Bus that shuttles people between Thomson and Geordie/Longreach Bay and Kingstown. A charter bus service is available on request. The Authority also operates a light rail operation from Thomson Bay to Oliver Hill. There are two bus transport services on the Island, not operated by the Authority. The Department of Fisheries conducts fishing tours for people with a disability with the aid of their dedicated and specially designed bus. Malibu Dive operates a bus as part of their diving tours offered around the Island. As a result of the conflict between buses, pedestrians and cyclists, the Authority has determined not to increase the number of bus seats available. 6.9.1.2 Issues The existing range of bus services is adequate to meet visitors’ current needs. However, the following issues are associated with the future
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management of the range of services: • Should the development of Wadjemup Hill precinct occur, there may be a need for additional bus services. • There is a demand for the carriage of large equipment around the Island mainly associated with people’s recreational pursuits, for example surfboards, but also including prams and other items. The carriage of large equipment by the Island’s bus services can compromise its primary function of passenger alternative carriage and can inconvenience passengers. The Authority will be considering the need to arrange for the alternative carriage of equipment around the Island. 6.9.1.3 Recommendation • Investigate mechanisms to improve the carriage of large equipment on bus services. 6.9.2 Bus Route and Schedule 6.9.2.1 Background The Bayseeker bus service has a winter and summer schedule with the more frequent summer timetable offering 20to 30-minute intervals between buses. The Shuttle Bus runs approximately every 30 minutes. Some additional services are provided to complement organised evening activities. The Bayseeker stops include the Settlement main bus stop, South Thomson, Kingstown turn-off, Porpoise Bay, Parker Point, Little Salmon Bay, Salmon Bay, Green Island, Strickland Bay, Rocky Bay, Roland Smith Memorial, Stark Bay, City of York Bay, Little Parakeet Bay and Geordie Bay store.

The Shuttle bus is limited to the Settlement Zone including Settlement main bus stop, Geordie Bay/Longreach Bay/Fays Bay, Airport and Kingstown. The Bayseeker bus does not travel to West End although the coach tour does. Charter buses, the Malibu Dive Bus and the Department of Fisheries universal access bus carry people to various areas of the Island. 6.9.2.2 Issues Although the range of bus services is adequate, there are issues associated with the operating schedules: • The current Bayseeker bus schedule is not adequate to meet the demands of visitors in peak times. • Of all the vehicles on Rottnest Island, the buses are probably the most visually and audibly obtrusive. • The frequency of the bus schedule must be managed against the conflict between cyclists, walkers and buses as a passing bus in the Natural Zone diminishes the amenity value of the outer bay experience. There is a need to determine the right balance of buses in terms of number and style to meet the needs of all visitors including walkers, riders and those travelling on buses. 6.9.2.3 Recommendations • Investigate alternative-powered buses for Rottnest Island that will have a more positive impact on visual and environmental amenities. • Investigate the feasibility of the extension of the Rottnest Island rail service.

6.9.3 Bus Charges 6.9.3.1 Background The current charges for Bayseeker buses, at December 2002 were $7.00 per adult and $3.50 per child. Concessions, family passes and annual tickets are also available. The Shuttle bus service is free of charge. 6.9.3.2 Issues • The operational costs of bus services are not covered by the fees charged. 6.9.3.3 Recommendation • Annually review and amend bus service fees and charges. 6.10 SELF-DIRECTED RECREATION Self-directed recreation is popular and highly valued on Rottnest Island. Generally this includes bicycle riding and walking in the terrestrial environment, and swimming, fishing and snorkelling in the marine environment. This section deals only with the terrestrial recreational activities. Refer to Part B, Chapter 7 Marine Recreation and Facilities, for discussion on self-directed marine recreation. Rottnest Island offers exceptional scenic views and walking tracks appreciated by both cyclists and walkers. There is an opportunity to further enhance the selfdirected recreational experience of Rottnest Island through the provision of interpretative material either in the form of brochures or site-specific interpretative signage.

Self directed recreation can occur over the entire Island with the exception of Environmental Exclusion Zones (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). 6.10.1 Cycling 6.10.1.1 Background The primary form of transport on Rottnest Island is the bicycle. Bicycles are available for hire on the Island year round. Visitors are also able to transport their own bicycles onto the Island by ferry. There are conflicts between the various modes of transport on the Island. Cycling, as well as vehicular traffic, are known to cause mortality of Island fauna, particularly quokkas. The level of mortality is elevated by the fact that some cyclists ride at night without a bicycle light. Conflicts also occur between cyclists and pedestrians. To minimise this conflict cycling is not permitted in congested and popular pedestrian areas including the mall and the jetty. The interpretation of the Island on a self-directed basis is covered under Part B, Chapter 3 - Terrestrial Environment, and Chapter 5 Cultural Heritage. 6.10.1.2 Issues Issues associated with cycling on Rottnest Island include: • Visitors tend to feel safe on their bicycles on Rottnest Island, presumably due to the small numbers of vehicles. However, the risks of

injury are similar to risks on the mainland. The requirement to wear a helmet when cycling and to use a light at night applies on Rottnest Island. Enforcing cycling road rules is the responsibility of the Western Australian Police Service. • Although cycling is popular on Rottnest Island, there are some areas where it is a hazard as a result of congestion and high volumes of people. These areas include the Arrival and Departure Precinct, shopping area and the Main Passenger Jetty. This is addressed in the Settlement Planning Scheme where it is recommended that mechanisms be developed and implemented to enforce no bicycle riding in these areas (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme). 6.10.1.3 Recommendations • Work with the Rottnest Island Police to enforce the requirement for cyclists to wear helmets on Rottnest Island. • Work with the Rottnest Island Police to enforce the requirement for cyclists to use a light when cycling at night. 6.10.2 Walking 6.10.2.1 Background Walking is an activity that is enjoyed by people of all ages, interests and fitness levels, and is a popular mode of transport around the Island. Rottnest Island offers several impressive walking areas and a range of opportunities to meet the needs of this diverse group. Interpretative walks have been provided to enhance the visitor experience.

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Walkers are encouraged to use the roads and existing walking tracks. A coastal walking trail has been partially constructed over recent years and the Settlement Planning Scheme includes the recommendation to extend and enhance this trail (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme, Section 2.5.1). The interpretation of the Island on a self-directed basis is covered under Part B, Chapter 3 - Terrestrial Environment and Chapter 5 Cultural Heritage. 6.10.2.2 Issues Issues associated with walking around Rottnest Island include: • Viewing the Island through formalised and maintained walking tracks can be a low impact activity and is encouraged by the Authority. 6.10.2.3 Recommendation • Review and rationalise the number of walking tracks on Rottnest Island to minimise environmental impacts while providing for the needs of visitors. 6.10.3 Universal Access to Recreational Facilities 6.10.3.1 Background The Authority recognises the principles of universal access as being beneficial to guiding the development of recreation and leisure projects on the Island and removing the barriers that prohibit an accessible holiday experience for all visitors. The Authority has a Disability Services Plan for Rottnest Island which

Part B. Management Planning

guides the approach to providing universal recreational facilities. The Authority has been active in providing universal access to recreational facilities on Rottnest Island. Beach accessible wheelchairs and electronic scooters are currently available, in addition to manual wheelchairs. The Authority also has some tour vehicles equipped with wheelchair lifts. The Authority’s recreational facilities are enhanced by the Department of Fisheries which conducts fishing clinics for people with a disability with the aid of a purpose-built bus. 6.10.3.2 Issues The Rottnest Island Authority is committed to the future maintenance and enhancement of recreational activities for all visitors to the Island. 6.10.3.3 Recommendations • Implement the Rottnest Island Authority Disability Services Plan. • Refurbish the ramp to North Thomson Beach to provide beach and water access. 6.11 ROTTNEST ISLAND AERODROME 6.11.1 Background The Authority owns and maintains the Rottnest Island Aerodrome. The Authority is responsible to the Civil Aviation Authority for all matters relating to the maintenance of facilities and equipment used at the aerodrome. The Rottnest Island aerodrome receives in the region of 1000 landings per year. The main user of the aerodrome is the

Rottnest Air Taxi who offers chartered transport for visitors to the Island and conducts joy flights. Other users include air charter companies, recreational training schools, Royal Australian Airforce, the Royal Flying Doctor Service and private recreational users. People arriving on the Island in recreational aircraft (ie. not those on a commercial service who pay a fee for transport) are required to pay the Admission Fee of $10.45 per adult and 55 cents per child. There is also an option to make an annual payment in lieu of the Admission Fee, which is currently $110 per aircraft. People arriving by recreational aircraft for which an annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee has been paid, are not required to pay the Admission Fee. Commercial aircraft operators bringing passengers to the Island are required to collect the Admission Fee from their passengers and remit the fees collected to the Authority. In addition to the Admission Fee, owners of aircraft that land at the aerodrome, other than those who carry out a regular passenger or joyflight service, are required to pay to the Authority an Aerodrome Usage Fee. The owner of the aircraft may make Aerodrome Usage Fee payments on each landing occasion which are currently set at $22.00 for aircraft not greater than 2000kg, $33.00 for aircraft greater than 2000kg and $33.00 for a helicopter. Alternatively, the owner of an aircraft may choose to pay the Authority an annual payment for Aerodrome Usage Fee.

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The annual usage fee is currently calculated: - for aircraft with a maximum loaded weight not greater than 2000 kilograms, by multiplying the number of declared visits to the Island by $17; - for aircraft with a maximum loaded weight greater than 2000 kilograms, by multiplying the number of declared visits to the Island by $25; and - for any helicopter, irrespective of its maximum loaded weight, by multiplying the number of declared visits by $25. If the owner of the aircraft has paid the Aerodrome Usage Fee, then a person who is carried to the Island in that aircraft shall be deemed to have paid the Admission Fee. 6.11.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Rottnest Island Aerodrome include: • The annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee and Aerodrome Usage Fee for aircraft has not been increased for some years, resulting in these being out of line with other Rottnest Island Admission fees and with the cost of the provision of these services. Fees for the aerodrome must be set within the context of the high management cost and relatively low usage of the aerodrome. 6.11.3 Recommendations • Review the operation of the Rottnest Island Aerodrome. • Review the range of aerodrome fees.

6.12 QUALITY OF CUSTOMER SERVICE 6.12.1 Background It is important that all Rottnest Island staff provide a high level of customer service. This is critical to achieving the Authority’s vision of ‘Rottnest: Forever Magic’. The Authority conducts an Induction Program and Environmental Awareness Course aimed at familiarising staff with topical issues. A program of training staff in nationally accredited telecommunications customer service programs has also commenced. 6.12.2 Issues Issues associated with management of customer service include the following: • Industry standards provide a benchmark from which to assess customer service and product standards. • Uniforms are required so that all Authority staff are identifiable to visitors. 6.12.3 Recommendations • Provide training opportunities to Authority staff to improve service levels to meet industry standards and benchmarks. • Investigate certification under national tourism accreditation schemes. • Develop and introduce a new range of Rottnest Island Authority staff uniforms.

6.13 MARKETING 6.13.1 Background Rottnest Island devotes limited resources to marketing. This is largely because of the fact that during peak seasons, demand for accommodation outweighs availability. In addition, the highest proportion of visitors come from the local market who are considered to have a high level of awareness of the Island. The Authority does not currently have a formalised marketing plan. Marketing activities conducted by the Authority include the compilation and distribution of brochures, the monitoring and development of the website, campaign marketing during the winter months which aims to increase accommodation occupancy and visitor numbers, and ongoing media activity throughout the year. The Island is also promoted by ferry companies who advertise regularly, and the Business Community who take part in seasonal marketing initiatives. 6.13.2 Issues Issues associated with the marketing of Rottnest Island include the following: • The absence of a good understanding of market segmentation, market needs and visitor behaviour limits the Authority in its ability to market the Island’s services effectively. • The absence of a formal marketing strategy also limits the ability of the Authority to be strategic in its marketing activities.

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• Marketing of visitor facilities and attractions on the Island is as important as marketing of accommodation, but this aspect is given less attention. • It is critical that marketing of the Island is realistic about the nature of the Rottnest Island product in order to manage customer expectations, limit disillusionment and complaints about the standard of services and facilities. • It is critical that marketing and promotion undertaken by Island businesses is accurate and consistent with the Authority’s objectives. • A new Authority website has recently been implemented and will be utilised as a strategic marketing tool. 6.13.3 Recommendations • Design and implement a market research program to gain an understanding of market segments and needs. • Develop and implement a strategic marketing plan for Rottnest Island, based on the outcomes of market research. • Work with Rottnest Island businesses and ferry operators to improve the compatibility of marketing campaigns with Rottnest Island objectives.

Part B. Management Planning

6.14 ORGANISED EVENTS AND FUNCTIONS 6.14.1 Background Externally Organised Events Rottnest Island is a popular location for a range of functions and events. Many of these are organised and operated by external groups, using Rottnest Island as a venue. The Rottnest Island Regulations 1988 direct that events and functions cannot be held within the Reserve without the express approval of the Authority, and preference is given to events that add to the family holiday experience. A function is defined as an official or formal gathering, for example a wedding, birthday party or conference while an event is generally a commercial activity of larger scale and usually involves more people than a function, for example a festival, sporting occasion or contest. Several large-scale public events are conducted annually on Rottnest Island including the Rottnest Island Channel Swim, Rottnest SwimThru, and the Rottnest Island Marathon and Fun Run. The approval and management of events and functions is guided by the Authority’s Events Policy and is subject to conditional approval. In accordance with the Reserve Zoning Plan (refer Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme) events and functions are restricted to the Settlement Zone and the Activity Nodes.

The Authority charges a non-refundable permit fee for all organisations and individuals wishing to hold a private event or function on the Island. A bond is payable for most large-scale public functions, corporate events and private functions of more than 50 people. If the event attracts more than 300 people, organisers are responsible for the removal of event-generated waste from the Island. Authority Hosted Events The Rottnest Island Authority also hosts a number of events as entertainment and interest for its accommodated visitors. These include organised bands in public areas, Christmas Carols, school holiday programs and art displays, among others. 6.14.2 Issues Issues relevant to the management of events and functions on Rottnest Island include: • There is a need to consider the impact of events and functions on other people recreating and holidaying on the Island. • Demands to increase the scale of current events could contribute to compromising the experience of individual visitors. • During peak periods when the Island is congested, organised events can add to the congestion and potential associated impacts, therefore the Authority prefers to support events that have the potential to boost visitor numbers in off peak periods and shoulder months.

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• Events on Rottnest Island should have relevance to the Rottnest Island environment and ethos and not compromise the visitor experience. • There is currently little guidance about the type or scale of events or functions that require approval. • Authority-hosted programs add considerable value to the visitor experience. • Events can have positive financial benefits to the Island businesses including the Authority. 6.14.3 Recommendations • Determine a policy on the scale and type of function and event appropriate for Rottnest Island based on considerations of social, economic and environmental benefits and impacts. • Undertake a range of Rottnest Island Authority-hosted programs to enhance the visitor experience.

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7. Marine Recreation and Facilities

Part B. Management Planning

7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1.1 General The marine portion of the Rottnest Island Reserve contains a variety of resources and facilities that make these waters a significant attraction for visitors. It is interesting to note that although the Marine Reserve is a major attraction, its management has, in the past, been given considerably less attention than the terrestrial realm. This chapter deals with the management of the many user groups and facilities within the Marine Reserve, which are inextricably linked to environmental management and protection of its natural resources. This chapter should be read in conjunction with Part B, Chapter 4 - Marine Environment that details the environmental management of the marine environment. It is also important to acknowledge that users of the Marine Reserve often also make use of general land-based facilities provided including toilets, showers and barbeques. This group also uses the Island’s infrastructure, for example, the provision of water and the disposal of rubbish, and these uses are appropriate and encouraged. 7.1.2 Users of the Marine Reserve The diversity of Rottnest Island’s marine environment lends itself to a range of users including swimmers, divers, snorkellers, boaters, fishers and surfers. The marine environment also has a significant amenity and visual value to land-based visitors and these users

should also be considered in regard to the management of the Marine Reserve. Many user groups are not mutually exclusive, for example those who bring private boats to Rottnest Island may also fish and dive during their stay. The range of users of the Marine Reserve include members of the commercial sector, for example charter boat operations and commercial fishing, as well as recreational users. 7.2 MARINE RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES A range of passive recreational activities occur in the Marine Reserve and some of these include swimming, snorkelling, diving and surfing. Management of these activities are described below. 7.2.1 Background Swimming, Diving and Snorkelling There are numerous bays in the Settlement and the Natural Zone which are popular swimming locations. People swim off the beaches and off their boats. Diving and snorkelling are common recreational pursuits in the Reserve and there are a large variety of boat-based and shore-based diving and snorkelling opportunities, including a diversity of marine habitats. The Authority has developed self-guided trails for divers and snorkellers at Kingston Reef and Parker Point. Commercial diving charter operators bring divers and snorkellers to the Reserve on a daily basis for much of the year.

Recreational Fishing Rottnest Island is considered to be one of the most popular recreational fishing locations in Western Australia and many visitors fish during their stay. The environmental management of fishing activities is addressed in Part B, Chapter 4 - Marine Environment. Commercial fishing charters also operate in the Reserve. Surfing Rottnest Island is recognised internationally for the quality of its surfing waves. Annual surfing events are held at Strickland Bay and championship surfing events have also been staged at this location. Personalised Powered Watercraft Personalised powered watercraft (eg. Jetskis) are currently permitted to be operated within the Reserve but are restricted in their efficiency in areas where speed limits apply. 7.2.2 Issues Issues relevant to marine recreation activities in the Reserve are as follows: Swimming, snorkelling and diving are all popular and valued recreational activities, and the conflicting nature of these uses needs careful management. Part B, Chapter 2 - Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme recommends the development of a marine zoning plan to address this. Personalised powered watercraft have associated noise, environmental and risk issues and are not considered compatible with the Reserve.

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7.2.3 Recommendations • Monitor the use of Personalised Powered Watercraft within the boundary of the Reserve over the peak months of 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 and determine whether they should continue to be permitted within the Reserve. 7.3 BOATING 7.3.1 Boating Capacity 7.3.1.1 Background As the only developed offshore boating destination in the region, with close proximity to Perth, Rottnest Island is one of the most popular destinations in the west and southwest of Western Australia. Facilities on the Island mean it can also be used as an overnight destination, which creates specific conditions requiring consideration and management. Western Australia has the highest vessel ownership per capita in the nation, and 16,000 private vessels are registered and capable of travelling to Rottnest Island. It is estimated that up to 150,000 visitors to the Island arrive by private vessel annually. Many boaters who arrive at the Reserve and spend an extended time there, bring with them around three to six people. They use land-based facilities, and make use of the natural resources and facilities. Boating industry figures indicate that the number of boats in Perth is

increasing with approximately 500 private vessels purchased each month and the number of registered boats in Western Australia increasing by about three percent per year and 28 percent over the last decade. As Perth’s major boating destination, it is assumed that without mechanisms to manage boating visitors, the number of boats in the Reserve will escalate, and so will the associated impacts discussed in Part B, Chapter 4 - Marine Environment. To assist in consultation and liaison, the Authority has recently endorsed the establishment of a Rottnest Island Marine Issues Advisory Committee (RIMIAC) to provide advice and assistance on matters relating to the recreational use and management of the Marine Reserve. 7.3.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of boating capacity of the Marine Reserve are as follows: • The amount of boating activity the Reserve can sustain is closely linked to the behaviour of boaters. Appropriate management of boating and associated activities will minimise any potential adverse impacts. However, there will be a point when the Reserve reaches its limit in accommodating private boats without harmful effects to the environmental and social values of the Island. • Limiting factors are sullage and damage to marine life and impacts on the amenity in terms of the vistas of the bays. There are also conflicts between boating use and diving,

swimming and snorkelling activities that will influence boating capacity, as will the size profile of boats. • The sustainable boating capacity of the Reserve is unknown; however, monitoring data and anecdotal evidence suggests the number of boats on peak boating days already affects the amenity of the Island. • The Authority has no mechanisms to control the number of boats occupying the Reserve. Furthermore, there is no model or formula available for determining its maximum sustainable boating capacity. 7.3.1.3 Recommendations • Undertake research into the boating capacity of the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve based on social, environmental and infrastructure constraints. • Investigate mechanisms to manage the boating capacity of the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve. 7.3.2 Boating Annual Admission Fee 7.3.2.1 Background Visitors entering the Reserve by ferry pay the Authority an Admission Fee, as part of their ferry fare, which is currently set at $10.45 per adult and 55c per child. Those entering the Reserve by private boat are also required to pay the Admission Fee, but have the option of making an annual payment in lieu of the Admission Fee of $110 (as at 2002) and displaying a sticker to this effect on their vessel. This is then valid for all visitors entering the Reserve in that vessel, regardless of the number of people carried, days of access or facilities used.
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The Authority provides a range of facilities for recreational boats visiting Rottnest Island including jetty berthing facilities, barbeques, a fuelling station, the provision and maintenance of ablution blocks and showers, the provision of rubbish collection and disposal services and the provision of bus transport services. It is acknowledged that many facilities used by boaters are used, to varying extents, by other visitors to the Island. The boating annual payment in lieu of the Admission Fee has not been increased in accordance with CPI for 3 years. 7.3.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the boating annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee are as follows: • This fee is revenue to the Authority used for the management of the Island and its facilities. The current annual payment is significantly underpriced when compared with Admission Fees paid per visit by individuals. • An analysis of the cost of the provision of these services and facilities to the boating community versus the revenue received from current charges has revealed that the Authority makes a net loss. It is considered that in a self-funding environment, it is not sustainable for the Authority to use revenue from other visitors’ admission fees, and funding from other areas, to subsidise the activities and services of the boating community.

7.3.2.3 Recommendations • Increase the boating annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee from 1 September 2003 to the following GST inclusive prices: - Vessels up to 8 metres: $121.00 - Vessels greater than 8 metres but less than 10 metres: $137.50 - Vessels 10 metres or greater but less than 15 metres: $165.00 - Vessels 15 metres or greater: $275.00 • Annually review the boating Annual Payment in Lieu of Admission Fee.
* Vessel length refers to the registration length of a vessel as defined in vessel registration papers issued by the Western Australian Department for Planning and Infrastructure.

Part B. Management Planning

reflect the need to ensure precautionary vessel movements. 7.3.3.3 Recommendation • Work with the Department for Planning and Infrastructure to expand the boating five-knot speed limit area to include all bays containing moorings and all waters within 100 metres of the shoreline. 7.4 MOORINGS The Rottnest Island Reserve contains licensed recreational moorings and rental moorings. Licensed moorings are distributed through the Settlement and outer bays of the Island. Rental moorings are located only in Thomson Bay, Geordie Bay and Longreach Bay. Compared to anchoring, moorings are considered to have relatively low environmental impact and are therefore considered to be an effective environmental management tool (refer Chapter 4 - Marine Environment, Section 4.6 - Mooring Damage, and Section 4.7 - Anchor Damage). Authority-owned moorings are rented to private vessel owners on a short-term basis. Permanent recreational moorings are licensed to boat owners on an annual basis. The demand for recreational mooring site licences well exceeds the availability of these facilities, and the demand for rental moorings exceeds availability in peak times. 7.4.1 Mooring Capacity 7.4.1.1 Background There are 899 moorings within the Marine Reserve, consisting of 864

7.3.3 Boating Speed Limits 7.3.3.1 Background The Rottnest Island Regulations 1988 provide the Authority with the power to limit the speed of any specified class or classes of vessels in any area of the Reserve. The Authority works with the lead agency for boating transport and safety, the Department for Planning and Infrastructure, in this regard. Five-knot speed limits apply in Thomson, Longreach, Geordie and Parker Point, Parakeet, Stark, Rocky, Narrowneck, Marjorie and Porpoise Bays. Boating accidents are reasonably frequent in the Marine Reserve. 7.3.3.2 Issues Management of boating speed limits includes the following issues: • The Reserve is a popular diving, snorkel and swimming area, and considering the potential for accidents, boat speed limits should

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recreational moorings and 35 rental moorings. There is limited documented information available on the level of use of moorings but anecdotal evidence suggests that apart from peak periods, it is unusual for a high proportion of moorings in the Reserve to be occupied at any one time. 7.4.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the number of moorings in the Rottnest Island Reserve include the following: • At the broadest level, the mooring capacity of an area is influenced by the size of boats using the moorings which must be far enough apart to avoid collisions. It is also influenced by the need to minimise environmental damage caused by the apparatus itself and the need to manage the resultant impact of boating in the Reserve. • The Authority does not maintain geographically positioned data on mooring locations, which impedes its ability to ensure appropriate distances are maintained between moorings and that no illegal relocation of moorings occurs. • There is concern that if the pattern of mooring usage increases significantly, the environmental and social values of Rottnest Island will be compromised, particularly in the popular Settlement bays of Thomson, Geordie and Longreach. Any alteration to the existing mooring policy should carefully consider the influence that this may have on patterns of mooring use and subsequent social and environmental impacts.

• Sand accretion in bays is rendering some moorings unsuitable for a vessel as the draft of the vessel exceeds the depth of the water. In such circumstances, the Authority facilitates the re-assignment of a suitable mooring to that licensee. Interference with the sea bottom in order to increase the depth of the mooring apparatus is considered unacceptable. 7.4.1.3 Recommendations • Maintain the current total number of licensed recreational moorings in the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve. • Employ geographical positioning survey methods to determine and maintain records of mooring locations. • Prohibit people from dredging or otherwise interfering with any area of sea bed in the Marine Reserve. 7.4.2 Mooring Site Licences 7.4.2.1 Background Licensed moorings are allocated and managed in accordance with the Authority’s 1997 Moorings Policy. The Authority grants recreational licences for moorings allowing a person’s vessel to occupy a specific mooring site. A recreational mooring site licence has a 12-month term and the current policy is to renew these annually on 1 September, subject to compliance with licence conditions. The Authority may refuse to renew a licence if it considers that it is in the public interest or in the best interest of the Reserve to do so.

Under the existing policy, only a mooring Licensee or its ‘Authorised User’ can use the licensed recreational mooring. Authorised Users are people who have been given formal approval by the licensee of the mooring to occupy that facility, and the Authorised User system is administered by the Authority. As the demand for recreational mooring site licences well exceeds the availability of moorings, the Authority also operates a waitlist that allows eligible people to register applications for a relinquished mooring. Waitlist periods can be up to fifteen years. The mooring policy creates a range of requirements regarding eligibility for a mooring site licence. The major requirement is that only those who own a boat registered in Western Australia, and who reside in Western Australia and are on the Western Australian electoral role are eligible for a mooring site licence and are able to sit on the mooring site licence waiting list. Further, a maximum of one mooring site licence is permitted per person. 7.4.2.2 Issues The following are issues relevant to the future management of Rottnest Island recreational mooring site licences: Allocation and Access to Recreational Mooring Site Licences The current policy restricts access to a mooring to the Licensee of that mooring and any nominated Authorised Users. Licensees are not permitted to moor on another person’s mooring,

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unless they are an Authorised User of that mooring. Boaters must be an Authorised User of any mooring they intend to use. Boaters who are not Licensees or Authorised Users of a recreational mooring are not permitted to make use of that facility, however rental moorings are available for hire from the Authority. The popularity of moorings on the Island, and the annual licence renewal process means the waitlist system is limited in its ability to increase access for boaters. The current policy has resulted in a total of only approximately 1600 individuals having access to a mooring on the Island. There is strong public pressure to increase access to moorings in the Reserve. The boating community has expressed strong support for a mooring system that retains the current licensing and Authorised User arrangements while introducing the opportunity for other boaters to have access to moorings on a short term basis. The Authority is committed to increasing access to licensed recreational moorings. There are several ways that this can be achieved and the Authority proposes to trial a system with the support of the boating community. This system will maintain the existing categories of mooring users (ie. Licensees and Authorised Users) but increase access by extending the rights of those users and the method of allocation of Authorised Users as follows, and summarised in Table 6 Summary of Recreational Mooring Trial System.

Authorised Users. Licensees will be required by the Authority to have Authorised Users, and may continue to nominate them. The terms and conditions of site licences will grant the Authority the right to allocate Authorised Users to moorings, in order to ensure increased access. People may nominate their interest in becoming an Authorised User without being an associate of a Licensee. Each Authorised User may have Authorised User access for several recreational moorings. Access Rights. Under the trial system, Licensees and Authorised users will have the right to access the moorings they are assigned to, and will also have casual user access to all other recreational moorings. This access will be subject to conditions including having a competent operator on board at all times, recognising physical limitations and other conditions to be specified. Licensees will have priority access to their mooring, over all other users. Authorised Users have priority access to those moorings that they are authorised to use, over casual users. Both Licensees and Authorised Users will have the option of casual use. This will allow people to visit friends in other bays, explore other bays, or to moor for short periods of time in Thomson or Geordie Bays to obtain essentials and utilise facilities. License term and renewal process. Under the trial system, existing renewal processes and allocation of moorings from the waitlist will remain. Licensees

Part B. Management Planning

will retain their mooring licence and the annual renewal policy will continue. Allocation of moorings that become vacant will be from the waitlist. The annual renewal policy will also apply to new licensees. This system will be trialed from 1 September 2003. The trial will be developed and implemented in consultation with a working group including representatives of stakeholder groups and in consultation with the newly established Rottnest Island Marine Issues Advisory Committee. There are several issues that will need to be resolved in the development and implementation of the trial. The Authority will underwrite Public Liability Insurance for all moorings on Rottnest Island but other insurance matters, economic viability and administrative issues will require development. The Authority will pursue other mechanisms to increase access to recreational moorings within the Reserve, should the trial be unsuccessful. Charges for Recreational Mooring Site Licences and Authorised Access All fees and charges for Licensees and Authorised Users will be based on per metre of boat length. Mooring Licensees pay an annual recreational mooring site licence fee to the Authority which is currently set at $55 per metre. The licence fee for the trial has been amended to $66 per metre, or $660, whichever is the greater amount.

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Table 6 - Summary of Recreational Mooring Trial System
Feature Access Rights of Licensees Description Licensees have priority access to their mooring above all others. Licensees have casual access to all other vacant recreational moorings until such time as the Licensee or an Authorised User of that mooring requires use of the mooring - a competent operator must remain on board during “casual” use. Access Rights of Authorised Users Authorised Users have priority access to moorings for which they are an Authorised User, above others who are not nominated to that mooring. The Licensee of that mooring has priority access over the Authorised User and the Authorised User would be required to vacate the mooring should the Licensee arrive. Authorised Users have casual access to all other vacant recreational moorings until such time as the licensee or an Authorised User of that mooring requires use of the mooring - a competent operator must remain on board during “casual” use. Nomination of Authorised Users A Licensee can nominate Authorised Users or a person can nominate themselves to the Rottnest Island Authority. All mooring sites will be required to have Authorised Users. Allocation of relinquished moorings License term and renewal for existing licensees License term and renewal for new licensees From existing waitlist 12-month licence with annual renewal subject to compliance with conditions. 12-month licence with annual renewal subject to compliance with conditions.

Should the trial be unsuccessful and the current arrangements be reinstated, the licence fee will be set at $77 per metre, or $770, whichever is the greater amount. In the past, Authorised Users have not been required to pay a fee to the Authority for access to mooring facilities. Authorised User fees will be set at $33.00 per metre of vessel, with no minimum fee, plus the applicable Admission Fee. These fees recognise the increased access to moorings by Authorised Users and the flexibility provided by the “casual user” status afforded to Licensees and Authorised Users. The existing annual administration fee of $33.00 will remain. Eligibility for Recreational Mooring Licenses There are two issues in relation to the eligibility for recreational mooring site licences:

• There is concern that some recreational moorings are being used for commercial operations. • There are opportunities to improve the methods of determining eligibility status for a mooring site licence, particularly in relation to vessel ownership. The requirement to present a ‘hull identification number’ as issued by the Department for Planning and Infrastructure may strengthen the Authority’s ability to enforce the eligibility policies. 7.4.2.3 Recommendations • Undertake a trial of a mooring system as detailed in Table 6 - Summary of Recreational Mooring Trial System, in consultation with major stakeholders, commencing September 2003, with a view to on-going implementation. • Pursue alternative mechanisms for increasing access to recreational moorings should the trial indicate that the system detailed in Table 6 is not feasible.

• Revise annual recreational mooring site licence fees effective 1 September 2003 to $66.00 per metre of length of licensed vessels or $660, which ever is the greater amount, for the duration of the recreational mooring trial, and permanently thereafter should the trial system be implemented substantively. • Introduce an Annual Authorised User Fee of $33.00 per metre as at 1 September 2003. • Maintain the Annual Administration Fee for Authorised Users of $33 per vessel. • Review all mooring fees annually. • Prohibit recreational moorings from being used for commercial gain or being sub-let. • Revise mooring renewal procedures to make the presentation of a hull identification number a prerequisite for a mooring site licence renewal by 1 September 2004.

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7.4.3 Conversion of Permanent to Rental Moorings 7.4.3.1 Background The provision of rental moorings in addition to the recreational licensed moorings provides a greater access of use of mooring facilities. Rental moorings are in high demand with waitlists for these facilities occurring in December and January. In response, the Authority has aimed to increase the number of rental moorings available. Since late 2000 the Authority has implemented a policy of retaining one in every three relinquished recreational licensed moorings in Thomson, Geordie and Longreach Bays for conversion to rental moorings. This equates to about two to three conversions each year. The selection of relinquished moorings to convert to rental moorings is sensitive to the need to have rental moorings suitable for vessels of a range of sizes. 7.4.3.2 Issues The conversion of licensed recreational moorings to rental moorings requires management: • Resuming licensed recreational moorings for conversion to rental moorings slows the waitlist for a mooring site licence. • It would not be economical for the Authority to convert all moorings to rental facilities as there is little demand for these during off peak months, and also due to the expense related to maintaining this volume of mooring apparatus.

• With the introduction of a mooring system that provides enhanced shortterm access to licensed moorings, it is envisaged that there will not be an increased demand for rental moorings in the Rottnest Island Reserve. 7.4.3.3 Recommendation • Develop a business model for the rental mooring business unit to determine an optimum number of rental moorings. 7.4.4 Rental Moorings 7.4.4.1 Background The Authority manages beach and offshore swing moorings which are available for rent on an overnight basis from 10am to 10am. These facilities can be booked three months in advance. The rental of swing moorings is limited to 14 consecutive nights year round to contribute to the distribution of access during peak periods. Rental moorings are established for the use of recreational vessels only and are charged at rates that reflect this. The Rottnest Island Regulations 1988 permit the Authority to determine the fee payable for rental moorings. Swing moorings are currently charged at $22 overnight and Bathurst Beach moorings are $11. Rental jetty pens are also available and the Authority will continue to provide these facilities. 7.4.4.2 Issues Issues associated with the provision of rental mooring facilities are as follows: • During off peak seasons, rental moorings are not in demand and the 14-night limit is unnecessary.

• As there is high demand for rental moorings during peak season, greater access to these facilities would be generated if there was a reduction in the maximum number of nights able to be booked. • The fees for rental moorings are on a par with other mooring facilities throughout the State. However, based on the demand for moorings at Rottnest Island, current prices are below market value. This is particularly true for peak periods of school holidays, and particularly Christmas and Easter. 7.4.4.3 Recommendations • Eliminate the maximum rental period limit for rental moorings for the offpeak season of May to November. • Introduce a maximum limit for rental moorings during the accommodation ballot periods consistent with the maximum ballot booking periods, from 1 July 2003. • Increase rental swing mooring fees to $33 per night, from 1 July 2003. • Increase Bathurst Beach mooring fees to $16.50 per night, from 1 July 2003. • Annually review rental mooring prices. 7.4.5 Commercial Vessel Moorings 7.4.5.1 Background There is a range of commercial charter vessels operating in the Reserve. These charter vessels, particularly diving and fishing charters, generally operate at specific sites that do not have moorings available for commercial use. Some operators use recreational moorings for charters and therefore commercial benefit.

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7.4.5.2 Issues The following issues are relevant to the mooring of commercial vessels in the Marine Reserve: • The generally large size of commercial charter vessels and repeated anchoring at specific sites by those vessels creates potential for environmental damage. Strategic placement of moorings for commercial charter operators may contribute to reducing the amount of anchoring by commercial vessels. • Although it may be appropriate in some circumstances for commercial vessels to use rental mooring facilities, the commercial nature of the operations should be reflected in the application of a commercial pricing scale. Such a scale has not been established. • The mooring policy allows for the establishment of commercial moorings but the establishment of these facilities has not yet been explored or implemented. 7.4.5.3 Recommendations • Investigate the feasibility of establishing a number of strategically placed moorings dedicated for commercial charter operations, with the objective to establish a viable commercial charter moorings system. • Establish and introduce a commercial rate for commercial operators using rental moorings.

7.5 RENTAL PENS 7.5.1 Background The Authority has jetty and beach pens available for rental on a daily basis. These can be booked three months in advance, for a period of up to 14 nights. Rental fees for pens are currently $16.50 overnight for small pens and $22 (GST inclusive) for larger pens. By comparison, the rate for all pens (ranging from 10-18metres) at Hillary’s Boat Harbour is $38.50 (GST inclusive). The Authority will maintain the provision of rental pen facilities. 7.5.2 Issues Issues associated with the provision of rental pen facilities include: • Rental pens require less maintenance than rental moorings and are considered to be relatively benign in terms of environmental impact. • During off peak seasons, rental pens are not in demand so that the 14-night limit is unnecessary. • As there is high demand for rental pens during peak season, greater access to these facilities would be generated if the maximum number of nights able to be booked was reduced. • Based on a comparison of jetty pen charges in similar localities, the Rottnest Island pen fees are undervalued.

7.5.3 Recommendations • Eliminate the maximum rental period limit for rental pens for the off-peak season of May to November. • Introduce a maximum limit for the rent of rental pens during the accommodation ballot periods consistent with maximum ballot booking periods, from 1 July 2003. • Increase charges for rental pens to $33 per night for large pens at the Fuel Jetty, and $22 per night for small pens at the Fuel, Hotel and Stark Jetty, from 1 July 2003. • Annually review rental pen prices.

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7.6 ANCHORING 7.6.1 Background Many boats that do not have a recreational mooring site licence or Authorised User status enter the Marine Reserve and anchor. Beach anchoring is currently available for small vessels on any beach outside boating-prohibited areas which exist in small portions of Thomson Bay, Geordie Bay, Longreach Bay and the whole of the Basin and Little Parakeet Bay. Anchoring is not permitted within 50 metres of any mooring. Drop anchoring is permitted in areas of the Reserve. 7.6.2 Issues Issues associated with beach anchoring include: • While beach anchoring opens up access to the Island for small vessels and those without moorings, there are a number of concerns associated with this activity. Beach anchor lines present tripping hazards and can contribute to beach erosion. Beach anchorage areas have also been associated with high noise levels and antisocial behaviour that can compromise the aesthetic appeal of Rottnest Island bays. There are some popular anchorages, particularly within Thomson Bay, where the high density of boats compound these problems. • Drop anchoring on the sea bed and limestone areas causes physical and biological damage to fauna, flora and structures. This can also cause a visual impact that detracts from the quality

of diving or snorkelling experiences. This issue is addressed in Part B, Chapter 4 - Marine Environment. 7.6.3 Recommendations • Provide information to boat owners on appropriate methods of beach anchoring. • Investigate the feasibility of the formalisation of beach anchoring sites in Thomson Bay, with a view to implementation. 7.7 JETTY MANAGEMENT 7.7.1 Background The Rottnest Island Marine Reserve contains seven jetties. Five of these are in Thomson Bay: the Main Passenger Jetty, Army Jetty, Fuel Jetty, Hotel Jetty and Stark Jetty. Jetties are also located at Green Island and Geordie Bay. The most utilised jetty is the Main Passenger Jetty where commercial ferry operators berth, followed by the Fuel Jetty for recreational vessels. The Main Passenger Jetty has recently been licensed to the Authority, allowing the ability to control ferry schedules. Commercial ferries that carry the majority of visitors to the Island are independent and privately owned. The Army Jetty is used periodically for landing large equipment on the Island. The other jetties are used for short term berthing of boats and recreational fishing.

7.7.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Island jetties include the following: • Many of the jetties are in a poor state of repair, are costly to maintain and have associated risk management issues. In particular, the Green Island and Hotel Jetty are expected to become unusable within the life of this Management Plan. • The Authority receives a very high level of customer complaints regarding the expense of the ferry fares to Rottnest Island. 7.7.3 Recommendations • Implement mechanisms to ensure efficient and effective operation and management of the Main Passenger Jetty. • Assess the feasibility of upgrading the Hotel Jetty. • Restore and maintain the Green Island Jetty as a recreational fishing area and small vessel-berthing site. • Work with commercial ferry companies to encourage affordable pricing strategies for Rottnest Island ferry tickets, accepting that the ferry fare includes the individual Admission Fee to the Island.

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7.8 CHARTERED COMMERCIAL VESSELS 7.8.1 Background Charges to Charter Vessels Several charter and commercial passenger vessels (often referred to as Surveyed Passenger Vessels or SPVs) including charter-fishing boats, ecotourism vessels, party charters and dive charter vessels frequently operate within Rottnest Island’s Marine Reserve. Under the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988 fishing or diving charter operators make an annual payment based on carrying capacity and the number of visits the vessel makes to the Island, in lieu of Admission Fees. This currently ranges from $48 to $1 600 per annum for the use of Rottnest Island waters. Admission Fees for commercial vessels were last increased in 1993. Management of Charter Vessels The Authority has the power to grant a licence to any person operating a business for recreational and holiday facilities on the Island under the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987. The Authority has never yet pursued such an arrangement with Charter operators in the Reserve.

7.8.2 Issues The following issues are relevant to the management of the chartered commercial vessels operating in the Reserve: • The current system allows that charter vessel clients pay an Admission Fee that is in the order of 10 percent of that paid by other daily visitors to the Reserve. The current system of charges has not been subject to adjustments in line with the increase in individual Admission Fees that have taken place in recent years. Furthermore, current arrangements do not include a requirement for commercial charter operators to contribute financially to the management of the Reserve. • The Rottnest Island Regulations 1988 specify payments by fishing and diving charters, although it is known that there are other types of charters operating in the Reserve. • Licensing charter vessels may allow the Authority to have an influence on the operations of charter operations in the Reserve to ensure sustainable use of marine resources, receive equitable revenue returns, provide better management of the Reserve and provide additional facilities for charter vessel operators.

7.8.3 Recommendations • Adjust the annual payment to the Authority in lieu of Admission Fees for Charter Boat operators to: $22 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making 14 or less entries to the Reserve; $44 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making more than 14 but less than 31 entries into the Reserve; $66 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making more than 30 and less than 45 entries into the Reserve; and $88 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making 45 or more entries to the Reserve. • Develop and implement a pricing strategy to apply to charter vessel fees, including annual review. • Amend legislation to ensure that all categories of charter vessels operating in the Reserve are required to collect and pay Admission Fees. • Investigate a charter vessel operators licence system for the Rottnest Island Reserve.

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8. Community Involvement and Relations

Part B. Management Planning

8.1 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT 8.1.1 Background The Rottnest Island Authority is fortunate to have a number of groups that carry out a substantial amount of work on a volunteer basis within the Reserve. These include the Rottnest Voluntary Guides Association, Winnits, Rottnest Island Military Heritage Working Group, Scouting Association, Birds Australia, Carine Probus Group, Rottnest Island Honorary Rangers, the Australian Army Reserve, Rottnest Island Foundation, Rottnest Society, and many others. Rottnest Island volunteers contribute to visitors’ enjoyment, provide information and assist with enhancing and conserving the Island. Thousands of people give their time to help maintain the Island’s natural environment, participating in weeding, planting, fencing, construction programs and other projects. The efforts of volunteers are particularly valued in the context of the Authority’s financial environment. The Rottnest Voluntary Guides Association has a daily interpretative role on Rottnest Island that is greatly valued by the Authority and visitors. Some tours and activities provided by the Guides include History of the Settlement, Guns and Tunnels at Oliver Hill, Pilot Boat and Pilot Service, Bird Walks, Behind the Scenes Tour, Ghost Mysteries and Tall Tales, Star Gazing and West End Sunset Tours.

The Authority also has a number of advisory committees that provide expert and community advice on specific subjects. There is currently an Environmental Advisory Committee, a Railway Advisory Committee and a Marine Issues Advisory Committee. In addition, members of staff and residents are significant contributors to volunteer efforts. 8.1.2 Issues Issues associated with volunteers on Rottnest Island include the following: • The role of volunteers is highly valued by the Authority, and it is recognised that greater benefits could be gained from volunteer groups through appropriate management and coordination. The Authority retains the responsibility for quality control in interpretation and conservation activities. • Advisory committees provide a forum for the Authority to gain input from a range of experts and representative groups on specific issues. 8.1.3 Recommendations • In consultation with volunteer groups, develop and implement a Volunteer Services Plan to clarify and formalise the role of volunteer groups on Rottnest Island. • Encourage and support volunteer groups to carry out conservation and interpretive activities on the Island. • Maintain the use of advisory committees to provide advice and guidance to the Authority on specific issues and subjects.

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8.2 COMMUNITY RELATIONS 8.2.1 Background The Authority’s community relations processes are focussed on systems to gauge feedback from the community in relation to their satisfaction with the Island. These systems include customer feedback forms being placed in Island accommodation to enable visitors to provide positive or negative feedback on various aspects of the Island’s services and facilities. Surveys are carried out across a random selection of visitors who have stayed in Rottnest Island accommodation or visited the Island. These measure the level of satisfaction on a number of key facilities. Visitors to the Island also write or e-mail the Rottnest Island Authority with comments and feedback. The Authority has recently reviewed its current system for managing customer complaints in accordance with Australian Standard AS 4269-1995 and is in the process of implementing a revised system. Other links to the community include various public consultation exercises such as those conducted for the proposed wind turbine and for input into this Management Plan.

8.2.2 Issues Issues relevant to community relations for the Authority include: • There are opportunities to further improve the relationship between the Authority and the Western Australian community, and to enhance the role of this community in decision making regarding Rottnest Island’s management. 8.2.3 Recommendations • Operate a complaint handling process that is visible, accessible and fair. • Review the consultation mechanisms used for the development of the Rottnest Island Management Plan.

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9. Visitor Support Services

Part B. Management Planning

9.1 RANGERS 9.1.1 Background Rottnest Island Rangers are appointed under the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987. The Act gives Rangers powers to enforce the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988. Five full-time resident Rangers are employed on the Island. To ensure adequate and appropriate resourcing at peak times and certain events, the Authority contracts security staff to assist during these periods. Because there are an estimated 500,000 visitors to the Island every year, it is evident that Rangers must be one of a number of mechanisms to ensure compliance with Regulations. Two land-based vehicles, and two sea-going vessels are provided to the Rangers to assist in the performance of their duties. A third small marine vessel is available for close shore work. In terms of compliance, Rangers adopt a three-phase approach of education, guidance and enforcement: educate by giving advice on activities; offer guidance and explanation for minor offences; and issue infringement notices to repeat offenders and/or when education is not an option. In performing their duties, Rangers seek to maintain a high level of public contact and visibility, with all Island visitors, while maintaining a friendly and approachable profile. In addition to compliance, Rangers are responsible for a number of other duties

relevant to the management of the Rottnest Island Reserve. These include representation on the Local Emergency Management Committee, participation in local emergency and incident responses, visitor risk assessments, advising visitors on activities and behaviour and assistance with educational programs. Rangers are also involved in the planning of major events, environmental and wildlife management through dealing with sick and injured wildlife, fencing, planting, the control of pests and supervision and coordination of the Rottnest Island Honorary Rangers. The Rottnest Island Honorary Ranger program provides much necessary support to the Ranger operation. Rottnest Island Honorary Rangers have a role in the observation and reporting of activities around the Island and are trained in public contact, environmental issues and the Island Regulations. 9.1.2 Issues

• The high level of local knowledge required to undertake Ranger duties has resulted in difficulties in the recruitment of staff to meet short term or seasonal requirements. • The operation of a Ranger service on a 24-hour a day, seven-day a week, on-call basis is expensive. As a result, the augmentation of compliance through interpretation and education, and through the observation and reporting role of Honorary Rangers, is a high priority. 9.1.3 Recommendations • Maintain and promote a Ranger profile based on guidance, interpretation and a high level of public contact with all user groups. • Replace the Ranger 1 Marine Vessel. • Continue to support the Honorary Ranger Program. • Identify and train a pool of staff who are available to fulfil short term or seasonal Ranger duties. 9.2 POLICE

Issues associated with Ranger services on Rottnest Island include the following: • Rangers are in the ideal position to inform and guide visitors in a way that can positively influence behaviour. • Given the emergency response role of Rangers, it is essential that equipment and resources are regularly maintained and replaced and that staff are appropriately trained. In particular, the Authority needs a replacement marine vessel. • There are many risk management issues associated with duties performed by Rangers.

9.2.1 Background The Police Station is located within the Settlement Zone and is staffed by three full-time resident Police Officers. This number is augmented in peak visitor periods. Police are responsible for general law enforcement and investigation of offences on the Island. The WA Police Service is also responsible for the management and coordination of all emergency situations including Marine Search and Rescue incidents, and assist in enforcing Island Regulations.

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9.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the Rottnest Island Police Station include: • The coordination between the Rottnest Island Rangers and the Rottnest Island Police provides for efficient and effective compliance operations. 9.2.3 Recommendation • Maintain and enhance relations with the Rottnest Island Police. 9.3 NURSING POST 9.3.1 Background The Department of Health operates a Nursing Post on Rottnest Island as an annex of the Fremantle Hospital and Health Service. The post is staffed by three full-time resident nurses. A Memorandum of Understanding exists outlining the relationship between the Nursing Post and the Authority. The Nursing Post is represented on the Local Emergency Management Committee and plays a principal role in the response to emergencies, accidents and illness on the Island. The Ranger Service work closely with the Nursing Post and provide logistical support to their operations. 9.3.2 Issues Issues associated with the Rottnest Island Nursing Post include: • Close links are required between the Authority and the Nursing Post to ensure that situations resulting in accidents and incidents can be addressed and resolved.

9.3.3 Recommendation • Maintain and enhance relations between the Nursing Post, as part of the Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, and the Authority. 9.4 RISK MANAGEMENT 9.4.1 Background Rottnest Island is an A-class Reserve that offers visitors the experience of a natural environment that has inherent risks. Rottnest Island has a diverse risk profile with numerous natural and built hazards that require visitors to show appropriate caution. Effective risk management is now recognised as being essential in any private or public sector organisation. The Authority is required under the terms of the Financial Administration and Audit Act 1985 (Treasury Instruction 109) to ‘ensure that there are procedures in place for the periodic assessment, identification and treatment of risks inherent in the operation of the [agency] together with suitable risk management policies and practices, and that these are documented.’ Responsibility for risk management rests with the Authority’s Audit Committee. The Authority has put in place policies and procedures to manage the diverse risks associated with the Island. These include human risk as well as statutory compliance risk (at least 50 pieces of legislation apply to the Authority), corporate governance, business and operational risk, commercial

contractual risk, financial management risk, human resource risk, asset and technology risk and market, public and political risk. The Authority’s risk management program includes fencing of hazardous areas, warning signage, staff hazard reporting, emergency response procedures and critical incident reporting. Island visitors are required to act reasonably and responsibly and adult visitors are responsible for the behaviour of children in their care. 9.4.2 Issues Issues associated with risk management on Rottnest Island include the following: • There is an increasing culture of litigation and courts are applying a wide definition of negligence and very high compensation payments. • Rottnest Island’s relaxed ethos and the community’s familiarity with the Island give visitors an exaggerated sense of security and safety, particularly with respect to the supervision of children. • Given the diversity of the Island’s risk profile, the large number of visitors to the Island each year, and limited resources, the management of risk puts a heavy burden on the Authority’s financial and human resources. • The Authority’s obligation to protect and conserve the natural and built environments can conflict with required risk treatments. For example, extensive signage warning of coastal hazards and

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restriction of access to coastal areas is considered by many visitors to diminish their holiday experience. • Many buildings on Rottnest Island include asbestos material and will require a long-term strategy for treatment and removal. 9.4.3 Recommendations • Review the Authority’s Risk Management Program. • Review and reissue the Authority’s Risk Awareness Brochure. • Continue the implementation of the Rottnest Island Asbestos Management Program. 9.5 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT 9.5.1 Background A number of emergencies and incidents have occurred over the last five years including plane crashes, diving related accidents, wild fire, structural fire, vessel sinking, chemical spill and cliff rescues. A Local Emergency Management Committee (which consists of the Fire and Emergency Services Authority, WA Police Service, Rottnest Island Authority, Nursing Post, Fremantle Sea Rescue and Rottnest Island Fire and Emergency Service) oversees planning for and management of emergency incidents on the Island. The Local Emergency Management Committee has developed an emergency response plan for a number of potential scenarios.

A Volunteer Fire and Rescue Service operates on the Island coordinated by the Authority’s Facilities Management Contractor. The Volunteer service is equipped with a local fire station that has a truck and two other vehicles. The Rottnest Island Fire and Rescue Service has direct radio contact with the Fire and Emergency Services Authority Communications Centre on the mainland, enabling them to provide situation reports, access specialist advice and request specialist equipment and personnel. Fire is a particular threat to Rottnest Island, especially in summer because of the dryness of the area and the strong winds that could rapidly spread a fire. The Island’s susceptibility is also related to the fact that many of the buildings do not meet current Building Code of Australia requirements. All the Island’s vegetation types are prone to fire. The low water pressure on the Island is an issue in terms of fire fighting as the pressure is not sufficient to meet firefighting standards. Potential fire sources include illegal campfires, lightning strikes, illegal use of flares, activities of holidaymakers and day-to-day Island operations. A Volunteer Sea Rescue Group also services the Island.

9.5.2 Issues Issues associated with Emergency Management on Rottnest Island include: • Volunteer effort is essential to the management of emergencies and other incidents on the Island. 9.5.3 Recommendations • Maintain participation in and support of the Local Emergency Management Committee. • Investigate and implement means to ensure efficient fire fighting in a low water pressure environment. • Progressively upgrade all buildings so that they meet the current Buildings Code of Australia requirements in regard to fire ratings.

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10. Infrastructure and Utilities

10.1 INTRODUCTION As Rottnest Island is not connected to the mainland, utilities and services such as power, water, sewerage systems, waste collection and disposal are produced and managed on the Island. The Authority fulfils the significant role of both a Local Council and a State utility supplier within the bounds of the Reserve. An overview of the operation of utilities and infrastructure on Rottnest Island reveals a trend of improvement over the last 50 years with respect to efficiency, technology and environmental management, limited by available funds. Nonetheless, some problems of past practices persist, notably a leachate plume from the Island’s landfill site (refer Part B, Chapter 3 - Terrestrial Environment, Section 3.3). The concept of sustainability is particularly relevant in terms of these issues. Increased environmental management of infrastructure and utilities, and minimising the use of resources are issues which are relevant both on the mainland and on Rottnest Island, but which can be passively and more effectively interpreted on the Island. This chapter considers these issues and emphasises the interpretation of environmentally sustainable utilities and infrastructure on the Island that can be used to promote sustainable living. The restriction on water and power has significantly influenced the range of services and style of experience that is

provided on Rottnest Island. This has occurred to the extent that Rottnest Island has a distinct feel, which to a large extent, is founded on minimal use of resources. 10.2 POTABLE WATER 10.2.1 Potable Sources and Systems 10.2.1.1 Background Water supply on the Island has always been limited, as there is no natural fresh surface water supply. In the past, there have been times when water has had to be brought to the Island from the mainland to meet demands. The water on Rottnest Island is supplied by three main sources: • Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant - Rottnest Island has been operating with one desalination plant since 1995. A second plant was commissioned in January 2002. • Groundwater Abstraction Groundwater from the freshwater lens situated in the central area of the Island is pumped by the Island’s borefield and used as a potable water source. The shallow freshwater lens floats above a saline water layer with a thick brackish zone in between. • Rainwater Catchment - Rainwater is collected from a 7.3ha bituminised catchment located on the eastern side of the Island on Mt Herschel. The rainwater catchment is made up of two areas, one of 5.3ha and the other of 2ha. Only the 5.3ha catchment is operational as the tank servicing the 2ha southern catchment is in need of repair.

Prior to the introduction of the second desalination plant the relative contribution of the three main sources of water were: desalination 20 percent; groundwater abstraction 70 percent; and rainwater catchment 10 percent. With the introduction of the second desalination plant, the annual expectation of relative contribution is: desalination 74 percent; groundwater abstraction 20 percent; and rainwater catchment 6 percent. Generally rainfall on Rottnest Island is low, typically receiving less rainfall than Perth. Over the last decade rainfall levels have declined. For example, the average rainfall over last 100 years was 710.5mm; the average over the last decade was 617mm, and in 2000 it was 477.8mm. These figures illustrate rainfall being relatively limited in terms of the Island’s total water needs. 10.2.1.2 Issues Borefield Issues associated with the management of the Island’s groundwater borefield include the following: • The maximum allowable yields from groundwater abstraction were calculated by the Department of Environmental Protection in 1988 and were incorporated in the licence conditions covering the borefield. Despite never drawing the maximum amount of water from the borefield, monitoring has indicated that the aquifer has reduced in size. This is related to the below average rainfall of the last decade that has reduced the natural recharge to the aquifer.
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• It was previously discussed in Part B, Chapter 3 - Terrestrial Environment, that there is a lack of definition of the relationship between the Island’s groundwater, wetlands and rainfall levels. It was subsequently recommended in that chapter that the Authority undertake research into these relationships, to aid in the development of sustainable extraction conditions. • The values of the parameters used to develop the borefield management plan in 1988 are no longer valid, particularly given the significant decline in rainfall over the last decade. Desalination plant Issues associated with the desalination plants on Rottnest Island include the following: • Desalination is a high-energy process, costing around three times as much to produce potable water as the other two sources, mainly due to the diesel power supplies that this process requires. • The installation of the second desalination plant was part of the 2001/2002 Integrated Power and Water Supply Project for the Island. This project coupled the second desalination plant with the planned introduction of a wind turbine on the Island, providing an economic power supply for the plant. Installation of the wind turbine has received Ministerial approval and Federal Government funding.

Rainwater Catchment Issues associated with the bituminised rainwater catchment include the following: • Increasing the bitumen catchment area would increase the amount of modified environment in the area outside the Settlement Zone and is not seen as desirable. • The effectiveness of the catchment is influenced by maintenance difficulties associated with this facility. • The southern catchment that is not being used may be interfering with the freshwater seeps that exist in its pathway. • A system of water collection from roofs is not in place on the Island because of the additional infrastructure, operational and maintenance burden that this would require. 10.2.1.3 Recommendations • Operate the desalination plants as the primary source of potable water. • Revise the borefield management licence conditions according to current rainfall and define parameters and outcomes of research between rainfall, groundwater and wetlands, in coordination with the Department of Environmental Protection. • Progressively decommission bores to achieve a sustainable number of bores. • Remove the southern catchment area and rehabilitate the area of the freshwater seeps. • Develop and implement a bituminised catchment maintenance program to ensure maximum possible yield from the remaining bituminised catchment.

Part B. Management Planning

10.2.2 Infrastructure 10.2.2.1 Background Water from all sources is collected in two tanks located at the base of Mt Herschel. The water collected in these tanks is pumped to a further two tanks at the top of Mt Herschel where it is chlorinated and pumped to a feeder tank which allows a gravity fed supply to the Settlement. The water is sampled and tested fortnightly according to Health Department licence conditions. The water has never been found to be noncompliant with the licence conditions. Potable water for outer bay facilities is provided through a direct connection with the borefield, from rainwater or by transported water to these sites. The water infrastructure network has been developed over a period of many years and throughout that time records have not been fully kept and maintained. Current procedures require that information regarding any infrastructure work is recorded into the Island’s AutoCAD system. 10.2.2.2 Issues Issues associated with the management of the Island’s potable water infrastructure include the following: • The Island has a capacity to hold a maximum of 23,000 kL of water. It has been determined that this holding capacity is adequate to meet the requirements of the Island currently and in the foreseeable future. • Poor record-keeping practices of the past have led to a limited knowledge of the current water network location

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which has complicated maintenance and repair operations. • The water pressure on the Island is low as the gravity fed distribution system does not have the head of pressure required to produce higher pressure. This does not seem to be a high priority issue from the perspective of visitor facilities but is an issue in terms of fire fighting as the pressure is not sufficient to meet firefighting standards. 10.2.2.3 Recommendation • Map the location of the water network system. 10.2.3 Potable Water Demand 10.2.3.1 Background Potable water supplies on Rottnest Island are used for drinking water, watering Settlement vegetation especially grass, showering and toilet flushing, cleaning and emergency fire control. It should be noted that up until 1995 the Island operated with a dual water system in which potable water was supplied to the kitchen only and salt water was supplied to the toilets and showers. This system was serviced by two separate pipeline networks, which have now been bonded together to provide potable water to all outlets. The demand for potable water on Rottnest Island in 1998 was estimated at approximately 160ML/year (Transfield Environmental Services 1999). The maximum possible demand has been estimated to be 215 ML/year with full occupancy and visitor numbers at existing levels.

The Authority has been progressively replacing current water fixtures with water saving alternatives, as part of ongoing maintenance. There is also a long-running passive information campaign on the Island relating to the conservative use of water supplies. Potable water is supplied to residential and business properties. A water levy is charged to in order to recover cost of production. 10.2.3.2 Issues Management of the demand for potable water on Rottnest Island include the following issues: • Water supply on the Island is severely limited and will never match the levels available on the mainland. • Demand for potable water on the Island needs to be carefully managed at a level that can be met on an environmentally and economically sustainable basis. During peak periods Rottnest Island is close to capacity in terms of its ability to produce enough water to meet the essential water needs of its visitors. A significant portion of potable water is used for watering lawns. • It is generally agreed that the cost of water production on the Island should be provided on a cost-recovery basis. Based on current costs and charges, residents and businesses cover the cost of their water use. 10.2.3.3 Recommendations • Continue to install water-saving devices in accommodation units. • Investigate options to reduce the demand on potable water for watering lawn areas.

10.3 WASTEWATER 10.3.1 Wastewater Treatment System and Infrastructure 10.3.1.1 Background Wastewater is generated from Settlement toilets, sinks and showers, gravity fed to a number of pumping stations and fed to the Island’s wastewater treatment plant. The wastewater treatment plant is a sequential batch reactor type utilising a biological nutrient removal process. Maximum capacity of the treatment plant is 800kL. The plant is operated by the Authority through the Facilities Management Contract and is maintained through a fully automated asset management plan. The wastewater treatment process results in greywater and biosolid. Approximately 10 percent of the greywater is used to reticulate the cricket oval, while the remaining 90 percent is evaporated off. The biosolid is sent to the landfill site and used in the production of compost. Monitoring bores measure the nutrient levels in the groundwater adjacent to the evaporation ponds located at the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Monthly samples are taken from effluent after treatment and prior to discharge into evaporation ponds. These are tested for nutrient and microbiological levels as required by the Department of Environmental Protection. Grey water used on the cricket oval is disinfected and is monitored for microbiological levels on a monthly basis for the Department of Health.

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There have been no non-compliance issues and results have been within guidelines set by both Departments. 10.3.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the wastewater treatment system on Rottnest Island include the following: • Through normal summer peak periods, the wastewater treatment plant operates at approximately 450kL per day, but there are isolated times within peak periods where the plant is operating close to capacity. • Much of the Island’s wastewater pipe network is old and poorly understood in terms of location, and presents difficult maintenance issues. These result in a number of breakdowns and a high degree of reactive maintenance. • In such a water-poor environment, it would be beneficial to make better use of greywater, with 90 percent of this currently evaporated. Public health and environmental impact concerns surrounding the use of greywater means it will need careful management. 10.3.1.3 Recommendations • Develop a plan to replace the wastewater network system. • Develop and implement plans for the cost-effective and environmentally sensitive use of greywater, compliant with public health requirements.

10.4 SOLID WASTE 10.4.1 Sources of Waste 10.4.1.1 Background Solid wastes include visitor and resident domestic wastes, general litter, recyclable wastes of glass, cardboard, aluminium, paper, and plastic, businesses’ putrescible wastes, green waste from land management, the biosolid product of the wastewater treatment process, construction waste and various hazardous wastes. The majority of public waste collection facilities are recycling stations that provide for the separation of general wastes, glass, aluminium, plastics and paper. Island businesses separate recyclable materials and putrescible wastes. 10.4.1.2 Issues Managing the generation of wastes on the Island involves the following issues: • A large proportion of waste generated on the Island comes from products that visitors bring from the mainland to the Island. The amount of waste generated on the Island is increased by highly packaged products, non-recyclable materials being bought to the Island and the sale and use of non-recyclable products through Island businesses. Authority operations add to the waste load. • The use of plastic bags on the Island creates an excessive amount of waste and is unsightly. • Although there are several mechanisms in place to reduce waste production, there are further waste reduction opportunities which could be explored.

10.4.1.3 Recommendations • Develop and implement an awareness campaign to discourage visitors from bringing non-recyclable and excessively packaged products to Rottnest Island. • Work with the business community to reduce the proportion of products supplied that are excessively packaged. 10.4.2 Waste Treatment 10.4.2.1 Background All waste, except for recyclable material, construction debris and hazardous wastes, is treated and disposed of on the Island. After separation and bailing, recyclable materials are removed from the Island to a recycling facility. Hazardous wastes are removed by barge and sent to specialised treatment and disposal facilities. Construction waste is removed from the Island as required. A high proportion of the Island’s waste is separated for recycling and recycling stations are situated around the Island with visitors encouraged to separate their waste. Rottnest Island was one of the first public areas to have waste recycling facilities. The Authority is also planning to purchase a glass crusher that will mean glass waste can be ground and reused in cement around the Island. Island businesses also separate recyclable materials, as well as putrescible waste. This allows the diversion of organic waste from landfill resulting in a reduction of waste

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production and protection of groundwater. Putrescible waste is used to produce compost. Limited resources means the Authority is unable to separate putrescible waste generated from residences, and therefore this goes to landfill. Biosolids from wastewater treatment and cardboard are used in the composting process, while general waste goes to landfill. Green waste from land management activities is used for brushing dune areas and the remainder goes to landfill for use in composting. Waste sump oil is added to the diesel fuel used in the power plant. Over the history of the Island’s development it is likely that several landfill sites have operated. The current landfill operation is located on Forbes Hill and is managed in accordance with Department of Environmental Protection licence conditions and the Island’s Waste Management Plan. The Authority originally had approval to cut four landfill cells. The first cell was cut in 1992 and capped in 1996. The second cell, which is currently being used, was cut in 1996. At 2002, that landfill was approximately 65 percent full. The first and second cells have not been lined and leachate from the fill has been absorbed into the Island’s foundation. The option of a fourth cell has now been removed. The Department of Environmental Protection has specified that should a third cell be cut it should be lined. The Authority has changed waste

management practices in order to extend the life of the current cell and has commissioned a consultant to investigate all options for waste management and determine a strategic plan for waste management for the future. 10.4.2.2 Issues Rottnest Island supports and encourages the general philosophy of local treatment and disposal of waste. However, there are several factors that limit its ability to treat and dispose of all wastes on the Island: • Rottnest Island has a statutory and social obligation to provide a holiday and recreation facilities. Its size leads to a limitation of the amount of waste that can be disposed of before affecting the social values of the holiday experience and environmental values of the Island. • The waste burden is increased on the Island as holiday-makers and day visitors tend to consume a high proportion of highly packaged products (for example, take away food products), putting a strain on the capacity to treat all waste locally. • It is critical that recycling and re-use are key tools used to lighten the Island’s waste production, and that visitors are educated in waste minimisation, recycling and reuse. 10.4.2.3 Recommendation • Develop a waste management plan for Rottnest Island.

10.5 ENERGY 10.5.1 Energy sources 10.5.1.1 Background Power generation on Rottnest Island is currently provided by five diesel and gas-supplemented generators with a total output of 300kW each. The diesel distillate and LPG are brought to the Island by barge. Diesel distillate is pumped to a storage tank adjacent to the power station and at the fuel farm. Gas is also delivered by truck to numerous individual bullets located around the Island. In 2001, the cost of diesel was calculated at $685,000 and LPG $188,000, making the cost of power generation on Rottnest Island one of the most expensive in Australia. Electricity is used predominantly to desalinate, pump, and treat water for lighting, refrigeration, cold storage and powering the borefield operation. With one exception, all power distribution is underground. The exception is the overhead line that runs from the powerhouse to Wadjemup Hill to serve the bore fields. Both gas and combined solar/electric booster hot water heating systems are used in some of the accommodation. LPG is used mainly for cooking and water heating and is piped from numerous LPG bullets underground to many of the Island’s buildings. Some bottled gas is still used in isolated outersettlement areas.

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Some wood heating systems still occur on the Island. Approximately 50 percent of the heated accommodation is heated with wood fires or pot belly stoves. The use of biodiesel may have environmental benefits on Rottnest Island. A trial of a biodiesel fuelled vehicle commenced on the Island in mid-2002. Solar lighting has been used and trialed on the Island. The Stark Bay and Narrow Neck toilets are powered by solar panels. Solar lights are currently being trialed in front of the Rottnest Island Hotel in Thomson Bay. In the 1980s, two wind turbines were installed for trial on the Island. At the time, difficulties were experienced, but with current technologies wind is now considered a viable and efficient source of energy for the Island. The establishment of a wind turbine is being progressed as part of the Integrated Power and Water Supply Project, where the turbine will generate energy to operate the Island’s desalination plants. As noted previously, the establishment of a wind turbine has received Ministerial approval and was positively received by the Western Australian community during a recent community consultation process. Federal funding has now been secured for this project. 10.5.1.2 Issues Issues associated with the production of power on the Island include the following: • There are significant risks and cost issues associated with the high volumes of diesel and gas which are transported to and stored on the Island.

• Reliance on non-renewable sources of fuel is unsustainable both globally and on the local scale of Rottnest Island. • The introduction of renewable energies as an alternative to the current diesel/gas system would contribute significantly to the sustainability ethos of Rottnest Island. • Overhead power lines have a visual and environmental impact where they are located over wetlands used heavily by migratory water birds. Scare lines are being fixed to the overhead power lines in an attempt to make the power lines more obvious to wading birds arriving at and leaving the wetland. The effectiveness of the scare lines will be monitored. • The electrical wiring around the Island is old and presents significant maintenance issues. • The use of wood is costly and inefficient, and does not support the Island’s environmental ethos; and visitors inappropriately tend to use local vegetation as fuel. Consequently, the use of wood is currently being eliminated as documented in Part B, Chapter 3 Terrestrial Environment, Section 3.5 - Atmosphere. • Solar panels appear to be an appropriate form of alternative power for Rottnest Island, particularly for outer bay facilities. • The introduction of a wind turbine will dramatically reduce the cost of operating the second desalination plant. • The cost of power production, use of alternative energies on the Island and

endeavours to reduce the demand on non-renewable sources, are key messages to be communicated to the Island’s staff, visitors, residents and business operators. 10.5.1.3 Recommendations • Investigate the feasibility of burying the Wadjemup power line in an environmentally sensitive, costeffective manner in coordination with the development of Wadjemup as an Activity Node. • Construct a wind turbine on Mt Herschel and monitor its impact and efficiency. • Assess the benefits of the introduction of a second turbine, based on the analysis of impacts and efficiencies of the first wind turbine. • Use solar panels as a source of alternative energy on Rottnest Island, where possible and practicable. • Investigate the benefits of biodiesel for Rottnest Island, with a view to its introduction as an alternative fuel on the Island. • Develop and implement a program to interpret issues associated with power supply.

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10.5.2 Power Demands 10.5.2.1 Background Each of the generators at the power plant has a 300kW capacity, resulting in a maximum capacity of 1500kW, sufficient to meet current requirements. The plant runs most efficiently at up to 800 kW. The wind turbine will significantly reduce the amount of power generated by existing infrastructure and the use of diesel. Feeder ring capacity is adequate to cope with current power demands, but in parts of the Island power feeder supplies are operating close to capacity. Commercial businesses and residents are metered and charged for electricity and gas consumption. 10.5.2.2 Issues Management of power usage on Rottnest Island includes the following issues: • The long-standing limitation on power production on Rottnest Island has significantly influenced the style of the Settlement’s development. Limitation on power production is a key element contributing to the Island’s ethos and should be maintained. • The high cost of power production means the management of power usage and demand is critical. The Authority can further capitalise on opportunities that exist to reduce and better manage energy consumption through cheaper and more efficient energy sources.

• The proportion of power use attributed to accommodation units is not well understood and limits the Authority in accounting for this expense in accommodation charges. Mechanisms to recover costs of power production on Rottnest Island will be investigated. 10.5.2.3 Recommendations • Investigate and trial energy-saving technologies in Rottnest Island buildings and facilities. • Employ appropriate passive energy and other energy-efficient technologies in all new accommodation and other buildings constructed on Rottnest Island. 10.6 ROAD AND TRACK MAINTENANCE 10.6.1 Background This section deals only with the maintenance of roads and tracks. The Settlement Planning Scheme addresses the issues of road alignment and rationalisation. The road and track system on the Island includes bituminised roads, unsealed roads, unsealed tracks and trails for pedestrian and bicycle access, and firebreaks. Roads on the Island are of two kinds: ‘gazetted roads’ (under the Road Traffic Act 1974) and ‘local roads and tracks’. Maintenance of gazetted roads on Rottnest Island is the responsibility of the Department for Planning and Infrastructure. The Authority values and benefits significantly from the work of this Department on the Island.

The Authority is responsible for the maintenance of local roads and this is done through the Facilities Management Contract in accordance with the maintenance plan for local roads. Volunteer groups also play a significant role in the maintenance of the Island’s tracks. 10.6.2 Issues Issues associated with the maintenance of the Island’s roads and tracks include the following: • The dual responsibility of road maintenance on Rottnest Island means the efficient relationship that has developed between the Department for Planning and Infrastructure and the Authority is important and highly valued. • There is no maintenance plan for walking tracks and trails. • Lack of appropriate funding and resources limits the ability to implement the local road maintenance plan. • Maintenance of walking trails, tracks and roads should take into consideration the requirement for universal access. The Authority will assess universal access requirements in the maintenance and construction of all roads and tracks. 10.6.3 Recommendations • Develop and implement a comprehensive maintenance plan for roads and tracks.

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Part C. Implementation

Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008

Part C. Implementation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Legislation Research Resources and Funding Implementation Review and Public Reporting 101 102 103 104 105 106

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1. Introduction

The implementation of this Plan will occur over the five-year period, from 2003-2008, and will be undertaken according to a set of predetermined priorities, based on the availability of funding and resources. These factors are discussed in this chapter, however priorities will need to be reassessed as circumstances, including the availability of resources, change.

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2. Legislation

The Rottnest Island Management Plan 1997-2002 had, as an objective, consistency between the Management Plan and legislation governing the operation of the Authority. This remains a relevant objective for the current Management Plan. The Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 establishes an Authority to control and manage Rottnest Island. In 1995 a major review into all aspects of the management and operations of Rottnest Island recommended a review of the Act. The review of the Act was completed but amendment to the Act is yet to occur and will progress during the life of this Management Plan.

A particular legislative issue in need of review is the penalties for offences as established under the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988. In many cases penalties are not considered to be a deterrent, particularly in relation to offences that are potentially life threatening or that could cause extreme environmental harm. 2.1 RECOMMENDATIONS • Review and amend the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987. • Annually review and amend as appropriate the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988. • Review and amend penalties for offences as established under the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988.

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3. Research

This Management Plan proposes to undertake numerous research projects relating to the Island. These projects relate to the terrestrial and marine environment, as well as to the management of holiday and recreation facilities. Aspects of the Island’s future management will depend on the outcomes of these research projects. The Authority has been active in research relating to biological and physical aspects of the Island’s terrestrial environment, however very little research has been conducted on the social aspects of Rottnest Island, for example, in relation to managing recreational and holiday programs and facilities. There is also relatively less information available on the management and use of the Marine Reserve.

This Management Plan proposes research projects that will lead the Authority to gain a better understanding of visitor demographics and patterns, visitor needs, use of marine resources and aspects of the Island’s infrastructure as a basis for evidence-based decision making. There will be a need to seek formal arrangements in relation to maintaining intellectual property rights in relation to research processes and outcomes. 3.1 RECOMMENDATIONS • Develop and implement a research program for Rottnest Island. • Implement arrangements to ensure maintenance of intellectual property in relation to Rottnest Island research projects.

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4. Resources and Funding

For many years the Authority has struggled to generate the revenue necessary to meet its operational needs and maintain investment in Island infrastructure. In the course of the development of this Plan the Authority has critically examined its costs, current prices and the condition of Island assets. As foreshadowed in recommendations in this Plan the Authority will pursue increased prices for a range of services. It will also attend to its own costs over the life of the Plan to improve efficiency. The Plan provides for significant capital improvements by way of restoration of heritage cottages, refurbishment of accommodation units, construction of additional cabins and ongoing asbestos treatment works. The increased revenue generated by various initiatives provided for in the Plan meets the cost of these works. In short, this Plan pays for itself.

The Plan provides for improved financial performance in each year of operation of the Plan, improved accommodation service, improved asset condition and significant achievements in the conservation of the natural and built heritage of the Island. 4.1 RECOMMENDATION • Continue to seek funding from external sources, including special grants and sponsorships, to supplement income.

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5. Implementation

A timeframe has been developed for the implementation of recommendations over the five-year period of this Plan. This is particularly important to facilitate the effective implementation of the many inter-dependent recommendations in this Plan. Appendix 2 - Implementation, Timelines & Responsibilities summarises the recommendations and implementation timeframe, and responsibilities for the recommendations contained in the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008.

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6. Review and Public Reporting

The Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008 will be the subject of an annual review to assess the level of implementation and success of the Plan. The need for changes in managing the Island will be assessed on the basis of this evaluation. Should significant changes to the Management Plan be required during the five-year period of its currency, public comment on the proposed revisions will be sought. The Authority reports annually in accordance with the Financial Administration and Audit Act 1985. The Management Plan sets a new agenda for the Authority and it is appropriate that it reports to the public on its performance against this plan, through its Annual Report. 6.1 RECOMMENDATION • Annually report to the public on progress on the implementation of the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003-2008.

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References

Black, R. (1985). ‘The Intertidal Zone: Vulnerability to Real or Potential Stress.’ Rottnest Island Authority (RIA), Rottnest Island Draft Management Plan vol 2, February 1985. Brooker, M.G., Smith, G.T., Saunders, D.A. Ingram, J.A., Leone, J. and de Rebeira, C.P.S. (1995). ‘A biological survey of Garden Island, Western Australia: birds and reptiles.’ The Western Australian Naturalist 20: 169184 and 21: 142-143. Bunn, S. E. and Edwards, D. H. H. (1984). ‘Seasonal Meromixix in Three Hypersaline Lakes on Rottnest Island, Western Australia.’ Western Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Ecology 35: 261-265. Chappell, J. (1983). ‘A revised sea level record for the last 300,000 years from Papua New Guinea.’ Search 14 (3-4): 99-101. Chris Antill Planning and Urban Design and Ove Arup and Partners (1995). ‘Rottnest Island Local Traffic Management Study.’ Report prepared for the Rottnest Island Authority. Churchill, D. M. (1960). ‘Large Quaternary Changes in the Vegetation on Rottnest Island.’ Western Australia Nature 7(6): 160-166. Commonwealth Department of Tourism (1994). ‘National Ecotourism Strategy.’ Commonwealth of Australia.

Considine and Griffiths Architects Pty Ltd and Online Richards Consultants (1994). ‘Thomson Bay Settlement Conservation Plan.’ Report prepared for the Rottnest Island Authority. Considine and Griffiths Architects Pty Ltd and Online Richards Consultants (1995). ‘Chronological History of Rottnest Island.’ Report prepared for the Rottnest Island Authority. Department of Conservation and Land Management (1994) Reading the Remote: Landscape Characters of Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management: Western Australia. Department of Premier and Cabinet (2002). Focus on the Future: Opportunity for Sustainability in Western Australia. Government of Western Australia. Environment Australia. National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity. Commonwealth of Australia. Hastings, K., Hesp, P. and Kendrick, G. (1995). ‘Seagrass loss associated with boat moorings at Rottnest Island, Western Australia.’ Ocean and Coastal Management 26 (3): 225-246. Hesp, P.A., Wells, M.R., Ward, B.H.R. and Riches, J.R.H. (1983). ‘Land Resource Survey of Rottnest Island: an aid to land use planning.’ Western Australian Department of Agriculture Bulletin 4086.

Huisman, J. and Walker, D. I. (1990). ‘A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography’ Kingia 1: 349- 549. Hutchins, B. (1985). ‘Marine Fish of Rottnest Islands Waters’ Rottnest Island Authority (1985) Rottnest Island Draft Management Plan Vol 2: Appendices, February 1985. Kylie Winworth Interpretation Consultation and Peter Freeman Pty Ltd (1997). ‘Rottnest Island Interpretation Plan.’ Report prepared for the Rottnest Island Authority. Marchant, N. and Abbot, I. (1981). ‘Historical and recent observations of the flora of Garden Island, Western Australia Herbarium Research’ Notes 5: 49-62. Marsh, L. (1985). ‘Marine Invertebrates of Rottnest Island’ Rottnest Island Authority (1985) Draft Rottnest Island Management Plan 1985. O’Connor, D., Morris, C., Dunlop, J.N. Hart, L. Hasper, H. and Proud, I. (1977). Rottnest Island: A National Estate Survey of its History, Architecture and Environment. Book 2: Environment. Perth: Advance Press Pty Ltd. Online Richards, Chris Antill and Ove Arup and Partners. ‘Rottnest Island Landscape Master Plan.’ Report for the Rottnest Island Authority.

References 108

Playford, P.E. and Leech, R.E.J. (1977). ‘Geology and Hydrology of Rottnest Island.’ Geological Survey of Western Australia, Report No. 6, Perth. Powell, R. (1998). ‘Two additional species of butterfly recorded from Rottnest Island.’ Western Australian Naturalist, 22: 136. Rippey, E. and Rowland, B. (1995). Plants of the Perth Coast and Islands. University of Western Australia, Nedlands. Rottnest Island Authority (1985). Draft Rottnest Island Management Plan 1985. Rottnest Island Authority. Rottnest Island Authority (1995). Rottnest Island Review. Rottnest Island Authority (1998). Outer Bay Plans for West End, Narrow Neck, Parakeet/Little Parakeet Bays, Fays Bay, Bathurst Point, Bickley Bay, Parker Point and Nancy Cove. Rottnest Island Authority. Saunders, D. A. and de Rebeira, C.P. (1985). ‘Turnover in Breeding Bird populations on Rottnest Island, Western Australia’. Australian Wildlife Research 12: 467-477. Saunders, D. A. and de Rebeira, C.P. (1993). Birds of Rottnest Island. DAS and CpdeR Guildford, WA.

Smith, L.A. (1997). ‘An Additional Species of Reptile for Rottnest Island, Western Australia.’ The Western Australian Naturalist 21: 181. Storr, G.M. (1989). ‘A new Pseodonaja (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Western Australia.’ Records of the Western Australian Museum 14: 421: 481. The Planning Group (1997) ‘Rottnest Island Settlement Land Use Management Plan.’ Report prepared for the Rottnest Island Authority. Veron, J.E.N., and Marsh, L.M. (1988). ‘Hermatypic corals of Western Australia.’ Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 29: 1136. Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. and Lethbridge, R. (eds) (1993a). The Marine Flora and Fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, Vol 1. Western Australian Museum, Perth. Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. and Lethbridge, R. (eds) (1993b). The Marine Flora and Fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, Vol 2, Western Australian Museum, Perth. Wells, F. E. and Walker, D. I. (1993). ‘Introduction to the Marine Environment of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.’ The Marine Flora and Fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Edited by Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H., and Lethbridge, R. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Williams, A. A. E. (1997). ‘The butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Garden and Rottnest Islands, Western Australia.’ Australian Entomologist, 24: 27-34. White, B. J. and Edminston, R. J. (1974). ‘The Vegetation of Rottnest.’ Unpublished report by the Forest Department for the Rottnest Island Board.

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Appendix 1. Principles Guiding the Development of the Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme

Appendix 1

The following principles have guided the development of the Reserve Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme: • Rottnest ethos - New developments or facilities will be consistent with the Rottnest Island ethos/experience. • No accommodation outside the Settlement area - No accommodation will be established outside the designated Settlement area; only essential structures will be provided outside the Settlement area and these will be minimal. • Environmental impacts - Zones will be designed to minimise environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. • Compatible Users - Zones will be designed to separate incompatible activities and link activities that are compatible. • Cost effectiveness - The development of the Zoning Plan and Settlement Planning Scheme will aim to maximise cost effectiveness. • Appropriate use of areas and resources - Built and natural resources will be used appropriately to enhance visitor experiences. • Risk Management - Zoning and Settlement planning will be based on sound risk management. • Transport/Access - Pedestrians and cyclists will be given priority; roads and tracks will be the minimal number necessary to protect and manage the Island.

• Motorised Vehicles - Motorised vehicles will be minimal in number and, as far as possible, unobtrusive. • Vistas - Important vistas will be maintained and improved. • Streetscape - Streetscape features will be appropriate to the area, its heritage and use. • Vegetation and wildlife - The diversity and distribution of important vegetation forms and fauna will be recognised, preserved and enhanced. • Heritage - Links with cultural heritage and associated sites will be respected and enhanced. • Education and Interpretation Education and interpretation will be key strategies for the implementation of zoning plans. • Businesses and services The Settlement Plan will provide for a suite of holiday services that contribute to the Rottnest Island experience and will ensure optimal location of these businesses and services.

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Appendix 2. Implementation Timelines and Responsibilities

Indicates year of commencement of implementation.

Indicates ongoing project to be implemented over the years highlighted.
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8 Directorate Responsibility

Sustainability

1. Develop Rottnest Island as a model of sustainability.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

2 . Develop and commence implementation of an interpretation strategy that allows visitors to fully appreciate and understand the values of the Island, and which communicates its sustainable management practices.

3. Promote, demonstrate and integrate environmental technologies where they meet the social and cultural requirements of the Island and are economically viable and relevant.

Business Services

Reserve Zoning and Settlement Planning Scheme
Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

4. Define the boundary of the Rottnest Island Reserve in terms of a series of geo-positioning data points.

5. Amend the Rottnest Island Reserve purpose to ‘for the purposes ofthe Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987’.

6. Incorporate Swan Locations 12523, 12524, 12525, 12526, 12667,10613, 10750 and 10614 into the Rottnest Island Reserve.

7. Define the Rottnest Island Settlement Zone boundary in terms of a series of geo-positioning data points.

8. Implement the Terrestrial Zones as described in Chart 3 - Terrestrial Zoning Plan that comprise the Settlement Zone, Natural Zone, Activity Nodes and Permanent and Temporary Environmental Exclusion Zones and manage in accordance with Table 1 - Activities and developments permitted in the Rottnest Island Terrestrial Zones.

9. Investigate the feasibility of the development of Wadjemup Hill Activity Node for the interpretation of military, maritime and environmental heritage.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Marketing and Communications

10. Investigate the feasibility of the development of Oliver Hill Activity Node for the interpretation of military,maritime and environmental heritage.

11. Develop and implement a signage plan for Rottnest Island.

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Appendix 2

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

12. Develop and implement a marine management strategy that promotes equity of access and opportunity for a quality experience among recreational users of the Marine Reserve, protecting its environmental values, in coordination with the Department of Fisheries and in consultation with relevant stakeholders. Conservation and Planning Business Services Tourist Services

Conservation and Planning

13. Pursue restriction on commercial fishing in coordination with the Department of Fisheries.

14. Develop the Arrival and Departure Precinct to provide for a visitor-friendly experience.

15. Investigate and implement methods to improve the orientation of arriving visitors to their required first point of contact and other points around the Island.

16. Establish appropriate shelter for ferry passengers in the Arrival and Departure Precinct.

Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

17. Develop a conceptual model for a purpose-built interpretation facility on Rottnest Island.

18. Seek external funding for the establishment and operation of an interpretation facility on Rottnest Island in consultation with relevant groups with a historical interest in the Island.

19. Develop and implement a strategy for Signal Hill to reduce erosion from trampling and to manage risk issues.

Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services

20. Maintain the Commercial Precinct to provide commercial services to enhance visitor experience, and to improve access for people with disabilities.

21. Investigate the feasibility of the construction of a vehicular route connecting the Service Precinct 6a to the Golf Club and the south side of the Settlement to link the north and south of the Settlement, eliminating the need for vehicles to move through the core pedestrian area.

22. Investigate the feasibility of establishing an additional food outlet in the Commercial Precinct, which provides further value-for-money food options utilising and promoting Western Australian produce.

Business Services

23. Develop and implement strategies to enhance the library service.

Tourist Services Tourist Services Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

24. Develop and implement strategies to enhance the museum service.

25. Manage the Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation.

26. Provide appropriately designed beach access paths and approaches in the Bathurst Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

27. Maintain and preserve the Bathurst Lighthouse and Lighthouse Keeper’s Cottage without additional development. Tourist Services Business Services

Business Services

28. Manage the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation.

29. Relocate the Hire Services Shed and the Office from the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to the Services Precinct or the Commercial Precinct.

30. Investigate the feasibility of relocating the Youth Hostel facility from Kingstown Barracks to the North Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services Conservation and Planning

31. Manage the existing accommodation stock in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation.

32. Continue to provide access to the beach via purpose-built designated accessways and stairs in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

33. Monitor beach erosion in the South Thomson Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

34. Manage the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct to provide visitor accommodation.

35. Review and realign roads, tracks and traffic flows in the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay area to improve amenity and traffic flow.

36. Improve beach access in the Geordie, Longreach and Fays Bay Visitor Accommodation Precinct.

37. Restore and rehabilitate Fays Bay headland.

38. Develop a plan for a dedicated Staff Accommodation Precinct including the relocation of staff from other precincts to this area.

39. Investigate the feasibility of the development of an additional road along the Railway Track to limit the use of Parker Point Road by vehicles.

40. Maintain and improve the use of Kingstown Barracks as an Environmental Education Centre primarily for school groups.

41. Develop a business Plan for Kingstown Barracks that capitalises on other opportunities for the use of this area and improves its economic viability.

42. Control noise, odour and visual impact around the Service and Operation Precinct.

43. Develop and implement a plan for the development of a Recreation Precinct based around the Country Club.

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

44. Promote and enhance golf on Rottnest Island and undertake a feasibility study into the sustainable greening of the golf course, with a view to implementation. Business Services Conservation and Planning Business Services

Tourist Services

45. Review, rationalise and where necessary realign tracks in areas outside the Settlement Zone.

46. Extend and enhance the existing Rottnest Island coastal walk trail.

47. Restrict vehicle numbers, size and type to the minimum required to carry out necessary operations and actively encourage alternatively powered vehicles, as replacements are required.

48. Implement an approved range of landscape materials for Rottnest Island.

Business Services Business Services

49. Define and implement a furniture style for the public open spaces of the Settlement Zone and around the Island that meets customer needs and is consistent with and sympathetic to the heritage elements of Rottnest Island.

50. Retain existing Settlement vegetation including trees, ground cover and shrubs.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services

51. Maintain existing canopy lines within the Settlement Zone, particularly along the ocean frontage where they are a key element of the vista.

52. Define and implement a colour scheme that maintains the character of Rottnest Island.

53. Develop and implement a lighting plan that addresses the location and style of lighting.

Terrestrial Environment
Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

54. Develop and implement a strategy for the protection and rehabilitation of coastal landforms.

55. Review and implement an interpretation program featuring the Island’s geology, landforms and soils.

56. Undertake research into the relationship between rainfall, groundwater and the wetlands of Rottnest Island.

57. Protect, preserve and interpret Barker Swamp as a primary example of the pre-disturbed condition of Rottnest Island swamps.

58. Protect, conserve and interpret Rottnest Island lakes, swamps, freshwater seeps and surrounding vegetation.

59. Monitor water and salinity levels within swamps and freshwater seeps on Rottnest Island.

60. Rehabilitate Lighthouse Swamp.

61. Rehabilitate Parakeet Swamp.

62. Rehabilitate Salmon Swamp.

63. Develop a Plan for the rehabilitation of Bulldozer and Bickley Swamps.

64. Develop and implement a Plan to interpret the rehabilitation of Rottnest Island swamps.

65. Manage the nutrient plume from Rottnest Island’s landfill to ensure minimal impact to the water quality and other values of Lake Herschel.

66. Revise and commence the implementation of plans for outer bays to minimise any negative impact on the diversity and values of the Island’s landscape and vistas.

67. Develop and implement a Plan to effectively manage and interpret the values of the Island’s natural landscapes.

Conservation and Planning Business Services

68. Develop and implement strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Rottnest Island in accordance with the National Greenhouse Challenge actions

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

69. Eliminate wood fires in Authority accommodation and replace them with an alternative environmentally sensitive and cost-effective source of accommodation heating. Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services

Business Services

70. Investigate options to reduce the impact of aircraft noise.

71. Review and implement the Woodland Restoration Strategy in the context of a vegetation management strategy.

72. Assess and manage all developments on the Island to minimise possible threats to the habitats, flora and fauna of Rottnest Island.

73. Review and implement a Plan for the interpretation of the flora and fauna of Rottnest Island.

74. Develop and implement a fire management plan for Rottnest Island that recognises key ecological areas of protection, in coordination with the Fire and Emergency Services Authority.

75. Implement an effective weed management program for Rottnest Island, based on existing procedures.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

76. Implement an effective feral animal eradication program, based on existing procedures.

77. Encourage research on Island flora and fauna particularly that which contributes to the management of plant diseases on Rottnest Island.

78. Investigate the benefits of pursuing Ramsar wetland classification for Rottnest Island’s wetlands used by migratory bird species.

Marine Environment
Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

79. Implement the Rottnest Island policy on waste discharge from vessels.

80. Develop and implement a water quality monitoring program for Rottnest Island bays, to test for bacteria and nutrients.

81. Manage Island infrastructure to minimise land-based discharge of nutrients and debris into the marine environment.

82. Review the Rottnest Island fuel and oil spill Plan.

83. Investigate the provision of a waste receptor facility for liquid waste from vessels.

84. Undertake research on the impact of vessel movements on Rottnest Island’s marine habitats, particularly in relation to movement of large vessels.

85. Maintain the use of moorings in designated Rottnest Island bays as an environmental management tool.

86. Develop and implement a research program to monitor the level of environmental impact from the current mooring apparatus design.

87. Prohibit the anchoring of boats in the Rottnest Island Reserve on areas other than sand.

88. Develop and implement a campaign to promote environmentally benign diving techniques to divers and snorkellers in the Rottnest Island Reserve.

89. Develop and implement a research program to monitor fish stocks and gain an understanding of the level of recreational fishing in the Rottnest Island Reserve.

90. Raise awareness and understanding among Island visitors of the adverse impacts of reef walking on marine habitats and species.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

91. Develop and implement a strategy to reduce the occurrence of locally generated marine litter in the Rottnest Island Reserve.

92. Implement an annual program to collect litter in Rottnest Island bays.

93. Encourage research on the occurrence and extent of coral bleaching in the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve.

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Cultural Heritage
Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

94. Compile a comprehensive inventory of Rottnest Island’s heritage assets.

95. Undertake an assessment of the condition and significance of all heritage assets on Rottnest Island.

96. Develop a priority listing of heritage restoration projects required on Rottnest Island according to condition and significance of assets.

97. Develop and implement heritage maintenance procedures, in accordance with the Burra Charter, to direct heritage maintenance activities on Rottnest Island.

98. Develop comprehensive guidelines for the appropriate treatments for landscapes and streetscapes on Rottnest Island in order to maintain associated heritage values.

Conservation and Planning

99. Develop and implement heritage projects that can be undertaken with the aid of volunteer effort.

Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Marketing and Communications Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

100. Establish a Cultural Heritage Advisory Committee reporting to the Rottnest Island Authority to provide expert advice on heritage issues.

101. Develop an Island-wide integrated heritage interpretation approach that includes business opportunities that support heritage works.

102. Revise and reissue heritage brochures to enhance the interpretative capability of this medium.

103. Develop and implement a strategy to increase the profile of Rottnest Island for heritage-focussed conferences, seminars and training events.

104. Maintain and enhance opportunities for free of charge, self-directed heritage interpretation on Rottnest Island.

105. Undertake further ground probing radar work to determine the full extent of the Aboriginal burial grounds.

106. Relocate any accommodation overlying the established area of the Aboriginal burial grounds.

107. Investigate and implement mechanisms to further interpret the Aboriginal burial grounds and other areas of Aboriginal significance.

108. Maintain and enhance relationships with Aboriginal people to further interpret the Aboriginal heritage of Rottnest Island.

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

109. Develop and implement guidelines for the appropriate archaeological assessment and supervision of ground disturbance and hardening work on Rottnest Island. Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

Conservation and Planning

110. Review, assess and enhance the Rottnest Island museum collection.

111. Develop and implement a program of recording current features, operations and activities of Rottnest Island.

112. Undertake a program of recording oral accounts from persons with previous and current associations with Rottnest Island.

Holiday and Recreation Facilities
Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

113. Annually adjust the individual Admission Fee commencing 1st July 2003.

114. Pursue amendment to the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987 to allow the Rottnest Island Authority to control entry into the Rottnest Island Reserve.

115. Undertake research on the relationship between Rottnest Island visitor numbers and behaviour and environmental, social and economic impacts on Rottnest Island.

116. Develop and implement plans to increase the number of accommodated visitors in the cooler months.

Tourist Services Marketing and Communications Business Services

117. Manage activities on the Island commensurate with optimum visitor numbers.

118. Assess business opportunities on a case by case basis, giving priority to the requirements to maintain control over the Reserve, preserve the ethos, equity and access, and sustain the Island’s environmental and social values.

119. Retain the existing range of accommodation on Rottnest Island.

Tourist Services Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

120. Investigate designs for a Rottnest Island style of holiday cottage in preparation for the times when existing cottages require replacement.

121. Investigate the feasibility of the redevelopment of existing Kelly and Abbot Street accommodation, paying attention to environmental and heritage sensitive construction and operation, winter comfort standards, and the flexibility to provide for wider styles of use.

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

122. Refurbish the heritage cottages and the existing Geordie/Longreach units, paying particular attention to environmentally sensitive construction and operation and to winter comfort standards. Business Services

Business Services

123. Demolish the existing Allison cabins and construct replacement cabins near Caroline Thomson using the existing Caroline Thomson cabin model, paying particular attention to winter comfort standards. Business Services

124. Improve and enhance the universal access features of accommodation and visitor facilities on Rottnest Island.

125. Determine and implement a defined building envelope within the boundary of the Settlement Zone.

Conservation and Planning Business Services

126. Except as otherwise specified, limit construction of accommodation on Rottnest Island to the replacement of existing accommodation, as necessary.

127. Upgrade and improve Rottnest Island accommodation booking software and procedures.

Business Services Marketing and Communications Tourist Services Tourist Services Tourist Services Business Services Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning

128. Investigate the feasibility of introducing on-line accommodation booking facilities.

129. Investigate alternative methods to allocate accommodation during peak periods.

130. Implement the schedule of accommodation charges for bookings taken from 1 January 2003 as described in Table 5 - Accommodation Charges.

131. Charge accommodation booked for off peak periods, which is not part of a discount package, at a 20 percent discount rate.

132. Annually revise accommodation costs and operations.

133. Conduct a community consultation exercise to inform the future development of the Rottnest Island Hotel site.

134. Redevelop the Rottnest Island Hotel facilities informed by community consultation.

135. Continue to provide education and interpretation activities on Rottnest Island.

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

136. Develop and implement a Plan for visitor services and attractions which is consistent with the Island’s purpose and based on the principles of environmental, social and economic sustainability. Tourist Services Business Services Marketing and Communications Conservation and Planning Marketing and Communications Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Tourist Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

Conservation and Planning

137. Provide a range of visitor services and attractions on Rottnest Island that are available on a self-directed, free-of-charge basis.

138. Maintain and enhance the services provided by businesses operating on Rottnest Island.

139. Provide and enhance language services to non-English speaking visitors.

140. Develop and implement a research program to determine the impact of services and attractions on the Rottnest Island environment and its visitors.

141. Develop and implement a Rottnest Island Merchandising Plan.

142. Increase the number of bicycle racks on Rottnest Island.

143. Develop and implement a telecommunications plan.

144. Determine and provide recreation facilities targeted at youth.

145. Undertake a review of charges for the full range of tours and visitor services.

146. Investigate mechanisms to improve the carriage of large equipment on bus services.

147. Investigate alternative-powered buses for Rottnest Island that will have a more positive impact on visual and environmental amenities.

148. Investigate the feasibility of the extension of the Island rail service.

149. Annually review and amend bus service fees and charges. .

150. Work with the Rottnest Island Police to enforce the requirement for cyclists to wear helmets on Rottnest Island.

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

151. Work with the Rottnest Island Police to enforce the requirement for cyclists to use a light when cycling at night. Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services Business Services Tourist Services Marketing and Communications Marketing and Communications Marketing and Communications Marketing and Communications Marketing and Communications

Conservation and Planning

152. Review and rationalise the number of walking tracks on Rottnest Island to minimise environmental impacts while providing for the needs of visitors.

153. Implement the Rottnest Island Authority Disability Services Plan.

154. Refurbish the ramp to North Thomson Beach to provide beach and water access.

155. Review the operation of the Rottnest Island Aerodrome.

156. Review the range of aerodrome fees.

157. Provide training opportunities to Authority staff to improve service levels to meet industry standards and benchmarks.

158. Investigate certification under national tourism accreditation schemes.

159. Develop and introduce a new range of Rottnest Island Authority staff uniforms.

160. Design and implement a market research program to gain an understanding of market segments and needs.

161. Develop and implement a strategic marketing plan for Rottnest Island, based on the outcomes of market research.

162. Work with Rottnest Island businesses and ferry operators to improve the compatibility of marketing campaigns with Rottnest Island objectives.

163. Determine a policy on the scale and type of function and event appropriate for Rottnest Island based on considerations of social, economic and environmental benefits and impacts.

164. Undertake a range of Rottnest Island Authority-hosted programs to enhance the visitor experience.

Marketing and Communications

Marine Recreation and Facilities
Conservation and Planning

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

165. Monitor the use of Personalised Powered Watercraft within the boundary of the Reserve over the peak months of 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 and determine whether they should continue to be permitted in the Reserve. Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Tourist Services

166. Undertake research into the boating capacity of the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve based on social, environmental and infrastructure constraints.

167. Investigate mechanisms to manage the boating capacity of the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve.

168. Increase the boating annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee from 1 September 2003 to the following GST inclusive prices: vessels up to 8 metres: $121.00; vessels greater than 8 metres but less than 10 metres: $137.50; vessels 10 metres or greater but less than 15 metres: $165.00; vessels 15 metres or greater: $275.00.

169. Annually review the boating annual payment in lieu of Admission Fee.

Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

170. Work with the Department for Planning and Infrastructure to expand the boating five-knot speed limit area to include all bays containing moorings and all waters within 100 metres of the shoreline.

171. Maintain the current total number of licensed recreational moorings in the Rottnest Island Marine Reserve.

Tourist Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Tourist Services

172. Employ geographical positioning survey methods to determine and maintain records of mooring locations.

173. Prohibit people from dredging or otherwise interfering with any area of sea bed in the Marine Reserve.

174. Undertake a trial of a mooring system as detailed in Table 6 - Summary of Recreational Mooring Trial System, in consultation with major stakeholders, commencing September 2003 with a view to ongoing implementation.

175. Pursue alternative mechanisms for increasing access to recreational moorings should the trial indicate that the system detailed in Table 6 is not feasible.

Tourist Services

176. Revise annual recreational mooring site licence fees effective 1 September 2003 to $66.00 per metre of length of licensed vessels or $660, whichever is the greater amount, for the duration of the recreational mooring trial and permanently thereafter should the trial system be implemented substantively.

Tourist Services

177. Introduce an Annual Authorised User Fee of $33 per metre as at 1 September 2003

Tourist Services

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Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

178. Maintain the Annual Administration Fee for Authorised Users of $33 per vessel. Tourist Services Conservation and Planning Tourist Services

Tourist Services

179. Review all mooring fees annually.

180. Prohibit recreational moorings from being used for commercial gain or being sub-let.

181. Revise mooring renewal procedures to make the presentation of a hull identification number a prerequisite for a mooring site licence renewal by 1 September 2004.

182. Develop a business model for the rental mooring business unit to determine an optimum number of rental moorings.

Tourist Services Tourist Services Tourist Services

183. Eliminate the maximum rental period limit for rental moorings for the off-peak season of May to November.

184. Introduce a maximum limit for rental moorings during the accommodation ballot periods, consistent with maximum ballot booking periods, from 1 July 2003.

185. Increase rental swing mooring fees to $33 per night, from 1 July 2003.

Tourist Services Tourist Services Tourist Services Business Services

186. Increase Bathurst Beach mooring fees to $16.50 per night, from 1 July 2003.

187. Annually review rental mooring prices.

188. Investigate the feasibility of establishing a number of strategically placed moorings dedicated for commercial charter operations, with the objective to establish a viable commercial charter moorings system.

189. Establish and introduce a commercial rate for commercial operators using rental moorings.

Business Services Tourist Services Tourist Services

190. Eliminate the maximum rental period limit for rental pens for the off-peak season of May to November.

191. Introduce a maximum limit for rental pens during the accommodation ballot periods, consistent with maximum ballot booking periods, from 1 July 2003.

192. Increase charges for rental pens to $33 per night for large pens at the Fuel Jetty, and $22 per night for small pens at the Fuel, Hotel and Stark Jetties, effective 1 July 2003.

Tourist Services

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

193. Annually review rental pen prices. Conservation and Planning Tourist Services Business Services Business Services Business Services Tourist Services

Tourist Services

194. Provide information to boat owners on appropriate methods of beach anchoring.

195. Investigate the feasibility of the formalisation of beach anchoring sites in Thomson Bay, with a view to implementation.

196. Implement mechanisms to ensure efficient and effective operation and management of the Main Passenger Jetty.

197. Assess the feasibility of upgrading the Hotel Jetty.

198. Restore and maintain the Green Island Jetty as a recreational fishing area and small vessel-berthing site.

199. Work with commercial ferry companies to encourage affordable pricing strategies for Rottnest Island ferry tickets, accepting that the ferry fare includes the individual Admission Fee to the Island.

200. Adjust the annual payment to the Authority in lieu of Admission Fees for Charter Boat operators to: $22 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making 14 or less entries to the Reserve; $44 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making more than 14 but less than 31 entries into the Reserve; $66 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making more than 30 and less than 45 entries into the Reserve; and $88 multiplied by the vessel’s capacity for vessels making 45 or more entries to the Reserve.

Business Services

201. Develop and implement a pricing strategy to apply to charter vessel fees, including annual review.

Business Services Conservation and Planning Business Services

202. Amend legislation to ensure that all categories of charter vessels operating in the Reserve are required to collect and pay Admission Fees.

203. Investigate a charter vessel operators licence system for the Rottnest Island Reserve.

125

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126

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

Community Involvement and Relations
Tourist Services

204. In consultation with volunteer groups, develop and implement a Volunteer Services Plan to clarify and formalise the role of volunteer groups on Rottnest Island. Conservation and Planning ALL Tourist Services Conservation and Planning

205. Encourage and support volunteer groups to carry out conservation and interpretive activities on the Island.

206. Maintain the use of advisory committees to provide advice and guidance to the Authority on specific issues and subjects.

207. Operate a complaint handling process that is visible, accessible and fair.

208. Review the consultation mechanisms used for the development of the Rottnest Island Management Plan.

Visitor Support Services
Conservation and Planning Business Services Conservation and Planning Business Services Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Marketing and Communications Business Services Business Services Business Services Business Services

209. Maintain and promote a Ranger profile based on guidance, interpretation and a high level of public contact with all user groups.

210. Replace the Ranger 1 Marine Vessel.

211. Continue to support the Honorary Ranger Program.

212. Identify and train a pool of staff who are available to fill short term or seasonal Ranger duties.

213. Maintain and enhance relations with the Rottnest Island Police.

214. Maintain and enhance relations between the Nursing Post, as part of the Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, and the Authority.

215. Review the Authority’s Risk Management Program.

216. Review and reissue the Authority’s Risk Awareness Brochure.

217. Continue the implementation of the Rottnest Island Asbestos Management Program.

218. Maintain participation in and support of the Local Emergency Management Committee.

219. Investigate and implement means to ensure efficient fire fighting in a low water pressure environment.

220. Progressively upgrade all buildings so that they meet the current Buildings Code of Australia requirements in regard to fire ratings.

Utilities and Infrastructure
Business Services Conservation and Planning

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

221. Operate the desalination plants as the primary source of potable water.

222. Revise the borefield management licence conditions according to current rainfall and define parameters and outcomes of research between rainfall, groundwater and wetlands, in coordination with the Department of Environmental Protection. Business Services Business Services Business Services

223. Progressively decommission bores to achieve a sustainable number of bores.

224. Remove the southern catchment area and rehabilitate the area of the freshwater seeps.

225. Develop and implement a bituminised catchment maintenance program to ensure maximum possible yield from the remaining bituminised catchment.

226. Map the location of the water network system.

Business Services Business Services Business Services Business Services Business Services Marketing and Communications

227. Continue to install water-saving devices in accommodation units.

228. Investigate options to reduce the demand on potable water for watering lawn areas.

229. Develop and implement a plan to replace the wastewater network system.

230. Develop and implement plans for the cost-effective and environmentally sensitive use of grey water, compliant with public health requirements.

231. Develop and implement an awareness campaign to discourage visitors from bringing non-recyclable and excessively packaged products to Rottnest Island.

232. Work with the business community to reduce the proportion of products supplied which are excessively packaged.

Business Services Business Services Business Services

233. Develop a waste management plan for Rottnest Island.

234. Investigate the feasibility of burying the Wadjemup power line in an environmentally sensitive, cost-effective manner in coordination with the development of Wadjemup as an Activity Node.

235. Construct a wind turbine on Mt Herschel and monitor its impact and efficiency.

Business Services

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Part B. Management Planning

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128

Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/8

Directorate Responsibility

236. Assess the benefits of the introduction of a second turbine, based on the analysis of impacts and efficiencies of the first wind turbine. Business Services Business Services Conservation and Planning Business Services Business Services

Business Services

237. Use solar panels as a source of alternative power on Rottnest Island, where possible and practicable.

238. Investigate the benefits of biodiesel for Rottnest Island, with a view to is introduction as an alternative fuel on the Island.

239. Develop and implement a program to interpret issues associated with power supply.

240. Investigate and trial energy-saving technologies in Rottnest Island buildings and facilities.

241. Employ appropriate passive energy and other energy-efficient technologies in all new accommodation and other buildings constructed on Rottnest Island.

242. Develop and implement a comprehensive maintenance plan for roads and tracks.

Business Services

Implementation
Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning Conservation and Planning

243. Review and amend the Rottnest Island Authority Act 1987

244. Annually review and amend as appropriate the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988.

245. Review and amend penalties for offences as established in the Rottnest Island Regulations 1988.

246. Develop and implement a research program for Rottnest Island.

247. Implement arrangements to ensure maintenance of intellectual property in relation to Rottnest Island research projects.

248. Continue to seek funding from external sources, including special grants and sponsorships, to supplement income.

249. Annually report to the public on progress on the implementation of the Rottnest Island Management Plan 2003 - 2008.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Rottnest Island Authority Board Ms Jennifer Archibald, Chairman Mr Laurence O’Meara, Deputy Chairman Mr Joseph Merillo Mr Angas Hopkins Ms Rachel Roberts Ms Catherine Nance Rottnest Island Authority Chief Executive Officer Mr John Mitchell (to October 2002) Rottnest Island Management Plan Reference Group Chair: Ms Lesley Smith, Director Conservation and Planning; Acting Chief Executive Officer from October 2002 Project Manager: Ms Jo McCrea (Bunting), Principal Planning Officer Members: • Mr Peter Purves, Director Tourist Services; • Ms Carol Shannon, Director Business Services; • Ms Claire Wright, Manager Conservation; • Ms Roxane Shadbolt, Manager Visitor Operations, • Mr John Richmond, Principal Projects Officer (to August 2002).

129

Rottnest Island Authority Administration Level 1, E Shed, Victoria Quay Fremantle WA 6160 Postal Address PO Box 693, Fremantle WA 6959 Tel:(08) 9432 9300 Fax: (08) 9432 9301 Website: www.rottnest.wa.gov.au Email: enquiries@rottnest.wa.gov.au
Published by the Rottnest Island Authority. March 2003

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