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Antenna Design for UWB Communication System (Trident Fed Square Printed Monopole Antenna)

Danish Naveed (10050) Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmed (10049) Muhammad Saadain Asdi (10057) Qazi Salman Sajid (10041)

Supervised by Engr. Sheraz Alam

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES ISLAMABAD


January, 2014

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

It is certified that the final year projects work, titled as Antenna Design for UWB Communication System (Trident fed Square printed monopole antenna), is carried out by Danish Naveed, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmed, Muhammad Saadain Asdi and Qazi Salman Sajid under the supervision of Engr. Sheraz Alam. It is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a requirement of Bachelors Degree in Telecomm Engineering is approved.

COMMITTEE

Dean Engineering & IT:

Signature:------------------

Head Engineering:

Signature:------------------

Supervisor:

Signature:------------------

Project Coordinator:

Signature:------------------

Dated: --------------------

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PLAGIARISM CHECK CERTIFICATE

It is certified that I have checked whole project report and passes it through plagiarism checking procedure. I certify that there is less than 10% plagiarism in the whole project report.

Project Supervisor: Engr. Sheraz Alam Signature: --------------------------------Dated: ---------------------------------

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DECLARATION

It is declared that the work presented in this report is an original piece of our own work, except where otherwise acknowledged in text and references. This work has not been submitted in any form for another degree or diploma at any university or other institution for tertiary education and shall not be submitted by us in future for obtaining any degree from this or any other University or Institution.

Group Members:

1. Danish Naveed 2. Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmed 3. Muhammad Saadain Asdi 4. Qazi Salman Sajid

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DEDICATION

This project work is especially dedicated to our beloved parents, honorable teachers and all our dear friends

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to Engr. Sheraz Alam for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for his support in completing the project. He made himself available whenever we needed him. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents for their kind cooperation and encouragement which help us to work as our best for this project.

Regards: Danish Naveed Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmed Muhammad Saadain Asdi Qazi Salman Sajid

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ABSTRACT
UWB is a wide band and low power consuming technology that yields higher data rates suitable for applications like Automotive Radars, Imaging, Cable TV, Location and tracking, Communication, Medical, Military and Security applications. The main principle of UWB is CDMA/DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) is used. Different antenna for UWB has been fabricated before for example, circular disc monopole antenna, circular dipole antenna, Vivaldi etc, but this project is about Trident fed square printed monopole antenna, which is simulated on High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) for UWB. HFSS is antenna design software.

Designing phase included the original prototype i.e. Trident-fed square monopole printed design. Simulations have been carried out by with ANSYS HFSS to determine UWB antenna performance criteria of bandwidth resistance, radiation patterns and Gain. The major antenna performance parameters are VSWR and Return Loss is in the acceptable range and hence antenna is in working for UWB technology. After simulation, antenna was fabricated by FR4 PCB substrate (FR4 is a combination material composed of woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder, it is used because of flame resistant) and mounted on aluminum ground plane. Antenna is designed on PCB by using GERB TOOL.

All simulated results were in acceptable range; however unavailability of testing equipment i-e Network analyzer for above 300 MHz, the fabricated antenna could not be tested.

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Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................... x LIST OF ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 ........................................................................................................................................ 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 1.2 Overview........................................................................................................................... 2 Aims of the Project ........................................................................................................... 2

1.3 Working .................................................................................................................................. 3 1.4 What is an Antenna? .............................................................................................................. 4 1.5 Antenna parameters............................................................................................................... 4 1.5.1 Radiation pattern............................................................................................................. 4 1.5.2 Return loss ....................................................................................................................... 6 1.5.3 VSWR ............................................................................................................................... 6 1.5.4 Gain.................................................................................................................................. 6 CHAPTER 2 ........................................................................................................................................ 7 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................................ 7 2.1ULTRA WIDE BAND (UWB) ...................................................................................................... 8 2.1.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................... 8 2.1.2 Technical Specifications of UWB ..................................................................................... 8 2.1.3 Key features ..................................................................................................................... 8 2.1.4 UWB CONCEPTS............................................................................................................... 9 2.1.5 Applications ................................................................................................................... 12 2.2Analysis HFSS ......................................................................................................................... 13 2.2.1 HFSS Project................................................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 15 DESIGN AND SIMULATION PHASE .................................................................................................. 15 Goal: ........................................................................................................................................... 16 Work done .................................................................................................................................. 16 3.1 Introduction of Simulation ................................................................................................... 16 3.1.1 High Frequency Structure Simulator ............................................................................. 16 3.1.2 Design Process ............................................................................................................... 16 3.1.3 The Design ..................................................................................................................... 18 3.2 Results and Discussion.......................................................................................................... 18 viii

3.2.1 Bandwidth Resistance ................................................................................................... 19 3.2.2 Return Loss (S11) ............................................................................................................ 20 3.2.3 Gain................................................................................................................................ 21 3.2.4Radiation patterns .......................................................................................................... 21 3.2.5 Current distribution ....................................................................................................... 23 3.3 Outcomes ............................................................................................................................. 23 CHAPTER 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 24 FABRICATION PHASE ...................................................................................................................... 24 Goal ............................................................................................................................................ 25 Work done .................................................................................................................................. 25 4.1 PCB Design ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2 Fabrication ........................................................................................................................ 26 Antenna Dimensions: ............................................................................................................. 29 4.3 Outcomes ............................................................................................................................. 29 REFRENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Appendix:........................................................................................................................................ 31

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.5.1 Trident fed monopole antenna X and Y Dimension----------------------------14 Figure 1.5.2 Radiation Pattern and Gain of antenna-------------------------------------------16 Figure 2.1.3 Frequency Bands of several wireless technologies-----------------------------20 Figure 2.2.1.1 starting of new design in HFSS project----------------------------------------25 Figure 3.1 Flow Chart ANSYS system antenna design---------------------------------------28 Figure 3.2 Designed antenna (a) Front View (b) Side view----------------------------------29 Figure 3.2.1 VSWR of proposed simulated design--------------------------------------------30 Figure 3.2.2 Return Loss (S11) of proposed simulated design--------------------------------31 Figure 3.2.3Gain of proposed simulated design------------------------------------------------32 Figure 3.2.4 Simulated radiation patterns for original dimensions of the proposed UWB antenna-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33 Figure 4.1 GERB tool project screen-------------------------------------------------------------36 Figure 4.2 Monopole design on GERB Tool----------------------------------------------------37 Figure 4.2.1Printed square monopole antenna--------------------------------------------------38 Figure 4.2.2Side view of aluminum plate attached with SMA connecter-------------------38 Figure 4.2.3 Top view of aluminum plate attached with SMA connecter-------------------39 Figure 4.2.4 Top view of Trident fed square printed monopole antenna--------------------39 Figure 4.2.5 Side view of Trident fed square printed monopole antenna-------------------40 Figure 4.2.6 Trident fed square printed monopole antenna wit dimensions----------------40

LIST OF ACRONYMS
UWB DSSS CDMA HFSS VSWR GPS FSK PPM EIRP RF LOS NLOS Ultra Wide Band Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access High Frequency Structure Simulator Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Global Positioning System Frequency Shift Keying Pulse Position Modulation Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Radio Frequency Line Of Sight Non Line Of Sight

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
In the recent few years ultra wide-band (UWB) has increasing attention in the wireless world. Its main advantages over conventional wireless communications systems are: wide bandwidth, high-data rates, low transmit power levels and simpler hardware configurations.UWB technology with an extremely wide frequency range has been proposed for imaging radar, communications, and localized applications. In 2002, Federal Communication Commission (FCC) authorized unlicensed use of UWB band ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz [1]. With the project, we will be researching to thoroughly grasp all UWB concepts found in todays wireless technology.UWB is already found in many new radar systems as well as global positioning systems (GPS). UWB can also be found in medical equipment and radar in the military. When used in GPS, UWB has a theoretical limit of range from the receiver. These algorithms which are used for determining the range will be thoroughly analyzed and its functionality will be observed. Also, there are many other characteristics of UWB transmission that we will be investigating; some of which are the transmission channels, receiver and transmitter guidelines, the spectral characteristics of UWB signals, and FCC rules and restrictions regarding the transmission of UWB signals [2]. UWB communications are the future of the wireless world. Between wireless personal area networks (WPANs) and personal electronics, UWB use will be rapidly growing. UWB has many commercial wireless applications including Adhoc Networking, Wireless sensor networks, Radio Frequency Identification, Consumer Electronics, Locationing and Medical applications.

1.2 Aims of the Project


The aim of project is to design an effective antenna for UWB communication for commercial and military purposes. UWB was proposed in 1970s and thereafter it is being used for military purposes in the fields of localization, earth penetrating radars, high speed audio/video communication between the controls and battle fields. The design of broadband antennas has become an attractive and challenging area in the research of the system design. In general, the antennas for UWB systems should have sufficiently broad operating bandwidth for impedance matching and high-gain radiation in desired directions. Among the UWB antenna design in the recent literature, the
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monopole planar antenna type is widely used due to its wide bandwidth, simple structure and low cost. It has become one of the most considerable candidates for UWB application. Several designs of monopole planar UWB antenna have been proposed. However, some of these antennas involve complex calculation and sophisticated fabrication process. Therefore, we propose a simpler method to design the UWB antenna based on trident-fed Square Planer Monopole antenna for UWB communication systems using HFSS [3].

1.3 Working
We are going to work on the Trident-fed Square Printed Monopole design. This design had the benefits of being easy to design, as well as being easy to construct. Trident-fed Square Planer Monopole antennas are simple antennas to be built and have radiation characteristics that are suitable for certain UWB applications. It is an omni-directional antenna with impedance bandwidth, which depends on the antenna design parameters. These design parameters include height, width and distance from the ground plane The optimum strip dimensions for this antenna are t = 7 mm, d = 1 mm, h = 3 mm and all strip widths are 1.5 mm. Simulation results of this antenna show an omni-directional radiation pattern over the frequency band from 3GHz to 19.5 GHz[4].

Figure 1.5.1 Trident fed monopole antenna X and Y Dimension

1.4 What is an Antenna?


An antenna is a transmitting or receiving system that is designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves. An antenna can be any shape or size. Antenna has the different parameters upon which we characterize the antenna.

1.5 Antenna parameters


1.5.1 Radiation pattern The radiation pattern is a graphical depiction of the relative field strength transmitted from or received by the antenna, and shows side lobes and back lobes. As antennas radiate in space often several curves are necessary to describe the antenna. Radiation pattern of an antenna can be defined as the locus of all points where the emitted power per unit surface is the same. The radiated power per unit surface is proportional to the squared electrical field of the electromagnetic wave. The radiation pattern is the locus of points with the same electrical field. In this representation, the reference is usually the best angle of emission. It is also possible to depict the directive gain of the antenna as a function of the direction. Often the gain is given in decibels [5]. The graphs can be drawn using Cartesian (rectangular) coordinates or a polar plot. This last one is useful to measure the beam width, which is, by convention, the angle at the 3dB points around the max gain. The shape of curves can be very different in Cartesian or polar coordinates and with the choice of the limits of the logarithmic scale.

Radiation pattern of a antenna. Linear scale.

Gain of antenna. The scale is in dBi.

Gain of antenna. Cartesian representation.

3D Radiation pattern of antenna.

Figure 1.5.2 Radiation Pattern and Gain of antenna


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1.5.2 Return loss Return loss is the loss of signal power resulting from the reflection caused at a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. This discontinuity can be a mismatch with the terminating load or with a device inserted in the line. It is usually expressed as a ratio in decibels (dB);

Where RL(dB) is the return loss in dB, Pi is the incident power and Pr is the reflected power. 1.5.3 VSWR The VSWR is measure that numerically describes how well the antenna is a impedance matched to the radio or transmission line it is connected to. VSWR stands for voltage standing wave ratio and is also referred as standing wave ratio (SWR).VSWR is a function of the reflection coefficient which describes the power reflected from the antenna [6]. If the reflection is given by r, then the VSWR is defined by the following formula: VSWR = 1+[r]/1-[r] 1.5.4 Gain Gain as a parameter measures the directionality of a given antenna. An antenna with a low gain emits radiation in all directions equally, whereas a high-gain antenna will preferentially radiate in particular directions. Specifically, the Gain or Power gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the intensity (power per unit surface) radiated by the antenna in a given direction at an arbitrary distance divided by the intensity radiated at the same distance by an hypothetical isotropic antenna:

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1ULTRA WIDE BAND (UWB)


2.1.1 Overview UWB technology with an extremely wide frequency range has been proposed for imaging radar, communications, and localized applications. In 2002, Federal Communication Commission (FCC) authorized unlicensed use of UWB band ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. The main concept behind UWB radio systems is that they transmit pulses of very short duration, as opposed to traditional communication schemes, which send sinusoidal waves. The role that UWB antennas play in all of this is that they have to be able to transmit these pulses as accurately and efficiently as possible [7]. The UWB work on the direct sequence spread spectrum principle. The short pulses of 500 MHz transmitted in UWB. The pulse position modulation combined with FSK used as a modulation scheme in UWB radio technology. The very low profile antennas used for UWB. The EIRP of UWB antenna is -41dbm.

2.1.2 Technical Specifications of UWB Frequency band = 3.1 GHz 10.6 GHz Modulation Scheme = FSK and Pulse position modulation Channel B.W = 500 MHz WLL distance = 300 m

2.1.3 Key features The most remarkable features of UWB technology is given below. UWB is a short range technology; its range is up to 300 meters. High data rate can be achieved using this technology. Low power consumption technology Its frequency band is 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz

Figure 2.1.3 Frequency Bands of several wireless technologies

2.1.4 UWB CONCEPTS UWB systems based on impulse radio design are being considered as a low cost, power efficient and high data rate (~100 Mbps over distance at about 10 meters) wireless solution. Two important characteristics of an UWB system are its very large bandwidth and low average transmitted power. When combined with proper modulation schemes, these two characteristics offer several advantages over narrowband communications systems. Very large bandwidths (in the range 500 MHz -7.5 GHz) can be exploited to develop devices with high transmission capacity. In terms of power, UWB maximum output power of 75 nW/MHz is allowed by the FCC. This compares favorably since it is much lower than comparable narrowband radios, for example, IEEE 802.11b has a maximum output power of 100 mW, or 50 mW for IEEE 802.11a. This power restriction forces UWB systems to operate below the noise floor of a common narrowband receiver then enabling UWB signals to coexists with current radio systems with minimal or no interference. Furthermore, due to the large bandwidth of the signal, some interference would possibly change one part of the signals spectrum, leaving the remaining band unaffected. In this section, we discuss some of the key advantages of UWB signals that derive from these four main characteristics:

Frequency Re-Use High Transmission Capacity Low Probability of Detection Lower Sensitivity to Multipath Channels
2.1.4.1 Frequency Re-Use

An important motivation to research and develop applications using UWB technology lies in one critical limitation imposed by regulatory agencies around the world: RF spectrum. Therefore, a starting point for understanding the appeal of UWB is to recognize the need to implement new technologies that can bring relief to the bandwidth crunch that exists today within the communication world. The portion of the RF spectrum commonly understood to have value for practical communication (about 100 MHz to about 10 GHz and more recently in the 60 GHz) applications has been fully allocated for decades and yet there is a growing demand for RF (wireless at least over short distance, a few km at most) communications, often with an attendant expectation of high data rate capability. This situation is shown in Figure 4 which presents the allocation of frequency bands in the USA. One response to the demand for short distance wireless RF communications is cellular telephone, small and relatively inexpensive user radios that communicate with cell towers (over short distances, a few km at most). A significant element in the cell telephone concept is frequency re-use (due to limited spectrum availability). Frequency re-use is a way to increase the capacity of the network by using the same frequency in a different area of the cellular network and is measured in function of the frequency re-use factor, the rate at which the same frequency can be used in the network. Because of frequency re-use and other advancements, i.e. code division multiplexing, cell telephone application has seen explosive growth in the last decade. Success of this application has led to other wireless voice and data services which are RFbased and designed to work over very short distances, on order of 1 to 10 meters. UWB can operate very efficiently in a relatively small footprint (10 meters or less) and as a result it can largely exploit the benefits of frequency re-use (based on the concept of spatial capacity as described above). Similar to the cellular concept, multiple UWB systems can be deployed together such that they cover a larger area and still deliver high transfer rates with a low power transmission signal.
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Another way to re-use the same spectrum allocation is to implement different transmit and receive communication technologies within a common frequency band such that the transmission of information is not compromised. In other words, frequency re-use can be achieved by the assignment of unlicensed re-used of already licensed spectrum with the purpose to increase spectrum efficiency. By limiting the power spectrum density (max of -41.3 dBm/MHz over a 7.5 GHz bandwidth) and assigning specific bands (depending on the application), regulators have provided the opportunity to develop the necessary technology (UWB) that can co-exist with existent systems (narrowband systems) while ensuring sufficient attenuation to limit adjacent channel interference. Additional power spectral density limits have been placed below 2 GHz to protect critical applications such as global positioning system (GPS at 1.5 GHz) and digital cellular system (1.9 GHz). This is in-large one of the most important motivations for researchers to focus their attention in the development of UWB systems. As a result, interest of UWB radio access systems has grown rapidly over past few years. But what can we say about the effect of narrowband radiators in UWB systems? This is indeed another important subject for researchers since UWB systems are most likely to suffer from the relatively high power emission of narrowband emitters. One particular approach would be to develop adaptive interference suppression techniques or more sophisticated antenna patterns that can behave like notched filters or stop-band filters and can have multiband flexibility.
2.1.4.2 High Transmission Capacity

One of the most important measurements to evaluate a communication channel is its transmission capacity. This is also one important characteristic that, when efficiently exploited, can enable the proliferation of multiple applications in video and audio wireless communication. One of the major advantages of UWB systems is its large bandwidth and hence the potential for high channel capacity. However, there are known limits, due to both physical limitations and regulations. For example, noise in the channel affects the received signal while the available bandwidth and power are under constrained imposed by regulatory bodies. Modulation efficiency and antenna characteristics are also important elements that will affect the performance of the wireless communication channel. These constraints can be summarized under three key limitations: noise (physical limitation), regulatory limits (primarily on power and bandwidth) and channel capacity.

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2.1.4.3 Low Probability of Detection and Intercept

UWB signals have very low power levels that can easily be considered as noise relative to narrowband signals, hence they have an inherent immunity to detection and intercept. Eavesdroppers attempting to discriminate between noise and data will have to be very close to the transmitter (sub meter range) and will have to have access to selected coding schemes and modulation techniques. UWB pulses are very short and modulated with codes unique to each transmitter and receiver pair. The addition of handshaking protocols and encryption techniques provide further immunity to intercept and detection making UWB technology attractive for the development of highly secure communication systems that are critical especially for military operations.
2.1.4.4 Lower Sensitivity to Multipath Channels

The effect of multipath in narrowband signals is significant when compared to UWB signals. The out-of-phase effect caused by the addition of LOS and NLOS (non-line-ofsight) continuous waveforms, i.e. narrowband signals, can cause signal degradation up to -40 dB. On the other hand, very short duration pulses, i.e. UWB nanosecond pulses, are less sensitive to multipath effect because such narrow pulses have an extremely short collision window between the LOS and NLOS (reflected) pulses. However, lower sensitivity to multipath channels does not mean immunity. Research on UWB channel modeling has shown that in completely NLOS environment, the impulse radio signal can become significantly distorted due to frequency dispersion and the modulation scheme. Successive multiple reflections through a large number of objects and scatterers in close proximity tend to distort the signal. 2.1.5 Applications UWB has a wide variety of commercial uses; some of the applications of this technology are given below. Military use Imaging Automotive Radars Cable TV Security Applications Medical Applications Location and Tracking Communications and Sensors using UWB Technology
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2.2Analysis HFSS
HFSS is antenna design software. HFSS stands for High Frequency Structure Simulator. HFSS is a high performance full wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. It integrates simulation, visualization, solid modeling, and automation in an easy to learn environment where solutions to your 3D EM problems are quickly and accurate obtained. Ansoft HFSS employs the Finite Element Method (FEM), adaptive meshing, and brilliant graphics to give you unparalleled performance and insight to all of your 3D EM problems. Ansoft HFSS can be used to calculate parameters such as S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields [8]. HFSS Typical features include: Package Modeling BGA, QFP, Flip-Chip PCB Board Modeling Power/ Ground planes, Mesh Grid Grounds, Backplanes Silicon/GaAs-Spiral Inductors, Transformers EMC/EMI Mobile Communications Patches, Dipoles, Horns, Conformal Cell Phone Antennas, Quadrafilar Helix, Specific Absorption Rate ( SAR), Infinite Arrays, Radar Section (RCS), Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) Connectors Coax, SFP/XFP, Backplane, Transitions Waveguide Filters, Resonators, Transitions, Couplers Filters Cavity Filters, Microstrip, Dielectric Ansoft HFSS has evolved over a period of years with input from many users and industries. In industry, Ansoft HFSS is the tool of choice for High productivity research, development, and virtual prototyping[9]

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2.2.1 HFSS Project


2.2.1.1 Starting project

Figure 2.2.1.1 starting of new design in HFSS project

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CHAPTER 3 DESIGN AND SIMULATION PHASE

In this phase Trident Fed square printed monopole antenna was designed and simulated on HFSS.

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Goal:
Design and simulate the proposed antenna on HFSS, verify the results to check the working of antenna.

Work done: 3.1 Introduction of Simulation


For Simulation, several tools and software were used. They include ANSYS HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator), Microwave Office, TXLine, Eagle, Freelance Graphics, and so on. In the following sections, background on both HFSS and Microwave Office will be introduced.

3.1.1 High Frequency Structure Simulator High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) is a registered trademark of Ansys Corporation. HFSS is a high performance full-wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that has a great dynamic graphical user interface (GUI). Ansys HFSS employs the Finite Element Method (FEM) with adaptive meshing to give unparalleled performance and insight to all three dimension (3D) EM problems. In addition, ANSYS HFSS has evolved over a period of years with the industries. It is the tool of choice for high productivity research, development, and virtual prototyping. With the rapid advancement of HFSS, the analysis of the scattering matrix parameters (S, Y, Z parameters) and the visualization of the 3-D electromagnetic fields (near field and far field) can be done easily. It helps to determine the signal quality, transmission path losses, and reflection coefficients due to impedance mismatch, parasitic coupling, and radiation. 3.1.2 Design Process The process includes the following flow chart diagram during the process of designing an antenna. Figure3.

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Figure 3.1: Flow Chart ANSYS system antenna design In most cases UWB antennas are fed by microstrip line changer or by coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding. In this case is provided excitement in the port collected Simulations that touches the radiator and the ground plane partially as shown in Figure 3.2. The feeding scheme used for transmission line is microstrip because it provides comfort in fabrication. The antenna is fed using a 50 microstrip line width that is calculated by using the microstrip line design equations
[13]

. U slot radiating patch and the transmission line is

connected by edges tapered or conical holes to get the best impedance matching and dug in the ground from partial volume of 120 x 120 mm2 on the other side of the substrate. As The distance between the radiator and plane of the ground changes, it also changes bandwidth resistance. Thus the gap is set to feed through simulation to adjust the impedance matching and finally took as 0.5mm. Considering the growing demand in communications technology and the need for UWB miniaturized components, is proposed to reduce the antenna size. The simulations are carried out and seen from the results that the size of the antenna can is reduced as well, without compromising the performance criteria.
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3.1.3 The Design The design included the original prototype i.e. Trident-fed square monopole printed design. The HFSS front and side view of 3D design is shown in the figure below.

Figure 3.2: Designed antenna (a) Front View

(b) Side view

3.2 Results and Discussion


Simulations have been carried out by with ANSYS HFSS to determine UWB antenna performance criteria of bandwidth resistance (VSWR <2), radiation patterns and Gain. The simulation is current distributions and is studying the behavior of the antenna.

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3.2.1 Bandwidth Resistance Figure 4 and Figure 5 shows the return loss measurement and simulation for proposed UWB antenna with original dimensions. Simulation results show that the proposed antenna with the size of the original investigating Bandwidth resistance (VSWR <3) of 3.2- 10.6 GHz and result measurement to the original set dimensions has a bandwidth of resistance 3.2 10.6 GHz. Return loss curves and VSWR curves for the results of simulation from original size carried out with good matching performance standards for UWB Considered. It was observed that the results obtained for the simulation of antenna realized on FR4 3.2-10.6 GHz, as shown in Figure.

Figure 3.2.1 VSWR of proposed simulated design Acceptable range of VSWR<2

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3.2.2 Return Loss (S11) S11 is a measure of how much energy is reflected back into the antenna port due to the mismatch of the transmission line. When connected to a network analyzer, S 11 measures the amount of energy back to the analyst - and what is not delivered to the antenna. Influenced by the amount of energy that returns to the analyst directly by how well the antenna is matched to the transmission line. A S11 small show were handed a large amount of energy to the antenna. S11 values are measured in decibels and negative, for example: -10 dB. He also pointed S11 sometimes called return loss, which is simply the S11, but the positive instead (Return Loss = - S11). Even if the antenna return loss of 8 dB, S11 is -8 dB [10].

Figure 3.2.2 Return Loss (S11) of proposed simulated design Acceptable range of return loss < 8db to 10db

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3.2.3 Gain The term describes how to move the antenna gain a lot of strength in the direction of the radiation peak to that of an isotropic source. Quoted antenna gain is more common in the real paper specifications antennas because it takes into account the actual losses that occur. Antenna with a 3 dB increase means that the received power away from the antenna will be 3 dB higher (twice), which will be received from the antenna characteristics in the same loss of input power.

Figure 3.2.3Gain of proposed simulated design Acceptable range of gain > 3bd

3.2.4Radiation patterns The figure shows and radiation patterns of the proposed antenna simulation with the original group of dimensions at 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 and 10.5GHz. As evidenced by the numbers 8 and 9, the radiation patterns of antennas with the initial a range of dimensions and reduced dimensions are almost Omni-directional in the plane H and monopoleas is the case in the plane E, especially at low frequencies. It is clear that the decline in the size of the antenna does not affect the radiation patterns of so much and total radiation patterns do not deteriorate but radiation patterns of deterioration in the high frequency region for work, equivalent to different. In the frequency of large-scale operation, because of the inequality in the distribution of a
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serious stage and the largest the media show a high position in the volume of high frequency side lobes. Radiation patterns were measured using radio waves C-(4 - 8GHz) and X- band (812.4GHz) Microwave benches in an uncontrolled environment and the snapshot of Shows the measurement setup in Figure 3.2.4. Directional antenna is a planar microstrip As follows:

Where Pr is the radiated power

=120 and E and E fields is radiated. By measuring

UWB antenna is retained and the proposed antenna reception Rotating pedestal to measure the received power that are in and microwatts (w) at an angle Different () Values . Thus, the radiation pattern is plotted using various strengths calculated with respect for theta ().

Figure 3.2.4 simulated radiation patterns for original dimensions of the proposed UWB antenna (a) at 4.5 GHz; (b) at 6.5GHz; (c) at 8.5GHz; (d) at 10.5GHz

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3.2.5 Current distribution The current distribution is evaluated to help understand better the performance of the antenna. Comparison between the current distributions of antenna simulation before the initial antenna cut low current density area and, after it broke notch as shown in Figure 2 (b) and (d) , In the 4.5GHz, 6.5GHz, 8.5GHz and 10.5GHz and appear respectively in Fig. 13 . It is considered that and the current is mainly concentrated on the lower part of the patch with a very low density and toward above the center and along the edges of the patch with the exception of the upper edge, for all frequencies. It is therefore and concluded that the low-density region, the current correction is not that important in the performance of the antenna. So incision size of 16 x 16 mm2 and therefore cut as Seen in antenna final antenna geometry. It was noted that the current distributions of final antenna geometry after the cut and the center is similar to that which it was before the cut. And also As a result of this reduction of the first class, is to reduce the size of the antenna and has a lighter weight, which is very attractiveness of the freedom it offers in the design of the antenna. Another benefit of first-class cut is that it leads to a loss of less conductive. Figure 14 shows the current distributions on the surface antenna with 20% reduction in a range of dimensions in the 4.5GHz, 6.5GHz, 8.5GHz and 10.5GHz , Respectively, with a cut of the current class. In this case also considers that the electric currents are mainly concentrated on the nutrition sector at all frequencies with very low current density above the center and thus achieved a more compact antenna weight and light.

3.3 Outcomes
Proposed antenna was simulated and results of Return loss, Gain and VSWR show that the antenna is working for UWB communication system.

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CHAPTER 4 FABRICATION PHASE

In this phase antenna was fabricated of FR4 PCB substrate and mounted on aluminum ground plane.

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Goal
Fabrication and testing of above simulated antenna.

Work done
Antenna was fabricated of FR4 PCB substrate and mounted on aluminum ground plane.

Fabrication methodology:

i. ii.

PCB Design Fabrication

4.1 PCB Design GERBTOOL is a PCB design tool. Proposed antenna was design on GERB TOOL and Gerber file of design was created as shown in fig 4.1.

Fig 4.1 GERB Tool project screen


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Fig 4.2 Monopole design on GERB Tool 4.2 Fabrication Components which we have used for fabrication are given below. i. ii. iii. iv. 120120 mm2piece of aluminum. 1616 mm2piece of PCB substrate (FR4). SMA male and female connecter. Low loss coax-cable (50 ohm impudence). For PCB manufacturing we went to NIE, because the manufacturing machine is not commercially available. Gerber file of antenna design was burn into the machine and printed PCB antenna was manufactured as shown in fig 4.2.1.

Fig 4.2.1Printed square monopole antenna.

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In this step attached the SMA connecter with aluminum plate as shown in fig 4.4 and 4.2.2.

Fig 4.2.2Side view of aluminum plate attached with SMA connecter.

Fig 4.2.3 Top view of aluminum plate attached with SMA connecter
27

In this step attached the printed antenna with connecter through solding the coax cable as shown in fig 4.2.4.

Fig 4.2.4 Top view of Trident fed square printed monopole antenna

Fig 4.2.5 Side view of Trident fed square printed monopole antenna
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Antenna Dimensions:

Fig 4.2.6 Trident fed square printed monopole antenna wit dimensions

4.3 Outcomes
Simulated antenna is fabricated and due to unavailability of testing equipment i-e Network analyzer for above 300 MHz we could not test the antenna. However simulation results show that the proposed antenna is working.

29

REFRENCES
[1] E. Lee, P. S. Hall and P. Gardner, "Novel Compact Wideband or Multiband Planar

Antenna," IEEE Antennas and Propagation, July 2000, pp. 624-627. [2] Elias K. Garney (2010, Spring) Ultra Wideband: The Present & Future.[online]. http://courses.ee.psu.edu/yener/ee497aSP10/Project%20proposals/proposal

Available:

_elias_garney.pdf [3] Nagalingam, M.Circular patch UWB antenna with time domain analysis,

Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (SIBIRCON), IEEE Region 8 International Conference, 2010, pp.251-256 [4] Abdelhalim Mohamed and Lotfollah Shafai, (2011, August) Performance Study

on Modern Ultra Wideband Monopole Antennas.[online]. Available: trendshttp://www.intechopen.com/books/ultra-wideband-communications-novelantennas-and-propagation/performance-study-on-modern-ultra-wideband-

monopole-antennas [5] Antenna Measurement. [online].

Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antenna_measurement [6] VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio). [Online].

Available: http://www.antenna-theory.com/definitions/vswr.php [7] Breed, G., "A summary of FCC rules for ultra wideband communication," High

Frequency Electronic, pp.42 - 44, Jan. 2005. [8] Dr.Otman El Marabet (2005-2006), High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS)

Tutorial.[online]. Available: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/127876758/High-Frequency-Structure[9] Novel Planar Antennas for the Most Recent Telecommunications

Applications.[online]. Available: http://antennas-eri-ntra.org/related-eri-facilities [10] Ankan Bhattacharya, Effect of Patch Dimensions on the Behavior of Resonant peak of a Micro strip Patch Antenna, International Journal of Engineering Researches & Technology, Augest 2013.

30

Appendix:
Gerber File Code: $Header $Program GerbTool(tm) 10.0 Version 10.0 Created Tue Dec 17 10:56:49 2013 $End $Environment SketchMode No OverlayMode No ShowErrors No ViewComposites No OrthoSnap Yes SnapAngle 45.0000 ActiveLayer 1 CurrentDcode 13 PreviousView -5.067, -4.748, 14.202, 7.553 FilmBox 12.000, 6.000, yellow NetID 0 Flags 0 $End $SelectCriteria Mode Window Boundary Exclude Flashes Yes Draws Yes Arcs Yes Vertex No Dcode 0 Layer 0 $End $Netlist DrillLayer 1 WellBehaved No $End $LayerSets $End $DrillLayerSets $End $Views $End $Layer 1 LyrName VisibilityOn FlashColor 0xff0000 DrawColor 0xae Type Other Polarity Dark
31

Key 0 Ftype Gerber Extents -0.158, -0.472, 2.922, 4.290 NetID 0 Virtual No $End $ExportHPGL OutFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.plt MediaSize 34.000, 22.000 Offset 0.000, 0.000 Scale 1.0000 Border No 0 PenWidth 0.010 PenSpeed 60 $Pens Layer 1 1 1 $End Spread No $SpreadOffset $End PadsOnly No Mode Sketch Rotate No $End $ExportPostScript OutFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ps MediaSize 8.000, 10.500 Offset 0.000, 0.000 Scale 1.0000 PadsOnly No Mode Sketch Rotate No GreyScale No Border No $End $ImportHPGL PlotSize Small Rotate No $Pens 1 D10 2 D10 3 D10 4 D10 5 D10 6 D10 7 D10 8 D10 $End $End $Text
32

Filename ANTEENA -MONO POLE.txt Height 0.1000 Width 0.1000 LineSpace 1.0000 CharSpace 1.0000 Rotate No Slant 0 Mirror No $End $ApReport RepFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.rpt Layer 1 $End $Rotate Degrees 90.00 Pivot Center $End $Mirror Direction Vert Pivot Center $End $DcodeScale Fixed No Scale 0.1000, 0.1000 $End $Panelize AutoPanel Yes Virtual No Rows 0 Cols 0 TabSize 0.0000, 0.0000 ImageSpacing 0.0000, 0.0000 AutoVent No VentSpacing 0.0000, 0.0000 VentBorder 0.0000 VentDCode 0 VentLayer 0 $End $Spread AutoSpread No Rows 1 Cols 1 TabSize 0.0000, 0.0000 Layer 0 SortType Col $End $DRC RepFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.drc HiliLayer 0 IgnoreSelGrp Yes
33

WellBehaved WindowMode MaxErrors ErrorCount $End $Snoman RepFile FromLayer ToLayer DCode Pad2Pad Pad2Trace Offset MinPercent MaxPercent WindowMode

No No 100 0

ANTEENA -MONO POLE.sno 0 1 0 0.0060 0.0060 -0.0050 0.6000 0.8000 No

$End $Teardrop RepFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.rpt Layer 0 DCode 0 Pad2Trace 0.0060 Trace2Trace 0.0060 HostOffsetPercent 0.1500 TeeLength 0.5000 TeeWidth 0.5000 WindowMode No DeleteExisting No $End $TestPoints FxFile 1 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.fx Dist 1 -1.0000 Thick 1 -1.0000 FxFile 2 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ip2 Dist 2 -1.0000 Thick 2 -1.0000 FxFile 3 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ip3 Dist 3 -1.0000 Thick 3 -1.0000 FxFile 4 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ip4 Dist 4 -1.0000 Thick 4 -1.0000 FxFile 5 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ip5 Dist 5 -1.0000 Thick 5 -1.0000 FxFile 6 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.ip6 Dist 6 -1.0000 Thick 6 -1.0000 FxFile 7 ANTEENA -MONO POLE.tp Dist 7 -1.0000
34

Thick 7 -1.0000 NetFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.nl MapFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.mp TPLayer 0 ProbeSize 0.0230 MaxDeflect 0.1300 GridSize 0.1000 Points Ends Isolated Exclude $End $Stagger TPLayer 0 ProbeSpacing EdgeSpacing MaxFlash StaggerDir UseMiddle WindowMode $End $Drill OutFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.drl RepFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.rpt Layer 1 PreDrill 0.250 WindowMode No NextFirstDrillSequence 998 NextLastDrillSequence 1000 $End $Mill OutFile ANTEENA -MONO POLE.nc Layer 1 Tool 0 Compensate Yes Mode Auto TabSize 0.1000 OverShoot 0.0000 PlungeLine Yes Priority Normal Critical vga16red Int vga16cyan Norm vga16green Low vga16blue Clamp vga16magenta Plunge red Retract red $Paths $End $End $FixSS PadLayer 0
35

0.0230 0.0000 0.0600 L-U No Yes

SilkLayer WindowMode Spacing 0.0100

0 No

$End $PadRemoval WindowMode No Layer 0 DCode 0 $End $Highlights Query white Select white DRC white $End $EndHeader $DrillToolData $End $MillToolData $End $TestPointToolData $End $CustomApertureData $End $ApertureData 9999 # Shape Width Height Type R90 # D10 Square 1869ff 1869ff ThruHole 0 D11 Square 249f0 249f0 ThruHole 0 D12 Rect aae61 61a7f ThruHole 0 D13 Round 6338 6338 ThruHole 0 $End $LayerData L1 I0 A10 T0 N0 S999 D5 c2c08 124bd6 A11 D4 c3500 7a120 D6 c3500 61a80 c3500 186a0 D4 802c8 4f588 D6
36

802c8 2ab98 b1008 2ab98 106738 2ab98 106738 55730 D4 c3500 7a120 D6 c3500 124f8 A13 D4 183864 27b8c D6 183864 9344 183864 319c 15ee74 319c D4 319c 27b8c D6 319c 319c 219e4 319c A10 D5 c2c08 390db6 A11 D4 c3500 2e6300 D6 c3500 2cdc60 c3500 284880 D4 802c8 2bb768 D6 802c8 296d78 b1008 296d78 106738 296d78 106738 2c1910 D4 c3500 2e6300 D6 c3500 27e6d8 A13 D4 183864 293d6c D6 183864 275524 183864 26f37c 15ee74 26f37c D4 319c 293d6c D6
37

319c 26f37c 219e4 26f37c A10 D5 c2c08 5fcf96 A11 D4 c3500 5524e0 D6 c3500 539e40 c3500 4f0a60 D4 802c8 527948 D6 802c8 502f58 b1008 502f58 106738 502f58 106738 52daf0 D4 c3500 5524e0 D6 c3500 4ea8b8 A13 D4 183864 4fff4c D6 183864 4e1704 183864 4db55c 15ee74 4db55c D4 319c 4fff4c D6 319c 4db55c 219e4 4db55c A10 D5 c2c08 85996a A11 D4 c3500 7aeeb4 D6 c3500 796814 c3500 74d434 D4 802c8 78431c D6 802c8 75f92c b1008 75f92c 106738 75f92c 106738 78a4c4
38

D4 c3500 7aeeb4 D6 c3500 74728c A13 D4 183864 75c920 D6 183864 73e0d8 183864 737f30 15ee74 737f30 D4 319c 75c920 D6 319c 737f30 219e4 737f30 A10 D5 c2c08 ac5b4a A11 D4 c3500 a1b094 D6 c3500 a029f4 c3500 9b9614 D4 802c8 9f04fc D6 802c8 9cbb0c b1008 9cbb0c 106738 9cbb0c 106738 9f66a4 D4 c3500 a1b094 D6 c3500 9b346c A13 D4 183864 9c8b00 D6 183864 9aa2b8 183864 9a4110 15ee74 9a4110 D4 319c 9c8b00 D6 319c 9a4110 219e4 9a4110 A10 D5
39

2c2594 124bd6 A11 D4 2c2e8c 7a120 D6 2c2e8c 61a80 2c2e8c 186a0 D4 27fc54 4f588 D6 27fc54 2ab98 2b0994 2ab98 3060c4 2ab98 3060c4 55730 D4 2c2e8c 7a120 D6 2c2e8c 124f8 A13 D4 3831f0 27b8c D6 3831f0 9344 3831f0 319c 35e800 319c D4 202b28 27b8c D6 202b28 319c 221370 319c A10 D5 2c2594 390db6 A11 D4 2c2e8c 2e6300 D6 2c2e8c 2cdc60 2c2e8c 284880 D4 27fc54 2bb768 D6 27fc54 296d78 2b0994 296d78 3060c4 296d78 3060c4 2c1910 D4 2c2e8c 2e6300 D6 2c2e8c 27e6d8
40

A13 D4 3831f0 293d6c D6 3831f0 275524 3831f0 26f37c 35e800 26f37c D4 202b28 293d6c D6 202b28 26f37c 221370 26f37c A10 D5 2c2594 5fcf96 A11 D4 2c2e8c 5524e0 D6 2c2e8c 539e40 2c2e8c 4f0a60 D4 27fc54 527948 D6 27fc54 502f58 2b0994 502f58 3060c4 502f58 3060c4 52daf0 D4 2c2e8c 5524e0 D6 2c2e8c 4ea8b8 A13 D4 3831f0 4fff4c D6 3831f0 4e1704 3831f0 4db55c 35e800 4db55c D4 202b28 4fff4c D6 202b28 4db55c 221370 4db55c A10 D5 2c2594 85996a A11 D4 2c2e8c 7aeeb4
41

D6 2c2e8c 796814 2c2e8c 74d434 D4 27fc54 78431c D6 27fc54 75f92c 2b0994 75f92c 3060c4 75f92c 3060c4 78a4c4 D4 2c2e8c 7aeeb4 D6 2c2e8c 74728c A13 D4 3831f0 75c920 D6 3831f0 73e0d8 3831f0 737f30 35e800 737f30 D4 202b28 75c920 D6 202b28 737f30 221370 737f30 A10 D5 2c2594 ac5b4a A11 D4 2c2e8c a1b094 D6 2c2e8c a029f4 2c2e8c 9b9614 D4 27fc54 9f04fc D6 27fc54 9cbb0c 2b0994 9cbb0c 3060c4 9cbb0c 3060c4 9f66a4 D4 2c2e8c a1b094 D6 2c2e8c 9b346c A13 D4 3831f0 9c8b00 D6
42

3831f0 9aa2b8 3831f0 9a4110 35e800 9a4110 D4 202b28 9c8b00 D6 202b28 9a4110 221370 9a4110 A10 D5 4c1f20 124bd6 A11 D4 4c2818 7a120 D6 4c2818 61a80 4c2818 186a0 D4 47f5e0 4f588 D6 47f5e0 2ab98 4b0320 2ab98 505a50 2ab98 505a50 55730 D4 4c2818 7a120 D6 4c2818 124f8 A13 D4 582b7c 27b8c D6 582b7c 9344 582b7c 319c 55e18c 319c D4 4024b4 27b8c D6 4024b4 319c 420cfc 319c A10 D5 4c1f20 390db6 A11 D4 4c2818 2e6300 D6 4c2818 2cdc60 4c2818 284880 D4
43

47f5e0 2bb768 D6 47f5e0 296d78 4b0320 296d78 505a50 296d78 505a50 2c1910 D4 4c2818 2e6300 D6 4c2818 27e6d8 A13 D4 582b7c 293d6c D6 582b7c 275524 582b7c 26f37c 55e18c 26f37c D4 4024b4 293d6c D6 4024b4 26f37c 420cfc 26f37c A10 D5 4c1f20 5fcf96 A11 D4 4c2818 5524e0 D6 4c2818 539e40 4c2818 4f0a60 D4 47f5e0 527948 D6 47f5e0 502f58 4b0320 502f58 505a50 502f58 505a50 52daf0 D4 4c2818 5524e0 D6 4c2818 4ea8b8 A13 D4 582b7c 4fff4c D6 582b7c 4e1704 582b7c 4db55c 55e18c 4db55c D4
44

4024b4 4fff4c D6 4024b4 4db55c 420cfc 4db55c A10 D5 4c1f20 85996a A11 D4 4c2818 7aeeb4 D6 4c2818 796814 4c2818 74d434 D4 47f5e0 78431c D6 47f5e0 75f92c 4b0320 75f92c 505a50 75f92c 505a50 78a4c4 D4 4c2818 7aeeb4 D6 4c2818 74728c A13 D4 582b7c 75c920 D6 582b7c 73e0d8 582b7c 737f30 55e18c 737f30 D4 4024b4 75c920 D6 4024b4 737f30 420cfc 737f30 A10 D5 4c1f20 ac5b4a A11 D4 4c2818 a1b094 D6 4c2818 a029f4 4c2818 9b9614 D4 47f5e0 9f04fc D6 47f5e0 9cbb0c 4b0320 9cbb0c
45

505a50 9cbb0c 505a50 9f66a4 D4 4c2818 a1b094 D6 4c2818 9b346c A13 D4 582b7c 9c8b00 D6 582b7c 9aa2b8 582b7c 9a4110 55e18c 9a4110 D4 4024b4 9c8b00 D6 4024b4 9a4110 420cfc 9a4110 A10 D5 6b20a0 124bd6 A11 D4 6b2998 7a120 D6 6b2998 61a80 6b2998 186a0 D4 66f760 4f588 D6 66f760 2ab98 6a04a0 2ab98 6f5bd0 2ab98 6f5bd0 55730 D4 6b2998 7a120 D6 6b2998 124f8 A13 D4 772cfc 27b8c D6 772cfc 9344 772cfc 319c 74e30c 319c D4 5f2634 27b8c D6 5f2634 319c 610e7c 319c
46

A10 D5 6b20a0 390db6 A11 D4 6b2998 2e6300 D6 6b2998 2cdc60 6b2998 284880 D4 66f760 2bb768 D6 66f760 296d78 6a04a0 296d78 6f5bd0 296d78 6f5bd0 2c1910 D4 6b2998 2e6300 D6 6b2998 27e6d8 A13 D4 772cfc 293d6c D6 772cfc 275524 772cfc 26f37c 74e30c 26f37c D4 5f2634 293d6c D6 5f2634 26f37c 610e7c 26f37c A10 D5 6b20a0 5fcf96 A11 D4 6b2998 5524e0 D6 6b2998 539e40 6b2998 4f0a60 D4 66f760 527948 D6 66f760 502f58 6a04a0 502f58 6f5bd0 502f58 6f5bd0 52daf0 D4 6b2998 5524e0
47

D6 6b2998 4ea8b8 A13 D4 772cfc 4fff4c D6 772cfc 4e1704 772cfc 4db55c 74e30c 4db55c D4 5f2634 4fff4c D6 5f2634 4db55c 610e7c 4db55c A10 D5 6b20a0 85996a A11 D4 6b2998 7aeeb4 D6 6b2998 796814 6b2998 74d434 D4 66f760 78431c D6 66f760 75f92c 6a04a0 75f92c 6f5bd0 75f92c 6f5bd0 78a4c4 D4 6b2998 7aeeb4 D6 6b2998 74728c A13 D4 772cfc 75c920 D6 772cfc 73e0d8 772cfc 737f30 74e30c 737f30 D4 5f2634 75c920 D6 5f2634 737f30 610e7c 737f30 A10 D5 6b20a0 ac5b4a A11
48

D4 6b2998 a1b094 D6 6b2998 a029f4 6b2998 9b9614 D4 66f760 9f04fc D6 66f760 9cbb0c 6a04a0 9cbb0c 6f5bd0 9cbb0c 6f5bd0 9f66a4 D4 6b2998 a1b094 D6 6b2998 9b346c A13 D4 772cfc 9c8b00 D6 772cfc 9aa2b8 772cfc 9a4110 74e30c 9a4110 D4 5f2634 9c8b00 D6 5f2634 9a4110 610e7c 9a4110 $End $Dimensions 0 $End $Redlining $End $ConstructionLines 0 $End $NoteBalloons 0 $End $HoleCharts 0 $End

49