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What does E.D.T.A. stand for? Pekruhn in 1986 showed what % of successful one visit !Ts?

Accordin" to #au$"artner %198&' what % of sinus tracts have e(itheliu$ fro$ the oral $ucosa to the PA )? *n the earl+ 19,,-s "olf .alls contained what dental $aterial in their cores? What theor+ sa+s that (ain is a sensation resultin" fro$ activation of s(eciali/ed sensor+ neurons %nocice(tors'? 0e.lin" %1999' discredited the use of what as a direct (ul( ca((in" a"ent?

What (ro(ert+ did Dunsk+ sa+ $akes #u(ivicaine @ Etidocaine lon" actin" anesthetics? Accordin" to :adison @ Wilco9 %1988'3 u(on evaluation of coronal $icroleaka"e on avera"e3 how far did all "rou(s leak after 1 week e9(osure to saliva? !vek %19813 C<E' discoura"ed the routine use of what (rocedure after accidental trau$atic crown fracture? *n 19683 who descri.ed the ter$s el.ow and /i( in canal (re(aration3 and who later coined these ter$s? What is the ter$ used to descri.e la.orator+ ani$als with $icroflora that are s(ecificall+ known? Who was the 1st to de$onstrate & different t+(es of a(ical closures durin" a(e9ification (rocedures?

Who introduced the (erforated irri"atin" needle in 1981? Accordin" to )i(ton-s 1991 surve+ of &23411 56 households3 77% re(orted at least one t+(e of what in the last 6 $onths? Accordin" to Tora.ine8ad %1988' intera((oint$ent e$er"encies are associated $ost co$$onl+ with what teeth? The classic stud+ .+ who$3 showed that .actere$ias onl+ develo( if instru$entation e9tends .e+ond the a(e9 and even then onl+ lasts for ten $inutes? :atusow still .elieves that what $icroor"anis$s are (redo$inant in endodontic flare;u(s %19883 <<<'? The statistical $easure of central tendenc+ which is descri.ed .+ the $ost fre=uent sa$(le value is called what?

Who clai$s 1,,% success at "ainin" (ul(al anesthesia when an *A># is followed .+ 6ta.ident? Accordin" to Tora.ine8ad %199,'3 over 2,% of the teeth were entirel+ conta$inated with 6. e(ider$idis after how lon" of a coronal e9(osure? Who rena$ed 6i$on-s B#a+ !+st- a BPocket !+st-? *s the rake an"le of Duantec files (ositive3 neutral3 or ne"ative %accordin" to 6+.ron-s clai$s'? 6hovelton showed that $ost $icroor"anis$s live in what (art of the root canalE coronal or a(ical halves? >a$e two classic authors who have shown that (eriodontal d/ can have detri$ental effects on the (ul(.

>aidorf su""ests the use of what $edication to treat so$e flare;u(s? Accordin" to ?eldow @ *n"le %1961'3 what % of nonvital teeth with A cultures .efore o.turation were re(orted successful? Who coined the ter$ B#a+ !+st-? :a"ura rec the re;t9 of o.turated root canals e9(osed to the oral cavit+ for at least how lon"? 6tashenko %19913 C<E' showed that $ost .one resor.in" activit+ is fro$ what 7 c+tokines? *n the 196,-s who (o(ulari/ed the techni=ue usin" !a<0 in a(e9ification (rocedures?

What is the $a8or disadvanta"e of a PD) in8ection accordin" to Walton? What classification did Weine "ive a root canal s+ste$ that has two se(arate canals fro$ cha$.er to a(e9? #au$"artner su""ests doin" what to a sinus tract that does not heal? Who %1968' rec the :AF si/e to .e 1 si/es "reater than the first file to .ind? Who (ro(osed the "ate control theor+ of (ain? Who was credited with the introduction of for$ocresol in 19,6?

*n his 1941 stud+3 who showed the li$itations of >a<!l to reach the a(ical 1$$ of the root canal? Accordin" to 6wanson @ :adison-s 1984 article3 after how $an+ da+s did teeth show coronal $icroleaka"e over 49; 82% of the root? 6elt/er @ #ender sa+ that overinstru$entation can do what to a c+st? Who re(eated 6elt/er @ #ender-s classic stud+3 and confir$ed that .actere$ias are onl+ (roduced in overinstru$entation %19443 C<E'? Accordin" to 0au"en %19423 C<E'3 what is the $ost characteristic (ul(al res(onse to attrition? >a$e two classic authors who showed that (eriodontal d/ does not affect the status of the (ul(.

6(an".er" su""ests tr+in" what test to evaluate (ul(al anesthesia after si"ns of li( anesthesia are a((arent fro$ an *A>#? Pitts @ >atkin descri.e the Bhalo;like- radiolucenc+ around the root ti( in re"ards to what likel+ dia"nosis? 0arrin"ton @ >atkin %19973 D!>A' su""est that the etiolo"+ of a flare;u( in vital cases is $ost likel+ what? Who said %1946' that white dentin shavin"s is not an indication of a clean canal (re(aration? 0ow do .acterial cells re(licate? Whose 1941 classic article su""ests a((ro(riate se=uential t9 for endo;(erio lesions?

Who said3 in 19943 that it is the volu$e of anesthetic (resent and not the concentration of e(i that increases the anesthesia in *A .locks? The atner .one cavit+ is fre=uentl+ associated with what two non;odonto"enic facial (ain s+ndro$es? Accordin" to 6i$on %198,'3 what is the incidence of #a+ !+sts? 0euer-s 1961 article descri.es what t+(e of instru$entation? >a$e 7 authors that have re(orted on a correlation of (ain @ s$ell to the (resence of #. $elano"enicus in root canals. *n the 197,-s who showed that !a<0 could sti$ulate a dentin .rid"e followin" a direct (ul( ca((in" (rocedure?

What is added to A$o9icillin to for$ Au"$entin? Accordin" to 6lowe+3 what is the $ost i$(ortant 9;ra+ for deter$inin" $issed canals? Who is .est known for (u.lishin" one of the first articles that differentiated .etween internal @ e9ternal resor(tion? The first article re"ardin" >iTi instru$ents for root canal instru$entation was written .+ who$ and in what +ear? *n 196&3 who su""ested that culturin" is unnecessar+ .ecause re(air occurs even when fillin" with $icroor"anis$s (resent? )e$on rec 1 $onth sta.ili/ation for ever+ JJJ $$ $oved.

*n 1991 %C<E' who showed that 1% $e(ivicaine "ives e=ual anesthesia to 7% lidocaine wG 1E1,,k e(i? Accordin" to Tro(e %*EC 1992'3 what $a+ .e even $ore i$(ortant than a "ood !T to achieve a successful (ro"nosis? An acute e9acer.ation of chronic (eria(ical (athosis is ter$ed what? What classic author invented ! Pre(?

Accordin" to a stud+ .+ Walker %1996'3 which anti.iotic shows the least .acterial resistance? Who introduced the ter$ Kstressed (ul(L? eferred (ain was e9tensivel+ studied .+ who$ in the 196,-s? *n 19443 who introduced the conce(t of in8ectin" IP? Whose classic stud+ on "er$ free rats showed that $icroor"anis$s are the $a8or deter$inant in da$a"e to the (ul(? Who clai$ed that endodonticall+ treated teeth could .e $oved orthodonticall+ without increased risk of resor(tion?

Who were the coauthors of Hakehashi-s classic "er$ free rat stud+? *n what +ear was the first endodontic .oard e9a$ ad$inistered?

What antio.iotic is reco$$ended in con8unction with (enicillin to increase the anaero.ic s(ectru$? Hvist %C<E 1999 Dec' showed that sur"ical or nonsur"ical retreat$ent showed faster healin"? Acute osteo$+elitis of the 8aws results $ost fre=uentl+ fro$ what? 6childer in 194& said what canal (re(aration sha(e is ideal? Whose stud+ in 1941 su""ested that .acterial conta$ination (la+s $ore of a role than an intracanal $aterial at for$in" a .arrier in a(e9ification (rocedures? What +ear was the AAE for$ed?

What (ro(ert+ of !linda$+cin $akes it a "ood anti.iotic choice for endodontic infections? Accordin" to Hulild3 what (ercenta"e of $esio;.uccal roots of $a9illar+ $olars (ossess a $esio;(alatal canal $icrosco(icall+? #haskar-s 1966 stud+ showed what % of PA )s are "ranulo$as? *n a 198, article %CADA' A.ou; ass3 Ilick @ Frank descri.ed what t+(e of filin" $ethod? *n 194&3 who used a strict anaero.ic nitro"en s(ra+ %MP* techni=ue' to find that anaero.es are the $ost (ro$inent t+(e of $icroor"anis$s in the root canal? 0u su""ests the use of what $aterial as a direct (ul( ca((in" a"ent?

*s (enicillin reco$$ended to .e taken with or without food? *n re"ards to (ul(alG(eriodontal interactions3 who showed that co$(lete (ul(al necrosis onl+ develo(s if the a(ical .lood su((l+ is co$(ro$ised? )alonde @ )eu.ke .elieve that what % of PA lesions are c+sts? Ther$afil uses what for$ of "utta (ercha? What t+(e of d+e was used in Iold$an @ Pearson-s classic stud+ that discredited the hollow tu.e theor+? Who first descri.ed a root e9trusion?

What is the $a9i$u$ dail+ adult dose of *.u(rofen? Ilick su""ested that location @ (revious histor+ of acute s+$(to$s is hel(ful in dia"nosin" cases of what t+(e? What is the ter$ used to descri.e canal o.literation caused .+ trau$a? Accordin" to 0arve+ %C<E 1981'3 what is the ran"e of the avera"e vertical force used durin" lateral co$(action? What is .elieved to .e the $ost often =uoted stud+ in endodontic literature? ?ander su""ests that !a<0 releases what in direct (ul( ca((in"?

What is the intestinal concern of (atients takin" e9tended doses of clinda$+cin %or so$eti$es other anti.iotics'? What is the ter$ used to descri.e (ul(s su.8ected to re(eated da$a"e with a di$inished res(onse to (ul(al tests? Accordin" to Trow.rid"e3 what are the four /ones of a carious lesion? What is the sha(e of the .lank used to $ake H;fle9 files? o.inson @ #olin" %CADA 19&1 Fe.' su""ested what as a (ossi.le wa+ for .acteria to enter the (ul( %Iier @ :itchell a"ree'? True or False. :8or @ !o9 showed that a necrotic tissue la+er for$s under !a<0 as a direct (ul( ca((in" a"ent.

What is the $a9i$u$ dail+ adult dose of aceta$ino(hen? What follow;u( (eriod do #ender @ 6elt/er reco$$end on teeth without PA )s to evaluate success? What is the difference .etween a (ocket c+st @ a true c+st? Pisano %C<E 1998 <ct' su""ested doin" what after o.turation to decrease coronal leaka"e? Who rena$ed the #acteroides "rou( Prevotella @ Por(h+$onas %C<E 1997 6e('? Ta""er3 Ta""er3 @ We$es su((ort the use of what $edication for (ul(oto$ies?

Which of the isofor$s of c+cloo9+"enase is induced .+ infla$$ator+ $ediators? *n 194&3 whose classic stud+ su""ested that radio"ra(hs are valua.le in deter$inin" e9tra roots or stran"e canal confi"urations? What is a lesion ad8acent to a tooth with (ul(al (athosis that is characteri/ed .+ infla$$ator+ cells? Who introduced .alanced;force techni=ue3 and in what +ear? What s(ecific t+(e of .acteria did 6und=vist sa+ were associated with acute infla$$ation %1946'? Accordin" to 6tanle+3 at what rate does dentin for$ after a direct (ul( ca(?

Na$ada showed that a final rinse with what two irri"ants (roduced the cleanest canal walls? Which nerve fi.ers in the (ul( are $ost likel+ to res(ond to the EPT test? What is a $i9ed3 .eni"n reactive fi.ro;osseous lesion of unknown etiolo"+ which a((ears as three different (hases radio"ra(hicall+? H+tridou @ Iut$ann %*EC >ov 1999' showed that .oth Ther$afil @ 6+ste$ # de$onstrated acce(ta.le root canal fills .ut have a tendenc+ to do what? 0unter3 osenow3 @ #illin"s are all known for (o(ulari/in" what theor+? Who was the first to descri.e a !a<0 (ul(oto$+ in 1966?

What ri.oso$al su.unit do clinda$+cin and er+thro$+cin .ind to3 to cause their .acteriostatic (ro(erties? Accordin" to 6elt/er @ #ender3 (ercussion is an i$(ortant dia"nostic test for what (ul(al condition? What is an odonto"enic c+st assd. with a tooth wG necrotic (ul( that develo(s wGin a (eriradicular infla$$ator+ lesion @ derives its e(itheliu$ fro$ the cell rests of :alasse/? *n what for$ is $ost co$$ercial IP? Whose classic article %CADA 196&' de$onstrated the factors that influence the s(read of infection includin"E virulence of or"anis$3 host resistance3 $usc @ fascial arran"e$ents? 6chroeder su""ests that what initiall+ for$s .eneath !a<0 after a direct (ul( ca(?

What is the duration of (ul(al anesthesia fro$ an infiltration of 7% lidocaine without e(ine(hrine? )i$ @ Hirk su""est that what % of direct (ul( ca(s are successful? What is an infla$$ator+ reaction to (ul( infection @ necrosis characteri/ed .+ "radual onset3 little or no disco$fort3 @ inter$ittent dischar"e of (us? *n what for$ is IP found in nature? What are Fish-s four /ones3 startin" wG the one that contains .acteria? *n 19473 who used !a<0 to induce a(e9o"enesis in inco$(letel+ for$ed a(ices?

What is the $a9i$u$ adult dail+ dose of as(irin? Accordin" to Tora.ine8ad %1991'3 on avera"e3 how lon" did co$(lete canal conta$ination take in o.turated canals e9(osed to saliva? What is another na$e for a #a+ !+st? The rake an"le of 5;6ha(ed files is what? Who showed that teeth wG lr"r PA lesions tend to .e assd. wG root canals containin" an inc in the dif s(ecies of .acteria vs. those wG s$aller lesions %fewer s(ecies (resent'? Accordin" to 6tanle+3 what are the 7 $ain (ul(al concerns re"ardin" direct (ul( ca((in"?

What anti.iotic does 0utter %C<E 1991' reco$$end as the second choice for (enicillin aller"ic (atients? Huttler-s 1922 stud+ first descri.ed what two anato$ic land$arks? !linicall+3 what is the difference .twn chronic @ acute (eriradicular (eriodontitis? Wolcott %C<E 1994' su""ested that what o.turation techni=ue shows fewer voids @ fills lateral canals .etter than cold lateral? *n 19213 who cultured PA lesions .+ (assin" a wire throu"h a h+(oder$ic needle? What is the ter$ used to descri.e (er$ incisors which $a+ .e characteristic of con"enital s+(hilis?

What anti.iotic do 0arrin"ton and >atkin reco$$end for the (enicillin aller"ic (atient? *n Pineda @ Huttler-s 1947 stud+ of root canal anato$+3 what % of the canals were strai"ht? Who stated that necrotic teeth would .e $ore likel+ to have flare;u(s %1997'? Accordin" to )ee @ Man !ura %C<E 1998 6e(' which t+(e of heat source has the $ost (otential to da$a"e .one? What is the $a8or IAI (resent in hu$an dentin? What is the first ste( in he$ostasis?

Walton @ Fouad3 or !hia(inelli showed that what (re; o(erative treat$ent does not reduce (ost;o( (ain or flare; u(s followin" treat$ent of necrotic (ul(s? True or False. Hi$ showed that a PD) in8ection is effective at anestheti/in" onl+ one tooth for dia"nostic (ur(oses. :oos %1996' stated that tre(hination was not 8ustified. Wh+? Cohnson %C<E 1999 6e(' showed that it $a+ .e acce(ta.le to .ackfill canals with the <.tura ** in a sin"le incre$ent u( to what len"th? Accordin" to Aver+3 what are the last ele$ents to develo( in the hu$an dental (ul(? Which clottin" factor is activated eventuall+ in the e9trinsic3 intrinsic3 @ co$$on (athwa+s?

What two authors are credited for showin" that (ressure (roduces anesthesia in intra(ul(al in8ections? Who concluded that all t+(es of crown $ar"ins leak %he also dis(roved the B0ollow tu.e theor+-'? *n 19883 Tora.ine8ad listed 6 (redictors for a hi"her incidence of flare;u(s. >a$e 1 of the$. Who invented Ther$afil in 1948? Accordin" to Aver+3 what are the first ele$ents to develo( in the hu$an (ul(? Where do er+throc+tes (ri$aril+ develo( in adults?

Accordin" to a 199, surve+ .+ Iatewood3 what % of Di(lo$ates of the A#E (rescri.e A.-s to (ts with swellin" where draina"e is not o.tained? What did Herekes @ Tronstad %1949' sa+ the effects of a flare;u( would .e on the overall (ro"nosis for success? >a$e 7 authors who clai$ed that the a$ount of (ost;o( (ain is directl+ related to (re;o( (ain. Who introduced war$ vertical o.turation in 1921? Accordin" to <rlowski3 the colla"en turnover in the hu$an (ul( is faster or slower than in the "in"ival or PD)? What test can .e used instead of the PT @ PTT tests to evaluate anticoa"ulated (atients?

What $edicine should not .e used in children .ecause of the risk of e+e-s disease? What is the t+(ical (atient (rofile for (eria(ical ce$ental d+s(lasia? >a$e 1 authors who stated that it was .etter to close a tooth after treat$ent %versus leavin" it o(en'. What is the te$(erature ran"e %and for what duration' for heatin" .one3 that can cause in8ur+ @ decrease re"eneration a.ilit+? Who first develo(ed the h+drod+na$ic theor+ of (ain that was later (o(ulari/ed .+ #rannstro$? Which clottin" factor is deficient in he$o(hilia A @ Mon Wille.rand-s disease?

Accordin" to a 199, surve+ .+ Iatewood3 what % of Di(lo$ates of the A#E (rescri.e A.-s to (atients with vital (ul(s and AAP? *n his 196, stud+3 D. Ireen found which teeth had the hi"hest % of accessor+ fora$ina? What % of flare;u(s did Walton @ Fouad find in their 1997 stud+? What t+(e of sealer is said to .e acce(ta.le wG a sin"le cone "utta (ercha techni=ue? What cells s+nthesi/e IAIs in the hu$an dental (ul(? !lot sta.ili/ation is $ediated .+ which activated clottin" factor?

Who is .est known for su""estin" the use of (ro(h+lactic anti.iotics in teeth with necrotic (ul(s to (revent flare;u(s and (ain? What is another na$e for a KPul( Pol+(L? Who stated that leavin" a tooth o(en after treat$ent was .etter than closin" it? Who (o(ulari/ed the war$ vertical o.turation techni=ue in 1964? What are the & $ain t+(es of IAIs in the hu$an dental (ul(? What is the last event in he$ostasis?

What is the co$$on na$e for .is;de=ualiniu$ acetate? Who first used d+e;(enetration to evaluate leaka"e in 1919? What is an Kacute e9acer.ation of a (eriradicular (athosis after the initiation or continuation of an !TL? Who is credited for develo(in" cold lateral condensation for the o.turation of the root canal s(ace in 191&? Accordin" to Man A$eron"en3 what % of (ul(al colla"en is t+(e 1? 0ow $an+ AD6 e=uals one "re+?

Whitten %CADA 1996' showed that what % of dentists 9 A.s to (atients wG drainin" sinus tracts? Who conducted %and in what +ear' the first stud+ a.out the incidence of :P canals in $a9illar+ $olars? *n 19823 >aidorf listed 1, thin"s that are likel+ to cause flare; u(s. >a$e & of the$. )ares @ El Dee. %C<E 199, <ct' showed that what o.turation techni=ue showed si"nificantl+ $ore leaka"e than cold lateral? 6tanle+ showed that JJJ$$ is the critical re$ainin" dentin thickness to avoid irreversi.le (ul(al da$a"e. *n what +ear was endodontics declared a s(ecialt+?

An+ dru" .indin" to JJJJJ can dis(lace cou$adin @ should .e avoided. 6tein @ !orcoran %199,' found the a(ical fora$en to .e how far short of the a(e9? What is the Pasteur Effect? *.arola @ !ha($an %C<E 1999 6e(' showed that what (rocedure increases the accurac+ of the a(e9 locator? What are dentinal tu.ules called that are no lon"er filled with livin" odonto.lastic (rocesses? Dra"oo3 #ruce @ $aterial? udall rec the use of what root end fillin"

Na"iela showed that what vasoconstrictor .esides e(ine(hrine also increases #P? Ta+lor3 Ceansonne3 @ )e$on %C<E 1994' su""est that the co$.ination of what three varia.les decreased coronal leaka"e? What virus is associated with infectious $ononucleosis3 hair+ leuko(lakia3 @ #urkitt-s )+$(ho$a? 6childer %<<< 194&' showed that IP "oes throu"h what three (hases u(on heatin" %in order'? What nerve fi.ers found in the (ul( are $ost likel+ to res(ond to li"ht touch? #rand+wine shell teeth are characteristic of which t+(e of dentino"enesis i$(erfecta?

Accordin" to the A0A does the (lace$ent of the ru..er da$ re=uire (ro(h+lactic A.s? Who clai$ed that KThe cha$.er is in the center of the crownL? What condition of dentin for$ation is characteri/ed .+ nor$al ena$el3 at+(ical dentin3 (ul(al o.literation3 defective root for$ation3 and $ulti(le PA )s? Which endodontic techni=ue includes the use of a (arafor$aldeh+de (aste3 no ru..er da$3 @ no workin" radio"ra(hs? *n 19423 who authored the C<E article that first $entioned the s$ear la+er in endodontic literature? What t+(e of colla"en is (resent in the .asal la$ina?

Wh+ did Hi$ %1986' state that PD) in8ections should onl+ .e used for endo thera(+ @ e9tractions3 and not on vital teeth? Who su""ested in their C<E 1994 article that re$oval of the s$ear la+er will reduce coronal leaka"e? What t+(e of c+st is found in (lace of a tooth rather than directl+ associated with one? !o$$ercial IP is (redo$inantl+ what $aterial? What is the earliest res(onse of dentin to caries accordin" to 6tanle+? The cranial co$(onent which is analo"ous to the su.stancia "elatinosa of the (eri(heral "ate control $echanis$ is what?

Accordin" to 6en"3 what su.stances used as (reservatives in )A are $ost likel+ to cause aller"ic reactions? Who e9a$ined the a(ices of teeth @ concluded that the av" distance of !DC to a(e9 was .2$$ in +oun"er (eo(le and . 62$$ in older (eo(le? 0ow lon" is it rec to soak an avulsed (er$ tooth in fluoride if the e9traoral dr+ ti$e is "reater than one hour? What is the s+$.ol used for 6ar"enti (aste? :ader @ #au$"artner showed that the s$ear la+er is how thick and can .e (acked into the dentinal tu.ules how far? What is the acce(ta.le tolerance dose for those who work with radiation?

Accordin" to *n"le %1928'3 what (ro(ert+ is $ost i$(ortant in irri"atin" solutions? Who develo(ed the li=uid (ressure techni=ue for testin" dentinal (er$ea.ilit+ @ o.turation leaka"e assess$ent? *n which 8aw is osteoradionecrosis $ore co$$on3 the $andi.le or the $a9illa? 6childer %<<< 194& Cun' dis(utes )uks ori"inal clai$ that IP is what? Durin" conditions of ano9ia3 (ul( tissue will $eta.oli/e via what (rocess? What are the & .asic tissue t+(es in the hu$an .od+?

What t+(e of anesthetic in8ection can cause .actere$ia? Which teeth have the hi"hest nu$.er of lateral canals? e(lantation in an atte$(t to revitali/e the (ul( is su""ested under what s(ecific conditions in the treat$ent of an avulsed tooth? Who first discredited the 6ar"enti techni=ue in 1941? 0ar"reaves showed that (las$a levels of what enkal(hin are inversel+ (ro(ortional to acute (ost;o(erative (ain? What is the $ost co$$on 8unctional co$(le9 found .twn cells in the stratified s=ua$os e(itheliu$?

After what ti$e (eriod does heated >a<!l lose its effectiveness due to decreased chlorine levels? #ur"er @ 0utter %C<E 1999 A(r' showed that di"ital radio"ra(h+ @ JJJJ s(eed fil$ were co$(ara.le at evaluatin" len"th deter$ination. Who is known for su""estin" the use of $ilk as a trans(ort $ediu$ in the treat$ent of the avulsed (er$ tooth? 0ow does the new "eneration of a(e9 locators work? *n 19623 what two authors discredited the hollow tu.e theor+? The neural s+ndro$e which is characteri/ed .+ (aro9+s$al unilateral (ain in the soft (alate @ is (reci(itated .+ difficult swallowin" is what?

Who showed that diluted solutions of >a<!l can lose their tissue dissolvin" effects after two weeks? What is the $ost o.vious roent"eno"ra(hic findin" in (atients with scleroder$a? What is the su""ested s(lintin" ti$e in the treat$ent of the avulsed (er$anent tooth if there is an alveolar fracture? Who develo(ed the first a(e9 locator? What two authors introduced the hollow tu.e theor+? What t+(e of .lood vessels are found in the lacunae of woven .one?

What is the na$e of the he$ostatic a"ent introduced .+ 0orsle+ in 1987? What did Iartner rec takin" to deter$ine the difference .twn e9ternal @ internal resor(tion? Accordin" to the AAE "uidelines3 avulsed (er$ teeth re=uire a F5 evaluation for a $in of how $an+ +ears to deter$ine the outco$e of thera(+? What is the constant electrical resistance of the PD) @ oral $ucosa re(orted .+ 6u/uki in 19&7? What t+(es of cells are (resent in acute infla$$ation? What t+(e of colla"en $akes u( h+aline cartila"e?

)e$on @ Ceansonne evaluated what non;colla"en he$ostatic a"ent? Accordin" to Frank3 will a tooth under"oin" e9ternal;internal (ro"ressive resor(tion res(ond vital or non;vital to EPT? As rec .+ the AAE "uidelines3 what four ad8unctive dru" thera(+ considerations are there in the treat$ent of the avulsed (er$ tooth? Who (erfor$ed the classic $onke+ stud+ that concluded that overfillin" e=ualed (ersistent infla$$ation? What t+(e of tissue covers a h+(er(lastic (ul(itis? What is the avera"e si/e of a red .lood cell?

What is s+ner"is$? What was the % ran"e that Mertucci %198&' found in teeth with lateral canals? Accordin" to Tro(e3 what two entities e9ist in t+(e three e9ternal root resor(tion? Which classic stud+ concluded it was .est to full+ instru$ent the teeth3 .ut to o.turate the$ sli"htl+ short? Fro$ which (art of the tooth .ud does the PD) arise? What two hor$ones re"ulate .lood calciu$ levels?

Who showed that (enicillins can decrease oral contrace(tive effectiveness? *n (erfor$in" evaluations of $esio;.uccal canals in u((er $olars3 whose % of second $esio;.uccals s(lit the difference .twn the conclusions of Weine @ Hulild? What t+(e of resor(tion did a.inowitch e9(lain the ori"in of? 68o"ren %199,' concluded the .est (ercenta"e %9&%' success when the o.turation ended where W T the radio"ra(hic a(e9? 0ar"reaves showed nerve fi.ers e9tendin" how far into the dentinal tu.ules? *n nor$al adult $ale3 what is the nu$.er of (latelets (er $$1 of .lood? Who su""ested that s$all a$ounts of eu"enol $a+ .e .eneficial to vital tissue3 .ut lar"e a$ounts to9ic? Whose stud+ %1949' found K!;sha(edL canals in lower 7nd @ 1rd $olars 8% of the ti$e? What % of trau$ati/ed teeth under"o calcific $eta$or(hosis %Andreasen 1966 @ 194,'3 and what % su.se=uentl+ under"o necrosis? Whose classic do" stud+ in 1941 showed that the ce$ento; dentinal 89n is where instru$entation @ o.turation should ter$inate? !oncentric la+ers of calcified $ass found in the (ul( are called what? #aso(hils contain "ranules that are rich in what?

6(an".er"3 Eller.ach3 @ :ur(h+ rec the use of what intracanal $edica$ent? Who clai$ed that +ou should alwa+s assu$e a curve on the (alatal root? Who was the 1st to alert (eo(le of e9ternal cervical resor(tion after .leachin" with su(ero9ol3 sodiu$ (er.orate3 @ heat? Whose classic d+e leaka"e stud+ %196,-s' showed that sealer is necessar+ with IP? #;delta fi.ers found in the (ul( are what t+(es of nerves? What s(ecific cells lie 8ust .elow the e(itheliu$ in skin which are co$(onents of the i$$une s+ste$?

What co$.ination of dru"s $akes u( Micodin E6? Accordin" to 6kid$ore @ #8orndal %1941' what % of lower 1st $olar $esial roots will .e Weine t+(e 7? What 7 characteristics of an avulsed tooth "ive the worst (ro"nosis accordin" to the AAE 7,,1 treat$ent "uidelines? Whose classic radioisoto(e leaka"e stud+ showed that sealer is necessar+ when IP is used as the o.turation $aterial? #isho( de$onstrated fi.ers that Bstick- ena$el @ dentin to"ether. What are the+ called? Hi$3 Huttler3 @ Ireen rec a 1$$ root end resection .Gc of the canal ra$ifications nor$all+ (resent. What % is nor$all+ there?

What has lon" .een the dru" of choice in the treat$ent of tri"e$inal neural"ia? Accordin" to 6kid$ore @ #8orndal %1941' when the distal root of a lower 1st $olar contains two canals3 what % will .e Weine t+(e 7? Accordin" to :attison3 orthodontic $ove$ent al$ost alwa+s causes what? !hoha+e. %C<E 1997 Can' showed that what o.turation techni=ue leaked si"nificantl+ $ore than cold lateral? Accordin" to Man A$eron"en3 the content of what in the hu$an (ul( is inde(endent of a"e? Who said that the de(th of a root end (re(aration should .e 1$$ for sta.ilit+ of $aterial?

Wh+ does 0ar"reaves rec Bon the clock- dosin" re"i$ens instead of BP >- for anal"esic dosa"es? Which techni=ue did Waha. clai$ to .e the $ost accurate $ethod for usin" EPT? Who coined the ter$ Btransient a(ical .reakdown-? *n Davis- classic stud+ %1941' which "rou( showed the worst (ro"nosis? Who clai$ed that althou"h there $a+ .e no visi.le canal3 there is alwa+s one histolo"icall+? Who warned a.out the (otentiall+ detri$ental effect of !a<0 on the PD) in recentl+ re(lanted teeth %less then 1 week'?

Who found la.eled for$ocresol travelin" throu"hout the .od+ after its use as a $edica$ent? Accordin" to Tronstad %199&' how accurate is laser Do((ler su((osed to .e? Who first warned of cervical root resor(tion? 6tro(ko %C<E 1999' su""ests doin" what .efore lookin" for the :P canal in $a9 $olars? 0istioc+tes can transfor$ into what t+(e of infla$$ator+ cells? Who su""ests cuttin" a (er(endicular root end resection to decrease the nu$.er of o(en tu.ules?

Who su""ested that the cresol content of for$ocresol $a+ .e $ore to9ic than the for$aldeh+de? Hrasnow @ ankow %7,,&' develo(ed 6 laws that B"overnwhere canals will .e located. >a$e 1 of the$. After how $an+ $inutes e9traorall+ is it usuall+ a"reed u(on that the PD) cells are dead? What is the .e"innin" of (lastic defor$ation called in endodontic instru$ents? What is the ter$ used for (ro"ra$$ed cell death? What is the turnover rate for nonkeratini/ed e(itheliu$?

Pashle+ sa+s that a PD) in8ection is what t+(e of in8ection? What did #ender sa+ is the $ini$u$ % $ineral .one loss for a lesion to .e seen radio"ra(hicall+? Whose 1994 (a(er %Endo @ Dent Trau$a' showed that sockets (la+ an i$(ortant role in the healin" of re(lanted teeth? Accordin" to :achian3 what is the $ost efficient t+(e of instru$ent to use in a filin" $otion? Who first dis(roved the (ul(al stran"ulation theor+? Which has a $ore ra(id turnover rate3 keratini/ed or nonkeratini/ed e(itheliu$?

Walton was a (art of three different studies done in the 9,-s which showed what? #oth Mertucci %198&' @ 6kid$ore %1941' found what % of distal roots in lower 1st $olars to have 7 canals? Accordin" to e$eikis3 which is the .etter stora"e $edia for avulsed teethE oo$ te$( or cold $ilk? Who was the 1st to (u.lish an article descri.in" the crown down techni=ue? What t+(e of IAI is incor(orated into dentin3 and $a+ .e involved in the for$ation @ re(air of dentin? What are the & t+(es of (a(illa (resent on the ton"ue?

Whose 6candinavian stud+ %1988' showed that neither short ter$ nor lon" ter$ treat$ent with PenMk had an+ effect on healin" of (eria(ical lesions? What is the % of T+(e 1 lower incisors3 accordin" to #elli//i %1981' @ Mertucci %198&'? What t+(e of odonto"enic c+st is alwa+s associated with the crown of an unerru(ted tooth? Who was the 1st to rec standardi/in" instru$ents in the CADA %Fe. 1929'? What structures in the (ul(-s "round su.stance are res(onsi.le for its resilience @ for the flow of $olecules? What is the $ost co$$on e(ithelial odonto"enic tu$or?

What three thin"s in 199&3 did Tora.ine8ad show were e=ual in their effects on (ost o.turation (ain? Pineda @ Hutler found that 82% of JJJJJ are located in the a(ical 1rd of the root. What is the na$e of the condition that involves infection of the su.$andi.ular3 su.$ental3 @ su.lin"ual s(aces? Accordin" to :i+ashita %1994' @ :au"er3 6chindler3 @ Walker %1998' what si/e should lower incisors .e enlar"ed to? Accordin" to Hi$3 what structures (la+ an i$(ortant role at $aintainin" the vitalit+ of the a(ical (ul( tissue while the coronal (ul( is under .acterial attack? What is the develo($ental union of two or $ore teeth in which the dentin and one other dental tissue are united?

What is the dru" of choice for treatin" her(etic lesions? Accordin" to Mertucci %198&' @ #elli//i %1982' what is the avera"e % of two canals in u((er 1st (re$olars? What is the $ost co$$on fissural %develo($ental' c+st? Who do $ost feel develo(ed the crown down techni=ue? Which causes $ore (ul(al tissue da$a"e3 .acteria the$selves or the infla$$ator+ res(onse to .acteria? 68o"ren-s s+ndro$e is a disease state consistin" of what triad of s+$(to$s?

What is the dru" of choice for treatin" !andidiasis? Who clai$ed nearl+ 6,% of u((er 7nd (re$olars have 7 canals? Whose $onke+ stud+ %1982' concluded that a se$i;ri"id s(lint should .e used for re(lanted teeth? *n his 1946 stud+3 who su""ested usin" .oth rotar+ and filin" $otions in the root canals to .etter clean the walls? What is the na$e of the (ul(al cell t+(e that can convert to a $acro(ha"e3 fi.ro.last3 odonto.last3 or dentinoclast? What is the condition in which onl+ the ce$entu$ of two or $ore teeth .eco$es united?

What s+ste$ic anti.iotic is thou"ht to have antiresor(tive (ro(erties @ should .e considered after an avulsion in8ur+? *n 199& @ 1992 two authors concluded that +ou could have a vital case with a(ical (eriodontitis. >a$e the$. Who was the first to re(ort a case of healed hori/ontal root fracture in 1948? *n the earl+ 199,-s who showed the varia.ilit+ of the si/e of instru$ents %files' used in endodontics? )an"eland showed that the width of irritation dentin is not necessaril+ directl+ related to what? 6ialadenitis3 68o"ren-s s+ndro$e3 anticholiner"ic dru"s3 and anti(s+chotic dru"s $a+ all cause what intraoral condition?

Who su""ested the ad$inistration of s+ste$ic tetrac+cline after re(lantation of an avulsed tooth with "reater than one hour of dr+ ti$e? Piekoff showed that while 41% of $a9illar+ 1st $olar :# roots had :P canals3 onl+ what % were Weine T+(e 1? What t+(e of s+ste$ic infection did 6olo$on su""est could cause internal resor(tion? Accordin" to :or"an @ :ont"o$er+ %C<E 198& <ct'3 the crown down techni=ue should decrease the incidence of flare;u(s how? Fi.ronectin is $ainl+ found in what structures of the (ul(? What is the $ore co$$on na$e used to descri.e .eni"n $i"rator+ "lossitis?

What is the % of /inc o9ide in sE#A? Who found a 92% incidence of :P canals $icrosco(icall+ in $a9 $olars? 0ow would +ou descri.e an Ellis Trau$a classification t+(e 1? The filin" techni=ue that was rec .+ Weine to (revent B/i((in"- in curved canals is referred to as what? T+(e 1 colla"en $akes u( what % of colla"en found in dentin? Patients with A*D6 are (rone to what t+(e of cancer?

Hi$-s first choice of he$ostatic a"ent is what? Accordin" to Weine3 what % of $esio;.uccal roots of $a9 $olars have two canals that can .e instru$ented to the a(e9? What Elllis Trau$a classification would a lu9ated tooth .e? Who rec alwa+s (re;curvin" files @ re$ovin" the flutes on the outer cuttin" ed"e durin" instru$entation? *n what two wa+s can fluid .e trans(orted fro$ the infla$ed (ul(? What dental radio"ra(hic findin" is characteristic of scleroder$a?

What irri"ant did Ceansonne su""est was 8ust as anti.acterial as 2.72% >a<!l? #r+nholf3 in 194,3 concluded that JJJJJJJ increases with added fil$s. Who stated that >6 !T should not .e done .efore re(lantation? What two co$(onents %@ in what %-s' $ake u( the $a8orit+ of oth-s 811 elite sealer (owder? Accordin" to Cohnson3 how far into the dentinal tu.ules do nerve fi.ers e9tend? What fatal .one disease is characteri/ed .+ elevated #ence; Cones (rotein levels?

Who showed EDTA-s effects are self;li$itin" %which conflicts with Patterson-s findin"s'? Which techni=ue did Fos.er" %1984' conclude was the .est for takin" radio"ra(hs? True or False. )u9ated teeth can develo( PA )s @ still recover %re$ain vital' over ti$e. Whose in vivo e9(eri$ent found the oot ?O to .e accurate at locatin" the constriction "reater than 9,% of the ti$e %to within AG; .2$$'? Are arterio;venous shunts $ore (revalent in the a(ical or coronal re"ions of the (ul(? What is the autoi$$une disease characteri/ed .+ the continuous de(osition of colla"en onto .lood vessels @ connective tissue of $a8or or"ans?

Who showed that all concentrations of >a<!l are to9ic3 and therefore 2.72% should .e used due to its .etter tissue dissolvin" (ro(erties @ "reater anti$icro.ial effect? Who-s classic stud+ %1961' concluded that +ou have to re$ove the cortical (late in order to detect a PA )? *f a tooth is left out of the $outh "reater than 6, $in3 @ receives >6 !T within 1 weeks3 what t+(e of resor(tion is likel+ to occur? Who-s classic do" stud+ %1941' showed that o.turatin" short of the !DC is .etter than overe9tension of the $aterial3 as lon" as instru$entation e9tends to the !DC? Fro$ which "an"lion are autono$ic nerve fi.ers sent to the (ul(? What do ud @ Andreasen sa+ is the $ain cause of sur"ical failures?

All concentrations of >a<!l have e=ual tissue dissolvin" a.ilities a.ove what % %Tra(a"nier3 #au$"artner3 !uenin'? *n $an+ of the di"ital vs. conventional co$(arison studies3 no si"nificant differences were found3 .ut one stud+ found an 8,;9,% reduction in radiation. Which one? 0ow lon" should !a<0 .e left in the tooth in order to o(ti$all+ reduce infla$$ator+ resor(tion @ ank+losis %Tro(e @ :oshonov 1992'? >a$e 7 authors who showed that ter$inatin" the a(ical (re(aration .2;1$$ fro$ the radio"ra(hic a(e9 is .est. What is the function of a dendritic cell? What $aterial does Hi$ rec as a he$ostatic a"ent for lar"e cr+(ts?

Accordin" to the A0A what is the rec $ini$u$ P of da+s .twn a((ts for (atients re=uirin" (ro(h+lactic A. covera"e? *n 19483 !vek concluded that vital (ul( thera(+ was 92% successfulQ this was co$(ared to Tronstad-s results. What % did he find? What $edica$ent used as in intracanal a((lication did )indsko" @ #lo$lof %1998 EDT' show to si"nificantl+ decrease infla$$ator+ resor(tion? H;t+(e files are $anufactures usin" .lank wires of what two cross sectional desi"ns? Which nerve fi.ers enter the (ul( firstE A delta3 A al(ha3 or ! fi.ers? Who showed curettin" the cr+(t after usin" ferric sulfate for he$ostasis (roduces an e=uivalent infla$$ator+ res(onse to usin" no ferric sulfate?

>a$e an author that rec war$in" >a<!l to inc its tissue dissolvin" effect. Whose recent %7,,,' stud+ concluded that over 2,% of teeth receivin" a carious (ul( ca(3 failed? What was the si"nificance of the >ishioka stud+ in 1998? What instru$entation techni=ue did Fava introduce %C<E 1981 Fe.'? What are the $ain anti"en (resentin" cells in the (ul(? A (latelet count .elow what P is considered a disorder?

:c)ean @ eader %C<E 1991' showed that 7 anesthetics were e=ual to 7% lidocaine with 1E1,,k e(i at achievin" (ul(al anesthesia. What 7 were the+? True or False. There is no histolo"ic correlation with dia"nostic tests. %6elt/er @ #ender 1961' What $ediu$ did Tro(e su""est for trans(ortin" avulsed teeth %19913 1999'? What is an alternative IP solvent? What t+(e of hista$ine releasin" cell did :iller not find in the uninfla$ed (ul(? What is #arodontal"ia?

Who showed that (retreatin" canals with !a<0 increases the solvent effect of >a<!l? 0ow accurate did Peterson conclude cold tests are?

What co$(onents $ake u( For$ocresol? What fi.ers does the EPT activate? Accordin" to Andreasen %1982' what % of intruded teeth .eco$e necrotic? *n oane @ 6a.ala-s K#alanced Force Techni=ueL to what si/e do the+ rec enlar"in" curved canals %the $a9i$u$'? <f the followin" four cell t+(es3 which did Contell not find in the health+ (ul(? # !ells3 T !ells3 Dendritic !ells3 :acro(ha"es. What A6A classification would a (atient with severe s+ste$ic disease3 a co$$on threat to life3 .e considered?

Du$sha %1987' clai$ed e9trusive in8uries had (ul(al necrosis in 98% of cases3 co$(ared to 76% found .+ who$? Who de$onstrated that chlorofor$ softened dentin .+ 79% after 12 $inutes? What histolo"ic incre$ental lines re(resent the dail+ (attern of dentin for$ation? Who concluded that +ou need to re$ove the .lood clot for vital (ul( thera(+ to work?

What deleterious effect of PD) in8ections on do"s3 did oahen @ :arshall find? Who stated that i$$ature develo(in" teeth have an unrelia.le res(onse to EPT3 and therefore3 +ou should use cold test instead? Accordin" to Andreasen3 which has a .etter (ro"nosis for (ul( vitalit+ after lu9ation3 o(en or closed a(e9 teeth? What two (roducts for the sealin" of a leak+ ru..er da$ did #ra$well @ 0icks descri.e in 1986? Fo9 @ 6enia su""ested that the odonto.lastic (rocess e9tends how far into the tu.ules? Whose classic stud+ %196&' concluded that there was >< relationshi( .etween (ul(al @ (eriodontal disease?

What dru"3 when "iven as an intra$uscular in8ection3 si"nificantl+ reduced (ost;o( (ain %:arshall @ Walton'? Who clai$ed that trau$a cases are unrelia.le to EPT3 cold @ heat test3 due to nerve da$a"e? Who clai$ed that the (ul( is not necessar+ for root re(air? *n 1946 Walton concluded that ta(erin" the canal is i$(ortant for three $a8or reasons. )ist the$. Does irritation dentin contain $ore or less or"anic $aterial then (ri$ar+ dentin? Who concluded that when all the $ain a(ical fora$ina are covered with .acterial (la=ue3 a connection .twn (ul(al @ (erio disease occurs?

Who showed that irri"ation should .e (erfor$ed with the s$allest needle (ossi.le to allow "reater (enetration due to lack of flow .e+ond the ti(? What did 6ko"lund sa+ the sur"ical success rate was on teeth showin" total .uccal .one loss? What four wa+s did Andreasen show that hori/ontal root fractures could heal %<<< 1964 6e('? Which instru$ents cut $ore efficientl+3 those $ade fro$ trian"ular or s=uare .lanks? What % of teeth did Hu+k @ Walton de$onstrate had no evidence of a canal radio"ra(hicall+3 .ut still showed a canal histolo"icall+ %C<E 199, >ov'? Which fa$ous research duo ori"inall+ concluded %1961 @ 1964' that there was a connection .twn (erio @ (ul( diseases3 .ut then chan"ed their conclusion in 1947?

Who showed that vital tissue can dela+ irri"ation fro$ $ovin" laterall+ or a(icall+? Who showed that retreat$ent (rior to sur"er+ "ave a 4,% success rate3 whereas sur"er+ alone "ave onl+ a 21% success rate? Accordin" to Andreasen which t+(e of lu9ation in8ur+ is $ost likel+ to cause necrosis of the (ul(? Who concluded that si$(le de.ride$ent with saline is insufficient to re$ove all .acteria? 6i"al @ Tencate su""ested that the odonto.lastic (rocess e9tends how far into the dentinal tu.ules? Who develo(ed the s+ste$ for classif+in" (erio;endo lesions?

*n a classic stud+ .+ Hlot/3 Ierstein @ #ahn3 the use of what dru" was discoura"ed in treatin" necrotic cases due to a reduction in the ca(acit+ to locali/e $icroor"anis$s? #ender states that EPT can .e unrelia.le after a trau$atic incident for u( to what (eriod of ti$e? What (rocedure did Elliot @ 0olco$. su""est %1988' to relieve (ain in teeth with (eria(ical (eriodontitis? What are the two (hases of >ickel Titaniu$? The s$ear la+er %not includin" tu.ule (enetration' is how thick? >a$e the 2 classifications of (erio;endo lesions.

Iordon showed that what t+(e of tissue dissolves faster in >a<!lE vital or necrotic tissue? Who showed that !T @ retrofillin" via root end sur"er+ has a "reater chance of success then root end fillin" alone? What cells do 6lavkin3 #lo$lof3 @ 0a$$erstro$ .elieve can (revent re(lace$ent resor(tion? Who stated %1991' that a(e9 locators are oka+ to use in (atients with (ace$akers? We.er @ ?aki su""ested that the odonto.lastic (rocess e9tends how far into the dentinal tu.ules? Who defined .iolo"ic width?

When "ivin" PD) in8ections as a su((le$ental techni=ue3 what % success of (ul(al anesthesia did Walton @ A..ott find? Who su""ested that cracked tooth could .e an etiolo"+ of Bidio(athic- internal root resor(tion? A hori/ontal root fracture in which third of the root has the .est (ro"nosis? Accordin" to oane @ 6a.ala %198&' rotatin" a file in which direction %!W or !!W' has a "reater chance of se(aration? #ulk fluid $ove$ent in a dentinal tu.ule varies to what (ower of the radius of the tu.ule? 0ow do +ou define .iolo"ic width?

What t+(e of tissue dissolves faster in >a<!l %accordin" to A.ou; ass'E >ecrotic or vital? Which t+(e of resor(tion re$ains centered in the root even durin" shifts of radio"ra(hs? >a$e two of the four t+(es of healin" that can occur with hori/ontal root fractures. Who first descri.ed >ickel Titaniu$ files? An increase in which t+(e of dentin3 due to a"in"3 causes o.literation of the dentinal tu.ules? What four t+(es of radio"ra(hic healin" did ud @ Andreasen descri.e?

What (ro(ert+ does clavulinic acid add to Au"$entin to $ake it $ore desira.le than a$o9icillin alone? Iross$an showed a 9,% success rate in teeth with vital (ul(s where an instru$ent was se(arated3 .ut what was the success rate in teeth with PA lesions %C #rit Endo 1968'? *n which third of the tooth do the $ost hori/ontal fractures occur? 0ow $uch lar"er should the a(ical (re(aration .e fro$ its ori"inal si/e? What is the (reci(itation of $ineral salts within the dentinal tu.ules called? Who showed that colla"en fi.ers actuall+ "rew into 6u(erE#A when used as a root end fillin" $aterial?

What (ro.le$ did #rannstro$ @ Fuks sa+ could occur if a PD) in8ection is "iven in (atients with (erio disease? Fo9 @ :oodnik %>N 6tate Dent C 1947' showed what kind of success rate when se(arated instru$ents were una.le to .e re$oved in 1,& cases? Does the location of the fracture deter$ine the success? What is the avera"e width at the !DC? What .acteria $ost often causes osteo$+elitis? Accordin" to Ericson %*nt C <ral 6ur" 194&' what $a9illar+ tooth $ost often co$$unicates with the $a9illar+ sinus durin" endodontic sur"er+?

What is the % of eu"enol in su(er E#A li=uid? What was the success rate shown .+ !ru$( @ >atkin %CADA 194, Cun' in cases where se(arated instru$ents were una.le to .e re$oved? What is the .i""est factor in the a.ilit+ of a tooth to re(air itself after a hori/ontal fracture? Who descri.ed the use of a(e9 locators to locate (erforations? Accordin" to >a"aoka3 dentinal tu.ules are $ore (er$ea.le in which t+(e of teethE necrotic or vital? Who su""ested usin" $eth+lene .lue d+e to outline roots @ isth$uses durin" endodontic sur"er+ %C<E 1982'?

What (arts of the .rain do o(ioids act on? >a$e 7 non;endodontic causes of (aresthesia. )oe-s classic 1961 stud+ showed that JJJJJJ was the $ost i$(ortant factor in the (revention of ank+losis. 0ow do the old st+le a(e9 locators work? Accordin" to Tho$as3 nerve fi.ers (enetrate a.out how far into the dentinal tu.ules? What infection is considered to .e the $ost o((ortunistic in the world?

Accordin" to 0ar"reaves3 what is the $ini$u$ effective dosa"e of codeine for anal"esia? Who de$onstrated successful silver (oint cases with corrosion (roducts (resent? >a$e three factors of infla$$ator+ resor(tion. Iive two reasons for usin" sealer. Accordin" to Man A$eron"en3 which (art of the (ul(3 coronal or radicular3 contains the $ost colla"en? 6tevens;Cohnson s+ndro$e is a severe .ullous for$ of what disease?

Patterson rec the use of a short ter$3 hi"h dose of what anti.iotic for endodontic infections %#r Dent C 1991'? What is the corrosion (roduct of silver (oints? #urke %1946' su""ested treatin" avulsed teeth with what to $ini$i/e infla$$ator+ resor(tion? What are the two $ain (arts %@ the $ain in"redient in each' of 6eala(e9? Which t+(e of nerve fi.ers in the (ul( res(ond to (ressure3 heat @ che$icals? What is the co$$on $ali"nant %(ri$ar+' tu$or of the .one?

Pseudo$e$.raneous colitis is an over"rowth of what .acterial s(ecies? Who concluded %1947' that corrosion on silver (oints is increased with .endin"3 crackin"3 or defor$in" the cones at o.turation? Who clai$ed in 1987 that trau$a to (ri$ar+ teeth $a+ alter the develo($ent of (er$ teeth? *n 1969 who clai$ed that IP has a low tissue to9icit+? What is the ter$ that descri.es the accu$ulation of .u"s %after *M in8ection' .eneath a !a<0 (ul( ca( in an infla$ed (ul( %or after trau$a'? 6chroder %1941' clai$ed that +ou needed to do what .efore closin" a tooth after a (artial (ul(oto$+?

Whose classic stud+ showed that (lacin" intracanal anti.acterial $edication can cause s+ste$ic sensiti/ation? Accordin" to Fullin" @ Andreasen %1946' which dia"nostic test is the least relia.le for i$$ature teeth? The $ost relia.le? Which classic author %1962' clai$ed that i$$ature teeth can have (ul( survival @ re"eneration of nerve function after re(lantation3 es( with wide a(ical fora$en? *n 1992 68o"ren clai$ed that s$all (ieces of what are ver+ infla$$ator+? Whose classic discover+ found .acteria in trau$ati/ed teeth with intact crowns @ necrotic (ul(s? *n !vek-s (artial (ul(oto$+ %1948'3 how $uch of the (ul( was rec to .e re$oved?

Who (erfor$ed a $onke+ stud+ that concluded do9+c+cline hel(ed lower the rate of infla$$ator+ resor(tion @ ank+losis in avulsed teeth? #haskar @ a((a(ort defined vitalit+ .+ what? >a$e two of four different t+(es of root resor(tions after lu9ation in8uries. >a$e the 1 $inor co$(onents in IP. *n 19613 who showed that intact teeth in (eriodontall+ involved $ouths showed atro(hic chan"es histolo"icall+? <+nick3 Dorn @ Iartner su""ested the use of what root end fillin" $aterial?

DeMries @ Francis are stron" (ro(onents of what anti.iotic due to its hi"h .one affinit+? 0ow lon" do ud @ Andreasen sa+ is necessar+ to evaluate inco$(lete or uncertain healin" radio"ra(hicall+? What is another na$e for re(lace$ent resor(tion? >a$e the author of the classic 1948 stud+ that used dentin chi(s to (revent overfillsQ de$onstratin" ce$entu$ de(osition @ ver+ little a(ical infla$$ation. :8or showed that de$inerali/ation of dentin caused .+ caries affects which t+(e of dentin $oreE (eritu.ular or intertu.ular? What was the success rate that Dorn @ Iartner showed when sE#A was used as a root end fillin" $aterial?

Ii"lio3 et al. %CADA 1997 Au"' su""ested (ro(h+lactic anti.iotic covera"e for what see$in"l+ non;invasive (rocedure due to a (otential for .actere$ia? What was the sur"ical success rate shown .+ Fried$an? What is the na$e of the .owl sha(ed defects (resent in infla$$ator+ resor(tion? What is the (ur(ose of #ora9 in Iross$an-s sealer? What are the $ain or"anelles in non;secretor+ odonto.lasts? Hra$(er3 <setek3 @ 0euer rec what t+(e of sur"ical incision due to dec infla$$ation3 inc s(eed of healin"3 @ $in scar for$ation?

>a$e one or $ore author .esides :orse who rec (ro(h+lactic anti.iotic covera"e to dec flare;u(s3 (ain3 @ swellin". What was the sur"ical success rate shown .+ Altonen? 5nder what conditions is re(lantation ><T rec u(on avulsion? What is the $ain in"redient in Iross$an-s sealer? What are the two $ain t+(es of sensor+ nerve fi.ers found in the hu$an (ul(? What is the wearin" awa+ of tooth structure .+ $echanical $eans called?

What is the rec re"i$en for >a<!l induced (aresthesia? What was the sur"ical success rate shown .+ Irun" @ :olven? >a$e 1 s+$(to$s of vertical root fracture. What is the $ain advanta"e stated .+ Iross$an %1946' for usin" oth-s 8,1 sealer? 0ow wide did <setek clai$ the dentinal tu.ules were at the (ul( @ at the !DC? <steo$alacia is the adult for$ of what condition in children?

Who discovered %@ in what +ear' that Articaine @ Prilocaine can cause (aresthesia when used in .locks %es( $andi.ular'? What was the sur"ical success rate shown .+ :ikkonen? Caco.sen su""ested that what % of teeth showin" calcific $eta$or(hosis due to trau$a .eco$e necrotic? Wh+ do we down (ack @ verticall+ co$(act the IP in war$ vertical techni=ues? Who was the first to de$onstrate l+$(hatics in the (ul(? What is the $ost severe for$ of (ol+ostotic fi.rous d+s(lasia called?

*n 19893 what did eeh @ :esser discover that could cause (er$anent (aresthesia? Who in 1999 (u.lished an article su""estin" that sur"ical endodontics has a 94% success rate usin" $icrosur"ical techni=ues @ sE#A? 0uan" @ e$eikis showed that a((ro9i$atel+ what % of PD) cells re$ained vital after 47 hours of stora"e in 0ank-s #alanced 6alt 6olution? What is the colorin" a"ent in co$$ercial IP? What is the $ost da$a"in" endoto9in that is released fro$ "ra$ %;' .acteria? What condition is alwa+s (resent in (atients with t+(e 1 dentino"enesis i$(erfecta?

What is the active in"redient in Peride9? Who showed that the sur"ical success rate of a 7nd s9 (erfor$ed on the sa$e tooth is 2,%? 0uan" @ e$eikis discoura"e the use of what co$$on household ite$ as a stora"e $ediu$ for avulsed teeth? Ta$se in 1986 concluded that which solvent worked .est as a IP solvent? Iriffee showed a si"nificant relationshi( .etween a foul odor @ s+$(to$s3 and what s(ecific .acteria? Warthin-s tu$or is e9clusivel+ seen in what "land?

What is the $a9i$u$ dosa"e of e(i as su""ested .+ the >N heart association for a health+ (atient? *n 7,,&3 Pashle+ descri.ed what 7 $ethods for identif+in" cracks? #8orvant su""ests the a((lication of what after fluoride to an avulsed tooth with "reater than &2 $in dr+ ti$e? *n the earl+ 8,-s3 which sealer was found to cause (aresthesia after overfills? Who was the 1st to de$onstrate $ast cells in the infla$ed hu$an (ul(? What disease state3 $ost co$$onl+ found on the hard (alate3 (resents with a K"round "lassL radio"ra(hic a((earance?

Iear+3 Culsrud3 @ *.arrola all showed one s(ecific he$ostatic a"ent to cause dela+ed healin" @ a forei"n .od+ res(onse. Which one was it? >a$e 2 differential dia"nosis for non;odonto"enic (ain. Who said that A.s do not have a si"nificant effect on the healin" of avulsed teeth that are i$$ediatel+ re(lanted? *n the late 8,-s3 which sealer was found to cause (aresthesia after overfills? What is the conduction s(eed of A;delta fi.ers? An inc seru$ alkaline (hos(hate level aids in the dia"nosis of what disease?

What is the (heno$enon called where .lood flow increases in a (reviousl+ anestheti/ed area? >a$e 2 differential dia"noses for a (eria(ical radiolucenc+. :attison @ >e. %1981' descri.ed a .on+3 hard swellin" of the $andi.le ad8acent to a non;vital (str tooth3 usuall+ in +oun" adultsGchildren. What does this descri.e? What is the (ur(ose of the sta.elite resin in Iross$an-s 6ealer? What is the na$e of the (art of the tooth .ud fro$ which the dental (ul( arises? *n which t+(e of leuke$ia are +ou $ost likel+ to o.serve oral lesions? A. :+elo"enous #. )+$(hoc+tic !. :onoc+tic D. Aleuke$ic

A co$.ination of :etranida/ole @ )ithiu$ will cause what? >a$e 2 differential dia"nosis for a (eria(ical radioo(acit+. Who coined the ter$ K!racked Tooth 6+ndro$eL? !urson @ Hirk %<<< 1968' found which sealer was well tolerated .+ the PA tissues? Fro$ which (art of the tooth .ud does the dentin arise? >a$e the life;threatenin" condition caused .+ (artial or co$(lete failure of the adrenocortical function.

Er+thro$+cin @ Tetrac+clines $i9ed with Di"o9in cause what reaction? What %-s did of !T? a+GTro(e find in their coronal seal vs. =ualit+

Er+thro$+cin3 !larithro$+cin3 or :etranida/ole with Warfarin cause what reaction? #er"enholt/ @ icucci found that teeth with coronal leaka"e resisted a(ical leaka"e for how lon"? Pitts identified a root fracture as havin" what t+(e of lesion? Which sealer has .een shown %6halhav 1994' to e9hi.it 4 da+s of anti$icro.ial activit+ a"ainst E. faecalis? Fro$ which (art of the tooth .ud does ce$entu$ arise? What t+(ical lesions are seen on (atients with er+the$a $ultifor$e?

ivera classified lon"itudinal tooth fractures into 2 cate"ories. >a$e the$. Wh+ would oth-s sealer have .etter anti$icro.ial activit+ than 6eala(e9 or ! !6? What do +ou call Kdiffuse foci of calcification fre=uentl+ found in the a"in" (ul(L usuall+ descri.ed as (erivascular or (erineural? What is the na$e for the unusual (heno$enon that arises as a result of da$a"e to the auriculote$(oral nerve?

Masconstrictors are contraindicated in (atients usin" what t+(es of $eds? What did :adison %1984' conclude should .e used for evaluation in leaka"e studies? >a$e the & theories of c+st for$ation. Who showed %198&' that if +ou cut IP with scissors it leaves a flan"e3 and that +ou should use a ra/or .lade instead? Who-s fa$ous $onke+ stud+ %1981' confir$ed the findin"s of Hakehashi-s rat stud+ %1962'? What is the lifes(an of a (latelet?

:i9in" anti(s+chotics %chlor(ro$a/ine'3 adrener"ic neuronal .locker %"uanadrel'3 th+roid hor$one3 or :A<*-s %(henel/ine' with JJJJJJJJJ can have $inor reactions. *n 1996 #asten found what % of resected $olars had survived an avera"e of 17 +ears? What %-s did >air find in his 1998 histolo"ic sa$(les %!+sts3 Iranulo$as3 A.scesses3 etc.'? When usin" cold lateral3 Allison @ Walton %1981' showed that the s(reader $ust reach within how far of the a(e9 to effectivel+ seal the tooth? Who-s hu$an stud+ %1946' confir$ed Hakehashi-s findin"s %1962'? The ter$ dens in dente is s+non+$ous with what dental a.nor$alit+?

What is the co$$on cause of colitis? Descri.e the $ost co$$on location of the $ental fora$en. Who develo(ed the i$$unolo"ical theor+ of c+st for$ation? Who stated that Ktu" .ackL is not a "ood (redictor of the a.ilit+ of a cone to seal off a canal? Which & host i$$unolo"ical $echanis$s $ediate tissue destruction @ .one resor(tion in res(onse to .acterial infection? >a$e 1 t+(es of hu$an .one.

0ow do +ou treat colitis? Accordin" to Tora.ine8ad %<<< 1997'3 what % of a(ices (rotrude into the sinus? What is the #reakdown Theor+ of !+st For$ation? *n 19993 6ha.ahan" @ Tora.ine8ad infected i$$ature do" teeth @ used 1 $aterials to (roduce a(ical .arriers. What were the three $aterials3 and which one worked .est? >a$e 2 .acteria involved in initial necrotic cases. What disease state is often dia"nosed .+ the (atient havin" .lue sclera?

What t+(e of .acteria is !linda$+cin $ost effective in treatin"? Which root is closest %1.94$$ avera"e' to the sinus? E9(lain the !avitational #reakdown Theor+ of !+st For$ation. #roth$an %1981' de$onstrated which st+le of o.turation showed twice the nu$.er of lateral @ accessor+ canals @ a denser fill? Who used odds ratios to show that .acterial co$$ensialis$ wasn-t rando$3 .ut worked so .acteria continued to re(roduceGsurvive? What is the ter$ used to descri.e (aral+sis of the facial nerve?

Er+thro$+cin is least effective a"ainst what t+(es of .acteria? Which root is furthest fro$ the sinus %4.,2$$ avera"e'? Who develo(ed the E(ithelial Proliferation Theor+ of !+st For$ation? Iive two authors who de$onstrated IP seals .etter than silver (oints. What t+(e of .acteria is (ri$aril+ involved in (reviousl+ treated cases? Which dental ano$al+ has teeth with a characteristic translucent or o(alescent hue3 usuall+ "re+ to .luish .rown?

A$(icillin is $ost effective a"ainst what t+(e of .acteria? Who discussed anato$ic considerations of odonto"enic infections3 like K.oundaries of s(acesL3 K(aths of least resistanceL @ Kfascial (lanesL? Are there $ast cells (resent in PA "ranulo$as? What $akes u( 42% of the li=uid in Wach-s (aste? What co$$on infectious a"ents are (resent in a retreat cases? What is the $ost fre=uentl+ encountered .eni"n neo(las$ of !T ori"in found in the $outh?

!linda$+cin @ PenMH are least effective a"ainst what t+(e of .acteria? Are root canal treated teeth $ore .rittle than vital teeth? What % of c+sts to "ranulo$as did #haskar find? Who showed that 56 instru$entation re$oves de.ris .etter than hand instru$entation at 13 13 @ 2$$ fro$ the a(e9? 0aa(asolo concluded that unsealed cases durin" treat$ent or $ulti(le a((ts revealed hi"her fre=uencies of what .acteria? A"ranuloc+tosis is an acute condition with a "reat reduction in the P of what cells?

)a.el each of the followin" as #acteriostatic or #acteriocidalE Tetrac+cline3 Er+thro$+cin3 !linda$+cin Who did a $eta;anal+sis on successGfailure rates3 which concluded that with a PA ) success rates were a.out 1,;72% lower? *n c+sts3 which *" is increased dra$aticall+3 accordin" to Pulver? Who was the first to (u.lish an article on true crown;down instru$entation? >a$e 7 authors that clai$ed anachoresis occurs. What is the nor$al W#! count in a health+ adult $ale?

What is the $ode of action for Tetrac+cline3 Er+thro$+cin3 and !linda$+cin? Accordin" to 6trind.er" %1926' how lon" does healin" take %@ therefore how lon" should we .e doin" follow;u(s for'? What is the $ost a.undant cell in PA "ranulo$as? What classic author su""ests overinstru$entation with s$all files on all teeth with PA )s? Which fa$ous stud+ on $onke+s led to the conclusion that anachoresis doesn-t occur? What is the na$e of the develo($ental a.nor$alit+ characteri/ed .+ the total a.sence of teeth?

What $ode of action does (enicillin have? #er"enholt/ stated a.ut$ent teeth under"o necrosis JJJJ% of the ti$eQ $ore than crowned non;a.ut$ent teeth %JJJJ%' *nfla$$ator+ cells $ake u( what % of all cells in a (eria(ical "ranulo$a %6tern 1987'? >ewton rec retreat$ent after e9(osure to the oral cavit+ of how lon"? 0ow do the levels of )P6 in non;vital teeth co$(are to the levels of )P6 in vital teeth %6childer'? Who coined the ter$ Bfocal infection-?

*s (enicillin to9ic to $a$$alian cells? Who (erfor$ed the first >6 !T3 with what o.turation $aterial @ when? Are .oth T cells @ # cells (resent in .oth c+sts @ "ranulo$as? Which is in "reater =uantit+? We..er3 et al %<<< 1948' showed the $ini$u$ thickness of !avit re=uired for an ade=uate te$(orar+ seal to .e what? Who stated that 1,,% of sinus tracts are lined wG e(itheliu$ to the level of the rete rid"e @ 11% the entire wa+? E9(lain the Kfocal infectionL theor+.

What effect do >6A*Ds have on (atients takin" lithiu$ dru"s? Who o(ened the 1st endodontic (ractice? >a$e & t+(es of cells (resent in a PA "ranulo$as. !lark @ El Dee. %C<E 1991 Can' showed that the $ost co$$on clinical (ro.le$ with Ther$afil was what? True or False. <steo.lasts will ><T adhere to or resor. un$inerali/ed $atri9. Who attri.uted a $ultitude of diseases to Kfocal infectionL?

Which A. has .een shown to have an effect on oral contrace(tives %0ersch 1999'? Who first discussed the use of radio"ra(hs in >6 !T @ in evaluatin" success;failure? 6i$on3 in 19873 descri.ed a forei"n .od+ reaction3 known as an Koral (ulse "ranulo$asL due to what? *n 194,3 who rec cuttin" 1 $$ fro$ the ti(s of files to $ake Kin .etweenL si/es? 6tate the & $ain (oints of #rannstro$-s %1947' 0+drod+na$ic Theor+ of dentinal sensitivit+. :etastases of tu$ors to the 8aws $ost co$$onl+ ori"inate fro$ where?

Accordin" to eader %1999'3 what is the avera"e inc in heart rate in 64% of (atients wG 7% lido wG 1E1,,k e(i "iven intraosseous? What is K0all-s 6to((in"L? *n 1994 !aliskan showed si"nificantl+ different success rates %%-s' for (erforatin" @ non;(erforatin" internal resor(tion. What were the+ @ how did he rec treat$ent? Who first advocated the confine$ent of instru$entation to the inside of the canal3 insistin" that re(air %histolo"ical' was (ossi.le at the root a(e9? )ist & actions of he$ostasis with colla"en %Iut$ann *EC 1996'. What t+(e of radio"ra(hic a((earance does osteosarco$a (roduce?

)ist the a((ro9i$ate %-s of A. effectiveness %accordin" to #au$"artner 7,,1'. Who first discussed the use of A" (oints? Who found %1989' 0*M D>A in a dental (ul( fi.ro.lasts? What are the co$(onents of :TA %:ineral Trio9ide A""re"ate'? Who did several e9(eri$ents %1994' with ani$als to show that ena$el $atri9 (roteins are involved in for$ation of acellular ce$entu$? What is the $ost co$$on $ali"nanc+ affectin" skeletal .ones?

Wh+ shouldn-t !a<0 .e left lon"er than 1, da+s? *s there an+ si"nificance in short ter$ healin" in 0*M (atients vs. non;0*M (atients in >6 !T cases? Who clai$ed >< difference in root resor(tion .twn endo treated teeth @ vital teeth when su.8ected to orthodontic forces? 0ow .i" does the a(ical (re( have to .e to have efficient deliver+ of irri"ants? *n 7,,2 Hauf$an3 et al. did a P! stud+ to deter$ine which .acteria were in failin" !Ts with @ without lesions. What si"nificant thin" did he find? What is the loss of tooth structure .+ che$ical $eans?

*n 1998 0eine concluded that which intracanal irri"ant was effective in dentin infected with E. faecalis? A((ro9i$atel+ what % of oral health care workers have a late9 aller"+? *s it oka+ to do ortho on teeth that have .een avulsed @ re(lanted? *n 7,,23 0u"h3 et al. evaluated intracanal sealer distri.ution with 2 different o.turation techni=ues. What did he find? 6tashenko did an e9(eri$ent with PGE 6electin knockout $ice @ found what? Where does a $ucocele $ost fre=uentl+ occur?

Which co$.ination of irri"ants led to the "reatest .ond stren"th .etween E(i(han+ @ dentinE Water alone3 7% !0O alone3 6% >a<!l alone3 6% >a<!l followed .+ EDTA @ Water3 or 1.1% >a<!l followed .+ #ioPure :TAD? What did Peters %*EC 7,,7' find in his 1 vs 7 visit stud+? Descri.e the effect of !a<0 on root resor(tion %0ow it works'. What is the (0 of :TA when it is $i9ed @ set? 0ow lon" does it take for outer dentin (0 to (eak %at R9;1,(0' after !a<0 dressin" is added? )ist 1 reasons wh+ +ou would use a(ical deco$(ression.

*n a recent stud+ (u.lished in Fe. 7,,4 .+ Ihoddusi3 et al. what routine clinical (rocedure si"nificantl+ dela+ed .acterial re;(enetration of the canals? *n 19843 !o9 e9a$ined the effects of $aterials (laced a"ainst the (ul( in direct (ul( ca(s. What one thin" did he find to .e $ore i$(ortant than which $aterial was used? 0ow could a+naud-s (heno$enon affect the (ul(s of an affected individual? 0ow lon" does a(e9ification take? Which outer dentin (eaks firstE cervical or a(ical? Deco$(ression is an alternative to what?

0ow do vasoconstrictors affect vessels @ skeletal $uscle @ how does this effect #P? *n !ru$(-s 1949 (u.lication3 he uses the ter$ KP<< PA6TL to descri.e what 8 reasons for (ossi.le failures? Accordin" to Andreasen3 does the location of the fracture deter$ine success? Who first descri.ed a(e9ification of non;vital teeth? Does the fora$en width increase with a"e? What are the & ste(s in $uco(eriosteu$ healin"?

0ow do vasoconstrictors affect heart rate? When is the .est ti$e of da+ to see late9 aller"+ (atients? Who clai$ed that routine tre(hination wasn-t necessar+? Descri.e & different t+(es of .arriers for$ed fro$ t9 of non; vital i$$ature teeth with !a<0. Which cells are likel+ res(onsi.le for (reventin" the s(read of PA a.scess? What t+(e of techni=ue should .e used to reflect the fla( in a sur"er+?

>a$e 2 dru" co$.inations with >6A*Ds that should .e avoided. Who .uilt the first dental a((aratus 9;ra+ $achine? *n order to (revent e9ternal cervical root resor(tion wG internal .leachin"3 what needs to .e done? What is the for$al na$e for K ussian edL?

)in @ )an"eland %C<E 1982' rec 9 A. <>)N if acute sinusitis develo(s. *n (lace of A. %wG sinus (erforation' the+ rec what? When were 9;ra+s discovered @ .+ who$? Accordin" to Del/an"les %1988'3 what (attern does intra; canal resor(tion usuall+ take? To avoid air e$(h+se$a Elea/er @ Elea/er %1998' rec usin" what in (lace of the standard air s+rin"e? Who is known for the 0+drod+na$ic Fluid Flow Theor+? Does the (eriosteu$ survive fla( reflection in a dissectional wound?

True or False. >either # nor T cells are critical for the develo($ent of PA )s. Accordin" to )an"eland %1996'3 do +ou need to co$(letel+ curette out all of the infla$ed (eriradicular tissues durin" s9?

:cDonald %1997' concluded that levels of what3 $ade chlorofor$ safe for dentists @ staff3 due to the a$ount detected .ein" .elow <60A $andated levels? Who concluded that endo treated teeth wGo crowns were lost at 69 "reater rate than crowned endo treated teeth after o.turation? >a$e 7 thin"s found in c+sts that aren-t found in "ranulo$as. Who stated that Bre"ardless of how $uch (urulence has drained a tooth can .e dried @ safel+ closed if etiolo"ic factors have .een eli$inated-? 0ow soon after a wound occurs do $acro(ha"es arrive at the site3 what is their (ur(ose? Who is known for the K(a(illa .ased incisionL?

What are the two to9ic co$(onents in esorcinol; For$aldeh+de esin? True or False. There is little difference in teeth with cus(al covera"e for survival rates of !T teeth vs. vital teeth. What tissue is (ri$aril+ involved in the healin" of a hori/ontal root fracture? *n 199,3 Ha(lowit/ tested 2 solvents on the re$oval of IP. Which one did he find to .e $ost effective %the onl+ one which co$(letel+ dissolved IP'? 0ow soon after a wound occurs do P:>-s arrive at the site? 6hould +ou use resor.a.le colla"en $e$.ranes to re(air sinus (erforations?

o"ers @ Cohnson %1999' rec a((lication of what intracanal $edica$ent as a .etter anal"esic than oral *.u(rofen or a (lace.o? Ioeri" %1981' stated that (osts should .e RJJJJ the len"th of the root %S RJJJJJ$$'3 leavin" at least JJJJJ$$ of IP. *s ad8ustin" the occlusion (roven to hel( in flare;u(s? *n 19843 Hrell tested oth-s @ A076 for their ease of re$ova.ilit+. Which one did he find easiest to re$ove? Who concluded that a PA (la=ue was (resent on the e9ternal surface of the a(e93 @ thus PA tissues weren-t sterile? What ran"e of %-s did #ernhart %1994' @ ud %1998' find W T the a$ount of sinus (erforations in $olar sur"eries?

What one (roduct did 0artwell find to .e su(erior in the softenin" of ussian ed %after a 2 $in ti$e (eriod'? Who first stated that at least & $$ of a(ical IP should re$ain followin" (ost s(ace (re(? Accordin" to 6elt/er @ #ender %1961' a (revious h9 of (ain indicates what 8,% of the ti$e? Who stated that re;treatin" one-s own failures was unlikel+ to de.ride new areas .Gc instru$entation would onl+ enlar"e in the sa$e directions as the first (re(aration? Descri.e the t+(e @ densit+ of fi.ers in the PD) as +ou "o a(icall+. Descri.e 1 ste(s to $ini$i/e the risks of da$a"e to the neurovascular .undle e9itin" the $ental fora$en.

Wh+ should +ou avoid A6A in h+(o"l+ce$ics? 6hould a (ost .e (laced i$$ediatel+ followin" !T? >a$e & t+(es of e9ternal infla$$ator+ cervicalGsulcular resor(tion. *n 1989 :et/ler @ :ont"o$er+ showed which $ethod %563 !a<03 0and' of !@6 (roduced the cleanest canal at 1$$ fro$ the a(e9'? What did Tho$as sa+ lined the dentinal tu.ules3 which was co$$onl+ $istaken for odonto.lastic (rocesses @ the .elief that the+ e9tended all the wa+ to the DEC? Who was the first to notate root anato$+ as havin" an effect %dentin thickness @ .iconcave $or(holo"+' on the retro"rade cavit+ (re(?

Accordin" to Ehrich3 Dionne @ 0utter %1994' which anti; an9iet+ dru" works .etter in endo (atientsE Tria/ola$ ,.72$" or Dia/e(a$ 72$"? Accordin" to Ioeri" %1981' what t+(e of (osts should .e used? Accordin" to #attru$ @ Iut$ann %1996' what % of the (o(ulation under"oin" e9tir(ation is reall+ e9(eriencin" (hanto$ tooth (ain? 0oshino3 in 19983 showed that usin" what with 2.72% >a<!l3 eradicated A. israelii3 F. nucleatu$3 P. acnes3 6. $utans3 and 6. san"uis fro$ infected dentin? Who discovered arteriovenous anasta$osis3 venous;venous anasta$osis @ u;sha(ed arterioles %a uni=ue feature of the (ul(al;vascular network'? Which stud+ on ultrasonics was the first to not find cracks in the root end3 when root end resection was done?

*n what +ear was novocaine introduced3 and .+ who$? What techni=ue is .est for $akin" (ost s(ace? Tora.ine8ad %1988' stated 1 thin"s that had no effect on inter;a((t e$er"encies. )ist the$. What & thin"s do +ou need to do to (rotect the PD) cells in an intentional e(lantation case? Who concluded that self;stran"ulation didn-t occur in the (ul(? Wh+? Cavelet @ Tora.ine8ad %1982' concluded that JJJJJJ was an effective alternative to suturin"Q Kit doesn-t cause that $uch $ore infla$$ationL. Who introduced >a<!l to endodontics? Do clinicians need to alter their e9(ectations healin" of PA )s .ased solel+ on the 0*M status of their (atients? >a$e 2 thin"s that are associated with intera((t e$er"encies with necrotic (ul(s. Who clai$ed that Kever+thin"L out the a(e9 causes infla$$ation %1999'? A.out how lon" does it take for coa"ulation necrosis to occur under a !a<0 direct (ul( ca(? What sur"ical success rate did :addalone @ Ia"liani find in 7,,1 usin" $icrosco(es3 563 @ sE#A3 with a 1 +r F5?

Who introduced cocaine? *s there a (ost on the $arket %7,,1' which doesn-t leak? >a$e 2 causes for (ersistent e9traradicular infection. What is the avera"e success rate for intentional re(lantation? What is the difference .twn (ul( stones @ dentricles? :artin @ >ind %1984' used what irri"atin" $aterial in a(icoecto$+ sites to reduce flora 9&% i$$ediatel+?

Who introduced EDTA to endodontics? Accordin" to 6olano %C<E 7,,2 <ct' which had less a(ical leaka"eQ teeth (re((ed i$$ediatel+ for (ost s(ace3 or those in which the (ost s(ace was (re((ed at a later ti$e? !holesterol cr+stals in c+stic lesions co$e fro$ where? Who stated %1997' that it didn-t $atter if +ou underfilled or overfilled3 the onl+ thin" that $attered %to the overall success rates' was the (re;e9istin" condition? A.out how lon" does it take for hard tissue for$ation to occur under a !a<0 direct (ul( ca(? *f +ou have to do a (ul(ecto$+ on a (ri$ar+ tooth3 what is the .est $aterial to o.turate with @ wh+?

>a$e 7 reasons wh+ :TA is .elieved to .e .ioco$(ati.le. #ender %1981' rec takin" how $an+ radio"ra(hs with dif vertical an"ulations to view hori/ontal root fractures. Accordin" to 0olco$. %C<E 1984' what is the Ksafe li$it loadL to avoid vertical root fractures? *n 1998 a $odel of (ost;o.turation (aresthesia was (erfor$ed with rats @ their sciatic nerves3 .+ who$? Accordin" to ?ach %<<< 1962' at what te$(erature will &,% of the (ul(s recover? What 1 retrofillin" $aterials did Dorn @ Iartner co$(are in their retros(ective 7 office stud+?

Which A. has the stron"est distri.ution to .one %R1,%'? What was the overall incidence of (ost;o.turation (ain in #au$"artner-s 1981 sealer e9trusion stud+? Which direction to vertical root fractures usuall+ occur? :orse %1994' re(orted two cases of (aresthesia due to o.turatin"G$edica$ent $aterials. What were the $aterials used in these 7 cases? 0ow $an+ de"rees inc in te$(erature will da$a"e PD) cells? Wh+ did Fried$an %1991' find such low success rates with his sur"eries?

*f +ou wanted to (re;$edicate a (atient who was severel+ aller"ic to late93 what would +ou 9? !an +ou differentiate a c+st fro$ a "ranulo$a via 9;ra+s? !T scans? What t+(e of .leachin" causes the $ost resor(tion? 6hould e$do"ain re(lace !a<0 in (ul( ca(s? Wh+ or wh+ not? Which (ain fi.ers would .e nu$.ed if +ou had (ul(al anesthesia? What is the a((ro(riate screenin" radio"ra(h for (atholo"+ of the 8aws?

0ow does intra(ul(al )A cause its effect? Does eu"enol in sealers affect the retention of (osts? Wh+ is 1,% 07<7 likel+ to cause resor(tion? *n a 1998 $odel of (ost o.turation (aresthesia3 which o.turatin" $aterial was found to cause (aresthesia the fastest3 and recover the slowest? Which (ain fi.ers would .e nu$.ed if +ou had li( anesthesia? What is the $ost co$$on site of head @ neck s=ua$os cell carcino$a?

What is another na$e for the Akinosi #lock? Accordin" to !han %1987' what t+(e of (ost is .est for reducin" forces on the tooth %.efore fracture'? A((ro9i$atel+ what % of teeth have defects at the !EC %as re(orted .+ :8or or otstein'? Which s(reader is .est for lateral co$(action? What is the role of odonto.last;like cells in the (ul(? *n what disease do (atients lack "lucocere.rosides3 have lots of foa$ cells3 @ have slowl+ resor.in" roots?

>a$e three other )A techni=ues that could .e used in (lace of the *A>#? Accordin" to Ceansonne %1998' which (ost $aterial is .est at reducin" root fractures? Which t+(e of !EC %dentin;ena$el side .+ side3 overla((in"3 or "a((in"' showed the "reatest leaka"e of 07<7 fro$ the cha$.er? Accordin" to Pearson %*EC 7,,1' which sealer %A0 Plus3 Tu.liseal EWT3 A(e9it3 Endion3 or oth-s 8,1' showed the .est sta.ilit+ in solution? Which cells are res(onsi.le for sti$ulatin" the differentiation of odonto.last;like cells? What t+(e of he(atitis is also known as Bseru$ he(atitis-?

When /inc @ eu"enol $i9 @ are h+drol+/ed .+ saliva @ other li=uids3 what for$s? Which (o(ulation is $ainl+ affected .+ dens inva"inatus? What two $ain thin"s deter$ine the (ro"nosis of incisors wG ena$el;dentin fractures % avn 1981'? >a$e 2 internal $atrices that can .e used when re(airin" a (erforation. :acro(ha"es contri.ute which c+tokine3 as an i$(ortant activator of osteoclastic .one resor(tion? Which area of the $outh has the hi"hest (redilection for $etastases?

*s !linda$+cin s+ner"istic3 anta"onistic3 or indifferent to Er+thro$+cin? 0ow is a dens inva"inatus for$ed? Accordin" to avn %1981' when do $ost chan"es in vitalit+ occur in incisors with ena$el;dentin fractures? *n 7,,13 0olland did a do" stud+ of lateral root (erforations3 what did he find when usin" :TA as the re(air $aterial? Which cells (roduce PIE73 which $a+ contri.ute to the osteol+tic resor(tion of PA lesions? Which $eta.olic d/ is associated with inc seru$ !aAA3 osteo(orosis3 stones3 va"ue 8aw (ain3 1,% lackin" la$ina duras3 @ a "round "lass a((earance?

What are 7 indications for usin" the Akinosi .lock instead of the *A>#? #esides occlusal interferences3 wh+ would a talon cus( .e dan"erous to the health of a tooth? What success %-s did Andreasen %1982' find for the necrosis of trau$ati/ed teeth? 0ow far should s(readers .e (laced when laterall+ co$(actin"? Define a c+tokine. 0ow does vita$in D resistant icket-s (resent radio"ra(hicall+ W T the teeth?

Who first clai$ed !linda$+cin was effective a"ainst or"anis$s isolated fro$ root canal s+ste$s? There are 7 cate"ories for case selection of dens inva"inatus teeth. What are the+? Who stated that K(rolon"ed @ ri"id i$$o.ili/ation inc the risks of e9ternal root resor(tionL? Who stated that sealer was necessar+ to seal the a(e93 re"ardless of what o.turation techni=ue was used? *n 19973 Tora.ine8ad found hi"h concentrations of which $ediator in s+$(to$atic hu$an PA lesions? *s >6 !T healin" affected .+ Pa"et-s disease?

>a$e 2 e$er"enc+ dru"s for t9 of )A overdose. *f an a.erration or ano$al+ is (resent3 how often will +ou find it on the contralateral tooth as well? %6a.ala3 et al. 199&' Which $eta.olic d/ a((ears diffuse on an 9;ra+ %like "round "lass'3 feels like +ou are cuttin" 6t+rofoa$ when it-s .io(sied3 and causes a slow e9(ansion of .one in all wa+s? What did Au"s.ur"er %C<E 199,' find W T e9truded sealers in his 6 +r F5 (eriod? >a$e 1 roles of c+tokines. Wh+ would a hori/ontal incision %durin" 69 or *>D' .leed $ore than a vertical releasin" incision?

>a$e 2 vasoconstrictor reactions that occur wG )A overdose. What is the incidence of Dens *nva"inatus? Wh+ did Du$sha have 98% necrosis in e9truded teeth3 when Andreasen onl+ found 76% necrosis in his cases? 0ow can +ou re8uvenate old IP? What is the $a8or c+tokine involved in dentin resor(tion activit+? !an $etastases cause necrosis of (ul(al tissues?

>a$e 2 aller"+ s+$(to$s to sulfite;antio9idants. What is a dens eva"inatus3 @ on what teeth does it usuall+ occur? Which (roduces $ore resor(tionE "ranulo$as or c+sts? >a$e 2 dif $ethods of re$ovin" a se(arated instru$ent or silver (oint. 0ow does the % of s(irochetes var+ .twn endo @ (erio lesions? >a$e 7 authors who clai$ for$ocresol is dan"erous.

!an walkin" .leach %07<7' inhi.it co$(osite (ol+$eri/ation @ dentin .ondin"? >a$e 1 authors who found .acterial leaka"e %or endoto9in leaka"e' likel+ to occur within 1 weeks @ therefore rec re;t9 leakin" >6 !T cases if o(en T 1 weeks. What is one wa+ to treat l" c+sts which (revents 69;induced devitali/ation of ad8acent teeth? Where should IP .e stored? What is the % of the total surface area $ade u( .+ tu.ules at the DEC? *n 7,,23 Harlovic co$(ared the Er.iu$E NAI laser @ 56 for use in root end (re(s. What did he find?

Accordin" to Do+on3 Du$sha3 @ von Fraunhofer %C<E 7,,2 Dec' !a<0 has no effect on fracture resistance of hu$an dentin for what ti$e (eriod? What "eneration a(e9 locator is the Ele$ents %fro$ 6+.ron Endo'? Which of the followin" would .e .est for an avulsed tooth wG 1 hr dr+ ti$e? A. e$ove PD) @ re(lant #. E$do"ainQ leavin" PD) @ re(lant !. )eave PD) @ re(lant Which direction would +ou need to turn the 0edstro$ %in the needle sleeve techni=ue' to en"a"e a se(arated instru$ent? T>F; co$es fro$ what cells? Who %7,,&' showed >6D in hard tissue .rid"in" or infla$$ation when usin" Pro oot3 An"elus3 re"ular or white Portland ce$ents to (ul( ca( direct e9(osures on do"s?

Accordin" to Tro(e %7,,2'3 hi"her (0 values at root surface @ 1$$ into the dentin were .est o.tained .+E (a(er (oints3 lentulos(irals3 or s+rin"ea.le !a<0? Who clai$ed %7,,&' that increased PD) width does no necessaril+ indicate failure of the !T? True or False. PA )s with sinus tracts can .e c+sts3 "ranulo$as3 or a.scesses. #au$"artner %1994' tested 56 @ the Ionan s+ste$ on (ost re$ovals. Which did he find $ore effective? Who %7,,&' showed that fi.ro.lasts attach to freshl+ resected root dentin? Which has less recessionE Pa(illa #ased *ncision %P#*' or full (a(illa elevation?

Accordin" to 6cel/a 7,,&3 which would leave $ore o(en tu.ulesE 13 1, or 12 $in EDTA? What effect does a s(ace of T7$$ .twn (ost @ IP have on (ost treat$ent d/? *n 1998 Tora.ine8ad @ Frank descri.ed a resor(tion in which the 9;ra+ a((earance is si$ilar to e9t resor(tion3 the tooth is vital3 @ (ercussion is W>). The dia"nostic findin" is an irre"ular resor(tion area se(arate fro$ the canal. What is it? Tora.ine8ad %1996' co$(ared :TA @ !a<0 as (ul( ca((in" a"ents. This was also done .+ Withers(oon %7,,1' @ Aeinahehi3et al. Wh+ do the+ all clai$ :TA is .etter? What is the $echanis$ of action of :TA in for$in" a hard tissueGdentin .rid"e for$ation with a (ul( ca(? Wh+ do vertical releasin" incisions .leed less?

Who 1st descri.ed the walkin" .leach techni=ue? *n 1999 #radford defined 69 success as & thin"s. )ist the$. What classic article %C<E 1946' descri.ed internal vs. e9ternal resor(tion? >a$e & factors affectin" successful healin" of a (erforation. E9(lain the $echanis$ of E;6electin su((ression %Darveau 1992'. *n 7,,&3 0oshino descri.ed a $ethod for Klesion sterili/ation @ tissue re(airL in (ri$ar+ teeth. What did he use to clean the teeth3 what did he use to o.turate the$?

Masoncontriction fro$ E(i works via which rece(tor? Accordin" to a recent stud+ .+ Fouad @ 6(an".er"-s "rou( in :a+ 7,,2 %C<E'3 what is the (revalence of 7 canals in the :# root of $a9 1st $olars? Accordin" to Fi"ueriedo %7,,&' is there a correlation .etween the t+(e of PA lesion @ internal a(ical resor(tion? Which sealers did <rstavik %7,,&' find to .e effective a"ainst E. faecalis? Does to(ical thro$.in i$(ede healin"? What is Avitene?

Did Mickers3 et al. %7,,7' find an+ chan"e in #PGP while evaluatin" acellets or 7,% ferric sulfate for their efficac+ @ cardiovascular effects? *n 1996 Fuss stated that one thin" was $ore accurate than radio"ra(hs for locatin" root (erforations. What was it? 0ow is internal resor(tion $aintained? *n 7,,&3 Nared did a cou(le of studies on tor=ue control @ found the sa$e thin" .oth ti$es. What was his si"nificant clinical findin"? What is the :<A of Avitene? What is the .est wa+ to a((l+ Avitene?

Accordin" to Withers(oon @ Iut$ann %1996 *EC'3 what are the 1 (hases of he$ostasis? Iold.er" %7,,2' did a co$(arison stud+ in teeth wG (osts that had either no s(ace3 ,;7$$3 or T7$$ .twn the IP @ the (osts. What success rates were found? >a$e 1 authors who don-t think (ro(h+lactic A.s decrease flare;u(s. What is the $eltin" (oint of (lastic Ther$afil carriers? Which $atri9 $etallo(roteinase is u(re"ulated in infla$ed hu$an dental (ul(s? Are (atients on cou$adin safe for oral sur"er+?

Who found %1994' that in the soft tissue anesthesia occurred with either 1.6$l or 1.8$l of 7% lido wG 1E1,,k3 1E2,k3 or 1E8,k e(i3 .ut in the (ul( the volu$e $attered? Whose "rou( showed "eristore to .e non;c+toto9ic to "in"ival fi.ro.lasts? Accordin" to >aidorf %1982' how do flare;u(s occur? Who (ro(osed %1997' the internal $atri9 conce(ts for internal re(air of (erforations? What effect does cavit+ (re(aration have on su.stance P levels in the (ul(? Wh+ is .one wa9 ><T rec for use in sur"eries?

*n a stud+ .+ #oessler3 Peters @ ?ehnder %7,,4' a=ueous @ "el t+(e canal lu.ricants were used @ the tor=ue3 torsional loads @ $a9 force values of rotar+ instru$ents were co$(ared. Which t+(e of lu.ricant was $ore efficient? What is the % of isth$uses in : roots of $d $olars %von Ar9 7,,2'? What are 7 other na$es for a B(ulse "ranulo$a-? Whose 1998 stud+ concluded that it didn-t $atter if +ou used a wet or dr+ cotton (ellet in (erforation re(airs wG :TA? What are the 1 ke+ in"redients for tissue en"ineerin"? >a$e 7 authors who concluded that IT was not needed %@ caused infla$$ation or >6D in rates of healin"'.

Which is .etterE li=uid or (aste lu.ricants %Peters 7,,2'? What is the % of isth$uses in :# roots of $9 $olars %von Ar9 7,,2'? What t+(es of $aterials are the cul(rits in cellulose "ranulo$as? Malois3 6ilva @ A/evedo %C<E 7,,2 Dec' did an ato$ic force $icrosco(+ stud+ on several dif files %dif $anufacturers'. What did the+ find? 0ow does su.stance P (la+ a role in nitric o9ide (roduction? 0ow do IT .arriers work?

>a$e 7 authors who are (ro(onents of the use of s+ste$ic steroids to aid in (ost;o( (ain relief. *n 7,,& Elea/er did a success rate co$(arison stud+ .twn IP-s and Endodontists3 what did he find? PA c+sts co$(ro$ise what % of all c+sts affectin" the hu$an 8aws? Whose 7,,2 article co$(ared esilon with IP @ found esilon to .e 8ust as (oor %if not worse than IP' for resistin" leaka"e? 0ow does "eo"ra(h+ (la+ a role in endo a.scesses? 6uda %7,,7' @ Pecora %1994' .oth did studies %on do"s @ rats res(ectivel+' on what t+(e of IT .arrier? %The+ concluded it was Beffective- @ it Be9cluded the !T3 allowin" .one to re"enerate-'

Accordin" to */u %7,,&' do we need to worr+ a.out conta$ination of the PA tissues fro$ (atenc+ files if we have >a<!l in the canals? When is the .est ti$e to do a co$(osite restoration on a non;vitall+ .leached toothE i$$ediatel+ after .leachin" or dela+ed %at least 1 week or so'? *n the $a9illa where are c+sts $ost (rone to develo(? Ta+ @ Pashle+ %C<E 7,,2 <ct' did a stud+ on esilon @ found it to .e a =uestiona.le (roduct for use .ecause of what characteristic? At what (0 is E. faecalis "rowth slowed %Elea/er 7,,&'? *n 1994 Pecora listed several indications for IT >a$e 1 of the$. in 69.

*n 7,,&3 who soaked teeth in 7% !0O for 1, $in @ then stored the$ for var+in" (eriods u( to 17 wks to deter$ine the su.stantivit+ of !0O? Who %7,,2' discovered that fi.ro.lasts attach to Ieristore3 .ut not Hetac Fil or * :? >a$e 7 authors who .elieve (ro(h+lactic A.s dec flare;u(s? Willia$son %C<E 7,,2 Au"' co$(ared A076 @ oth-s 8,1 for their a.ilit+ to (revent a(ical endoto9in (enetration. Which (er$itted the least a(ical endoto9in (enetration? At what (0 is E. faecalis "rowth co$(letel+ sto((ed %Elea/er 7,,&'? What is e$do"ain?

*n 7,,& Io$es showed that var+in" concentrations of what intracanal irri"ant were effective a"ainst E. faecalis3 !. al.icans3 @ Por(h+ro$onas3 within 1, secs? Which roots of $9G$d $olars have .een shown ><T to have isth$uses %von Ar9 7,,2'? What is a Bchronic infla$$ator+ lesion at the (eria(e9 that contains an e(itheliu$;lined3 closed (atholo"ical cavit+-? Whose stud+ showed a neofor$ation of ce$ental covera"e over :TA as a root;end fillin" $aterial? 0ow does endoto9in (la+ a role in PA disease? *n 7,,13 who (u.lished a do" stud+ statin" that Iuidor %a IT .ioresor.a.le $e$.rane' was .eneficial?

Accordin" to Iula.ivala %7,,&' how does the effectiveness of electroche$icall+ activated water as an irri"ant co$(are to >a<!l? *n 7,,&3 )awle+ concluded that what co$.ined with :TA a(e9ification led to "reater fracture resistance in o(en;a(e9 teeth with diver"ent walls? *n the $andi.le3 where are c+sts $ost (rone to develo(? >a$e 2 in"redients of cavit. 0ow $i"ht E. faecalis affect P:>-s recruitin" activit+ in a(ical (eriodontitis? What factors %in the .lood clottin" cascade' does cou$adin attack?

Who %7,,2' used .iolu$inescent .acteria to show that the de(th of the (enetration was a si"nificant factor in the reduction of .acterial counts? *n the Delta Dental 6tud+3 (u.lish in 7,,&3 what % of the teeth were $aintained at 8+rs? <f those e9tracted what % lacked occlusal covera"e? Where are the e(ithelial cells in c+sts .elieved to .e derived fro$? Who showed that cotton fi.ers tra((ed .twn the wall of the tooth @ the cavit can dra$aticall+ affect the sealin" a.ilit+ of the te$(orar+ restoration? Durin" which (hase of cell "rowth is E. faecalis $ost susce(ti.le to intracanal $edica$ents? What do +ou need to worr+ a.out in (atients with von Wille.rand-s d/?

Which oral (ain $ed has .een shown to dec resor(tion in ortho cases %Milla 7,,2'? *n 7,,& :c!lanahan did a co$(arative stud+ of white @ "re+ :TA3 7 @ 2 $$3 @ one ste( vs. two ste(. Which did he find was .est? What kind of e(itheliu$ nor$all+ lines c+sts? osins do 1 thin"s as active in"redients in IP. )ist these 1 thin"s. Who e9(osed $ouse (eritoneal $acro(ha"es to IP (articles @ found that the $acro(ha"es released factors which have a .one resor.in" activit+ due to enhanced (roduction of *);1? What is the U life of cou$adin?

*n 7,,&3 Erde$ir showed which intracanal irri"ants to have a ne" effect on .ond stren"ths of restorative $aterials? *n 7,,&3 Cohnson tested ice3 !<7 snow @ Endo*ce %TFE' on e9tracted (re$olars. 0e tested un(re((ed teeth3 FI!3 PF:3 @ all cera$ic crowns @ found what? Will trau$a or PA (atholo"+ in (ri$ar+ teeth cause da$a"e to underl+in" develo(in" (er$ teeth? What is it that causes IP to .e to9ic? >a$e 1 studies dis(rovin" the 0ollow Tu.e Theor+. What is PTT?

Does citric acid dec $icrohardness $ore than 14% EDTA %Erde$ir 7,,2'? *n 7,,4 *=.al (u.lished a re(ort on 199 =uestionnaires filled out .+ (ts under"oin" (eriradicular $icrsco(ic 69. Which se9 @ a"e e9(erienced the $ost (ain @ swellin"? What $a8or factor is likel+ to .e indicative of a flare;u(? 0ow do 56 hel( clean the canal .etter %!unnin"ha$ 1987'? What 1 thin"s are necessar+ for anachoresis to occur? What do +ou want the PTT to .e at?

What did :ar"elos %1994' clai$ to .e the .est a"ent to re$ove !a<0 fro$ the root canal? *n 7,,4 *=.al (u.lished a re(ort on 199 =uestionnaires filled out .+ (ts under"oin" (eriradicular $icrsco(ic 69. At what ti$e was the $a9 (ain @ swellin" re(orted? Accordin" to Tronstad %1949' what effect does a flare;u( have on the success rates of !T? Does !avi;Endo work via acoustic strea$in" or via cavitation? Accordin" to Al(tekin3 et al. %C<E 7,,2 :ar'3 nuetro(hil elastase levels in (eria(ical e9udates $a+ .e an i$(ortant indicator of what? )ist 2 reasons h+(er"l+ce$ia causes (oor wound healin" @ infection.

What is in the new for$ulation of ! Pre(? *n 7,,4 *=.al (u.lished a re(ort on 199 =uestionnaires filled out .+ (ts under"oin" (eriradicular $icrsco(ic 69. Which area of the $outh was related to $ore (ain @ swellin"? What % of (atients usuall+ have flare;u(s? *n 7,,23 a "rou( fro$ 5 of :ichi"an concluded that :TA did ><T cause a(o(tosis of (ul( cells %in vitro'3 .ut rather did what? *n a stud+ .+ A.e.e3 et al. %C<E 7,,2 :ar' dentin .ondin" s+ste$s inadvertentl+ a((lied directl+ to (ul( e9(osures had what effect on the endotheliu$? What is an avera"e (latelet count @ what is the $in +ou would want for sur"er+?

What was in the old for$ulations of ! (re( that caused it to re$ain in the canals after instru$entation? What % of $a9 1st $olars have innervation fro$ .oth the P6A @ :6A? *n invasive cervical resor(tion3 what t+(es of infla$$ator+ cells are (resent? >a$e 7 authors who clai$ 56 clean canals .etter then without 56? 0ow does !1 %of the co$(le$ent cascade' (la+ a role in infla$$ation? *f a (atient has liver disease3 what would +ou e9(ect to see in the PTT values?

Who introduced ! Pre(? Accordin" to Fro$$er %1947'3 what % of the (o(ulation has se(arate canals for the $+loh+oid nerve? Accordin" to 0eithersa+ %199&'3 there is a stron" association .twn invasive cervical resor(tion @ ortho t93 trau$a3 @Gor intracoronal .leachin". What does he rec for treat$ent? *n 7,,23 who showed 56 irri"ation (roduced si"nificantl+ cleaner canals then re"ular irri"ation? 0ow does !6 %of the co$(le$ent cascade' (la+ a role in infla$$ation? Which factors in the clottin" cascade are vit H de(endant?

What is EDTA? Accordin" to Anderson %1998'3 is the 6ta.ident $ore effective in the $andi.le or the $a9illa? What do +ou usuall+ find when +ou enter a (ul( with invasive cervical resor(tion? Accordin" to Do$ici3 et al. %Elea/er C<E 7,,2 A(r'3 how lon" can 56 a((lication to a (ost .e a((lied .efore "eneratin" hi"h te$(s on the root surface? 0ow does !2 %of the co$(le$ent cascade' (la+ a role in infla$$ation? What does #T %.leedin" ti$e' $easure?

*n :arch of 7,,23 Ari @ Erde$ir did a stud+ on the $ineral content of root dentin @ found that of the irri"atin" solutions tested3 onl+ one didn-t cause a dec in !aAA @ P. Which one? Who did the ori"inal research for the technolo"+ we now use in a(e9 locators? Wh+ shouldn-t +ou use citric acid to clean off avulsed teeth? :TA can induce .one for$ation .+ sti$ulatin" hu$an "in"ival fi.ro.lasts to (roduce what 7 "rowth factors? 0ow does !9 %of the co$(le$ent cascade' (la+ a role in infla$$ation? Which test should .e used in (ts takin" cou$adin?

*n A(ril %7,,4'3 osen.er"3 et al. (u.lished a stud+ statin" which 7 t+(es of anesthetic were S in (ain relief when used as a su((le$ental anesthesia %infiltrations'? What is the electrical resistance .twn the (eriodontiu$ @ $ucous $e$.rane? Andersson @ #odin %199,' clai$ed that teeth re(lanted within what ti$e have a favora.le (ro"nosis? What 1 thin"s are in "re+ :TA that are ><T in white :TA? What is er+si(elas? PT $easures what?

>a$e 7 authors su((ortin" the use of intracanal steroids for (ain relief. Accordin" to Wei"er %7,,1'3 if +ou are ,;7$$ short of the radio"ra(hic a(e93 how often are +ou actuall+ overinstru$entin" in (re$olars @ $olars? After how lon" of dr+ stora"e does Andreasen clai$ that resor(tion will occur .Gc PD) cells start d+in"? Which "rou( %7,,4' showed sin"le cone techni=ue %resin .ased' did not seal as ade=uatel+ as war$ vertical co$(action? What is the $ost co$$on #P# isolated? *n 199& a cadaver stud+ was done that concluded that 56 (roduced dee(er (re(s with s$aller .evels %@ were .etter centered'. Who did this stud+?

Do intracanal $edica$ents decrease (ain? Who develo(ed the ratio $ethod of electronicall+ deter$inin" W)? *n 199, !vek did a $onke+ stud+ which "ave us the rational .ehind soakin" avulsedGo(en teeth in Do9+c+cline for 2 $inutes. What did he find? Whose stud+ in 7,,4 %A(r' showed that co$(lete de.ris re$oval fro$ files is near i$(ossi.le @ advocated sin"le use of files? >a$e & wa+s a .rain a.scess could .e caused .+ odonto"enic infections. Who was the first to re(ort 56 @ cracks?

What is the (ur(ose of Tween 8, in :TAD? An e9tra root located lin"uall+ on a $andi.ular $olar is called what? Accordin" to a recent %7,,4' stud+ done in #ra/il%Esteves3 et al.' is there a difference in orthodontic root resor(tion of vital vs. non;vital teeth? Accordin" to a recent stud+ %Hitchens3 et al. C<E 7,,4 Can' on the s(eed of instru$ent rotation to incidence of fracture3 is there a connection? 6chneider3 et al. did a stud+ with (rion (roteins @ knockout $ice in 7,,4. What did the+ find to .e the si"nificance of (rion (roteins? 0ow does vita$in D resistant rickets affect the (ul(?

What does EDTA work on? 0ow accurate is the root ?O? 0ow does the si/e of the a(e9 relate to the a.ilit+ of a tooth to revasculari/e? What t+(e of fillin" $aterial is KIutta;FlowL? Which laser has .een $arketed as Ka.le to re$ove the s$ear la+erL? *n 19923 Tora.ine8ad @ A.edi stated that crack for$ation .+ 56 was a function of & thin"s. >a$e the$.

*n teeth internall+ .leached with car.a$ide (ero9ide %12%' the $a8orit+ of color chan"e co$es fro$ chan"es in whichE dentin or ena$el? An e9tra root located .uccall+ on a $andi.ular $olar is called what? *n a stud+ .+ #akland-s "rou( fro$ 5 of P3 de$onstratin" vertical root fractures3 which se9 @ a"e "rou( a((eared to e9(erience the $ost M F-s? 0ow does the short ter$ c+toto9icit+ of e(i(han+Gresilon co$(are with A0AGIP? What does MEIF do? What causes secondar+ h+(er(arath+roidis$?

Accordin" to Elea/er-s "rou( %C<E 7,,4Can' does (re;o( aceta$ino(hen %or acetoG*.u(rofen co$.o' have an+ effect on the success of *A>#s for teeth with irreversi.le (ul(itis? Accordin" to a recent %7,,4' $eta;anal+sis on s$ear la+er re$oval %6hahraven3 et al.' fro$ *ran3 what role does s$ear la+er (la+ on the a(ical seal of the canal? *n a stud+ .+ #akland-s "rou( fro$ 5 of P3 de$onstratin" vertical root fractures3 which two teeth had the $ost P of M Fs? What can .e used to safel+ disinfect resilon (ellets @ cones % o+al3 et al. C<E 7,,4 Can'? Are !o9;7 @ MEIF (resent in nor$al (ul( tissues? 0ow do +ou treat (ri$ar+ or secondar+ h+(er(arath+roidis$?

0ow does the cleanin" efficienc+ of 6AEW %stron" acid electrol+te water' @ >a<!l co$(are to >a<!lGEDTA? !an +ou have lesion on a vital tooth %6tashenko 1992'? *n a stud+ .+ #akland-s "rou( fro$ 5 of P3 de$onstratin" vertical root fractures3 M Fs see$ to .e associated with what (re;o( si"ns @ s+$(to$s? Which showed the least a$ount of leaka"eE Ilass *ono$er !e$ent3 Pol+car.o9+late !e$ent3 esin :odified I* !e$ent3 or Flowa.le co$(osite %!elik C<E 7,,6 >ov'? What is the dosa"e of $eth+lene .lue %when used in (hotod+na$ic thera(+' needed to kill $ost .acteria? 0ow does esilonGE(i(han+ co$(are to :TA @ sE#A %for leaka"e' as a root end fillin" $aterial?

Does addin" :e(erdine to a lidocaine solution increase the efficienc+ of the *A>#? Which is $ore accurateE )aser Do((ler or EPT? *n a stud+ .+ #akland-s "rou( fro$ 5 of P3 de$onstratin" vertical root fractures3 M Fs see$ed ><T to .e associated with what si"ns @ s+$(to$s? Which 7 .rands of 1,G.,& IP cones were found to have the "reatest varia.ilit+ in dia$eter @ ta(er3 accordin" to !unnin"ha$3 Walker3 Hulild @ )ask %C<E 7,,6 >ov'? 0ow are MEIF @ !o9;7 connected? Which t+(e of 56 ti( shows the "reatest cuttin" efficienc+E 663 /irconiu$ nitride coated3 or dia$ond coated ti(s?

*n Canuar+ 7,,43 #au$"artner3 et al. did a co$(arison stud+ of 2.72% >a<!lG12% EDTA @ 1.1% >a<!lG:TAD for canal disinfection (ur(oses. Which was $ore efficient? Does laser Do((ler flow linearl+ relate to (ul(al .lood flow? Wh+ would Tro(e rec usin" E$do"ain in avulsion cases? What t+(e of sealer is IuttaFlow? #acteroides .acteria were reclassified into what 7 "rou(s? What are the 1 classic si"ns of h+(er(arath+roidis$?

Wh+ don-t +ou want to use !a<0 as a fillin" $aterial in (ri$ar+ teeth? What is the $ost co$$onl+ cracked tooth? What does B>.*.!.<.- stand for? 0ow does addin" 1,% !alciu$ !hloride to :TA affect its (h+sicoche$ical (ro(erties? What was the reclassification of #acteroides .ased on? What causes (ri$ar+ h+(er(arath+roidis$?

What was the avera"e heart rate increase in (atients receivin" an intraosseous in8ection % eader-s "rou( C<E 7,,6 >ov'? Accordin" to #aldissara3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 <ct' which t+(e of sealer should +ou use with a fi.er (ost? What is another na$e for atner-s .one c+st?

What % anesthetic success did eader-s "rou( find %C<E 7,,6 >ov' with &% art as an intraosseous? Which was found to .e weaker %#aldissara3 et al. C<E 7,,6 <ct'E Post;!e$ent interface or the !e$ent;dentin interface? Descri.e the avera"e (o(ulation that would e9(erience a ce$ental tears. *n a stud+ .+ Ed"ar3 :arshall @ #au$"artner %C<E 7,,6 Dec' what effect did the use of chlorofor$ durin" endodontic retreat$ents have on the cultivata.le levels of E. faecalis? Put these cells in order "reatest to least accordin" to their P-s in PA lesionsE # !ells3 P:>s3 T !ells3 :acro(ha"es. What s+ste$ic disease3 that is ><T an infection3 can cause (ul( necrosis?

*n a recentl+ (u.lished stud+ on the new B>avi;Ti(-3 which (ortion of the canals was the cleanest? IP activates which co$(le$ent when overe9tended? Wh+ is sickle cells ane$ia likel+ to cause (ul( necrosis without identifia.le etiolo"+?

Accordin" to a recent stud+ .+ >andini3 et al %C<E 7,,6 >ov' which was $ore easil+ re$oved .+ 14% EDTAE (owdered !a<0 %in distilled water' or :eta(e9? Which $edia showed the hi"hest volta"e conductance %:ickel3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Dec'? What is the histor+ on a >.*.!.<. lesion? *s "reater or less wetta.ilit+ .etter for a root canal sealer? 0ow does the P of .acteria in an infected tooth (la+ a role in (ain? Who found >6D in (ushout resistance if :TA was covered .+ a wetGdr+ (ellet in furcal re(airs?

0ow does surface tension of 2.72% >a<!l co$(are with Tetraclean or 14% EDTA %:oltendo'? Who is $ore likel+ to e9(erience facial (ainE wo$en or $en? What are the co$$on s+$(to$s in a >.*.!.<. lesion? Which has .een shown to have "reater wetta.ilit+ characteristicsE !onventional oot !anal 6ealers or 6ilicone #ased 6ealers? Do .acteria have to .e vital to (roduce (ul(al or PA infla$$ation? Who clai$ed that +ou shouldn-t do sur"er+ %a(ical curetta"e' wGo resection @ retrofill3 .Gc +ou aren-t re$ovin" the infected root or sealin" off (otential root canal $icroor"anis$s? What difference is there .twn 1E1,,k e(i @ 1E2,k e(i in anesthesia in (erio fla(s? What is the % of isth$uses in D roots of $andi.ular $olars %von Ar9 7,,2'? Do >.*.!.<. lesions recur? <f the followin" o.turation $aterials3 which 7 are the $ost radioo(a=ueE A0A3 *>trafill3 oeko6eal3 E(i(han+3 Endo e/? Accordin" to #au$"artner %198&' the s$ear la+er consists of 7 (arts. Descri.e these 7 (arts. Who was the first author to s(ell out the contraindications @ indications of sur"er+?

What difference is there .twn 1E1,,k e(i @ 1E2,k e(i in .lood loss in (erio fla(s? 0as EA) .een shown to have an effect on (ace$aker function? 0ow do +ou treat a >.*.!.<. lesion? What wavelen"th does the diode laser work .est at? Who was the first to descri.e the s$ear la+er? Dorn @ Iartner%199,' co$(ared the success rates of sE#A3 * : @ a$al"a$ W T a(ical s9 alone3 or re;t9 @ a(ical s9. What %-s did the+ find?

What is the $ost co$$on side effect of a $a9illar+ nerve .lock? Does h+.ridi/ation of intraradicular dentin reall+ i$(rove fi.er (ost retention in endo treated teeth? >a$e 2 differential dia"nosis for (artial loss of la$ina dura. 0ow soon after :TA (lace$ent can "lass iono$er .e (laced directl+ over :TA @ not affect the seal %accordin" to a 7,,4 stud+ .+ >andini3 et al.'? What is the s$ear la+er co$(osed of? What is another na$e for the li$ited $uco(eriosteal su.$ar"inal rectan"ular fla( desi"n?

When )A enters the (ter+"o$andi.ular s(ace @ then the lateral retro(har+n"eal s(aces @ then into the dan"er /ones3 causin" a s+$(athetic cervical .lock3 what is it called? *n Dec 7,,2 %C<E' Walti$o3 Tro(e3 0aa(asalo3 @ <rstavik co$(ared sin"le visit w. 7 visit %!a<0 or dr+ canal'. What "rou( showed the $ost .acteria? Are there radio"ra(hic findin"s or a (revious histor+ in >.*.!.<. lesions? *n a recent stud+ .+ 6l+3 et al. %C<E 7,,4 Fe.'3 which had "reater (ush;out .ond stren"thE IP or resilon? 0ol/3 Ta+lor @ Ceansonne %1994' stated that the re$oval of the s$ear la+er does what to the a(ical seal? Accordin" to Hi$ %D!>A 1994'3 how lon" does it take for !alciu$ 6ulfate to resor.?

6hould antihista$ines .e (rescri.ed to reduce (ain? *n what decade @ in what se9 is the (revalence of PA c+sts hi"hest? 0ow do +ou treat a lateral lu9ation or e9trusion? 0ow lon" did Wesselink %7,,&' 56 canals for in his co$(arison stud+ of irri"ated s+rin"ed 2, $l >a<!l vs. 56 with 7,,$l >a<!l? >a$e 1 authors who are (ro(onents for re$oval of the s$ear la+er. 0ow lon" does it take (lain "ut sutures to resor.?

Which an9iol+tic thera(+ is $ost reco$$ended? Accordin" to #ernick %1929'3 how accurate are EPTGcold tests with (ri$ar+ teeth? 0ow do +ou treat an intruded o(enGclosed a(e9 tooth? Accordin" to Wesselink %7,,&' how i$(ortant is the dia$eter @ ta(er of the instru$ented canal on the effectiveness of 56 irri"ation? 0ow is the flow of infla$$ator+ cells into the (ul( affected .+ denervation of the (ul(? 0arrison @ Iut$ann rec suture re$oval after which ti$e (eriod?

0ow useful is !:!P as an intracanal $edica$ent? 68o"ren in 1991 stated that the .est results for canal disinfection occur when JJJJ is doneE 1 visit endo3 7 visit wG !a<0 for at least one week3 7 visit wGo !a<0 intra;a((t. Which authors found R12% c+sts @ 82% "ranulo$as or PA a.scesses? *n 7,,& who found ce$entu$ for$ation ad8acent to :TA? What is the $ode of action of trane9e$ic acid %a (otent antifi.rinol+tic a"ent'? What t+(e of dia.etes is insulin de(endant dia.etes $ellitus?

What is the active a"ent in !:!P? Who first stated that we should consider healin" .+ scar when reviewin" (ost endo t9 @ s9 work;u(s? Which authors found &2;2,% "ranulo$as @ &2;2,% c+sts? *n 7,,& who found hard tissue for$ation ad8acent to :TA? What is the (0 of ferric sulfate? When is onset of insulin de(endant dia.etes $ellitus @ how does it affect the .od+?

0ow does !a<0 inhi.it resor(tion? What are the .est radio"ra(hic (redictors of (ul(al disease %Haffe @ Iratt 1988'? *n 19473 :orse stated that the location of the a.scess de(ends on the location of the root a(e9 relative to what? *n 7,,& Dorn showed Endocal1, to .e detri$ental in what wa+? Which interleukin %*)' is ca(a.le of inducin" .one resor(tion? What % of all dia.etes is t+(e 1 %insulin de(endant' dia.etes $ellitus?

Who showed that inter;a((t >a<!l @ !a<0 does ><T enhance de.ride$ent? Accordin" to <rstavik %1996' or eit %1984' how lon" after >6 !T should +ou see radio"ra(hic si"ns of healin" in teeth with !AP? >a$e 2 differential dia"noses of PA )s in the $a9 incisorG(re;$olar areas. *n 7,,&3 who found fi.ro.lasts ti"htl+ attached to :TA? >a$e 1 interleukins %*)' contained in a hu$an radicular c+st. What t+(e of dia.etes is non;insulin de(endant dia.etes $ellitus?

What effect does !a<0 have on )P6 %in vitro' %6afavi @ >ichols 1991'? Which root of which tooth is likel+ to .e covered .+ the /+"o$atic arch in radio"ra(hs &8% of the ti$e %Ta$se @ Hafne 198,'? >a$e 2 differential dia"noses of PA )s in the $andi.ular incisorsG(re;$olar areas. What is the $ode of action of .ioactive "lass %#AI'? What do +ou call a $eta.olic PA ) in which the lesion is infiltrated with eosino(hils @ the roots a((ear to .e floatin" in air? When is the t+(ical onset of t+(e 7 >*DD:3 @ how does it affect the .od+?

*s the <0; $oiet+ of !a<0 .acteriocidal or .acteriostatic? What is a Ktransient radiolucenc+L%<rstavik 199, @ eit 1984'? >a$e 2 differential dia"noses of PA )s in the $a9illar+ $olarG(re;$olar areas. 6aunders %7,,&' used 6. san"uis in solution to de$onstrate what? Which i$$unolo"ical $ediators cause a(ical (eriodontitis? What % of all dia.etes is t+(e 7 %>*DD:'?

What is the $ost effective $ethod of carr+in" !a<0 to len"th? *n <ct 7,,63 Pichardo3 et al. showed stora"e in what co$$on stora"e $edia could si"nificantl+ influence d+e leaka"e studies? >a$e 2 differential dia"noses for a PA ) in the $andi.ular (re;$olarG$olar areas. Accordin" to a 7,,6 (u.lished stud+ on (ost;re$oval %0uttula3 et al. C<E 7,,6 >ov'3 what is needed to si"nificantl+ reduce the te$( on the e9terior root surface? What was the si"nificance of KFish-s ?onesL? *n 1994 Fuks co$(ared for$ocresol @ ferric sulfate for use in (ul(oto$ies of (ri$ar+ teeth. What did he find?

Which should .e the final irri"ant when usin" a self;etchin" adhesive to .ond to the (ul( cha$.erE >a<!l or !0O? Does a .roken instru$ent $atter to the success of a tooth? %6(ili3 Parashos3 @ :esser 7,,2' *f +ou have a co$(licated crown fracture @ a necrotic (ul( or uncontrolled he$orrha"in"3 what is the treat$ent of choice? 0i"her concentrations of which t+(e of :TA %"re+ or white' are needed to kill off E. faecalis or 6. san"uis? Who clai$ed #. $elano"enicus is associated wG (ain3 sinus tracts3 @ odor? Who first descri.ed a for$ocresol (ul(oto$+ %19,6'?

*n 1999 Estrella de$onstrated that !a<0 had >< anti$icro.ial effect at 7313 @ 4 da+s a"ainst E. faecalis or 6. san"uis in infected dentin tu.ules. What did he conclude? Who was the lead investi"ator in the Toronto stud+? Which of the followin" can (resent as tooth (ainE :i"raine3 !luster 0eadache3 Paro9+s$al 0e$icrania3 0e$icrania !ontinua %C<E 7,,6 >ov'? Does the incidence of instru$ent se(aration inc with non; tor=ue controlled $otors? >a$e 1 authors who clai$ that .acteria are associated with s+$(to$s. *n 19923 Waterhouse reviewed the success rates of 1 $edica$ents as use in (ul(oto$ies of (ri$ar+ teeth. What were the 1 @ what were the results? *n 7,,6 stud+ %C<E <ct' co$(arin" 1 acid;>a<!l co$.os for effectivel+ re$ovin" the s$ear la+er3 no dif .twn the effectiveness of the acids was found. What did the+ find? What was the co$.ined healed @ healin" rates of the Toronto stud+ %(hase 1'? *n 7,,, #arthel @ oulet (u.lished a retros(ective stud+ which reviewed success rates of !a<0 (ul( ca(s on carious e9(osures. What sur(risin" result did the+ find? *n 7,,63 Ta+-s "rou( studied the c+toto9icit+ of sealers %unset in Teflon tu.es'. The+ found $ost (osed =uite a risk @ that that risk inc with ti$e. Which & sealers did the+ test? *n PDT what wavelen"th of red li"ht %in co$.o with $eth+lene .lue d+e' is needed to kill 94% of E. faecalis %accordin" to 6oukos3 et al. C<E 7,,6 <ct'? What $ode of action does .one wa9 have?

Accordin" to 0ar"reaves %Endo To(ics Mol 7' there are 4 reasons wh+ anesthetic fails. >a$e 2 of the$. *n (hase 1 of the Toronto stud+ what were the two $ain conclusions a.out >6 !T? Accordin" to Andreasen %194,' @ Hahn.er"G idell %1949' what factor (la+s the .i""est role in whether teeth recover fro$ alveolar fractureG$and fracture? Does the incidence of instru$ent se(aration inc with 1st +ear vs. 7nd +ear residents? 0ahn %1991' clai$ed what 7 t+(es of .acteria increase cold sensitivit+? 0ow would sickle cell ane$ia (resent radio"ra(hicall+?

Wh+ does irri"atin" with >a<!l after :TAD use3 cause (artial loss of anti$icro.ial su.stantivit+ %of :TAD'? *n (hase 1 of the Toronto stud+3 for ortho"rade retreat$ent3 what was the overall healed rate? What t+(e of $ilk is .est for stora"e of avulsed teeth? <f the followin" four sealers3 which is the onl+ one to .e shown to seal .etter when $i9ed thick %De;Deus3 et al. C<E 7,,6 <ct'E Pul( !anal 6ealer3 A0 A3 Endo e/3 6eala(e9? *n <ct 7,,6 %Io$es3 et al.' a stud+ concluded that 1 s(ecific .acteria see$ed to .e associated wG endodontic si"ns @ s+$(to$s. Which 1 did the+ test? Does ferric sulfate show si"nificant cardiovascular effects?

What (ro(ert+ of !0O $akes it a useful ad8unct in necrotic cases? #+ how $uch did the success rate "o down3 in (hase 1 of the Toronto stud+3 for ortho"rade retreat$ent in teeth with APs3 .ut with or without (erforations? A.out how lon" can saliva kee( PD) cells vital? 0as .ioreactive "lass %#AI' .een shown to .e effective without dentin? Accordin" to 0aa(onen %1986' PA actino$+cosis is rare3 .ut if found3 should .e treated how? >a$e 2 of the 8 inherent factors of dia.etics %#ender 7,,1'.

*n <rstavik-s 199, stud+ on E. faecalis @ 6. aureus in .ovine tu.ules the+ left the s$ear la+er @ what did the+ find? *f a tooth was initiall+ filled short @ retreated3 was it likel+ to .e $ore or less successful then those initiall+ filled to len"th %Toronto 6tud+ 7,,1'? A.out how lon" can $ilk kee( PD) cells vital? *n usin" ProTa(ers which hel(s the files to have a lon"er use (eriodE low tor=ue or hi"h tor=ue? Who clai$ed >< likel+ relationshi( .twn .acteria %s(ecificall+ #P#' @ s+$(to$s? Who stated that dia.etics have a lower rate of healin"?

*n 1998 )indsko" @ #lo$lof scra(ed ce$entu$ off e9tracted teeth @ then re(lanted the$ in $onke+s. The+ used an intracanal !0O %1,%' for & weeks. What did the+ find? What was the overall healin" rate for (hase 1 %sur"3 retreat' in the Toronto stud+? Put the followin" in order fro$ the .est stora"e $ediu$ %for an avulsed tooth' to the worstE :ilk3 6aline3 Water3 Mias(an3 6aliva3 0#66 <f the followin" sealers which were the fastest to set in an aero.ic environ$entE Hetac;Endo3 esilon3 Herr Tu.liseal3 oth-s 8,13 oth-s 811? Does down"rowth of the e(itheliu$ @ loss of attach$ent occur in an incisional wound? #+ what $ode of action does a acellet work?

Does s$ear la+er $ake a difference in leaka"e? Accordin" to the results of the Toronto stud+ %Phase 1'3 what are the 7 si"nificant (redictors of outco$es of a(ical sur"er+? Wh+ is water not a "ood stora"e $ediu$ for an avulsed tooth? What t+(e of sealer is eal 6eal? 0ow fast does reattach$ent of e(itheliu$ @ !T occur in an incisional wound? Eldeni/3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 A(r' tested %via direct contact tests' the followin" root end fillin" $aterial for their anti.acterial activitiesE a$al"a$3 Pro oot :TA3 * :3 6u(er#ond !@#3 Ieristore3 D+ract3 !learFil APO co$( wG 6E #ond3 @ Protect #ond. Which were $ost anti.acterial?

*n 1991 what che$ical did !rai" @ 0arrison (ro(ose for the treat$ent of resected root ends to re$ove the s$ear la+er3 e9(ose colla"en3 @ enhance ce$ento"enesis? *n (hase 1of the Toronto stud+3 it was found that & $ain thin"s affect the treat$ent outco$es on ortho"rade ret9 cases. >a$e all & @ which was least detri$ental. #arnett @ Tronstad ori"inall+ rec s(lintin" a hori/ root fracture for 7;& $o3 wh+ are the "uidelines now 7;& weeks %i.e. which stud+ chan"ed this reco$$endation'? What for$s when :TA @ s+nthetic tissue fluids co$.ine? 0ow does outward (rotective flow of dentinal fluid occur when the (ul( res(onds to trau$a? Accordin" to Iut$ann @ 0arrison3 what is the ti$e for e(ithelial .arrier for$ation in oral $uco(eriosteal tissues under ideal conditions? What is the avera"e (ul(al anesthesia with PD) in8ections? Elea/er @ Elea/er %1998' co$(ared 1 ste( vs. $ulti ste( W T flare;u(s. Which led to less flare;u(s? Accordin" to Tro(e %1998'3 wh+ is Tetrac+cline rec in avulsion cases? What is the difference .twn white @ "re+ :TA %Parirokh 7,,2'? What is the nor$al tissue h+drostatic (ressure of the (ul(? What does tea contain that $akes it an effective he$ostatic a"ent for $inor .leedin" after sur"er+?

What is the $ode of action for a PD) in8ection? What was the (re;o(erative si/e of the lesion .+ which the Toronto stud+ deter$ined .etter or worse healin" rates? 0ow does soakin" the root in fluoride .efore re(lantation hel(? *s :TA inert or .ioactive? What is the % of the total surface $ade u( .+ tu.ules at the PDC? What is the advanta"e of addin" chro$iu$ trio9ide to (lain "ut suturin" $aterial?

Which )A is rec for use with PD) in8ection? Did the+ find a statistical difference in ret9 wG s9 or s9 alone in the Toronto outco$es stud+ (hase 1? Do +ou want to ad$inister A.s after re(lace$ent of an avulsed tooth? Accordin" to 6hostad %7,,2' what is the $ini$u$ thickness of :TA to (revent leaka"e? Who first (ointed out that the (ul( has l+$(h vessels? What t+(e of colla"en is first for$ed in healin" tissues?

:ene/es %7,,&' tested the effectiveness of intracanal irri"ants @ $edica$ents on E. faecalis @ !. al.icans. Which did he find was the $ost effective? *n 1981 Pekruhn co$(ared (ost;o( (ain in 1 visit vs 7 visits3 what did he find? Whose classic article discussed usin" the .uccal o.8ect rule to identif+ e9ternal fro$ internal resor(tion? Accordin" to Peters %7,,2' which see$s to .e safer constant ta(erGvar+in" ti(s3 or var+in" ta(ersGvar+in" ti(s? 0ow do !A:s %!ell Adhesion :olecules' (la+ a (art in (ul( tissue infla$$ation? Accordin" to 0arrison @ Iut$ann3 how soon after PA sur"er+ does .one for$ation .e"in?

Who stated that re$oval of all !a<0 was i$(ossi.le3 even with files @ irri"ants %7,,&'? *n 1986 Pekruhn evaluated failure with 1 ste(s vs. $ultiste( retreat$ents. What did he find? >a$e 1 reasons wh+ roots aren-t usuall+ resor.ed. <f the followin" sealers which were the fastest to set in an anaero.ic environ$entE Hetac;Endo3 esilon3 Herr Tu.liseal3 oth-s 8,13 oth-s 811? What is the tissue h+drostatic (ressure %local;not (ul( wide' when the (ul( is infla$ed? Dionne3 !oo(er @ )okken all rec (resur"ical thera(+ with what to dela+ onset @ su((ress the intensit+ of (ost sur"ical (ain?

*s Articaine3 $ore3 less or e=uall+ effective in causin" anesthesia when used as a .lock % eader 7,,&'? There were & $a8or studies done on the success rates of >6 !T in teeth wG @ wGo lesionsE :olven @ 0alse 1998E 91% vs 68% >S7,4Q Aker.lo$ @ 0assel"ren 1988E 98% vs 67% >S6&Q 68o"ren 199,E 96% vs 86% >S&41Q Fried$an 1992E 91% vs 69% >S1&7. What did the+ all find? What are Tro(e-s 7 re=uire$ents for root resor(tion? <f the followin" sealers which were the slowest to set overall no $atter what environ$ent the+ were inE Hetac;Endo3 esilon3 Herr Tu.liseal3 oth-s 8,13 oth-s 811? As the (ul( a"es3 how are the .lood vessels @ nerve fi.ers affected? What are two (ri$ar+ co$(onents that $ake u( 0a(set?

When :ene/es %7,,&' tested intracanal irri"ants @ $edica$ents a"ainst E. faecalis @ !. al.icans3 what did he find was $ost i$(ortant? Accordin" to Philli(s @ Weller %1997'3 how far is %on avera"e' the $ental fora$en %in $$-s' fro$ the a(e9 of the 7nd (re;$olar? Descri.e Tronstad-s classification for root resor(tion. What effect do 7% !0O @ 2.72% >a<!l have on resilon conesG(ellets when left to disinfect for 1 $in @ 2 $in? Accordin" to a recent stud+ .+ Ta+ @ Pashle+ %C<E 7,,6 6e(' where $i"ht latent ::P-s .e located within the tooth @ what effect $i"ht the+ have on .ondin"Ga(ical seal? :or"an @ :arshall rec the use of which .ur to create the s$oothest surface of resected root end?

*n 7,,& Hvist did a !T on one visit vs two W T cultiva.le .acteria still (resent after $edication wG *H* soak %1 visit' or !a<0 %7 visit'. What did he find W T % of .acteria? Which of the followin" is a non;dentin .ondin" ce$entE !@# $eta.ond3 Panavia 713 Fu8i I*? A.out how lon" can 0#66 or Mias(an kee( PD) cells on an avulsed tooth3 vital? 0ow does hu$idit+ affect the (ushout stren"th of :TA? 0ow lon" does it take for "ranulation tissue to re(lace the fi.rin clot in a dissectional wound? 0ow lon" does calciu$ sulfate take to resor.?

Which (roduces .etter anesthetic3 fast in8ected *A>#3 or slow? Who 1st rec that (osts are no lon"er $andator+ for restorin" endo treated teeth %1998'? Who confir$ed the correlation of .acteria @ infla$ resor(tion3 .ut deter$ined that ank+losis can occur wGo .acterial reaction? What is Kthe ratio of the dislod"in" force to the :TA;dentine contact surfaceL? 0ow do 6u.$ar"inal @ intrasulcular fla(s co$(are for healin"? >a$e 1 a.sor.a.le he$ostatic a"ents.

Tro(e %1994' clai$ed that not onl+ did !a<0 hel( to eli$inate .acteria3 .ut it also did what? As far as interfacial stren"ths are concerned3 is it .etter to (lace a fi.er (ost i$$ediatel+ after o.turation or to wait a week or so? *f a root shows resor(tion occurrin"3 how lon" should the !a<0 .e left in for? Accordin" to #au$"artner @ Walton how $uch of a chan"e in W) is found when usin" rotar+ files when (re;flarin" is done first? *s there osteoclastic activit+ in the healin" of an osseous wound? 0ow does colla"en cause he$ostasis durin" a(ical sur"er+?

*s sodiu$ h+(o.ro$ite $ore or less to9ic to hu$an osteo.last cells than >a<!l? Which have hi"her risks for failureE Teeth with (osts used as a PD a.ut$ents or teeth with (osts as FPD a.ut$ents? >a$e the 6 levels of Ellis !lassification of Trau$as. Nared3 7,,&3 found what factor was $ost si"nificant in file .reaka"e? 0ow do c+tokines %T>F;3 *);13 *);63 TIF;1' affect (ul( destruction? 0ow does Ielfoa$ work?

Accordin" to 6i=uiera3 in what 7 wa+s does !a<0 work to destro+ .acteria? Accordin" to eeh %1989' .+ what %-s do a >6 !T3 a class 1 (re(3 and an :<D %crossin" the $ar"inal rid"e' reduce cus(al stiffness? What kind of diet did #lo$lof %1982' rec for healin" (ost; re(lace$ent of an avulsed tooth? *n a 7,,6 %E//ie3 et al. C<E' stud+ which co$(ared the ease of retreat$ent of IP vs. esilon3 which $aterial was $ore easil+ re$oved? Which is $ore likel+ to accuratel+ anal+/e E. faecalis(resence in root canalsE =uantitative P! or cultures? #+ what $ode of action does 6ur"icel take in causin" he$ostasis?

What effect does doin" a final rinse wG 92% eth+l alcohol have on a(ical leaka"e? 0ow $uch tooth structure su(racrestal is needed for ade=uate .iolo"ic width? Who showed %1987' that 4 da+s of s(lintin" didn-t cause an+ da$a"e on teeth3 .ut that e9tended (eriods %1, da+s' induced root resor(tion @ ank+losis? Which of the followin" %if an+' ne"ativel+ affected the .ond stren"ths of :TA;dentin in vitro %Nan3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Can'E 2.72% >a<!l3 7% !0O3 or Il+de File Pre(? Whose Can 7,,6 stud+ used .ea"le do"s to show that uninfected necrotic (ul( tissue does not continuousl+ release infla$ $ediators @ cause (ersistent infection3 .ut rather was or"ani/ed .+ "ranulation tissue %in the a(ical few $$-s' fro$ the vital PD)? *s 6ur"icel safe for a(ical sur"er+?

Which is $ore effective as an anti.acterial intracanal $edica$entE a thin or thick $i9 of !a<0? Who found 82% co$(lete healin" wGsE#A @ 56 at 2 +r F5 on 181 sur"er+ treated teeth? What relativel+ rare infection %in non;i$$unoco$(ri$ised individuals' can occur on the sinuses fro$ an overe9tension of sealer or other root canal fillin" $aterials? *n 7,,23 Peters concluded what kind of ta(er was the safest? 0ow lon" does it take to o.serve osteo.lastic activit+ in an e9cisional wound site? >a$e 1 t+(es of (ossi.le wounds in sur"er+ %as descri.ed .+ 0arrison @ Curosk+ 1991 C<E'.

For$ocresol is #uckle+-s for$ula in what dilution? Which 6candinavian stud+ on retreat success rates showed a 6% failure rate %des(ite (ure (rostho indications; i.e. no PA )s' to .e"in with? Does orthodontic $ove$ent (revent the (eria(ical healin" (rocess %de6ou/a3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Fe.'? Peters %7,,1' concluded that doin" what first3 (revented instru$ent fractures? What is the connection .etween dentinal h+(ersensitivit+ @ the P @ densit+ of tu.ules? Who stated K#evelin" o(ens u( tu.ules @ therefore should .e $ini$alL?

>a$e 7 authors who sa+ for$ocresol is safe. Accordin" to Willerhausen3 et al %C<E 7,,6 A(r' how far on avera"e is the curvature %in $a9 (re;$olars' fro$ the !EC? 0ow do tetrac+clines cause stainin" %.+ what (rocess'? Do rotar+ instru$ents re$ove $ore .acteria? 0ow do .onded co$(osites affect dentin h+(ersensitivit+? At the a(ical 1;2$$ what % of isth$uses did Hi$ %1992' @ Io$es %7,,1' find?

P&M
Who was the first to advocate the use of >a<!l in endodontics? Who showed >a<!l to .e effective in dissolvin" tissues? What $ode of action does >a<!l have on cells? Who stated a tissue reaction caused .+ >a<!l out of (ro(ortion to volu$e $a+ .e an aller"ic reaction? Accordin" to 0arrison @ 0and 198&3 dilutin" >a<!l 1E1 will increase e9(osure ti$e for tissue solvenc+ .+ how $uch? Who concluded that heat increased the tissue dissolvin" ca(a.ilities of >a<!l?

SAD
Allen %1989' showed sur"er+ with retreat to .e .etter than sur"er+ alone. What %-s did he find? *n 19993 Tro(e did a 1 vs 7 visit %wG 1 week !a<0 intera((t' do" stud+3 what did he conclude? *n 1999 <rstavik concluded what % of AP lesions develo(ed (ost;t9 are seen wGin the 1st +ear. Thus3 1 +ear F5 is "ood for (redictin" lon" ter$ success. Were #+stro$ @ 6und=vist for 1 visit or 7? <liet co$(ared 1 ste( to $ulti;visit >6 !T %1981'3 what did the+ find? What success rates have .een seen wG intentional re(lantation %Hoeni" 199,3 Iross$an 19873 #ender @ oss$an 1991'?

S&M
Iilhean+ %199&' studied the relationshi( .twn .evel an"le of root resection @ the re=uired de(th of the retro(re( to $ini$i/e leaka"e. At ,V3 1,V3 @ &2V .evels3 what would the re=uired $ini$al retro(re( de(ths .e? >a$e 1 t+(es of resor.a.le $e$.ranes for IT . >a$e 7 t+(es of non;resor.a.le $e$.ranes for IT . Who did work in hesus $onke+s to deter$ine how the healin" of incisional fla(s3 dissectional wounds @ osseous e9cisional wound occurs? Descri.e the healin" (rocess of dissectional wounds at da+s 137313&31&3 @ 78. Descri.e the healin" (rocess of osseous e9cisional wounds at da+s 1;13 &3 1&3 @ 78.

SAD
Accordin" to )avstedt %1948'3 which 1 teeth have the "reatest (revalence for AP? *n 19983 Wei"er3 et al. did a $eta;anal+sis @ showed healin" rates in 1 vs 7 ste( wG !a<0. What did the+ find? Who (ro(osed the use of the PA* %(eria(ical inde9' scale for evaluatin" radio"ra(hic success? 0ow $an+ different P-s are there on the PA* scale? Which is the worst? >a$e the 2 o.8ectives of a >6 !T accordin" to the AAE =ualit+ assurance "uidelines. True or False. Prevalence of AP increases with a"e.

S&M
What (ur(ose does citric acid serve in root end (re(s? Who reco$$ended the use of the $ulti;(ur(ose .ur to reduce shatterin" @ crackin" in root end (re(s? >a$e 2 advanta"es of :TA %over sE#A or other root end fillin" $aterials'. Tora.ine8ad 1991 What is the reduction (ercenta"e in .lood loss .+ usin" 1E2,k e(i vs 1E1,,k e(i? What is the .i""est factor influencin" .lood loss durin" sur"er+? Accordin" to :esser %1984'3 what is the avera"e .lood loss durin" sur"er+ @ what is it co$(ara.le to?

SAD
Accordin" to a recentl+ (u.lished stud+ .+ #au$"artner-s "rou( in <re"on3 do EA)s or EPTs interfere wG the function of i$(lanted cardiac (ace$akers or cardioverterGdefi.rillators? *n 6e( 7,,63 a co$(arison of i$(lants @ >6 !Ts was done .+ Do+le3 et al. & cate"ories were co$(aredE 6uccess3 6urvival %wG no intervention'3 6urvival %wG intervention'3 @ Failure. What were the overall results? Accordin" to an stud+ .+ Cin3 )ee @ oh in Can 7,,6 %C<E' should +ou .e an+$ore concerned a.out thin dentin in the "roove area of !;sha(ed $and 7nd $olars co$(ared to the dan"er /one of nor$al $and 7nd $olars? *n 7,,63 %:alcic3 et al C<E' there was a stud+ (u.lished which used .ovine seru$ al.u$in to test leaka"e in root canals o.turated ortho"radeG retro"radeG.oth. What conclusion did the+ find? Accordin" to :avec3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 Fe.'3 how thick should a la+er of intracanal "lass iono$er .e to (revent coronal $icroleaka"e in teeth with (ost s(ace? *n a .enchto( stud+ %Hat/3 et al. C<E 7,,6 :ar' evaluatin" the thickness of re$ainin" dentin in .ifurcated $a9 (re$olars after (ost (re(aration3 it was found that3 on avera"e3 one root was thicker %@ thus .etter for (ost (re(' then the other. Which root was found to .e thicker?

S&M
For what reason did :orse %199,' su""est .io(s+in" ever+thin" +ou take out durin" sur"er+? *n 19473 Andreasen .io(sied (reviousl+ sur"eri/ed teeth. 0e found 1 different $odes of healin". What were the+? What su((osed (ur(ose would citric acid (la+ in a root end (re( durin" sur"er+? *n 19973 who showed that after several +ears of success3 a$al"a$ retrofills could fail? What advanta"e of sE#A %over a$al"a$' did <+nick @ <+nick %1948' de$onstrate? )ist 2 reasons for the use of sE#A.

SAD
*n a stud+ on "er$an she(herd do"s fro$ 56! %C<E 7,,6 Cul' what si"nificant findin" did the+ conclude in co$(arin" healin" rates of o.turated vs. non;o.turated teeth? Who stated %1992' that +ou should Kassu$e an isth$us is (resent whenever the :# root of a $a9 1st $olar is resectedL? *n 1997 Tora.ine8ad did !T scans of 18 (atients @ found JJJJJ% had roots into the sinus. Which $a9illar+ tooth is closest to the sinus?

S&M
)ist & indications for root end resection %Iut$ann *EC 1991' >a$e & reasons wh+ 56 are .etter than rotar+ root end (re(arations. What are the 1 $a8or re=uire$ents for an ideal retro(re(? Who was the 1st to do an in vivo stud+ wG PM6 i$(ression $aterial on ultrasonicated root end (re(s? What level of water s(ra+ should .e used for root end (re(s to $ini$i/e infractions? Accordin" to Peters %7,,1'3 which t+(e of .urE dia$ond coated or stainless steel3 is .etter with res(ect to $icrocracks?

I&O
What is a Ks$all fle9i.le file that (assivel+ $oves throu"h the a(ical constriction without widenin" itL? >a$e & .enefits of the .alanced force techni=ue. Which ti( desi"n leads to the least trans(ortation @ led"in"? Which contri.utes $ore to cuttin" @ efficienc+E ti( desi"n or flute desi"n? Whose fa$ous =uote %1942' reiterated the i$(ortance of closin" a toothE K*f +ou file don-t close3 if +ou close don-t fileL? >a$e 1 reasons %stated .+ Walton 1946' for ta(erin" a canal.

I&O
Wh+ has oth-s 8,1 sealer .een shown to have .etter anti$icro.ial activit+ over other sealers? Whose 7,,1 stud+ showed that after 8 weeks no oth-s 8,1 sealer sa$(les were co$(letel+ set? Which $ethod of sealer (lace$ent is $ost efficientE file3 lentulos(iral3 56 files3 or $aster cone %Wilco9 1991'? *n 19973 Tro(e found that teeth which were $ore difficult to retreat showed .etter adhesion of the sealer. Which sealer did he find easiest to re$ove? What is the difference .etween A0A @ A0;76? *s there an+ difference in wed"in" forces .+ WM @!) %:achtou 1998'?

I&O
Who stated that serial (re(arations were $ore effective than nonserial (re(arations in re$oval of tissue W all 1 levels? *s there a difference in EA) readin"s for 66 @ >iTi? Who concluded it was oka+ to EA)s with (ace$aker (atients? Accordin" to 6chindler3 which irri"ant causes a difference in len"th deter$ination with the EA)? Does a(ical resor(tion affect the oot ?O?

)udlow %1999' @ *.arola %1999 C<E' .oth clai$ed that doin" what3 $ade usin" the ?O easier @ $ore consistent?

I&O
0ow far down should +ou down(ack to "et ada(tation of the IP at the a(e9 %Weller 7,,,'? Accordin" to 0oen 19913 eader 19913 @ #roth$an 198,3 which techni=ue %!) or WM' filled $ore lateral canals? What is the $a9 te$(erature chan"e on the e9ternal root surface fro$ (lace$ent of IP with <.tura %Iut$ann 1984'? 0a$ad3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 A(r' tested "re+ @ white :TA in their a.ilities to seal (erforations in $andi.ular $olars. *n one direction %ortho"rade or retro"rade' the+ sealed e=uall+ well3 in one the+ did not. Which direction did the+ .oth seal e=uall+ well? 0ow does the use of ! (re( affect instru$ent stresses durin" cleanin" @ sha(in"? Which is $ore .ioco$(ati.le3 white or "re+ :TA? >a$e 1 advanta"es of >iTi files.

I&O

*n 7,,73 Iula.ivala co$(ared lar"e ta(erGs$all :AF files3 with s$all ta(erGlar"e :AF files @ found what? Accordin" to Peters3 how $uch of the tooth do we effectivel+ clean %no $atter what techni=ue is used'? >a$e the 7 (hases of >iTi. *n a .acterial leaka"e stud+ %:ontellano3 et al. C<E :a+ 7,,6' evaluatin" the a.ilit+ of tooth;colored :TA3 when conta$inated with .lood3 saline3 or saliva3 to (rovide an ade=uate a(ical seal3 all sa$(les were shown to leak3 .ut which was the worst? >a$e 7 (ro(erties of >iTi instru$ents.

I&O
A direct contact test was used to evaluate the anti.acterial (ro(erties of & te$(orar+ fillin" $aterialsE evoltek )!3 Te$(it3 6+ste$( *nla+3 @ * :. Which was the $ost effective a"ainst E. faecalis? Which is $ore c+toto9icE esilon or E(i(han+? *n 7,,6 %C<E Cul' oth3 et al. did a stud+ testin" the sterilit+ of new3 unused endodontic files. What % had A $icro.ial cultures? Accordin" to Walker3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 A(r' which :TA settin" conditions %ti$e @ h+dration' scenario (roduced the "reatest fle9ural stren"thE 7& hr @ $oist (ellet either on one side or .oth3 or 47 hr @ $oist (ellet on one side or .oth? Which is anti$icro.ialE esilon or IP? *n a co$(arison stud+ %*sla$3 et al. C<E 7,,6 :ar' .etween Pro oot :TA @ Portland ce$ent two .eneficial differences were found. What were the+?

I&O
Accordin" to a :a+ 7,,6 C<E (u.lication .+ Ta+ @ Pashle+-s "rou(3 is an o9+"en inhi.ited la+er re=uired for .ondin" resin;coated IP to $ethacr+late .ased sealer? When are >iTi files the weakest? *n the :a+ 7,,6 C<E %)iu3 et al' a >dENAI laser was successfull+ used for what co$$on endodontic (rocedure %$eanin" statisticall+ .etter success rates were achieved'? When does (hase transition occur in >iTi instru$ents? <f the followin" additives3 which %when added to :TA' dec the settin" ti$e of :TAE saline3 7% lido3 1% >a<!l3 !0O "luconate "el3 H;N 8ell+3 1% @ 2% !a!l7? Does sterili/ation affect >iTi instru$ents?

I&O
0ow do the $eltin" (oints of IP @ esilon co$(are? What is K!ohesive 6tren"thL? What is the K:odulus of Elasticit+L? Accordin" to Ta+ @ Pashle+-s "rou( %C<E 7,,6 Cun'3 is esilon a.le to reinforce roots after >6 !T? Does !a<0 adversel+ affect the sealin" a.ilit+ of esilon %Wan"3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Cun'? Accordin" to a stud+ in Can 7,,6 %C<E' .+ >ielsen @ #au$"artner3 which allows "reater (enetration of the s(readerE IP or esilon?

P&M
Accordin" to Henee3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 Cun' it-s not (ossi.le to re$ove all !a<0 fro$ canals no $atter which $ethod is used3 .ut which $ethods worked .est? <f the followin"3 which were the $ost efficient at re$ovin" E. faecalis .iofil$sE 6% >a<!l3 1% >a<!l3 6$ear !lear3 7% !0O3 EDTA3 #ioPure :TAD? #+ what t+(e of che$ical reaction does the de"radation of EDTA occur? *s the o9idi/in" (ro(ert+ of >a<!l enou"h to inactivate EDTA as a final flush? What dru" is an e(i su.stitute %12;2,% as effective' @ found in 1E7,k concentrations? What is the $a9i$u$ dose of e(i that can .e used in cardiac (atients?

I&O
Tro(e-s "rou( %C<E 7,,6 Cun' did a stud+ in .ea"le do"s testin" the effect of orifice (lu"s in PA infla$$ation. The control "rou(s had R89% PA infla$$ation. What was it reduced to when orifice (lu"s were used? What s(eed should ProFiles @ ProTa(ers .e used at? Accordin" to a recent stud+ %*=.al3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Can' which co$(ared 1 $ethods of (re(arin" centered (latfor$s around se(arated instru$ents in curved canals3 which was the .estE )i"hts(eed3 II-s3 or Profiles? Who concluded that there are $anufacturer defects in A)) instru$ents? What is the $ost si"nificant factor in deter$inin" fati"ue resistance in files? Wh+ would there .e less da$a"e when rotatin" a file counter clock;wise?

P&M
Where are the a$ides $eta.oli/ed? When the (0 decreases3 the a$ount of > for$ of anesthetic does what? When the (Ha is decreased the a$ount of > for$ availa.le decreases or increases? Which for$ % > or >0A' of anesthetic diffuses across the $e$.rane %@ which one .inds to the rece(tor site'? 0ow @ where do )A work? What effect do >6A*Ds have on )A failures?

P&M
Do 2.72% or .2% >a<!l cause an+ effect on cone elasticit+ or the to(o"ra(h+ of IP cones %when i$$ersed'? Wh+ does (retreatin" with lon" actin" anesthetic %.u(ivicaine' hel( to decrease (ost;o( dental (ain? Who concluded 1$l of 14% EDTA for 1 $in followed .+ 1$l of 2.72% >a<!l was sufficient to re$ove the s$ear la+er? Accordin" to eader %C<E 7,,2 Cul' which anesthetic %"iven *A>#' was $ost successful on all teeth e9ce(t 1st $olars? What is the avera"e duration of anesthetic for .u(ivicaine wG 1E7,,k e(i? What is the avera"e duration of anesthetic for lidocaine wG 1E7,,k e(i?

P&M
Wh+ should outdated tetrac+clines .e thrown awa+? What can ha((en with adverse reactions to tetrac+clines? 0ow is do9+c+cline taken in? >a$e 1 $acrolide A.s. Wh+ would a/ithro$+cin @ dirithro$+cin .e safe in (atients takin" theo(h+illine3 di"o9in3 Warfarin3 Tria/ola$3 Terfenadine3 or c+clos(orine3 .ut er+thro$+cin wouldn-t .e? >a$e 1 situations in which vasoconstrictors are contraindicated.

P&M
What 1 A.s does Tro(e rec for his Ktri(le anti.iotic (asteL? <f the followin" in8ections3 which is $ost likel+ to cause increased heart rateE :and *nfiltration3 :and *<3 :a9 *nfiltration3 :a9 *<? *s :etranida/ole effective a"ainst E. faecalis %0oelscher3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Fe.'? What (ossi.le side effect fro$ #ioPure :TAD did Ta+3 et al. descri.e as a K(hoto;o9idative de"radation (rocess tri""ered .+ the use of >a<!l as an o9idi/in" a"entL which K$a+ .e (revented .+ rinsin" >a<!l;treated dentin with A.scor.ic AcidL? Which is $ore efficient at o.tainin" (ul(al anesthesia3 a $and .uccal infiltration wG 7% lido or one with &% articaine %Hanaa3 et al. C<E 7,,6 A(r'? *n :ar 7,,63 Ta+ @ Pashle+ (u.lished a stud+ showin" that .oth EDTA @ #ioPure :TAD efficientl+ re$oved the s$ear la+er3 @ that .oth created a /one of de$inerali/ed colla"en $atrices in eroded dentin @ around the dentinal tu.ules3 .ut which was shown to .e $ore a""ressive?

P&M
>a$e 1 dru"s which $a+ have $inor interactions with vasoconstrictors. *n Fe. 7,,6 %C<E' #arthel3 et al. (u.lished a stud+ testin" .acterial leaka"e in roots filled wG dif $edica$ents @ sealed wG cavit. Which $edica$ent was the last to leak @ what was their overall conclusion? *n a !ochrane s+ste$atic review %Heenan3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Fe.'3 what evidence did the+ find in re"ards to (ain relief of irreversi.le (ul(itis when A.s were "iven? Which of the & intracanal irri"ants were e=uall+ su(erior to the other two in their antifun"al activit+ % uff3 et al. C<E 7,,6 A(r'E 6% >a<!l3 7% !0O3 #ioPure :TAD3 or 14% EDTA? Accordin" to Nan"3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 Cul' it-s .est to re$ove the s$ear la+er .Gc it-s (resence enhances the adherence of E. faecalis to the dentin. What intracanal irri"ant is effective in reducin" the adherence of $icroor"anis$s? <f *H*3 !a<03 !hlorine Dio9ide %6!D'3 >a<!l3 @ #etadine scru.3 which two were well tolerated .+ "in"ival fi.ro.lasts?

P&M
6i"urdsson @ Tro(e found which wa+ of !a<0 (lace$ent to .e .estE )entulos(iral3 H;File3 or *n8ection? When !a<0 $i9es with sealer what for$s? #+ what $ethod does !a<0 assist >a<!l in its tissue dissolvin" a.ilities? Does !a<0 diffuse throu"h the PD) @ ce$entu$? What is the (eak of (0 in the outer root dentin %after 7 weeks !a<0'? Who found !a<0 (owder alone took &9 da+s for (eak (0 chan"e %vs 1& for a=ueous solution'?

P&M
What a$ount of chlorofor$ did Ha$inski %C<E 1998' find as e9(elled throu"h the a(e9? Who concluded in 1999 %<<<' that chlorofor$ can cause si"nificant softenin" of .oth dentin @ ena$el3 even after 2 $inutes? Ceansonne %199&' found no difference in anti$icro.ial activit+ .twn 7% !0O @ 2.72% >a<!lQ >a<!l has what as an added advanta"e? Does .17% !0O as an irri"ant affect the a(ical seal of oth-s ce$ent? Which )A should .e used in (atients with heart conditions for *< in8ections? What is the $ean increase in heart rate with *< in8ections?

P&M
Pacios $i9ed !a<0 wG !0O3 (ro(+lene "l+col3 anesthetic3 !:!P3 @ !:!P;PI @ found what? >a$e 7 authors who conclude !a<0 can effectivel+ .e re$oved fro$ the canal? *f a (atient can-t o(en wide enou"h to "ive an intraoral *A>#3 can +ou safel+ "ive an e9traorall+? Accordin" to )oetsher @ :elton %1988'3 P6A .locks are how effective on $a9illar+ 1st $olars? Who %1949' discussed re.ound effect on .lood flow after in8ection with vasocontrictors? What is another na$e for re.ound effect?

P&M
What A.s are known to cause :ethe$o"lo.ine$ia? What t+(es of (atients are at increased risk for :ethe$o"lo.ine$ia? When do s+$(to$s of :ethe$o"lo.ine$ia usuall+ occur? >a$e & s+$(to$s of :ethe$o"lo.ine$ia. Where does .iotransfor$ation of a$ide )A occur? What does reduced he(atic function $ean for (atients receivin" )A?

P&M
>a$e & reasons for "ivin" A. wG a flare;u(. Descri.e 1 effects of "lucocorticoids on infla$$ation. 0ow $uch @ for how lon" do "lucocorticoids need to .e ad$inistered .efore seein" wides(read effects on $an+ or"an s+ste$s? *f "ivin" steroids via *: in8ection or *<3 what doses are a((ro(riate? *f "ivin" steroids orall+3 what doses are a((ro(riate? 0ow lon" does !0O-s su.stantivit+ last?

P&M
With what t+(e of anesthetic does $ali"nant h+(erther$ia occur? What is the $a9i$u$ lidocaine dose? Which 7 )A are (re"nanc+ cate"or+ #? Wh+ do need to re(lace EDTA after short (eriods of ti$e for it to .e effective? What one $a8or concern should +ou have with >a<!l e9trusions? What treat$ent is reco$$ended for >a<!l e9trusion?

P&M
0ow does !:!P work? Which $edica$ent is effective as a va(or? 0ow lon" is the anti$icro.ial action of !:!P? eader reco$$ends %7,,,' what $ethod of steroid deliver+ %De(o;:edrol' for te$(orar+ relief of irreversi.le (ul(itis? Hauf$an %199&' su""ested usin" a PD) in8ection of what3 for (ain relief? What is the (er$issi.le dose of chlorofor$?

P&M
What is >a<!l not effective for in the che$ical disinfectin" of a tooth? Accordin" to Na$ada 19813 what is the $ost effective $ethod for re$ovin" the s$ear la+er3 tissue3 @ (redentin3 @ increasin" anti;$icro.ial activit+? What ha((ens to used? oth-s sealer if !a<0 is left in the canals when oth-s is

What is the .est (roduct .+ which to re$ove !a<0? Wh+ do we use 2.72% >a<!l vs. diluted stren"ths? >a$e 1 sta"es of )A co$(lications.

Which t+(e of sensitivit+ reaction involves *"I co$(le9es with co$(le$ent?

P&M
eview (rocedures for treatin" )A to9icit+. Which )A is ><T a vasodilator? 0ow do vasoconstrictors work? Wh+ do vasoconstrictors interact with T!As? What t+(e of a$ine is e(i? *s e(i (otentiated .+ :A<*-s? Wh+ or wh+ not?

M&P
Which t+(e of sensitivit+ reaction is dela+ed @ often a((ears a.out &8 hours after infection? An autoi$$une reaction is what t+(e of sensitivit+ reaction? What *"-s are involved in a c+toto9ic sensitivit+ reaction? What is the rate of re(arative dentin for$ation? 0ow soon after a restorative (rocedure does tertiar+ dentin for$ation .e"in? Accordin" to #rannstro$ (ul(al chan"es occur earl+ in caries; even in inci(ient lesions. >a$e 7 chan"es that occur.

M&P
What kind of .acterial flora is found in acute a.scesses? Accordin" to #au$"artner %1946' how often does .actere$ia occur? Accordin" to Tronstad3 how often does .actere$ia occur? Are anti.odies co$$onl+ (resent in the (ul(? *n the infla$ed (ul(? Which one is $ost co$$on? What roles $i"ht neuro(e(tides (la+ in the (ul(? Accordin" to Hi$3 what are the 7 co$(onents in (ul(al infla$$ation?

M&P
Torneck3 in stud+in" (ul( e9(osures3 concluded which (art of the (ul( was the last affected? Whose (a(er descri.ed caries (ro"ression to the (ul(? Are $ast cells (resent in the (ul(? *n Tora.ine8ad-s 199, stud+ on coronal leaka"e with .acteria3 which t+(e of .acteria %$otile or non$otile' reconta$inated the o.turated root canal s+ste$ faster? Neast %like !. al.icans' are $ore likel+ to .e found in what kinds of infections %Walti$o @ 0aa(asalo 1994'? *n 1982 #+stro$ concluded that E. faecalis was resistant to what intracanal $edica$ent?

M&P
Who is known as the (eria(ical (la=ue researcher? >a$e 7 authors who .elieve .acteria e9ist in PA lesions. >a$e 7 authors who .elieve >< .acteria are in PA lesions. Who clai$ed E. faecalis could survive 1, da+s in the tu.ules without nutrients? 0ow far are .acteria into the tu.ules? Are .acteria (resent in trau$ati/ed teeth with intact crowns?

M&P
What is the $a8or difference in the survival factor of E. faecalis co$(ared to other or"anis$s? Who used P! of 166 ri.oso$es to identif+ Actino$+ces3 F. nucleatu$3 @ for the first ti$e #acteroides fors+thes in the infected hu$an (ul(? Descri.e 1 $ain thin"s that will allow anaero.ic infection to occur. Which .acterial t+(e are $ost often associated with (urulent dischar"e fro$ the root canal s+ste$ or sinus tract? *f +ou instru$ent (ast the a(e93 what is the likel+ chance %%' of causin" a .actere$ia? Prevotella $elano"enicus @ Pe(tostre(tococcus are s(ecificall+ associated with what s+$(to$?

M&P
What cells (roduce ;endor(hins @ so$atostatins? 0ow do (ul(al levels of ;endor(hins @ so$atostatins in e9(osed (ul(s co$(are with levels in une9(osed (ul(s? The for$ation of "ranulation tissue @ the activation of e(ithelial cell rests in chronic a(ical lesions $i"ht .e associated with a local rise in the tissue level of what "rowth factor? What is the ori"in of i$$uno"lo.ulins in dentin .eneath caries %0ahn3 et al. C<E 7,,6 :ar'? What t+(e of sensitivit+ reaction is ana(h+la9is?

M&P
P. ni"rescens is site s(ecific to where? Whose stud+ concluded that there were indeed .acteria in PA lesions3 .ut used a cotton roll to culture .acteria3 which $a+ have caused conta$ination? Accordin" to Pisanti %196&'3 what is the source of calciu$ in a newl+ for$ed secondar+ dentin .rid"e under a !a<0 .ase? Accordin" to Iold.er" 198&3 what is the (h+sical a((earance of the dentin .rid"e under !a<0 (ul( ca(s? What is the (ri$ar+ .one resor.in" c+tokine in hu$an PA lesions?

Which *"-s are found in the "reatest =uantit+ in hu$an PA lesions?

After which (rocedure do )ucke+3 et al %C<E 7,,6 Cul' rec chan"in" "loves to (revent conta$ination of the canals?

M&P
Accordin" to Takehashi %1994' are there (roliferatin" (las$a cells in a PA lesion? Whose fa$ous PGE 6electin knockout $ice stud+ showed that (ha"oc+tic leukoc+tes %P:>s or $acro(ha"es' (rotect a"ainst .acterial induced .one destruction? Wh+ would a (a(er (oint cause !AP when (ieces are left in the a(ical re"ion? Accordin" to #au$"artner %1991' are there (roliferatin" (las$a cells in PA lesions? Who (laced anti"ens in root canal s+ste$s of (reviousl+ sensiti/ed cats3 causin" a PA ) to for$? Do (atients wG (ul(al or (eriradicular disease have increased circulatin" *"I-s or *":-s?

M&P
<f the followin" sa$(le sites3 where was E. faecalis detected the $ostE ;Ton"ue ;*ntra canal ;E9(un"ent fro$ oral rinse ;Iin"ival sulcus 0ow $uch "reater is the % of E. faecalis in (atients with (erioG"in"ivitis %vs health+ individuals'? Eikenella corrodens @ Meillonella (arvula are nor$al inha.itants of the oral cavit+3 .ut the+ are the+ found in endodontic infections % ocas3 et al. C<E 7,,6 Cun'? <ka.e3 et al. %C<E 7,,6 :ar' concluded that 0DP cell $inerali/ation was enhanced in alkaline %(0S4.8' conditioned $edias. What 1 thin"s did the+ find that led the$ to this conclusion?

M&P
)ove3 in 7,,13 (ro(osed what $echanis$ of (atholo"+ for E. faecalis? 0aa(asalo %1991' concluded that which 7 .acteria were $ost related to acute s+$(to$s? What are the & $ost co$$on "ra$ %;' .acteria found in infections? What are the 7 $ost co$$on "ra$ %A' .acteria found in infections? !T related !T related

0ow lon" should !a<0 .e left in the canal to .e effective a"ainst E. faecalis%<rstavik'? )ist 1 reasons wh+ E. faecalis shows resistance?

M&P
6ite 7 authors who clai$ 0*M can .e found in PA lesions or in the canal. True or False. The si/e of the lesion correlates to the levels of 06M3 E#M3 or hu$an c+to$e"alovirus found in the lesions. 0ori.a descri.ed 1 situations which (roduce hi"her )P6 levels. >a$e the$. What is the $ost i$(ortant ste( in the co$(li$ent cascade? 0ow is the classical (athwa+ activated? 0ow is the alternative (athwa+ activated?

M&P
>a$e 1 roles of the co$(li$ent cascade. What is the $ost fre=uentl+ found *" in a PA "ranulo$a? What is the order of $ost *"-s to least in a !AP lesion? *s there difference in the hu$oral res(onse %i.e. *"-s (resent' in the PA lesion .efore or after >6 !T? *n a .acterial co$(arison count on e9a$ination "loves3 did it $atter if it was "loves tested fro$ the .e"innin" or end of the .o9?