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Project Documentation

WCDMA

DATA PROCESSING DESIGN OF WIDEBAND CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (WCDMA)

Department of technology, Uni er!ity of "almar

Department of technology, #le$inge in!titute of technology

Cy%ertel Soft&are 'imite( #) T*UMAT+ ,E-"ATA RAO RATA"O-DA RAM)A C*A-DRA

CO-TE-TS
1. Abstract
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Project Documentation

WCDMA

2. Introduction
2.!Co""unic#tion $#t%&&it%$ 2.2 Introduction to Mo'i&% c%&&u&#r t%&%()on* 2.+ Co"(on%nt$ o, # c%&&u&#r $*$t%" 2.. E/o&ution o, c%&&u&#r ()on%$ -

3. S*$t%" An#&*$i$
+.! E1i$tin2 $*$t%" 3.2 Pro(o$%d $*$t%" +.2.! Mu&ti u$%r D%t%ction 3.3 Objectives +.. Mu&ti(&%3#cc%$$ t%c)ni4u%$ 3...! Fr%4u%nc* di/i$ion "u&ti(&% #cc%$$ 3.4.2 Time division mu ti! e access 3.4.3 "ode division mu ti! e access +.... Wid%'#nd Cod% di/i$ion "u&ti(&% #cc%$$ 3.# T$e Main %i&&erence bet'een "%MA and ("%MA 3.- S(r%#d $(%ctru" "u&ti(&% #cc%$$ +.7 S(r%#d $(%ctru" t%c)ni4u%$ !3.7.1 )re*uenc+,$o!!in- s!read s!ectrum +.7.2 Ti"%3)o((%d $(r%#d $(%ctru" +.7.+ Dir%ct $%4u%nc% $(r%#d $(%ctru"

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4. D#t# Proc%$$in2 D%$i2n o, WCDMA


4.1 .seudo,noise se*uence -enerator 4.1.1 /inear &eedbac0 s$i&t re-ister ..2 Go&d cod% 2%n%r#tor 22 4.+ S(r%#d%r 4.. 8CPC cod%$ 4.4.1 "onvo ution and .uncturin- .rocess in 1"." 2 MEE07:36

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2 227

Project Documentation ....2 S%#rc) crit%rion ,or 2ood 8CPC cod%$ 25 4.# Modu ator 4.6 %emodu ator ..7 8CPC d%codin2

WCDMA

30 31 +2

#. M#tc)%d Fi&t%r O(%r#tion


#.1 Matc$ed )i ter #.2 8%c%i/%r P$%udo3Noi$% S%4u%nc% G%n%r#tor .2.! 8%c%i/%r Lin%r F%%d'#c9 S)i,t 8%2i$t%r$ .+ D%3Go&d cod% G%n%r#tor #.. D%3S(r%#d%r . Fin#& D#t# r%c%i/%d

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6. Conc&u$ion$ 7. A((%ndi1
7.1 " .ro-ram 7.2 MAT LAB Pro2r#" +

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2. Bi'&io2r#()*

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./ ABST8ACT
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Project Documentation

WCDMA

(ideband %irect,3e*uence "ode %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4(,"%MA5 is t$e emer-in!rotoco &or t$e ne6t -eneration 4375 'ire ess communication s+stems. (,"%MA $as been desi-ned to add &eatures suc$ as mu timedia ca!abi ities8 $i-$ data rates and mu ti,rate services to t$e e6istin- 'ire ess communication &rame'or0. 3evera standards &or t$ird -eneration s+stems $ave been !ro!osed and deve o!ed b+ di&&erent industria committees in countries suc$ as t$e 9.38 Euro!e and :a!an. A t$ese standards $ave acce!ted "%MA in one &orm or anot$er as t$e mu ti! e access met$od &or 'ire ess communications re*uirements. ;n t$is 'or08 'e stud+ t$e im! ementation issues invo ved &or one o& t$e !ro!osed 1ate "om!atib e .unctured "onvo ution "odin- 41"."5 to increase in&ormation rate in ("%MA8 t$e detection a -orit$ms &or base,stations. ;t 'as &ound t$at t$ese !ro!osed a -orit$ms &or detection $ave di&&erent !rocessin- and !recision re*uirements. ;n t$e rate com!atib e !unctured convo ution &rom eac$ coded s+mbo some o& t$e bits are !unctured in order to ac$ieve t$e $i-$er in&ormation rate. At t$e same time decodin- becomes *uite eas+ even i& some o& t$e bits &rom t$e coded s+mbo are not avai ab e. W% )#/% :ritt%n t)%$% #&2orit)"$ ,or # $in2&% u$%r #t id%#& condition$ '#$%d on t)%or* 'ut not (r#ctic#&&*.

0/ INT8ODUCTION
2.1 "ommunication S#t%&&it%$
T$e &irst communication sate ites revo ution is started in ear + 194#s b+ an artic e based on "ommunication sate ites8 < E6tra,Terrestria 1e a+< !ub is$ed b+ Art$ur ". " ar0 in '$ic$ 4 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

$e discussed astonis$in- secrets o& coverin- '$o e = ue . anet b+ t$ree sate ites. T$us8 $o' 'e started ne' era o& communication and no' reac$ed to suc$ e6tent t$at 'e communicate to ever+ !art 'or d sittin- at $ome8 u!datin- atest in&ormation8 -ettin- contro over surroundin-s8 not on + t$is8 it a so made us to researc$ sti communication &ie ds communication etc. =asica + a communication sate ite $as severa trans!onders '$ic$ receive some !ortion o& s!ectrum and transmit it 'it$ anot$er &re*uenc+ and am! itude8 to avoid inter&erence 'it$ t$e incomin- si-na . T$e do'n'ard beams can be broad> coverin- a substantia &raction o& t$e eart$?s sur&ace8 or narro'8 coverin- an area on + $undreds o& 0i ometers in diameter @1A. In 2%n%r#& t)% co""unic#tion $#t%&&it%$ )#/% u( to # do;%n Tr#n$(ond%r$. E#c) tr#n$(ond%r )#$ # '%#" t)#t co/%r$ $o"% (ortion o, t)% %#rt) '%&o: it< r#n2in2 ,ro" # :id% '%#" !6<666 9" #cro$$ to # S(ot '%#" on&* to 2 6 9" #cro$$ =!>. St#tion$ :it)in t)% '%#" #r%# $%nd ,r#"%$ to t)% $#t%&&it% on t)% tr#n$"i$$ion (u(&in9) ,r%4u%nc*. T)% $#t%&&it% t)%n r%$%nd$ t)%" on t)% do:n&in9 ,r%4u%nc*. To 9%%( t)% tr#n$(ond%r ,ro" 2oin2 into o$ci&&#tion :% #r% u$in2 di,,%r%nt ,r%4u%nci%$. T)r%% c&#$$%$ o, (rotoco&$ #r% u$%d on t)% "u&ti(&% #cc%$$ (tr#n$"i$$ion) c)#nn%&$? FDMA< TDMA #nd CDMA. W)i&% r%$%ndin2 t)%r% :i&& '% no c)#nn%& #&&oc#tion (ro'&%" 'ut t)% "#in (ro'&%" i$ :it) t)% tr#n$"i$$ion c)#nn%&< $inc% t)% do:n&in9 c)#nn%& )#$ on&* # $in2&% $%nd%r (t)% $#t%&&it%). i0e dee!er into subject b+ c assi&+in- into various mobi e communications8 net'or0in- communications8 radar

2.2 ;ntroduction to Mobi e "e u ar Te e!$on+


"e u ar mobi e radio te e!$on+ is an im!ortant innovation in t$e &ie d o& communication services. T$e main aim o& ce u ar s+stems is to !rovide !ersona te e!$one services to t$e movin- subscribers. "e u ar s+stems $ave evo ved &rom mi itar+ radio desi-n8 but t$eir civi ian a!! ications $ave become !ossib e on + due to t$e recent tec$no o-ica deve o!ments and re*uirements. ;n mobi e te e!$on+8 it is necessar+ to c$an-e t$e o!eratin- &re*uenc+ as one move &rom one transmitter?s area to anot$er. Traditiona + mi itar+ mobi e radio8 c$an-e o& o!eratin&re*uenc+ is tedious invo vin- manua retunin- o& circuits and readjustment o& antennas .;n modern ce u ar s+stems8 o!eratin- &re*uencies can be c$an-ed man+ times a second under t$e contro o& micro!rocessors and !seudo,random number -enerators =2>. # MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

0/1 Component! of a cellular !y!tem

Mobi eBCandset: T$e main &unction o& $andset is voice trans!onder 4mi0eBs!ea0er5 and radio

Dtransceiver<. ;t is !ortab e and o' !o'er consum!tion device. T$e main issues invo ved in mobi e or $andset is *ua it+ o& voice and batter+ i&e.

=ase 3tation: T$e main &unction o& a base station is ce mana-ement and radio transceiver. ;t is

ca!ita e*ui!ment 'it$ $i-$ cost. T$e main issues invo ved in t$is are mu ti! e,access and maintainin- in0s.

Mobi e 3'itc$in- "enter: T$e main &unction o& a mobi e s'itc$in- center is ca mana-ement &or a -rou! o&

ce s. ;t is a so ca!ita e*ui!ment 'it$ $i-$ cost @2A.

2.4 Evolution of cellular phones


178 278 2.#78 37 are t$e various -enerations in t$e $istor+ o& ce u ar !$ones. Ever+ -eneration deve o!ed 'it$ di&&erent &eatures. Eo',a,da+s t$e 37 net'or0 $as ver+ demand due to its additiona &eatures '$ic$ is not avai ab e in 178 278 and 2.#7.T$ese s+stems are user, &riend +.

1G
T$e &irst,-eneration 'ere ana o- s+stems and circuit,s'itc$ed. ;n T$is -eneration t$e voice in0s are !oor8 o' ca!acit+ and securit+ is a so ess. T$ese s+stems are not under use no' but in some areas 17 s!ectrum is bein- overta0en b+ 27 and 37 @3A.

2G
Eo' 27 net'or0s are in use around t$e 'or d. 3econd,-eneration s+stems use di-ita encodin- and inc ude 73M 47 oba s+stem &or mobi e communications58 %,AM.3 4Time %ivision Mu ti! e Access5 and "%MA 4"ode %ivision Mu ti! e Access5. 27 net'or0 s+stem su!!orts voice 'it$ $i-$ bit rate and imited data communications. T$e+ o&&er additiona services i0e data8 &a6 and 3M3. T$ere are di&&erent eve s o& encr+!tion b+ 27 !rotoco s @3A.

0/23
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Project Documentation

WCDMA

2.#7 s+stems are not$in- but e6tension o& 27 s+stems '$ic$ can be !rovide additiona &eatures suc$ as !ac0et,s'itc$ed connection 47.135 and en$anced data rates 4C3"3%8 E%7E5 @3A.

3G
T$ird,-eneration s+stems su!!ort $i-$ data rates8 '$ic$ are measured in MbitsBsecond. 37 net'or0s are introduced in :a!an in 20018 in Euro!e and !art o& AsiaB.aci&ic in 2002. 37 main + su!!orts t$e a!! ications '$ic$ are re ated to band'idt$,$un-r+ a!! ications suc$ as &u , motion video8 video,con&erencin- and &u media8 data and video in addition to voice @3A. ;nternet access. T$e 3rd -eneration 'ire ess communication objective is to !rovide $i-$ s!eed 'ire ess communication to su!!ort mu ti

1/ S)STEM A-A')SES
1/. E4i!ting Sy!tem
One o& t$e most im!ortant as!ects t$at e&&ects 'ire ess communication s+stem is t$e amount o& inter&erence !resent in communication c$anne s8 since inter&erence is intrinsic in di&&erent 'ire ess s+stems8 as t$e+ are o!erated in mu ti! e access s+stems. 7enera +8 mu ti! e access s+stem contains mu ti! e transmitterBreceiver !airs communicate t$rou-$ t$e same communication c$anne usin- non,ort$o-ona mu ti! e6in-. T$is &abricated inter&erence arises

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Project Documentation

WCDMA

du% to Non3$*$t%"ic ,%#tur%$ o, :ir%&%$$ $*$t%"$< &i9% $)#rin2 '#nd:idt) :it) ot)%r di$$i"i&#r co""unic#tion $%r/ic%$. CDMA 8%c%i/%r$ tr%#t$ t)i$ Mu&ti(&% Acc%$$ Int%r,%r%nc% (MAI) #$ noi$%. A$ t)% nu"'%r o, u$%r$ incr%#$%$< no o, int%r,%r%r$ #&$o incr%#$%d< :)ic) ,urt)%r incr%#$%$< :)ic) &%#d$ incr%#$% in t)% (o:%r o, co""unic#tion c)#nn%&< in turn MAI incr%#$%$ #'ru(t&*< &%#din2 to d%t%rior#tion o, t)% (%r,or"#nc% = >.

3.2 .ro!osed 3+stem


;n order to overcome MA;8 di&&erent modu es are deve o!ed tr+in- to e iminate MA; in di&&erent 'a+s. T$e narro'band "%MA ;3,9# standard8 t$is s+stem -enera + su!!orts on + voice and o',data rates u! to 9.6 Fb!s and im! emented based on t$e sin- e,user a -orit$ms im! emented b+ sin- e user matc$ed &i ter 439M)5 at t$e base,station receiver t$at i-nore Mu ti! e Access ;nter&erence 4MA;5 bet'een di&&erent users. To im!rove !er&ormance at $i-$er data rates s+stems re*uires t$e im! ementation o& advanced mu ti,user a -orit$ms &or c$anne estimation and Mu ti 9ser detection. T$ese a -orit$ms s$ou d overcome MA; b+ !rocessin- t$e si-na s o& a users at t$e base,station receiver = >.

1/0/. Multi U!er Detection


Multi-User Detection in CDMA is one of the significant concept which ha !een stu ie for several "ears. #ow let us ta$e !rief intro uction of so%e Multi-user algorith%s& the first ever use algorith% is the concept of conventional filter or %atche filter. 'he !asic concept of this filter is& signal receive fro% a parti cu&#r u$%r i$ corr%&#t%d :it) # $i2n#tur% $i2n#& o, t)#t u$%r< t)u$ t)% $i2n#& i$ d%"odu&#t%d< #nd t)i$ (roc%$$ i$ don% ,or %/%r* u$%r u$in2 t)% $#"% c)#nn%&. %i&&erent Advanced met$odo o-ies are !ro!osed to overcome MA;8 i0e O!tima Mu&ti3 u$%r d%t%ction (@oint O(ti"#&< Indi/idu#& O(ti"#&)< S()%r% d%codin2< /#ri#tion#& ,r%% %n%r2* "ini"i;#tion< Mini"u" M%#n S4u#r% Error (MMSE). T)i$ c#n #&$o $u((ort /#ri#'&% d#t# r#t%$ '%c#u$% CDMA i$ int%r,%r%nc% &i"it%d< t)% (ro(o$%d $*$t%" %"(&o*$ O(ti"#& #nd MMSE Mu&ti3u$%r D%t%ction to %&i"in#t% Mu&ti(&% A Acc%$$ Int%r,%r%nc% (MAI). O(ti"#& Mu&ti3u$%r d%t%ction i$ %"(&o*%d :)%n :% )#/% &%$$ nu"'%r o, u$%r$. Gr#di%nt (roB%ction 2 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

#&2orit)" i$ /%r* "uc) %,,ici%nt t)#n t)% o(ti"#& "u&ti3u$%r d%t%ction :)%n t)% nu"'%r o, u$%r$ i$ &#r2%.

1/1 O%jecti e!
G To mani&est ort$o-ona &re*uenc+ division mu ti! e6in- '$ic$ is ot$er &ace o& ort$o-ona "%MA t$at im!arts *uic0 si-na !rocessin- at t$e receiver end8 and $as ver+ e&&icient 'ire ess in0 &or $i-$,s!eed a!! ications. G G G G To desi-n "%MA s+stem8 a so to simu ation o& "%MA rea time environment. To -enerate s!readin- and scramb in- codes. %ata Tra&&ic Ana +sis To e iminate Mu ti! e ,Access ;nter&erence 4MA;5 b+ Mu ti 9ser %etection HT$e mani&estation is to !rove t$at s!read,s!ectrum users can s$are a same &re*uenc+ band 'it$out inter&erin- carrier si-na o& one user 'it$ ot$er users8 t$us8 'e can increase t$e e&&icienc+ 'it$in communication band usedH. ;n order to e iminate MA; in received bit vector di&&erent Mu ti,user %etection are im! emented i0e o!tima &i ters8 3!$ere decodin- etc.8 MA;. Even 7radient !rojection a -orit$m 'as desi-ned and de! o+ed to reso ve t$e !rob ems 'it$ Mu ti,user %etection =->.

1/5 Multiple6Acce!! Techni7ue!


Mu ti! e Access is basic in t$e &ie d o& sate ite communication8 since it is t$e best 'a+ b+ '$ic$ one can cover entire -eo-ra!$+ and ana +Ie nature o& t$e sate ite c$anne . T$e Mu ti! e Access Tec$ni*ue $as ca!abi it+ to interconnect ar-e number o& eart$ stations to connect t$eir res!ective voice8 data8 messa-in- and TJ in0s t$rou-$ a sate ite. Mu ti! e access means t$e users o!eratin- at same time8 mu ti! e can be su!!orted. ;n ot$er 'ords a ar-e number o& users can s$are a common !oo o& radio c$anne s and an+ user can -ain access to an+ c$anne 4eac$ user a 'a+s not assi-ned same c$anne 5. ;n :anuar+ 19928 ("%MA tec$no o-+ 'as decided to be as mu ti! e access tec$ni*ues &or t$e t$ird,-eneration mobi e te e!$one s+stem b+ Euro!ean Te ecommunication 3tandard ;nstitute 4ET3;5. =ased on modern8 a+ered net'or0,!rotoco structure8 simi ar to t$e !rotoco structure used in 73M net'or0s8 ("%MA became a services ! at&orm to 37. T$is is !articu ar + 9 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

desi-ned &or $i-$,s!eed data services and more !articu ar + &or internet,based !ac0et,data8 '$ic$ is o&&erin- u! to 2Mb!s in stationar+ or o&&ice environments8 and in 'ide area or mobi e environments u( to +0.C'($. T)% t)ird 2%n%r#tion r#dio $t#nd#rd $*$t%" u$%$ CDMA in$t%#d o, TDMA to incr%#$% t)% d#t# tr#n$"i$$ion r#t% in GSM $*$t%" #nd #&$o t)#t +G $*$t%" :i&& o,,%r /oic%< d#t#< "otion3/id%o #nd ot)%r "u&ti"%di# c#(#'i&iti%$. In t)% ITUD$ +G $(%ci,ic#tion WCDMA )#$ '%c#"% t)% Dir%ct S%4u%nc% (DS) "od%< :)ic) inc&ud%$ t)% !E Mu&ti3C#rri%r "od% (!E MC) #nd +E Mu&ti3C#rri%r "od% (+E MC). !E MC (9no:n #$ cd"#2666) #nd +E MC con$i$t o, +G u(2r#d% (#t)$ ,or c#rri%r$ #&r%#d* u$in2 CDMA (cd"#On%) =7>. T$e -eo-ra!$ic re-ion is divided into ce s b+ ce u ar s+stems. ;n t$is re-ion t$e base station is communicated 'it$ t$e $e ! o& a mobi e unit in eac$ ce . T$e u timate destin+ in desi-nin- o& t$e ce u ar s+stems is to be ab e to $and e as man+ ca s as !ossib e in a -iven band'idt$ 'it$ some re iabi it+. T$ere are man+ di&&erent 'a+s to a o' access to t$e c$anne . T$e+ can be described as &o o's: G G G )re*uenc+ division mu ti! e,access 4)%MA5 Time division mu ti! e,access 4T%MA5 "ode di/i$ion "u&ti(&%3#cc%$$ (CDMA) 1. )re*uenc+,$o! "%MA 2. %irect,se*uence "%MA 3. Mu ti,carrier "%MA 4)C or %35 G (ideband code division mu ti! e,access

1/5/. 8re7uency Di i!ion Multiple Acce!! 98DMA:


)or ce u ar s+stems )%MA 'as t$e &irst ste! o& t$e mu ti! e,access tec$ni*ue. ;n t$is tec$ni*ue a user is assi-ned a !air o& &re*uencies '$en ! acin- or receivin- a ca . One &re*uenc+ is used &or do'n in0 4base station to mobi e5 and one !air &or u! in0 4mobi e to base5. T$is is ca ed &re*uenc+ division du! e6in-. T$at &re*uenc+ !air is not used in t$e same ce or adjacent ce s durin- t$e ca . Even t$ou-$ t$e user ma+ not be ta 0in-8 t$e s!ectrum cannot be reassi-ned as on- as a ca @2A. 10 MEE07:36 is in ! ace. ;n )%MA8 eac$ transmitter is assi-ned a distinct &re*uenc+ c$anne t$at receivers can discriminate amon- t$em b+ tunin- to t$e desired c$anne

Project Documentation

WCDMA

TDMA #nd CDMA #r% #&:#*$ u$%d in co"'in#tion :it) FDMA< i.%.< # 2i/%n ,r%4u%nc* c)#nn%& "#* '% u$%d ,or %it)%r TDMA or CDMA ind%(%nd%nt&* o, $i2n#&$ on ot)%r ,r%4u%nc* c)#nn%&$. (U&tr# :id% '#nd i$ #r2u#'&* #n %1c%(tion< #$ it u$%$ %$$%nti#&&* #&& o, t)% u$#'&% r#dio $(%ctru" in on% &oc#tion). A( antage! G T$is tec$ni*ue $as t$e advanta-e o& sim! icit+ and re ies on t$e use o& !roven e*ui!ment. Di!a( antage! G 'ac$ of fle4i%ility in ca!e of reconfiguration; to accommo(ate capacity ariation! it i! nece!!ary to change the fre7uency plan an( thi! implie! mo(ification of tran!mitting fre7uencie!, recei ing fre7uencie! an( filter %an(&i(th! of the earth !tation!/ G %ue to t$e -eneration o& intermediate !roducts8 a "a!acit+ oss is detected '$en t$e number o& accesses increases and t$e need to o!erate at a reduced sate ite animatin!o'er 4bac0,o&&5. G T)%r% i$ # n%%d to contro& tr#n$"ittin2 (o:%r o, %#rt) $t#tion$ in $uc) # :#* t)#t< #t t)% $#t%&&it% in(ut t)% c#rri%r (o:%r$ #r% t)% $#"% :)ic) in turn )%&($ in #/oidin2 c#(tur% %,,%ct. In r%#& ti"% t)i$ contro& $)ou&d '% )%&d #nd t)% #tt%nu#tion c#u$%d '* r#in on t)% u(&in9$ "u$t '% #d#(t%d =5>.

1/5/0 Time Di i!ion Multiple Acce!! 9TDMA:


T$e Tec$no o-+ t$at evo ved &or s$ared medium usua + &or radio net'or0s is Time %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4T%MA5. ;n t$is t$e same &re*uenc+ can be s$ared b+ severa users b+ dividin- into di&&erent time s ots. T$e transmission o& t$e u$%r$ $ucc%$$ion i$ r#(id< on% '* on% %#c) #$$i2n%d t)%ir o:n ti"% $&ot. T)% $#"% tr#n$"i$$ion "%diu" c#n '% u$%d '* "u&ti(&% u$%r$ (,or %1#"(&% r#dio ,r%4u%nc*) #nd #t t)% $#"% ti"% on&* # (#rt o, t)% '#nd :idt) i$ u$%d #$ (%r t)% r%4uir%"%nt. In $#t%&&it% $*$t%"$< Loc#& Ar%# N%t:or9$ (LANF$)< ()*$ic#& $%curit* $*$t%"$ #nd co"'#t n%t r#dio $*$t%"$ TDMA i$ :id%&* u$%d. ;n America T%MA is common + re&er to 27,second -eneration mobi e !$one standard8 most + re&erred as %AM.38 t$at uses T%MA tec$ni*ue to times$are t$e band'idt$ o& t$e carrier 'ave. T%MA can be described as a time division mu ti! e6in- 'it$ t$e s!eci&ic !oint instead o& $avin- sin- e transmitter connected to sin- e receiver8 t$ere e6ist mu ti! e transmitters. 11 MEE07:36

Project Documentation A( antage! G

WCDMA

T$e main advanta-e o& T%MA is t$at t$e radio !art o& t$e mobi e $as its o'n times ot to isten and broad caste. T$e mobi e carries out t$e net'or0 measurements8 surroundintransmitter?s d%t%ction on di,,%r%nt ,r%4u%nci%$ ,or t)% r%$t o, t)% ti"%.

On&* on # $in2&% c#rri%$ t)% c)#nn%& #"(&i,ic#tion i$ don% #t %#c) in$t#nt< t)% '#nd :idt) i$ occu(i%d '* #&& t)% c)#nn%&$. T)%r% %1i$t no int%r"%di#tion (roduct$ #nd t)% '%n%,it$ o, t)% c#rri%r t)#t i$ $#tur#tion o, (o:%r in t)% c)#nn%&. But %1i$t%nc% o, non&in%#rit* co"'in%d :it) t)% ,i&t%rin2 %,,%ct$ on tr#n$"i$$ion #nd r%c%i/in2< introduc%$ d%2r#d#tion :it) r%$(%ct to t)% id%#& di2it#& tr#n$"i$$ion.

G G

In t)% $t#tion$ t)% contro& o, tr#n$"ittin2 (o:%r i$ not r%4uir%d. T)% tr#n$"i$$ion #nd r%c%i/in2 #t #&& t)% $t#tion$ on t)% $#"% ,r%4u%nc* :it) di,,%r%nt or $#"% ori2in$ #nd d%$tin#tion$ o, t)% 'ur$t $i"(&i,i%$ tunin2.

Di!a( antage! G T$e disadvanta-e o& T%MA s+stems is t$e creation o& &re*uenc+ inter&erence t$at is connected direct + to t$e en-t$ o& t$e time s ot. T$is is t$e irritatin- noise t$at is $eard sometimes '$en a 73M !$one is e&t ne6t to a radio. G Kua it+ o& t$e voice is !oor =!6>.

1/5/1 Co(e Di i!ion Multiple Acce!! 9CDMA:


T$e use o& s!read s!ectrum in an+ &orm b+ mu ti! e transmitters to send data to t$e same receiver at t$e same time on t$e same &re*uenc+ c$anne 'it$ out $arm&u inter&erence is ca ed as "%MA 4"ode %ivision Mu ti! e access5. Time %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4T%MA5 and )re*uenc+ %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4)%MA5 are t$e ot$er mu ti! e access tec$ni*ues '$ic$ are 'ide + bein- used at !resent. ;n t$ese t$ree tec$ni*ues amon- various si-na s receivers can be discriminated b+ usin- di&&erent codes8 &re*uenc+ c$anne s and time s ots res!ective +. At !resent "%MA is a so used to re&er as a &ami + o& s!eci&ic im! ementations o& "%MA !ioneered b+ Kua comm &or use in di-ita ce u ar te e!$on+ t$at inc ude ;3,9# 4cdma One5 and ;3,2000 4cd"#2666). T)% t:o di,,%r%nt u$%$ o, t)i$ t%r" #r%? F%: ,r%4u%nt&* con,u$in2 ,#ct$ o, CDMA #nd WCDMA?

12 MEE07:36

Project Documentation G G G

WCDMA

CDMA (t)% "u&ti(&%1in2 t%c)ni4u%) i$ u$%d #$ t)% (rinci(&% o, t)% WCDMA r#dio &in9. T)% WCDMA r#dio &in9$ i$ u$%d in t)% 2&o'#& +G $t#nd#rd< UMTS< #nd @#(#n%$% +G $t#nd#rd$ #nd Vod#,on%. T)% CDMA ,#"i&* o, $t#nd#rd$ (inc&udin2 cd"#On% #nd cd"#2666) do not %1i$t to2%t)%r :it) t)% $t#nd#rd ,#"i&* o, WCDMA.

T$e receivers can discriminate t$e un'anted si-na s !artia + in a &orms o& "%MA b+ usin- s!read s!ectrum !rocess -ain. 3i-na s 'it$ di&&erent s!readin- codes or same s!readincode but di&&erent timin- o&&set a!!ear 'it$ ess 'ideband noise 'it$ t$e $e ! o& !rocess -ain8 '$i e si-na s 'it$ desired s!readin- code and timin- are received. ;n a random manner t$e T%MA or )%MA receivers can reject stron- si-na s com! ete + on ot$er &re*uenc+ c$anne s or times ots. =ut in t$e case o& "%MA un'anted si-na s are rejected on + !artia +. T$e desired si-na can overcome8 even i& a t$e un'anted si-na s are muc$ stron-er t$an t$e re*uired one. ;n a "%MA s+stem t$e -enera re*uirement is at east near matc$in- o& di&&erent !o'er eve s o& t$e si-na at t$e receiver. A &ast c osed oo! !o'er contro sc$eme is used b+ t$e base station to contro eac$ mobi es transmission !o'er in "%MA ce . ;n "%MA sc$eme it is ver+ im!ortant to minimiIe t$e ratio o& si-na inter&erence and ma6imiIinca!acit+ o& t$e c$anne . T$is is ca ed as )or'ard error correction 4)E"5 codin- =!!>. A( antage!<

T$e main advanta-e o& "%MA is avai abi it+ o& in&inite "%MA codes over T%MA and )%MA. ;dea + "%MA suites ar-e number o& transmitters eac$ -eneratin- a com!arative + sma amount o& tra&&ic at irre-u ar interva s8 and avoids o!eratin- e6!ense o& continua + a ocatin- and de,a ocatin- a imited number o& ort$o-ona time s ots or &re*uenc+ c$anne s to individua transmitters. "%MA transmitters sim! + 'or0 '$en data needs to be transmitted and rest o& t$e time -oes o&& air.

Di!a( antage!<

/on-er transmission de a+ due to o' bit rate Ci2) int%r,%r%nc% du% to )i2) %n%r2* (%r 'it 13

MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

/o' tota t$rou-$!ut

1/5/5 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)


;nitia deve o!ments o& ("%MA (Wid%'#nd Cod% Di/i$ion Mu&ti(&% Acc%$$)G+G :%r% don% '* NTT Doco"o :it) t)% r#dio &in9 o, +2 n%t:or9 FOMA. WCDMA i$ # CDMA (rotoco&. T)i$ $u((ort$ /%r* )i2)3$(%%d "u&ti"%di# $%r/ic%$ (MMS) $uc) #$ ,u&&3"otion /id%o< Int%rn%t #cc%$$ #nd /id%o con,%r%ncin2. WCDMA i$ d%/%&o(%d '#$%d on r#dio #cc%$$ t%c)ni4u%$ '* ETSI #&()# 2rou( =.>. WCDMA 8eature!?

)u covera-e and mobi it+ &or 144 0b!s8 !re&erab + 324 0b!s. /imited covera-e and mobi it+ &or 2 Mb!s. "om!ared 'it$ 27 it $as Ci-$ s!ectra e&&icienc+. ;t $as Ci-$ & e6ibi it+ to introduce ne' services. An ear + -oa 8 no' ar-e + abandoned8 'as a - oba air,inter&ace standard. =and'idt$ o& # MCI 4or more8 u! to 20 MCI !ro!osed5. "$i! rates &rom 3.24 mi ion c$i!s,!er,second 4u! to 1# Mc!s !ro!osed5. 3u!!ort o& mu ti! e data rates L !ac0et data. "o$erent u! in0 4'it$ u! in0 !i ot c$anne 5. =ase,station antenna beam &ormin-. Advanced inter&erence su!!ression tec$ni*ues. ("%MA su!!orts $i-$,s!eed data services. ("%MA is better suited &or deve o!ment in t$e ver+ dense cities o& Euro!e and Asia ;t su!!orts t'o basic modes o& du! e6.

WCDMA A( antage!?

1/2 The Main Difference! %et&een CDMA an( WCDMA


CDMA WCDMA

14 MEE07:36

Project Documentation 15 (t supports onl" ata source 25 ;t is 2.#7 tec$no o-+ 35 ;t O!erates in MCI 45 ;ts =it rate is in Fb!s

WCDMA 15 ;t su!!orts Mu timedia a!! ications 25 ;t is 37 tec$no o-+ 35 ;t O!erates in 7CI 45 ;ts =it rate is in Mb!s

Ta%le.< Compari!on %et&een CDMA an( WCDMA 3.6 3!read 3!ectrum Mu ti! e Access
=asica + s!read s!ectrum tec$no o-+ 'as ori-ina + deve o!ed &or mi itar+8 anti,jam sin- e user needs '$ere t$e main aim 'as to transmission o& data secret +8 communication even in jammin-. T$e main !$enomenon be$ind t$e 'or0in- o& s!read s!ectrum is s!readin- ener-+ o& narro', band source si-na 4e.-.8 10 0CI s!eec$5 over a 'ide band'idt$ source si-na 4e.-.8 1, 10 MCI5. T$e si-na s modu ated t$rou-$ s!read s!ectrum are broadband8 noise i0e and resistant to mu ti!at$. At !resent t$e major a!! ication o& s!read s!ectrum is mu ti user environments in 27 and 37 ce u ar communications. T$e same t$eoretica ca!acit+ and same duration o& time e6ists &or "%MA,based ;3,9# and T%M,based 73MB;3,136 @in a -iven band'idt$ 4= CI5 and time duration 4T sec5 ,,, i.e.8 2=T ort$o-ona carriers are !ossib eA. 3!read 3!ectrum is a 4contro ed5 inter&erence, imited s+stem G G "arriers are c$osen to be Drandom< 'ave&orms 'it$ res!ect to eac$ ot$er A uni*ue randomiIed code is assi-ned to eac$ userBcarrier8 di&&erent and near + ort$o-ona 4i.e.8 o' cross,corre ation5 to t$e ot$er codes o& uni*ue time s ot o& T%MA and uni*ue &re*uenc+ o& )%MA. G G To se!arate t$e users "orre ation 4"%MA5 and &re*uenc+ a-i e 4)re*uenc+ Co!!in3!read 3!ectrum ,,,)CB335 receivers are used. As+nc$ronous transmission &or t$e users can be done 'it$ res!ect to eac$ ot$er. ;n "ode %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4"%MA5 '%tt%r (%r,or"#nc% c#n '% #c)i%/%d u$in2 %$(%ci#&&* Dir%ct S%4u%nc% "u&ti(&% #cc%$$. G G A/%r#2%< o/%r # &on2 ti"% r%$idu#& int%r,%r%nc% i$ #dd%d to corr%&#tion '%in2 r%B%ct%d. (CDMA i$ $#id to '% # noi$%3#/%r#2in2 $*$t%"). T)% cod% i$ # ($%udo3noi$% (PN) &i9%< )i2) 'it3r#t% $i2n#& t)#t i$ u$%d to "u&ti(&* t)% u$%r in,or"#tion $*"'o&$. 1# MEE07:36

Project Documentation G

WCDMA

T)% c#(#cit* o, # $*$t%" i$ not $u'B%ct%d to # )#rd &i"it (&i9% TDMA)H incr%#$in2 t)% nu"'%r o, u$%r$ r%duc%$ t)% r%c%i/%d $i2n#&3to3int%r,%r%nc% r#tio #nd (%r,or"#nc%.

1/= Sprea( Spectrum Techni7ue!


T$e main aim o& "ode %ivision Mu ti! e Access 4"%MA5 is eac$ subscriber is assi-ned a uni*ue code t$at can be used b+ t$e s+stem to di&&erentiate t$at user &rom a ot$er users transmittin- at t$e same instant over t$e same &re*uenc+ band. T$ere are severa tec$ni*ues t$at $ave been considered &or mobi e radio "%MA communications8 inc udin-: G G G )re*uenc+,Co!!in- 3!read 3!ectrum 4)CB335 Time,Co!!ed 3!read 3!ectrum 4TCB335 %irect 3e*uence 3!read 3!ectrum 4%3B335

1/=/. 8re7uency6*opping Sprea( Spectrum


;n a &re*uenc+,$o!!in- s+stem &or duration o& a s!eci&ic time t$e si-na &re*uenc+ is constant8 re&erred to as a time c$i!. T$e cate-oriIation o& &re*uenc+,$o!!in- can be described in t'o 'a+s. T$e+ are &ast,$o! or s o',$o!8 as t$ere 'i be a notab e di&&erence in t$eir !er&ormance. )ast,$o! s+stem can be described as a s+stem in '$ic$ &re*uenc+,$o!!in- ta0es ! ace at a ver+ $i-$ rate t$an t$e bit rate o& t$e messa-e. 3imi ar + in a s o',$o! s+stem8 s o' &re*uenc+,$o!!in- ta0es ! ace at a esser rate t$an t$e messa-e bit rate =!2>.

1/=/0 Time6*oppe( Sprea( Spectrum


T$e time o& transmission is divided into interva s 0no'n as &rames in a time,$o!!ins+stem. Eac$ &rame is divided into M time s ots. T$e modu ation 'it$ t$e messa-e 'i be done durin- eac$ &rame one and on + one time s ot. %urin- t$e se ected time s ot8 a t$e messa-e bits co ected in t$e !revious &rame are transmitted in a burst.

1/=/1 Direct Se7uence Sprea( Spectrum


;n a direct se*uence s+stem8 a !seudo noise code di-ita stream mu ti! ies t$e base band si-na transmission. T$e direct se*uence is an avera-in- t+!e s+stem '$ere t$e reduction o& inter&erence ta0es ! ace because t$e inter&erence can be avera-ed over a ar-e time interva . T$e avoidance s+stems are &re*uenc+ $o!!in- 4)C5 and time,$o!!in- 4TC5 s+stems. Cere8 t$e occurrence o& reduction in inter&erence is due to t$e si-na bein- made to avoid t$e inter&erence &or a ar-e &raction o& t$e time. 16 MEE07:36

Project Documentation Sy!tem %irect 3e*uence A( antage! M=est noise and anti,jam !er&ormance. MMost !rivate5. di&&icu t to detect

WCDMA Di!a( antage! M1e*uires 'ideband c$anne .

4more M/on- ac*uisition time.

M=est discrimination a-ainst mu ti!at$. MEearB&ar !rob em. )re*uenc+,Co!!inM7reatest amount o& s!readin-. M"an be !ro-r#""%d to #/oid (ortion$ o, t)% $(%ctru". I8%&#ti/%&* $)ort #c4ui$ition ti"%. L%$$ #,,%ct%d '* n%#rG,#r (ro'&%". Time,Co!!inMCi-$ band'idt$ e&&icienc+ M;"(&%"%nt#tion ,r%4u%nc*3)o((in2. IU$%,u& :)%n tr#n$"itt%r i$ #/%r#2% (o:%r &i"it%d< 'ut not (%#9 (o:%r &i"it%d. IN%#rG,#r (ro'&%" #/oid%d. Ta%le0? Co"(#ri$on '%t:%%n CDMA $(r%#d $(%ctru"$ $i"(&%r t)#n IError corr%ction r%4uir%d ICo"(&%1 $*nt)%$i;%r. INot u$%,u& ,or r#n2%3r#t% "%#$ur%"%nt. IError corr%ction r%4uir%d. ILon2 #c4ui$ition ti"%. ,r%4u%nc*

5. DATA P8OCESSING DESIGN OF WCDMA


T$e %ata .rocessin- desi-n in t)% tr#n$"itt%r #nd r%c%i/%r :i&& '% di$cu$$%d )%r%. 8CPC t%c)ni4u% i$ '%in2 i"(&%"%nt%d ,or t)% codin2 #nd d%codin2 (ur(o$% in t)% $*$t%". T)%r% #r% no c)#nn%&$ ,or t)% tr#n$"i$$ion o, t)% d#t# $o %1t%rn#& noi$% "od%&$ (%.2. AWGN...) #r% not '%in2 introduc%d into t)% $*$t%". 17 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

T$e codin- $as been im! emented bot$ in " and MAT/A=. MAT/A= 'as used &or interactive ! ottin- and 79; !ur!ose. T)% o't#in%d r%$u&t$ ,ro" 'ot) C #nd MATLAB #r% $)o:n in t)% %1#"(&%$.

#'OC" D+A3RAM O8 WCDMA W+T* RCPC

12 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

TRA-SM+TTER

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3.1EA%E1

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MO%9/ATO1

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RECE+,ER Fi2ur%!? B&oc9 di#2r#" o, WCDMA :it) 8CPC

DESCR+PT+O- O8 #'OC" D+A3RAM


19 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

5.! P$%udo3Noi$% S%4u%nc% G%n%r#tor


T$e .E 3e*uences can be -enerated b+ inear &eedbac0 s$i&t re-isters.

5.!.! Lin%#r F%%d'#c9 S)i,t 8%2i$t%r


/inear &eedbac0 s$i&t re-isters 4/)315 )#$ (2n3!) $t#t%$< :)%r% JnK i$ t)% nu"'%r o, r%2i$t%r$ in t)% LFS8. At %#c) %nd o, c&oc9 %d2% t)% cont%nt in t)% r%2i$t%r$ #r% $)i,t%d to ri2)t '* on% (o$ition. To 2i/% t)% ,%%d'#c9 t)%r% i$ # (r%d%,in%d r%2i$t%r$ or t#($ in t)% r%2i$t%r. T)%* :i&& 2i/% ,%%d'#c9 to t)% &%,t "o$t r%2i$t%r t)rou2) ENO8 or EO8 2#t%. A /#&u% o, #&& !K$ i$ i&&%2#& in t)% c#$% o, ENO8 ,%%d'#c9 #nd # /#&u% o, #&& 6K$ i$ i&&%2#& in t)% c#$% o, EO8 ,%%d'#c9 '%c#u$% in t)i$ $t#t% t)% count%r :ou&d r%"#in &oc9%d3u(. L%r% :% #r% cr%#tin2 ($%udo noi$% u$in2 LFS8$ to con/%rt n#rro: '#nd $i2n#& into :id% '#nd $i2n#&. )or e6am! e a .3'it LFS8 c#n $%4u%nc% t)rou2) (2.3!) M! $t#t%$ (t)% $t#t% !!!! i$ i&&%2#& $t#t% in ENO8 ,%%d'#c9 #nd t)% $t#t% 6666 i$ ,or EO8). On t)% ot)%r )#nd< # .3'it 'in#r* u(3count%r :ou&d $%4u%nc% t)rou2) 2.M!- $t#t%$ in :)ic) no i&&%2#& $t#t%$. LFS8 count%r$ #r% /%r* ,#$t $inc% t)%* donKt u$% c#rr* $i2n#&$ =!+>.

8igure0< 56#it '8SR, Tap Se7uence; >5, .? One o& t$e t'o main !arts o& an /)31 is t$e s$i&t re-ister #nd t)% ot)%r on% i$ ,%%d'#c9 ,unction. T)% "#in ,unction o, t)% $)i,t r%2i$t%r i$ to $)i,t it$ cont%nt$ into #dB#c%nt (o$ition$ :it) in t)% r%2i$t%r or i, it i$ t)% (o$ition on t)% %nd< out o, t)% r%2i$t%r. T)% (o$ition on t)% ot)%r %nd i$ &%,t %"(t* un&%$$ $o"% n%: cont%nt i$ $)i,t%d into t)% r%2i$t%r. U!e! of a !hift regi!ter are "onvert bet'een !ara e and seria data %e a+ a seria bit stream

20 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

An /)31 is a so 9no:n #$ $t#t% "#c)in%. T)% 'it$ u$%d ,or t)% ,%%d'#c9 ,unction #nd t)% out(ut o, t)% ,%%d'#c9 ,unction to2%t)%r :i&& d%cid% t)% $t#t% o, t)% LFS8. Wit) %#c) $)i,t< t)% LFS8 "o/%$ to # n%: $t#t% #nd i, t)% cont%nt$ o, t)% r%2i$t%r #r% #&& ;%ro$ t)%n t)% LFS8 :i&& n%/%r c)#n2% it$ $t#t%. For #n* 2i/%n $t#t% t)%r% :i&& '% on&* on% $ucc%%din2 $t#t% or #n* 2i/%n $t#t% c#n )#/% on&* on% (r%c%din2 $t#t%. T$e /)31 t$at 'e are usin- $ere is a &ive sta-e /)31 and $ence t$e Ma6ima 3e*uence obtained is o& 31,bits. (e need t'o /)31 structures &or t$e im! ementation o& t$e 7o d "ode and t$e t'o structures c$osen to be im! emented are @1 3A and @1 2A. T$e &i-ure 3L4 s$o's t$e codin- resu t o& .E se*uence1 and .E se*uence2. E4ample: No. o, 'it$ in LFS8! i$ + #nd $%4u%nc% i$ ! ! A! Enter t$e no o& ta!s 2 Ta! ocations are 1 and 3 T)%n PN $%4u%nc% ! i$ B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1

8igure1< Co(ing Re!ult of P- !e7uence. E4ample) No. o, 'it$ in LFS8 2 i$ + #nd $%4u%nc% i$ ! 3! ! Enter t$e no o& ta!s 2 T#( &oc#tion$ #r% ! #nd 2 21 MEE07:36

Project Documentation T)%n PN $%4u%nc% 2 i$ #y u!ing @cA an( mat la% the re!ult co(e i! 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1

WCDMA

8igure5< Co(ing Re!ult of P- !e7uence0

5.2 Go&d Cod% G%n%r#tor


T)% 2o&d cod% 2%n%r#tor i$ initi#&&* in/%nt%d '* N8. Go&dO in !5-7. Accordin2 to )i" t)% $%t o, $"#&& corr%&#tion PN cod%$ c#n '% cr%#t%d '* "odu&o 2 #ddition$ o, t)% r%$u&t$ t)#t #r% o't#in%d ,ro" t)% t:o LFS8$. T)%n t)% r%$u&t o't#in%d i$ # $%t o, cod%$ :it) corr%&#tion (ro(%rti%$ #nd t)%$% cod%$ #r% 9no:n #$ Pr%,%rr%d P#ir Go&d Cod%$. =+ mu ti! +in- t$e t'o .E se*uences 'e :i&& 2%t Go&d3Cod% #$ $)o:n in t)% ,i2ur% . T)% "#in #d/#nt#2% to u$% t)% 2o&d cod% i$ t)#t t)% cro$$ corr%&#tion '%t:%%n t)% t:o cod%$ i$ uni,or" #nd 'ound%d =!.>.W% c#n o't#in (r%,%rr%d (#ir Go&d3Cod% $%4u%nc%$ '* ti"%3$)i,tin2 t)% on% o, t)% PN $%4u%nc%. T)%$% (r%,%rr%d (#ir Go&d3Cod% $%4u%nc%$ #r% c)%c9%d ,or "ini"u" 22 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

cro$$ corr%&#tion #nd t)% $%4u%nc% :it) "ini"u" cro$$ corr%&#tion i$ u$%d #$ t)% N9%*O. In t)i$ (roB%ct :% #r% con$id%rin2 on&* t)% ;%ro $)i,t Go&d3Cod% $%4u%nc%< #$ it i$ 2%n%r#&&* u$%d.

'8SR .

'8SR 0

7o d cod

8igure2? Go&d cod% 2%n%r#tor T$e o-ic invo ved in t$e simu ation o& 7o d,"ode -enerator is G G G T$e t'o .E 3e*uences are used #$ co"(on%nt$ in t)% (ro2r#" #nd #r% 2i/%n co""on initi#& ,i&& or N$%%dO. W% :i&& d%c&#r% t:o $i2n#&$ N(n!O #nd N(n2O< #nd :% :i&& o't#in t)% out(ut$ o, t)% PN S%4u%nc% 2%n%r#tor$. =+ mu ti! +in- t$ese out!uts 'e 'i -et Go&d3Cod%.

&1465

G1

3EE%: 10000 EP31 23 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

&2465 1 G 2 3 4 #

8igureB? Pr%,%rr%d Go&d3Cod% G%n%r#tor )or e6am! e consider t'o /)31s 'it$ &ive states and t$e to! ocations are @# 2A and @# 4 2A res!ective + as s$o'n in t$e above &i-ure. Cere &1465 is a #,bit /)31 'it$ a ta! se*uence @#8 2A &2465 is a #,bit /)31 'it$ a ta! se*uence @#8 48 2A &1465 P1N62N6# se*1: EP2#,1P31 bits &2465 P1N62N64N6# $%42? NM2 3!M+! 'it$ A&ter runnin- t$e code resu ts are s$o'n in t$e &i-ure 7 &or t$e !re&erred -o d code -enerator. E4ample< .E se*uence1 is ,1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 PN $%4u%nc%2 i$ ! 3! ! 3! 3! ! 3! B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1

24 MEE07:36

Project Documentation 8igure=< Co(ing Re!ult of 3ol( Co(e 3enerator/

WCDMA

5.+ S(r%#d%r
T$e sim! est but critica com!onent o& t$e "%MA Transmitter is t$e Mu ti! ier or 3!reader. T$e s!readin- !rocess is done in t$e s+stem b+ t$e s!reader. 3!readin- .rocess means t$at eac$ data bit is converted into 2 or 16 etc bits de!endinu!on t$e en-t$ o& t$e address,code. T$e in!ut to t$e Mu ti! ier or 3!reader is t$e di-ita data and t$e address,code i.e. re!resented b+ t$e 7o d code. T$e out!ut &rom t$e s!reader is t$e resu t o& t$e data bein- su!erim!osed 4E6c usive,O15 on t$e address,code. )or e6am! e consider t$at t$e data is o& 3,bits 41105 and t$e address,code is o& 2,bits 4010100015. T$en t$e resu t is obtained as be o': a5 3u!erim!osition 4E6c usive,O15 o& Q1? on D01010001< is D10101110< '$ic$ is obtained b+ E6,O1 o& Q1? 'it$ eac$ bit o& t$e address,code and t$e resu t &ormin- t$e res!ective bit in t$e out!ut code. b5 3u!erim!osition 4E6c usive,O15 o& Q1? on D01010001< is D10101110< '$ic$ is obtained b+ E6,O1 o& Q0? 'it$ eac$ bit o& t$e address,code. c5 3u!erim!osition 4E6c usive,O15 o& Q0? on D01010001< is D010100 6!O :)ic) i$ o't#in%d '* E13O8 o, J6K :it) %#c) 'it o, t)% #ddr%$$3cod%. T)% ,in#& out(ut cont#in$ 2.3'it$ #nd i$ o't#in%d '* t)% conc#t%n#tion o, t)% #'o/% t)r%% indi/idu#& out(ut$< :)ic) i$ 2i/%n #$ D10101110 0101110 0101006!O T)% DS3SS CDMA Tr#n$"itt%r in t)i$ (roB%ct i$ d%$i2n%d ,or t)% +!3'it #ddr%$$3cod% #nd t)% in(ut d#t# o, on% '*t% or 03'it ,or %#c) c&oc9 (u&$%. T)i$ r%$u&t$ in t)% r%$u&t#nt $i2n#& '%in2 2.03'it &on2. T)% #ddr%$$3cod% $i2n#& i$ #&$o r%,%rr%d #$ t)% NS(r%#din2 Si2n#&O #$ it #ct$ #$ t)% '#$% ,or t)% d#t# $i2n#& to '% $(r%#d. T)% ,i2ur% 0 $)o:$ t)% codin2 r%$u&t o, $(r%#d%r. E4ample: T$e in!ut messa-e se*uence is 1 ,1 T)% 2o&d cod% i$ 3! 3! ! ! ! 3! 3! T)%n $(r%#d%r out(ut i$ 2# MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1

8igureC< Co(ing Re!ult of Sprea(er

5.. 8#t%3Co"(#ti'&% Punctur%d Con/o&ution#& (8CPC) Cod%$


Over !ast +ear?s man+ ne' conce!ts $ad been introduced on c$anne codin2 #nd %/%n :ir%&%$$ $*$t%"$ #r% di,,%r%nti#t%d '* /#r*in2 %rror (ron% c)#nn%&$< ro'u$t #nd ,&%1i'&% c)#nn%& cod% $c)%"#$ #r% introduc%d. It i$ i"(ort#nt to not% on d%$i2nin2 #nd i"(&%"%ntin2 t)% c)#nn%& cod% ,or # r#dio n%t:or9< $o"% i"(ort#nt con$id%r#tion$ &i9% #d#(tin2 ,&%1i'&% ,or /#r*in2 c)#nn%& c#(#cit*< (o$$i'i&it* o, d*n#"ic#&&* c)#n2in2 t)% cod% r#t%$ durin2 tr#n$"i$$ion (&#*$ # 9%* ro&%. As 'e 0no' t$ere are t'o c#t%2ori%$ o, c)#nn%& cod% $c)%"# %1i$t$< B&oc9 cod% #nd Con/o&ution cod%$. U$in2 B&oc9 cod% t)%r% #r% "#Bor di$#d/#nt#2%$ %$(%ci#&&* on $o,t d%ci$ion codin2< :)ic) (&#*$ /it#& ro&% ,or #n* '#nd:idt) ,or %,,ici%nt :ir%&%$$ co""unic#tion $*$t%". In c#$% o, Con/o&ution$ cod%$ t)% $o,t d%ci$ion d%codin2 co"%$ n#tur#&&* '* u$in2 $o,t "%tric in /it%r'i d%cod%r #nd "or% o/%r u$% o, 8#t% con/o&ution$ cod%$ (8CC) "#9%$ it (o$$i'&% to t)% $#"% d%cod%r ,or #&& cod% r#t%$ :it)in t)% ,#"i&*. 1"" #r% d%$i2n%d $uc) t)#t &o:%r cod% r#t%$ u$%d ,or t)% $#"% cod% $*"'o&$ #$ t)% )i2)%r cod%$ $*"'o&$ :it) $o"% r%dund#nc* $*"'o&$< :)ic) c#n '% o't#in%d %#$i&* '* 26 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

r%(%#tin2 $*"'o&$. 8%(%tition u$u#&&* d%t%rior#t%$ t)% $*$t%" (%r,or"#nc%< (uncturin2 #nd n%$tin2. On% o, t)% /%r* ,&%1i'&% #nd (o:%r t%c)ni4u%$ o, 8CC cod% ,#"i&* #r% (uncturin2 ,or )i2)%r cod% r#t%$ #nd n%$tin2 ,or /%r* &o: r#t% #nd &o: co"(&%1it* codin2. 1ate,com!atib e !unctured con/o&ution#& (8CPC) cod%$ #r% o't#in%d '* (uncturin2 # con/o&ution#& cod% o, r#t% 8M!Gn #nd con$tr#int &%n2t) C< c#&&%d t)% (#r%nt cod%. T)i$ 8CPC cod%$ #r% $(%ci,i%d '* it$ 2%n%r#tor (o&*no"i#&$. T)% r#t% co"(#ti'i&it* crit%rion d%cid%$ )o: :% )#/% to (unctur% t)% cod%. T)% r#t% co"(#ti'i&it* crit%rion "%#n$ t)#t t)% &o:%r r#t% cod%$ u$% $#"% cod%d 'it$ #$ )i2)%r r#t% cod%$ (&u$ on% or "or% #ddition#& 'it($). T)% (uncturin2 "#tri1 o, $i;% nP( d%t%r"in%$ t)% nu"'%r o, 'it$ t)#t #r% 2oin2 to '% (unctur%d. T)% nu"'%r o, cod% r#t%$ #nd r#t% r%$o&ution #r% d%t%r"in%d '* t)% nu"'%r o, co&u"n$ or t)% (%riod ( o, t)% (uncturin2 "#tri1 =! >. )rom a !arent code o& rate 1Bn8 'e obtain a &ami + o& 4n,15! di&&erent codes 'it$ rates 1P !B4n!58 !B4n!,15 RR. !B4!N15. T$e !rob em 'it$ 1"." codes is t$e imited number o& code rates. Eo' t$e codes 'it$ constraint en-t$s o& 7 are avai ab e. =ut &or t$e ce u ar s+stem 'e need codes o& constraint en-t$s o& at east 9. 3o 'e are combinin- t$e 1"." codes and nested convo utiona codes to -et t$e desired codes. Eested codes are obtained b+ e6tendin- a code rate o& 1Bn to a rate o& 1B4nN15. T)% "#in o'B%cti/% o, 8CPC cod%$ (:)ic) i$ $u22%$t%d '* C*'%rt%& $o,t:#r% &i"it%d Co"(#n*) i$ )i2) $%curit* '%c#u$% ,or %/%r* u$%r :% #r% #&&ottin2 # uni4u% (uncturin2 "#tri1 :)ic) c#nnot '% #cc%$$%d '* ot)%r u$%r$. I, t)% 'it r#t% incr%#$%$ t)% co$t incr%#$%$ 'ut t)% u$%r c#n '%#r t)i$ co$t ,or )i2) $%curit* r%#$on$ #nd ,or t)% $*$t%" to '% ro'u$t. T)% "#in dr#:'#c9 o, 8CPC cod%$ i$ incr%#$% in '#nd:idt) du% to )i2) 'it r#t%.

5/5/. Con olution an( Puncturing proce!! in RCPC


1"." 3!reader oB! "onvo ution .uncturinModu ator iB!

= oc0 %ia-ram1 27 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

Out!ut1

3!reader oB!

,1

,1

,1

Out!ut2

Out!ut3

= oc0 %ia-ram2 Fi2ur%5? B&oc9 di#2r#" !Q2 $)o:$ t)% Con/o&ution #nd Puncturin2 (roc%$$ in 8CPC ;n t$e convo ution !rocess t$e re-isters are assi-ned 'it$ a de&au t va ue o& ,1. ($en t$e out!ut &rom t$e s!reader is -iven to t$e convo ution dia-ram8 t$e &irst bit &rom t$e out!ut is !rocessed t$rou-$ t$e re-isters and t$e va ues in t$e re-isters are s$i&ted b+ one bit. T$at means t$e bit in t$e &irst re-ister is s$i&ted to second one and t$e bit in t$e second re-ister is s$i&ted to t$ird re-ister so on. /i0e t$at t$e !rocess is continued &or a s!reader. For %1#"(&% t)% out(ut ,ro" t)% $(r%#d%r i$ 3!6!. T)%n t)% ,ir$t 'it ,ro" t)% out(ut J!K i$ #$$i2n%d to t)% ,ir$t r%2i$t%r #nd t)% /#&u% in t)#t r%2i$t%r i$ $)i,t%d to t)% $%cond on% #nd $o on. T)%n t)% /#&u%$ in t)% r%2i$t%r$ #r% !3!3!. For on% in(ut 'it :% :i&& 2%t t)r%% out(ut 'it$. ;n t$e !uncturin- !rocess t$e out!ut t$at obtained &rom t$e convo ution !rocess is com!ared 'it$ t$e !uncturin- "#tri1. T)% (uncturin2 "#tri1 :i&& '% di,,%r%nt ,or di,,%r%nt u$%r$. T)% ,ir$t 'it ,ro" t)% con/o&ution (roc%$$ i$ co"(#r%d :it) t)% ,ir$t 'it ,ro" t)% (uncturin2 "#tri1. I, t)% ,ir$t 'it in t)% "#tri1 i$ J!K:% :i&& t#9% t)#t 'it #nd i, it i$ J6K :% :i&& cut t)#t 'it #nd co"(#r% t)% $%cond 'it ,ro" t)% con/o&ution (roc%$$ :it) t)% $%cond 'it ,ro" t)% "#tri1. So in t)i$ :#* :% :i&& r%duc% t)% con/o&ution out(ut 'it$. t$e bits in t$e out!ut o& t$e

22 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

5...2 S%#rc) Crit%rion ,or Good 8CPC Cod%$


T$ere is no s+stematic met$od is avai ab e &or constructin- -ood rate 1"." codes. 3o our a!!roac$ is based on t$at D-ood codes -enerate -ood codes<. T$e best 0no'n 438 15 code o& memor+ M is c$osen as t$e mot$er code and is used to determine t$e !uncturin- matrices t$at 'i +ie d a &ami + o& best 1"." codes o& same M@1#A. A true $i-$ rate structure &or 1"." codes is assumed and e6tensive com!uter searc$es 'ere !er&ormed to eva uate t$e 'ei-$t s!ectra o& t$e codes. T$e criterion o& -oodness 'as t$e ma6imum &ree distance d & and minimum tota number o& bit errors cd !roduced b+ a incorrect !at$s 'it$ distance d S d & '$ic$ diver-e &rom t$e correct !at$. ;n -enera t$ese codes are not as -ood as t$e best 0no'n $i-$ rate codes o& t$e same rate and M @16A. T)% $%#rc) (roc%dur% #$ ,o&&o:$ Step .) *elect a 9no:n r#t% !G+ "ot)%r cod% o, "%"or* " #nd t)% (uncturin2 (%riod (. S%t #&& %&%"%nt$ o, "#tri1 A(RM() to !< ,or RM(3! to ! Step 0) *elect an ele%ent aiB< in turn< ,or !S i S n #nd !S BS ( #nd $%t it to ;%ro. Step 1< D%t%r"in% d, #nd cd ,or d T d, .S%&%ct cod% :)ic) 2i/%$ "#1i"u" d , #nd "ini"u" cd ,or d M d, <d,U! < V.. . Di$c#rd c#t#$tro()ic cod%$ #nd cod%$ o, "%"or* &%$$ t)#n M. Step 5< +epeat steps 2 to 3 with the rate-co%pati!ilit" restriction& to fin other puncturing %atrices for the fa%il" of the entire +C,C co es. T)% ,i2ur% !6 $)o:$ t)% r%$u&t o, 8CPC cod%. E4ample) T)% $(r%#d%r out(ut i$ 3! 3! ! ! ! 3! 3! ! ! 3! 3! 3! ! ! T)%n t)% out(ut ,ro" t)% 8CPC codin2 i$ #y u!ing @cA an( mat la% the re!ult co(e i! ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,11 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1

29 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

8igure.D< Co(ing Re!ult of RCPC co(e

5. Modu&#tor
T$e modu ation tec$ni*ue used is in t$is !roject is =inar+ .$ase 3$i&t Fe+in-. T$e simu ation o& t$e modu ator is done b+ t$e o-ic but not usin- an+ &ormu a. T$e o-ic used in t$is is8 ta0e t' o con$i4uti/% 'it$ #nd co"(#r% t)%" i, t)%* #r% $#"% 9%%( t)%" #$ it i$< i, t)%* #r% not $#"% int%rc)#n2% t)%". W% c#n initi#t% t)% BPSC Out(ut MSB :it) %it)%r N!O or N6O< :% )#/% c)o$%n to initi#t% t)% MSB :it) N6O. To o't#in t)% /#&u% o, MSB3! 'it o, t)% BPSC out(ut< :% c)%c9 t)% MSB #nd MSB3! 'it$ o, t)% Mu&ti(&i%r Out(ut. T)% ,i2ur% !! $)o:$ t)% r%$u&t o, t)% "odu&#tor. E4ample< D#t# #,t%r $(r%#din2 D#t# #,t%r "odu&#tion ! A! ! A! A! A! ! A! ! 3! ! ! ! A! A! ! A! ! A! A! A! ! A! ! ! ! A! ! ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,11 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 T$en t$e out!ut &rom t$e Modu ator is 30 MEE07:36

T)% out(ut ,ro" t)% 8CPC codin2 i$

Project Documentation

WCDMA

#y u!ing @cA an( mat la% the re!ult co(e i! -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 ! ! 3! 3! 3! 3! 3! ! 3! ! 3! 3! 3! 3! 3! 3! ! ! ! 3! 3! !

8igure..< Co(ing Re!ult of Mo(ulator Tran!mitte( !prea(e( %it!

5.- D%"odu&#tor
;t 'or0s on t$e same !rinci! e as t$at o& Modu ator. T$e modu ation tec$ni*ue used is =inar+ .$ase 3$i&t Fe+in-. T$e simu ation $as been done t$e o-ic e6! ained be o' and not usin- t$e &ormu a. Ta0e to consecutive bits and com!are t$em i& t$e+ are same 0ee! t$em as it is8 i& t$e+ are not same interc$an-e t$em. T$e &i-ure12 s$o's t$e codin- resu t o& demodu ator. E4ample: 1eceived data T1 1 T1 1 T1 T1 T1 1 T1 1 1 1 T1 1 %ata a&ter demodu ation 1 T1 1 T1 T1 T1 1 T1 1 ,1 1 1 1 T1 T$e out!ut &rom t$e Modu ator is ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 3! 3! 3! 3! 3! ! ! ! 3! 3! ! T)%n t)% out(ut ,ro" t)% D%3"odu&#tor i$ 31 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1

8igure.0< Co(ing Re!ult of Demo(ulator Output

5.7 8CPC D%codin2


T$e out!ut obtained &rom t$e %e,modu ator is a convo uted one i.e. done b+ t$e 1"." codin-8 so to -et t$e out!ut at receiver end 'e need 1"." decodin- a&ter t$e %e,modu ator. T$e 1"." decodin- 'or0s same as t$at o& 1"." codin-. T)% ,i2ur%!+ $)o:$ t)% codin2 r%$u&t o, 8CPC D%codin2. E4ample) T)% out(ut ,ro" t)% D%3"odu&#tor i$ ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 T)%n t)% d%con/o&ut%d out(ut i$ B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ -1 ,1 1 1 1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1

32 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

8igure.1< Co(ing Re!ult of RCPC Deco(ing

2. MATCLED FILTE8 OPE8ATION


2.! M#tc)%d Fi&t%r

33 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

94t5 O
"04t5

Matc$ed )i ter

+0
K

8igure!.? Con/%ntion#& Cod% G%n%r#tor (M#tc)%d Fi&t%r) Matc$ed &i ter8 '$ic$ is a so 0no' as "onventiona %etector is used to reduce t$e noise si-na content in t$e ori-ina si-na . T$e o!eratin- !rinci! e o& a matc$ed &i ter is t$at 'e 'i send a 0no'n si-na to t$e si-na t$at contains noise in t$at. T$en t$e 0no'n si-na 8 or tem! ate8 corre ates 'it$ an un0no'n si-na to detect t$e !resence o& noise in t$at. T$e matc$ed &i ter 'i ma6imiIe t$e si-na to noise ratio 43E15 in t$e !resence o& additive stoc$astic noise. ;t is es!ecia + &or sin- e user desi-ns8 as it doesn?t consider an+ ot$er users in t$e communication c$anne 8 t$ere&ore its not so robust to as+nc$ro ni$"< ,#din2 c)#nn%&$ or PN $%4u%nc%$ :it) cro$$ corr%&#tion =!0>. T)% ,i2ur% $)o:$ # "od%& o, "#tc)%d ,i&t%r or con/%ntion#& cod% d%t%ctor. A$$u"in2 # 'it $*nc)ronou$ $*$t%" :it) no c)#nn%& d*n#"ic$ or (o:%r /#ri#tion$< t)% out(ut o, t)% "#tc)%d ,i&t%r i$ d%,in%d #$

*9 M

u(t)c9(t) dt

+9 M Pi9 U MAI9 U:(t) ($ere .i0 is cross corre ation densit+ o& c0 MAI i$ "u&ti(&% #cc%$$ int%r,%r%nc% #nd W(t) i$ ,i&t%r%d AWGN T$e Matc$ed )i ter O!eration -enerated '* D%32o&d Cod% G%n%r#tor #nd D%$(r%#d%r :i&& t#9%$ (&#c%. T)% ,i2ur%! $)o:$ t)% codin2 out(ut o, M#tc)%d Fi&t%r. E4ample< T)% d%con/o&ut%d out(ut i$ 31 ,1 1 1 1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1 T$en t$e out!ut &rom t$e Matc$ed &i ter is #y u!ing @cA an( mat la% the re!ult co(e i! ,1 ,1 1 1 1 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 1

34 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

8igure.2< Co(ing Re!ult of Matche( 8ilter

2/0 8%c%i/%r P$%udo3Noi$% S%4u%nc% G%n%r#tor


T$e .E 3e*uences can be -enerated b+ inear &eedbac0 s$i&t re-isters.

2.2.! 8%c%i/%r Lin%#r F%%d'#c9 S)i,t 8%2i$t%r$


C%r% t)% 8%c%i/%r LFS8 :or9$ #$ $#"% #$ LFS8F$ (roc%dur%. T)% ,i2ur% !-Q!7 $)o:$ t)% codin2 r%$u&t o, 8%c%i/%r .E se*uence1 and .E se*uence2. E4ample: No. o, 'it$ in LFS8! i$ + #nd $%4u%nc% i$ ! ! A! Enter t$e no o& ta!s 2 Ta! ocations are 1 and 3 T)%n PN $%4u%nc% ! i$ B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1

3# MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

8igure.B< Co(ing Re!ult of Recei er P- !e7uence. E4ample) No. o, 'it$ in LFS8 2 i$ + #nd $%4u%nc% i$ ! 3! ! Enter t$e no o& ta!s 2 T#( &oc#tion$ #r% ! #nd 2 T)%n PN $%4u%nc% 2 i$ B* u$in2 JcK #nd "#t &#' t)% r%$u&t cod% i$ 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1

36 MEE07:36

Project Documentation 8igure.=< Co(ing Re!ult of Recei er P- !e7uence0

WCDMA

2/1 De6gol( co(e generator


T$e out!ut &rom t$e Matc$ed &i ter is de,s!readed b+ usin- %e,-o d code -enerator into t$e out!ut at t$e receiver end. )ina + 'e 'i -et t$e desired out!ut at t$e receiver end 'it$out an+ oss o& in&ormation at t$e $i-$ rate o& transmission. T$e &i-ure 12 s$o's t$e codin- resu t o& %e,7o d code -enerator. E4ample< PN $%4u%nc%! i$ 3! ! ! 3! 3! 3! ! PN $%4u%nc%2 i$ ! 3! ! 3! 3! ! 3! #y u!ing @cA an( mat la% the re!ult co(e i! ,1 T1 1 1 1 ,1 T1

8igure.C< Co(ing Re!ult of Recei er 3ol( co(e generator

2.. D%-S(r%#d%r
;n order to -et messa-e bit &rom s!readed received bits8 'e are usin- t'o tec$ni*ues. 1. "om!are received data 'it$ -o d code i& t$e+ are same8 received data bit is 18 i& t$e+ are o!!osite received data is T1. 2. Mu ti! + received bits 'it$ -o d code bits and count number o& ones and minus ones8 and received messa-e bit is decided de!endin- u! on t$e majorit+ o& ones or minus ones '$ic$ ever ma+ be $i-$er. 37 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

. Fin#& D#t# 8%c%i/%d


)ina + t$e data is received 'it$ out an+ oss o& in&ormation at $i-$ rate o& transmission :)ic) in(ut 2i/%n :)i&% d#t# tr#n$,%rrin2. E4ample? T)e received messa-e bits are 1 T1

32 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

B/ CO-C'US+O-S
T$ere are a ar-e variet+ o& so utions to t$e !rob em o& mu ti! e access to a re!eater b+ a -rou! o& net'or0 stations. )or continuous tra&&ic8 )%MA8 T%MA L "%MA access tec$ni*ues are t$e most a!!ro!riate. Eo'ada+s ("%MA $as more advanced tec$ni*ues '$ic$ invo ves 'it$ te e!$one tra&&ic8 te evision transmission and videocon&erencin-. %es!ite its o' t$rou-$!ut8 "%MA ma+ be !re&erred to )%MA L T%MA8 '$ic$ oses its e&&icienc+ and re*uires re ative + cost + eart$ station e*ui!ment res!ective +. T$e current s+stem $as more user,&riend + nature since its &eatures can be easi + accessed. In t)i$ (roB%ct :% (r%,%rr%d 8CPC '%c#u$% :% c#n tr#n$,%r t)% d#t# $%cur%&* #nd r#(id&* :it) out #n* &o$$ o, in,or"#tion. T$e dra'bac0 o& our !roject is i, :% incr%#$% t)% ,r%4u%nc* t)% '#nd :idt) i$ #&$o incr%#$%d. So :% did our (roB%ct :it) &%$$ '#nd:idt). (e conc&ud% t)#t t)i$ (roB%ct c#n '% ,urt)%r %1t%nd%d $o t)#t t)% r%$u&t#nt i$ "uc) $o()i$tic#t%d t)#n t)i$.

39 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

=/ APPE-D+E
=/. C Program
Uinc udeVstdio.$W Uinc udeVconio.$W Uinc udeVmat$.$W void main45 X FG(eclareation! 5 T4 partGF int &sr1@#0A8!ns1@#0A8 &sr2@#0A8!ns2@#0A8-o dcode@#0A8i8j808tem!> int s!reader@100A8ms-@#0A8 > int re-1P18re-2P18re-3P18out!ut@#00A> int !matri6@2#APX0818181818180818180818180818181818180818180818180Y> int &ina out!ut@#00A8tm!@300A8IP0> int t!se*@10A8n8m8 en8count> int enZ&ina out!ut8modu atedout!ut@400A> FG(eclaration! 5 R4 partGF int enZmodu atedout!ut8demodu atedout!ut@400A> int !revZstate@4APX1818181Y8currentZstate@4A8*8!8out8tem!out@#0A8vP1> int matc$edout!ut@100A8d8'8-> int receivedms-@#0A8& a-1P18& a-2P18bP18var> BBc rscr45> FGprogram for lf!r. !tart! hereGF !rint&4Henter t$e va ue o& no. o& bits &or -eneratin- noise in &sr1[nH5> scan&4H\dH8Ln5> !rint&4Henter t$e n bit se*uence in 1 L ,1[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPn>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8L &sr1@iA5> !rint&4Henter t$e no o& ta!s[n H5> scan&4H\dH8Lm5> !rint&4HEnter t$e ta! ocations bet'een 1Ln[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPm>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8Lt!se*@iA5> enP4!o'428n5,15> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 X !ns1@jAP &sr1@nA> 40 MEE07:36

Project Documentation tem!P1> &or40P1>0VPm>0NN5 X tem!Ptem!O &sr1@t!se*@0AA> Y &or4iPn>iWP2>i,,5 X &sr1@iAP &sr1@i,1A> Y &sr1@1APtem!> Y !rint&4H[n .nse* is[nH5> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8!ns1@jA5> FGprogram for lf!r0 !tart! hereGF !rint&4H [nenter t$e va ue o& no. o& bits &or -eneratin- noise in &sr2[nH5> scan&4H\dH8Ln5> !rint&4Henter t$e n bit se*uence in 1 L ,1[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPn>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8L &sr2@iA5> !rint&4Henter t$e no o& ta!s[n H5> scan&4H\dH8Lm5> !rint&4HEnter t$e ta! ocations bet'een 1Ln[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPm>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8Lt!se*@iA5> enP4!o'428n5,15> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 X !ns2@jAP &sr2@nA> tem!P1> &or40P1>0VPm>0NN5 X tem!Ptem!O &sr2@t!se*@0AA> Y &or4iPn>iWP2>i,,5 X &sr2@iAP &sr2@i,1A> Y &sr2@1APtem!> Y !rint&4H[n .nse* is[nH5> 41 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8!ns2@jA5> FGprog 5 gl(co(eGF &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 X -o dcode@iAP!ns1@iAO!ns2@iA> Y !rint&4H[n -o dcode is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8-o dcode@iA5> FGprog 0 generate !prea(er outputGF !rint&4H[nenter t$e no. o& messa-e bit[nH5> scan&4H\dH8L 5> !rint&4H[nenter t$e bit messa-e se*uence in 1 and ,1[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP >iNN5 scan&4H\dH8Lms-@iA5> &or4jP0>jV >jNN5 X &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 X s!reader@iN4jO en5APms-@jN1AO-o dcode@iA> Y Y !rint&4Hs!reader out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP4 O en5>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8s!reader@iA5> FGprogram 5 Rate Compati%le Puncturing Con olution co(ingGF &or4iP18jP0>iVP4 O en5O38jVP44 O enO35,15>iNN8jNN5 X re-3Pre-2> re-2Pre-1> re-1Ps!reader@iA> out!ut@iN4jO25APre-1> out!ut@iN4jO25N1APre-1Ore-3> out!ut@iN4jO25N2APre-1Ore-2Ore-3> Y !rint&4H[n t$e out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP4 O enO35>iNN5 42 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation !rint&4H\d[tH8out!ut@iA5> BO!ro-ram 4 !uncturin- matri6OB jP0> countP0> &or4iP1>iVP4 O enO35>iNN5 X i&4iVP245 X oo!: i&4!matri6@i,424Oj5APP15 X &ina out!ut@i,IAPout!ut@iA> countNN> Y e se X tm!@iAPout!ut@iA> IPIN1> Y Y e se i&4 iW24 LL iVP424O4jN1555 X -oto oo!> Y e se i&4jV4jN155 X jNN> -oto oo!> Y Y !rint&4H[nt$e &ina out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPcount>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8&ina out!ut@iA5> FGprogram to o%tain output from mo(ulatorGF enZ&ina out!utPcount\2> i& 4 enZ&ina out!utPP05 X 43 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation &or4iP1>iVPcount>iPiN25 X i&4&ina out!ut@iAPP&ina out!ut@iN1A5 X modu atedout!ut@iAP&ina out!ut@iA> modu atedout!ut@iN1AP&ina out!ut@iN1A> Y e se X modu atedout!ut@iAP&ina out!ut@iN1A> modu atedout!ut@iN1AP&ina out!ut@iA> Y Y Y e se X countPcount,1> &or4iP1>iVPcount>iPiN25 X i&4&ina out!ut@iAPP&ina out!ut@iN1A5 X modu atedout!ut@iAP&ina out!ut@iA> modu atedout!ut@iN1AP&ina out!ut@iN1A> Y e se X modu atedout!ut@iAP&ina out!ut@iN1A> modu atedout!ut@iN1AP&ina out!ut@iA> Y Y modu atedout!ut@countN1AP&ina out!ut@countN1A> countPcountN1> Y !rint&4H[n t$e modu ated out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPcount>iNN5 X !rint&4H\d[tH8modu atedout!ut@iA5> Y FGE-D O8 TRA-SM+SS+O- PARTGF FG START O8 RECEPT+O- PARTGF FGprogram for (emo(ulation of recie e( (ataGF 44 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation

WCDMA

enZmodu atedout!utPcount\2> i& 4 enZmodu atedout!utPP05 X &or4iP1>iVPcount>iPiN25 X i&4modu atedout!ut@iAPPmodu atedout!ut@iN1A5 X demodu atedout!ut@iAPmodu atedout!ut@iA> demodu atedout!ut@iN1APmodu atedout!ut@iN1A> Y e se X demodu atedout!ut@iAPmodu atedout!ut@iN1A> demodu atedout!ut@iN1APmodu atedout!ut@iA> Y Y Y e se X countPcount,1> &or4iP1>iVPcount>iPiN25 X i&4modu atedout!ut@iAPPmodu atedout!ut@iN1A5 X demodu atedout!ut@iAPmodu atedout!ut@iA> demodu atedout!ut@iN1APmodu atedout!ut@iN1A> Y e se X demodu atedout!ut@iAPmodu atedout!ut@iN1A> demodu atedout!ut@iN1APmodu atedout!ut@iA> Y Y demodu atedout!ut@countN1APmodu atedout!ut@countN1A> countPcountN1> Y !rint&4H[n t$e demodu ated out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPcount>iNN5 X !rint&4H\d[tH8demodu atedout!ut@iA5> Y FGprogram 0 get (econ olute( outputGF 4# MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

!P0> *P0> outP1> jP1> oo!1: &or4iP1>iVP24>iPiN35 X i&444iN*5,!5VPcount5 X BB !rint&4H!rev1P\d !rev2P\d !rev3P\d[nH8!revZstate@1A8!revZstate@2A8!revZstate@3A5> i&4!matri6@iAPP1LL!matri6@iN1APP1LL!matri6@iN2APP15 X currentZstate@1APdemodu atedout!ut@4iN*5,!A> currentZstate@2APdemodu atedout!ut@44iN*5,!5N1A> currentZstate@3APdemodu atedout!ut@44iN*5,!5N2A>

BB !rint&4Hcurr1P\d curr2P\d curr3P \d[nH8currentZstate@1A8currentZstate@2A8currentZstate@3A 5> i&4!revZstate@1APP1LL!revZstate@2APP1LL!revZstate@3APP15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,1LLcurrentZstate@3APP,15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP1LLcurrentZstate@3APP15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y Y e se X BB !NN> -oto oo!2> Y BB !rint&4Htem!out@\dAP\d[nH8j8out5> !revZstate@1APcurrentZstate@1A> !revZstate@2APcurrentZstate@2A> !revZstate@3APcurrentZstate@3A> Y 46 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

e se i&4!matri6@iAPP1LL!matri6@iN1APP1LL!matri6@iN2APP05 X currentZstate@1APdemodu atedout!ut@4iN*5,!A> currentZstate@2APdemodu atedout!ut@44iN*5,!5N1A> NN!> oo!2: i&4!revZstate@1APP,1LL!revZstate@2APP,15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP1LL!revZstate@2APP15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP,1LL!revZstate@2APP,15 47 MEE07:36

Project Documentation X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP1LL!revZstate@2APP,15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP,1LL!revZstate@2APP15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP1LL!revZstate@2APP,15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X 42 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y Y i&4!revZstate@1APP,1LL!revZstate@2APP15 X i&4currentZstate@1APP1LLcurrentZstate@2APP,15 X tem!out@jAP1> outNN> Y e se i&4currentZstate@1APP,1LLcurrentZstate@2APP15 X tem!out@jAP,1> outNN> Y Y !revZstate@1APcurrentZstate@1A> !revZstate@2APcurrentZstate@2A> !revZstate@3AP0> Y jNN> Y Y *P24Ov> vNN> '$i e4*VPcount5 -oto oo!1> !rint&4Ht$e deconvo uted decoder out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP4out,15>iNN5 X !rint&4H\d[tH8tem!out@iA5> Y FGPRO3RAM 8OR MATC*ED 8+'TER OPERAT+O-GF FGprogram for lf!r. !tart! hereGF !rint&4H[n enter t$e va ue o& no. o& bits &or -eneratin- noise in &sr1[nH5> scan&4H\dH8Ln5> 49 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation !rint&4Henter t$e n bit se*uence in 1 L ,1[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPn>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8L &sr1@iA5> !rint&4Henter t$e no o& ta!s[n H5> scan&4H\dH8Lm5> !rint&4HEnter t$e ta! ocations bet'een 1Ln[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPm>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8Lt!se*@iA5> enP4!o'428n5,15> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 X !ns1@jAP &sr1@nA> tem!P1> &or40P1>0VPm>0NN5 X tem!Ptem!O &sr1@t!se*@0AA> Y &or4iPn>iWP2>i,,5 X &sr1@iAP &sr1@i,1A> Y &sr1@1APtem!> Y !rint&4H[n .nse* is[nH5> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8!ns1@jA5> FGprogram for lf!r0 !tart! hereGF !rint&4H [nenter t$e va ue o& no. o& bits &or -eneratin- noise in &sr2[nH5> scan&4H\dH8Ln5> !rint&4Henter t$e n bit se*uence in 1 L ,1[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPn>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8L &sr2@iA5> !rint&4Henter t$e no o& ta!s[n H5> scan&4H\dH8Lm5> !rint&4HEnter t$e ta! ocations bet'een 1Ln[nH5> &or4iP1>iVPm>iNN5 scan&4H\dH8Lt!se*@iA5> enP4!o'428n5,15> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 X !ns2@jAP &sr2@nA> #0 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation tem!P1> &or40P1>0VPm>0NN5 X tem!Ptem!O &sr2@t!se*@0AA> Y &or4iPn>iWP2>i,,5 X &sr2@iAP &sr2@i,1A> Y &sr2@1APtem!> Y !rint&4H[n .nse* is[nH5> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8!ns2@jA5> FGprog 5 gl(co(eGF &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 X -o dcode@iAP!ns1@iAO!ns2@iA> Y !rint&4H[n -o dcode is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8-o dcode@iA5> dP0> 'P1> -P1> oo!4: &or4iP1>iVP en>iNN5 X i&4tem!out@iNdAPP-o dcode@iA]]tem!out@iNdAPP,-o dcode@iA5 X matc$edout!ut@iNdAPtem!out@iNdA> 'NN> Y Y i&4'W en LL 'VP4out,155 X dP enO-> -NN> -oto oo!4> Y

WCDMA

#1 MEE07:36

Project Documentation !rint&4H[n t$e matc$ed &i ter out!ut is[nH5> &or4iP1>iVP4out,15>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8matc$edout!ut@iA5> FGfinal program 0 recie e the original me!!age %it!9(e!prea(ing operation:GF varP0> &or4iP1>iVP4out,15>iPiN en5 X & a-1P1> & a-2P1> &or4jP1>jVP en>jNN5 X i&4matc$edout!ut@jNvarAPP-o dcode@jA5 X & a-1NN> Y i&4matc$edout!ut@jNvarAPP,-o dcode@jA5 X & a-2NN> Y Y varP enNvar> i&4& a-1W& a-25 X receivedms-@bAP1> bNN> Y e se i&4& a-1V& a-25 X receivedms-@bAP,1> bNN> Y Y !rint&4H[n t$e received messa-e bits are[nH5> &or4iP1>iVb>iNN5 !rint&4H\d[tH8receivedms-@iA5> -etc$45> Y

WCDMA

#2 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

=/0 MAT 'A# Co(ing


BO.ro-ram &or &sr1 \c ear a \T/P@A> /Pin!ut4^enter t$e intia state o& !ns1 -en^5> ta! rPin!ut4^enter ta! oc o& !ns1^5> enP en-t$4/5> nota!P en-t$4ta! r5> &or !nP1:1:2_ en,1 !n14!n5P/4 en5> \&edP/4#5O/425> \&edP/415O/435O/445> \T/P@T/>/A> &edP1> &or tP1:1:nota! &edP&edO/4ta! r4t55> end &or mP en:,1:2 /4m5P/4m,15> end /415P&ed> end &i-ure> stem4!n15> tit e4^.E 3e*uence 1^5> BO.ro-ram &or &sr2 \c ear a \T/P@A> /Pin!ut4^enter t$e intia state o& !ns2 -en^5> ta! rPin!ut4^enter a int no. ta! oc o& !ns2^5> enP en-t$4/5> nota!P en-t$4ta! r5> &or !nP1:1:2_ en,1 !n24!n5P/4 en5> \&edP/4#5O/425> \&edP/415O/425O/435> \T/P@T/>/A> &edP1> &or tP1:1:nota! &edP&edO/4ta! r4t55> end &or mP en:,1:2 #3 MEE07:36

Project Documentation /4m5P/4m,15> end /415P&ed> end &i-ure> stem4!n25 tit e4^.E 3e*uence 2^5> BO.ro-ram &or -o d code -enerator &or iP1:1:42_ en5,1 code4i5P!n14i5O!n24i5> end &i-ure> stem4code5> tit e4^7O/% 3e*uence ^5> BO.ro-ram &or s!reader \c ear a \!ns1> \!ns2> \-o d> dataPin!ut4^enter t$e messa-e^5> s enP2_ en,1> d enP en-t$4data5> &or dtP1:1:d en &or dP1:1:s en s!r44s enO4dt,155Nd5Pdata4dt5Ocode4d5> \0P0N1> end end &i-ure> stem4s!r5> a6is4@1 1 ,1 1A5 tit e4^s!readed messa-e ^5> BO.ro-ram &or rc!c codincco1P@A> s1Ps!r> \s1Ptra> \s1P@1 1 1 ,1 ,1 ,1 1 ,1 1A> re-11P@1A> re-21P@1A> re-31P@1A> &or iP1:1: en-t$4s15 re-31Pre-21> #4 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation re-21Pre-11> re-11Ps14i5> mod11Pre-11> mod21Pre-11Ore-31> mod31Pre-11Ore-21Ore-31> cco1P@cco1> mod11 mod21 mod31A> end \!uncturin- matri6 &or 3B4 \ .P@1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1> 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0A> t6!ccoP@A> @nr ncA P siIe4cco15> &or j P 1:2:nr i& jN7 W nr t!Pnr,j> e se t!P7> end b 0Pcco14j:jNt!8:5> b 0Pb 0^> &or !1P1:1:t!N1 &or moP1:1:nc i& .4mo8!15 PP 1 t6!ccoP@t6!cco b 04mo8!15A> end end end end &i-ure> stem4t6!cco5> tit e4^!unctured bits^5> BO.ro-ram &or modu ator ## MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation modiPt6!cco> emodiP en-t$4modi5> i& 4 mod4 emodi825 `P 0 5 tmod4 emodi5Pmodi4 emodi5> emodiP emodi,1> end &or tbP1:2: emodi\ en-t$4data5O0 i& modi4tb5PPmodi4tbN15 tmod4tb5Pmodi4tb5> tmod4tbN15Pmodi4tbN15> e se tmod4tb5Pmodi4tbN15> tmod4tbN15Pmodi4tb5> end end &i-ure> stem4tmod5> tit e4^Transmitted s!readed bits^5> \traPtmod> BOOr !ro-ram &or trans&ormation c ear a > !ns1> !ns2> -o d> s!read> cod1> !unc> modu> \ dataP@1 save test> BO.ro-ram &or demodu ator demodiPtmod> edemodiP en-t$4demodi5> i& 4 mod4 edemodi825 `P 0 5 rdemod4 edemodi5Pdemodi4 edemodi5> edemodiP edemodi,1> #6 MEE07:36 ,1 ,1 1 1 ,1A >

WCDMA

Project Documentation end &or tbP1:2: edemodi\ en-t$4data5O0 i& demodi4tb5 PP demodi4tbN15 rdemod4tb5 P demodi4tb5> rdemod4tbN15 P demodi4tbN15> e se rdemod4tb5Pdemodi4tbN15> rdemod4tbN15Pdemodi4tb5> end end &i-ure stem4rdemod5 tit e4^demodu ator out!ut^5> \save test11 BO.ro-ram &or r &sr1 \c ear a T/P@A> /Pin!ut4^enter t$e intia state o& !ns1 -en o& t$e receiver^5> ta! rPin!ut4^enter a int no. ta! oc o& !ns1 o& t$e receiver^5> enP en-t$4/5> nota!P en-t$4ta! r5> &or !nP1:1:2_ en,1 r!n14!n5P/4 en5> \&edP/4#5O/425> \&edP/415O/435O/445> T/P@T/>/A> &edP1> &or tP1:1:nota! &edP&edO/4ta! r4t55> end &or mP en:,1:2 /4m5P/4m,15> end /415P&ed> end &i-ure> stem4r!n15> tit e4^receiver .E se*uence 1^5> #7 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation BO.ro-ram &or &sr2 \c ear a T/P@A> /Pin!ut4^enter t$e intia state o& !ns2 -en o& t$e receiver^5> ta! rPin!ut4^enter a int no. ta! oc o& !ns2 o& t$e receiver^5> enP en-t$4/5> nota!P en-t$4ta! r5> &or !nP1:1:2_ en,1 r!n24!n5P/4 en5> \&edP/4#5O/425> \&edP/415O/425O/435> T/P@T/>/A> &edP1> &or tP1:1:nota! &edP&edO/4ta! r4t55> end &or mP en:,1:2 /4m5P/4m,15> end /415P&ed> end &i-ure> stem4r!n25> tit e4^receiver .E se*uence 2^5> BOPro2r#" ,or d%2o&d 2%n%r#tor &or iP1:1:42_ en5,1 rcode4i5Pr!n14i5Or!n24i5> end &i-ure> stem4rcode5> tit e4^receiver -o d code^5> BOPro2r#" ,or rc(c d%codin2 W(n$!H W(n$2H W2o&dH W$(r%#dH Wcod!H W(uncH W"oduH (r%/!M=! ! !>H W u$%d #$ (r%/ $t#t% in ord%r to d%cod% t)% $*"'o& r%c%!M=>H W d%cod%d "%$$#2% #2 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation d%conc!M=>H W d%con/o&utio out(ut 9M!H W count$ nu"'% ro, 'it$ r%c%i/%d W&onM6H W=ro:$ co>M$i;%(cco!)H ,or iM!?!?ro:$ r(ccoMrd%"odH r%(ccoMrd%"odH Wr%(ccoMt1(ccoH Wr&%M&%n2t)(r%(cco)H WnitM,&oor(r&%G0)H WdnitM"od(r&%<0)H WdncodMr(cco(r&%3dnitU!?r&%)H r%(ccoMr%(cco(!?r&%3dnit)H r%&%M&%n2t)(r%(cco)H W,or CCM!?9?r%&% W9M!H :)i&% 9 XM r%&% ,or iM!?!?0 i, 9 Y r%&% 'r%#9 %nd curr!M=>H LM6H ,or BM!?!?+ i, P(B<i) MM ! LMLU!H %nd %nd Wcurr!M=r%(cco(CCU93!?CC3!U9UL3!)>H curr!M=r%(cco(9?9UL3!)>H 9M9ULH i, &%n2t)(curr!) MM 2 (r%/!M=(r%/!(!?2)>H %nd i, &%n2t)((r%/!) MM 2 curr!M=curr!(!?2)>H %nd Wi, &%n2t)(r%c%!)MM!! #9 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation W ddddM6H W%nd Wcurr!Mcco!(i<?)H i, &%n2t)(r%c%!) MM +0 W &onMM!666H W%nd i, &%n2t)(curr!) MM + Q &%n2t)((r%/!) MM + i, (r%/! MM = ! ! ! > i, curr! MM = ! ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! 3! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = ! ! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! 3! ! > i, curr! MM = ! 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = ! 3! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! ! ! > i, curr! MM = ! ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = ! 3! ! > 60 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation i, curr! MM = ! 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! ! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %nd %&$% i, (r%/! MM = ! ! > i, curr! MM = ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = ! 3! > i, curr! MM = ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %&$%i, (r%/! MM = 3! ! > 61 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation i, curr! MM = ! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = ! 3! > d%conc! M = d%conc! ! >H %&$%i, curr! MM = 3! ! > d%conc! M = d%conc! 3! >H %nd %nd %nd (r%/!Mcurr!H %nd W,or &oo( %nd$ %nd W:)i&% &oo( %nd$ r%c%!Md%conc!H ,i2ur%H $t%"(r%c%!<D2D)H tit&%(Dd%cod%d out(utD)H BOPro2r#" ,or "#tc)%d ,i&t%r ,or iM!?$&%n?d&%nZ$&%n #Mr%c%!(i?iU$&%n3!)H i, #MMrcod% [ #MM3rcod% "#tc)(i?iU$&%n3!)M#H %nd %nd ,i2ur%H $t%"("#tc)<D'D)H tit&%(D"#tc)%d ,i&t%r out(ut D)H BOPro2r#" ,or d%$(r%#d%r 9M!H ,or iM!?$&%n?d&%nZ$&%nH #M"#tc)(i?iU$&%n3!)H i, #MMrcod% dout(9)M!H %&$% dout(9)M3!H %nd 62 MEE07:36

WCDMA

Project Documentation 9M9U!H W,or BM!?!?$&%n W d%(B)M#(B)Zrcod%(B)H W %nd W on%$M6H W "on%$M6H W ,or BM!?!?$&%n W i, d%(B) MM ! W on%$Mon%$U!H W %&$%i, d%(B) MM 3! W "on%$M"on%$U!H W %nd W %nd W Wi, on%$ Y "on%$ W d#t#out(9)M!H W%&$% W d#t#out(9)M3!H W%nd W9M9U!H %nd ,i2ur% $t%"(dout<D'D) tit&%(Dd#t# r%c%i/%d D)H BOor (ro2r#" ,or r%c%i/%r d%"oduH r(n$!H r(n$2H r2o&dH dcod!2H "#tc),H d%$(r%#dH

WCDMA

C/ BIBLIOG8APL\
63 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

1. JJCo"(ut%r n%t:or9$KK '* Andr%: S. T#n%n'#u" Fourt) Edition< Pu'&i$)%r? Pr%ntic% )#&&< Pu'&i$) d#t%? Au2u$t 65< 2662. 2. $tt!:BBen.'i0i!edia.or-B'i0iBMobi eZ!$one 3. A'out t)% di,,%r%nt 2%n%r#tion$ #nd t%c)no&o2i%$3 $tt!:BB'''.na'ras.com.omB- ossar+Za,e.s$tm $tt!:BB'''.itu.intBos-Bs!uBniB37Btec$no o-+Binde6.$tm 4. QQS*$t%"3D%,in%d D%$i2n #nd P%r,or"#nc% o, 8FICD$ ,or WCDMA Mo'i&% 8#dio T%r"in#&$KK '* L. M#ur%r!< C. L#n$c)]t;%r2< A. S(rin2%r+< 8. W%i2%&. 3)tt(?GG:::.ii$.%%.%t);.c)Gn:(G&%"onG(u'GM#ur%r^E^I^266!.(d, $tt!:BBen.'i0i!edia.or-B'i0iB(,"%MA $tt!:BB'''.dev6.comB'ire essB%oorB11329 #. $tt!:BB'$ite!a!ers.Idnet.co.u0B0810000006#182601#1429!800.$tm 6. $tt!:BB'''.sss,ma-.comBss.$tm 7. $tt!:BB'''.mobi edia.comB- ossar+B271.$tm 2. $tt!:BB'''.'tec.or-B o+o aB'ire essB02Z04.$tm 9. QQ3ate ite "ommunications 3+stem?? b+ Mic$e e =ous*uet8 7erard Mara 8 .ub is$ed 2002 :o$n (i e+ ans 3ons8 ;3=E 0471496#4#. !6. $tt!:BB'''.mobi ea manac.comB- ossar+B2Z-,T%MA.$tm 11. $tt!:BB'''.&unsms.netBcdma.$tm !2. QQ=roadband Po:%r &in% co""unic#tion$ N%t:or9$KK '* L#&id Lr#$nic#< A'd%&,#tt%)< 266 +S#-< 97204702#7410 13. $tt!:BB$ome!a-e.mac.comBa&jB &sr.$tm 14. $tt!:BB'''.6i in6.comBbvdocsBa!!notesB6a!!217.!d& 1#. $tt!:BB'''.ist,!$oeni6.or-BdocumentsB%2.2aZv1.0Z&ina .!d& 16. $tt!:BB'''.e ec.m*.edu.auBs$aredB!ub icationsBabstractsB"amera1ead+ZManuscri!tZ4Z(;T3.0 6.!d& QQ8#t%3co"(#ti'&% (unctur%d con/o&ution cod%$ (8CPC cod%$) #nd t)%ir #((&ic#tion$KK '* L#2%n#u%r. @ #nd DFVL8 in A(ri& !500(/o& +-) 17. Ee' 1ate,"om!atib e .unctured "onvo utiona "odes &or Jiterbi %ecodin64 MEE07:36

Project Documentation

WCDMA

/. C. ". /ee #nd @. Sod)# 3$tt!:BB'''.e ec.m*.edu.auBs$aredB!ub icationsBabstractsB"amera, 1ead+ZManuscri!tZ4Z(;T3.06.!d& 12. )tt(?GG%n.:i9i(%di#.or2G:i9iGM#tc)%d^,i&t%r )tt(?GG'#rd.%c%.corn%&&.%duGdo:n&o#d$G$i"^too&$G$(#nc^"%Gr%(ortGnod%!!.)t"& 19. JJDi2it#& Co""unic#tion$ (.t) %dition) ?? '* @o)n G.Pro#9i$< (u'&i$)%d on Au2u$t 2666 McGr#:3Li&& Sci%nc% En2in%%rin2. 20. So"% not%$ on JJ8#t%3co"(#ti'&% (unctur%d tur'o cod%$ (8CPTC) d%$i2nKK '* B#'ic)< F. Motor$i #nd G. V#tt#< F. in "#* 266.(/o& 2) Q QQ8#t% co"(#ti'&% (unctur%d tur'o codin2 ,or W3CDMAKK '* L#$un2 Ci" Stru'%r< G.L. in D%c 2666< ;3=E: 0,7203,#293,7. 21. JJTur'o3cod%d A8_ $c)%"%$ ,or DS3CDMA d#t# n%t:or9$ o/%r ,#din2 #nd $)#do:in2 c)#nn%&$? t)rou2)(ut< d%&#*< #nd %n%r2* %,,ici%nc* ?? '* Tin2,#n2 @i $t#r9< W.E. (u'&i$)%d on #u2u$t 2666(/o& !0)< ;33E: 0733,2716. 22. JJMo'i&% Co""unic#tion$ ?? '* @oc)%n Sc)i&&%r< (u'&i$)%d on !555 '* Addi$on3W%$&%* Lon2"#n Pu'&i$)in2 Co.< Inc< ;3=E: 0,201,39236,2. 23. For C L#n2u#2% JJL%t u$ C ?? '* \#$)#/#nt C#n%t9#r< (u'&i$)%d on 2662 '* BPB (u'&ic#tion$< ;3=E: 2176#66217 L 24. JJMATLAB3 Si2n#& Proc%$$in2 Too&'o1 U$%rK$ Guid% ?? '* T)% M#t) :or9$< Inc< (u'&i$)%d on !55- Q JJG%ttin2 St#rt%d :it) MATLAB 7? A _uic9 Introduction ,or Sci%nti$t$ #nd En2in%%r$ ?? '* 8udr# Pr#t#(< (u'&i$)%d on 266-< ;3=E: 0,19,#17937,4.

6# MEE07:36