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Sieve Analysis

Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory


Submitted by Group : 1 Sajadur Rahman (1004034) Safayat Ahmed(1004035) Sadia Rifat Shanta (1004036) Nazmul Haque ( 1004037 ) Pritom Paul (1004038)

Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Introduction:
Definitions: Sieve Analysis :
The process of dividing a sample of aggregate into fractions of same particle size is known as Sieve Analysis.

Coarse Grained Soil Materials :


The coarse grained soil materials are mineral fragments that may be identified primarily on the basis of particle size. It consists of Gravel and Sand.

Fine Grained Soil Materials :


The fine grained soil materials are mostly microscopic and submicroscopic flake shaped materials. It consists of Silt and Clay. Particle Size Limits of Soil Constituents(ASTM Classification ) Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Fines(combined silt and clay ) Larger than 4.75 4.75 to 2.00 2.00 to 0.425 0.425 to 0.075 Smaller than 0.075

Fineness Modulus :
This is Fineness modulus ,defined as the sum of the cumulative percentages of retained on the sieves of the standard series divided by 100. The standard series consists of the sieves having the opening size 150m,300 m,600 m,1.18 mm,2.36 mm,4.75mm or according to ASTM No. 100,50,30,16,8,4. Fineness Modulus (FM) = Sum of %retained of No. 100,50,30,16,8,4 Sieves 100

Gradation :
Well Graded It contains a good representation of all particle sizes ranging from coarse to fine. The size of the particles are approximately same It consists of mixture of uniform coarse sized

Uniformly Graded Gap Graded

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Poorly Graded

and uniformly fine sized particles with a break in gradation between two sizes. Any soil not well-graded may be characterized as poorly graded

Effective Particle Size(Diameter), Dx :


Diameter of the particle size corresponding to the X percent finer.

Uniformity Coefficient, Cu :
Cu = D60 D10 (D30)2 Cc = (D10 X D60 )

Coefficient of Curvature, Cc :

Criteria for SW( Well graded sand ):


If a sand has Cu > 6 and 1 < Cc < 3 , the sand can be defined as well graded else it is poorly graded.

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Scope :
1. Soil permeability and capillarity are related to effective particle Size. 2. The method of designing inverted filters for dams, levees etc. uses the particle size distribution of the soils involved. 3. The soil identification and classification can be done with this experiment.

Purpose :
1. 2. 3. 4. Getting the particle size distribution of the soil. Getting the gradation curve. Classify the soil. Determine the uniformity coefficient of soil and coefficient of curvature of the soil.

Apparatus :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set of Sieves Brush Balance Large Pan Shaking Machine
Large Pan

Balance

Brush

Shaking Machine

Set of Sieves

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Test Procedures :
Step 1:

Record the weight of the given oven dry weight sample

Step 2:

Take the weight of the empty sieves with the weighing machine.

#4 Step 3: #8 #12 #16 #20 #30 #40 #50 #100 #200 Pan

Make sure that all the sieves are clean and assemble them according to lowest to highest sieve opening where the smallest sieve will be set at the bottom.

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Step 4:

Now drop down the soil sample through the sieves

Step 5:

Place the set of sieve in the mechanical shaking machine.

Step 6:

Shake the containers for 10 min with the mechanical shaking machine.

Step 7:

Remove the stack from the shaking machine.

Step 8:

Then disassemble the sieves and take the weight of the individual sieve.

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Data Sheet
Department of Civil Engineering, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Sieve Analysis Wt of Container + Soil = 181.5 gm Wt of Container = 81.3 gm Wt of Soil = 100.2 gm Date : 25/11/13 Wt of soil retained (gm) 0 1.3 2.4 7.7 14.8 6.3 28.5 8.5 27 4.5 1.5 102.5

Sieve No. 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 100 200 Pan Total

Sieve Opening (mm) 4.75 2.36 1.70 1.18 0.850 0.60 0.425 0.300 0.150 0.075

Wt. of Sieve (gm) 529.7 467.0 448.1 498.9 501.3 457.8 402.7 423.9 365.3 349.7 370.9

Wt of Sieve + soil (gm) 529.7 468.3 450.5 506.6 516.1 464.1 431.2 432.4 392.3 354.2 372.4

% of soil retained 0 1.27 2.34 7.51 14.44 6.14 27.81 8.29 26.34 4.39 1.46

Cumulative % retained 0 1 4 11 26 32 60 68 94 99 100

%Finer

100 99 96 89 74 68 40 32 6 1 0

D10 = 0.17 D30 = 0.29 D60 = 0.52 Cu = 1.71 Cz = 0.95 F.M = 2.06

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Sieve Analysis November 25, 2013

Graph :

Title : Sieve opening (mm ) vs %Finer

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Discussion :
1. The sand contains 20% fine sand , 48% medium and 31% course sand. As the %Finer is less than 50% So this is a course grained soil.(S or G ) 2. As the coarser part is less than 50%, it is a sample of sand.(S) 3. From the analysis it can be seen that the value of co-efficient of curvature Cz = 0.75 which isnt in between 1 and 3 , so the sand is not well graded. In the same way the uniformity coefficient Cu = 1.71 which isnt also greater than 6 . These Both criteria indicates that it is a poorly graded sand. It should be denoted as SP. 4. From visual analysis of the graph it can be said that it is a gap graded gradation curve. 5. The permeability of a soil (cohesion less) is dependent upon its gradation, it is expressed by k = C X (D10)2 which leads to 2.9 X 10-2 for our sample soil. It represents that the soil has a good drainage system and it also indicates that it contains clean sand and gravel. 6. The accuracy of the distribution curve for fine grained soils is more questionable than the accuracy of the curves for the coarser soils. In the case of residual soils the term individual Particle size depends on the disaggregation that imparted mechanically prior to testing.

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