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Specific Gravity

Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory


Submitted by Group : 1 Sajadur Rahman (1004034) Safayat Ahmed(1004035) Sadia Rifat Shanta (1004036) Nazmul Haque ( 1004037 ) Pritom Paul (1004038)

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Introduction :
Specific Gravity,Gs :
In general the specific gravity Gs of a material represents the ratio of the mass of a given volume of that material at a temperature to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water at the same temperature = Wt. of a given volume of the material at TC Wt. of same volume of the water at TC

However, for geotechnical Engineering purpose , the Sp. Gravity of soils are usually reported for water temperature at 20C. (at 20) = Wt. of a given volume of the material at TC Wt. of same volume of the water at 20C

From this basic definition, Sp. Gravity can be obtained from different formulae such as (at 20) = Wt. of unit volume of the material at TC Wt. of unit volume of the water at 20C

If the specific gravity of soil for water temperature TC is known then it can be converted to the specific gravity for water temperature 20C as follows : Wt. of a unit volume of the material at TC Wt. of a unit volume of the water at 20C

(at 20) = =

Wt. of a unit volume of the material at TC Wt. of a unit volume water at TC X Wt. of a unit volume of the water at 20C Wt. of unit volume of the water at 20C
(w at TC )

= Gs ( at TC ) X
(w at 20C )

(Gs at TC )
= Gs ( at TC ) X

(Gs at 20C )

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

It is usually determined by the principle of displacement of water by soil in a density bottle, volumetric flask, pycnometer or a gas jar. Typical values of specific gravity of soil are given in the table below, Soil Type Sand Silty Sand Inorganic Clay Soils with mica or iron Organic Soils Specific Gravity 2.65 2.67 2.67 2.70 2.70 2.80 2.75 3.00 Quite variable, as low as 2.0

Scope :
The experiment can be performed for both cohesive and cohesion less soil. The experiment includes Bottle calibration.

Purpose :
To relate a soil to its volume Identification of mineral

Use :
The specific gravity can be used in finding, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Void ratio of a soil. The porosity of a soil. Degree of saturation of a soil. The shrinkage limit of soil. % Finer in hydrometer analysis Consolidation of solid.

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Apparatus :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pycnometer Distilled water Vacuum source Heat Source Balance Evaporating Dish Funnel

Pycnometer

Funnel

Distilled Water Soil Sample

Heat Source

Vacuum Source

Balance

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Test Procedure :

Step 1:

Determine and record the weight of the empty clean and dry pycnometer

Step 2 : Measure 50gm oven-dry soil sample

Step 3 : Place the measured soil in the pycnometer.

Step 4 : Again take the weight of the pycnometer + soil.

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013 Step 5:

Add tap water to fill about of the pycnometer.

Step 6:

Soak the sample for 10 min.

Step 7:

Heat the sample until the water in the soil-water mixture start to boil.

Step 8:

Apply vacuum to the contents for 10 min.

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Step 9:

Stop the vacuum and carefully remove the line from pycnometer.Fill the pycnometer with water to the mark and keep for one day to bring it to room temperature.

Step 10:

Next day( the day after the class ) take the weight of the pycnometer filled with water and soil sample.

Step 11:

Empty the pycnometer and clean it. then fill the water to the mark

Step 12:

Take the temperature reading of the clean water

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Data Sheet Department of Civil Engineering, BUET Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Specific Gravity Test Soil Sample __________________ Location ____________________ Boring No. ____________________ Sample Depth _________________ Sample No ____________________ Determination No Bottle No. Wt of Bottle + Water + Soil in gm Temperature T in C Wt. of Bottle + Water W2 in gm Evaporating Dish No. Wt. of Dish ,gm Wt. of Dish + Dry soil ,gm Wt. Bottle + Dry Soil , gm Wt. of Bottle ,gm Wt. of Soil , gm Specific Gravity of Water GT at T C Specific Gravity of Soil, Gs GT X Ws Gs = Ws W1 + W2 Test No ____________________ Date __25-11-13____________ Tested By __________________

A 377 25 345.8

146.9 96.6 50.3 0.99 2.627

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Graph :

Title : Calibration Curve

Result :
The specific gravity of the soil,Gs = 2.63

Specific Gravity November 25, 2013

Discussion :
1. The specific gravity of the soil doesnt fall any of the classification specified earlier. 2. The error is due to loss of sample from the pycnometer. It can be happen either, while pouring the sample in the pycnometer or while adding water to it. Entrapped air and nonuniform temperature can also cause error. 3. The specific gravity of soil is often used in relating a weight of a soil to its volume. Thus knowing the void ratio, degrees of saturation and the specific gravity , we can compute the unit weight of a moist soil. 4. The theoretical method of bottle calibration doesnt lend itself to a high degree of precision because of the large tolerance in calibrated volume of the bottle and the difficulty in obtaining, precisely the dry weight and the cubical co-efficient of expansion.