You are on page 1of 60

Chapter 1 A brief history of the UN

1.1Introduction The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, de eloping friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better li ing standards and human rights! "ue to its uni#ue international character, and the po$ers forum for its 19( )ember States to e*press their and committees! The $or' of the United Nations reaches e ery corner of the globe! ,lthough best 'no$n for peace'eeping, peacebuilding, conflict pre ention and humanitarian assistance, there are many other $ays the United Nations and its System .specialized agencies, funds and programmes/ affect our li es and ma'e the $orld a better place! The &rganization $or's on a broad range of fundamental issues, from sustainable de elopment, en ironment and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and non0proliferation, to promoting democracy, human rights, gender e#uality and the ad ancement of $omen, go ernance, economic and social de elopment and international health, clearing landmines, e*panding food production, and more, in order to achie e its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer $orld for this and future generations! ested in its founding %harter, the &rganization can ta'e action on a $ide range of issues, and pro ide a ie$s, through the +eneral ,ssembly, the Security %ouncil, the -conomic and Social %ouncil and other bodies

1.2purpose of UN The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the $orld together to $or' for peace and de elopment, based on the principles of 1ustice, human dignity and the $ell0being of all people! 2t affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests $hen addressing international problems! The UN has 4 main purposes 0To 'eep peace throughout the $orld3 0To de elop friendly relations among nations3 0 To help nations $or' together to impro e the li es of poor people, to con#uer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other4s rights and freedoms3 0 To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achie e these goals! 1.3The Aims of the United Nations: 0To 'eep peace throughout the $orld! 0To de elop friendly relations bet$een nations! 0To $or' together to help people li e better li es, to eliminate po erty, disease and illiteracy in the $orld, to stop en ironmental destruction and to encourage respect for each other5s rights and freedoms! 0To be a centre for helping nations achie e these aims! 1.4The Princip es of the United Nations: 0,ll )ember States ha e so ereign e#uality! 0,ll )ember States must obey the %harter! 0%ountries must try to settle their differences by peaceful means! 0 %ountries must a oid using force or threatening to use force! 0The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country!
6

0 %ountries should try to assist the United Nations! 1.!"istory of the united nation The name 7United Nations7, coined by United States 8resident 9ran'lin "! :oose elt $as first used in the "eclaration by United Nations of 1 ;anuary 1946, during the Second World War, $hen representati es of 6< nations pledged their +o ernments to continue fighting together against the ,*is 8o$ers! States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters! The 2nternational Telecommunication Union $as founded in 1=<5 as the 2nternational Telegraph Union, and the Uni ersal 8ostal Union $as established in 1=>4! ?oth are no$ United Nations specialized agencies! 2n 1=99, the 2nternational 8eace %onference $as held in The @ague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, pre enting $ars and codifying rules of $arfare! 2t adopted the %on ention for the 8acific Settlement of 2nternational "isputes and established the 8ermanent %ourt of ,rbitration, $hich began $or' in 19A6! The forerunner of the United Nations $as the Beague of Nations, an organization concei ed in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Cersailles 7to promote international cooperation and to achie e peace and security!7 The 2nternational Babour &rganization $as also created under the Treaty of Cersailles as an affiliated agency of the Beague! The Beague of Nations ceased its acti ities after failing to pre ent the Second World War! 2n 1945, representati es of 5A countries met in San 9rancisco at the United Nations %onference on 2nternational &rganization to dra$ up the United Nations %harter! Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals $or'ed out by the
(

representati es of %hina, the So iet Union, the United Dingdom and the United States at "umbarton &a's, United States in ,ugust0&ctober 1944! The %harter $as signed on 6< ;une 1945 by the representati es of the 5A countries! 8oland, $hich $as not represented at the %onference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 )ember States! The United Nations officially came into e*istence on 64 &ctober 1945, $hen the %harter had been ratified by %hina, 9rance, the So iet Union, the United Dingdom, the United States and by a ma1ority of other signatories! United Nations "ay is celebrated on 64 &ctober each year! 1.#The UN Charter
- en as the Second World War raged, the leaders of ?ritain, %hina, the US and the USS:, under intense pressure from the press and public, discussed the details of a post0 $ar organization! 2n 1944 representati es of %hina, the UD, the US and the USS: meeting at "umbarton &a's in Washington, "%, prepared a blueprint for an international organization! To$ards the end of the $ar representati es of 5A countries gathered in San 9rancisco bet$een ,pril and ;une 1945 to hammer out the final te*t that $ould lay the foundations of international cooperation! This $as the %harter of the United Nations, signed on 6< ;une by 5A countries! 8oland, the 51st country, $as not able to send a representati e to the San 9rancisco conference but is considered an original member!,lthough the Beague $as abandoned, most of its ideals and some of its structure $ere 'ept by the United Nations and outlined in its %harter! The ideals of peace and social and economic progress remained the basic goals of the ne$ $orld organization! @o$e er, these $ere de eloped to fit the ne$ and more comple* post0$ar $orld!The Beague5s %ouncil $as transformed into the Security %ouncil consisting of the fi e ictors of the $ar as permanent members and ten other countries ser ing t$o year terms! The fi e permanent members 0 %hina, 9rance, the UD, the USS:, and the US $ere also gi en eto po$er, $hich means that decisions ta'en by the Security %ouncil can be bloc'ed by any of the fi e permanent members! This is significant firstly because the Security 4

%ouncil is the principle UN organ responsible for ensuring peace, and, secondly, because it is the only body $hose decisions are binding on all )ember States! Since the creation of the UN the balance of ?ig 8o$ers has changed and o er one hundred ne$ )ember States, mainly non0Western, ha e 1oined! With these changes ha e come increasing demands to reform the Security %ouncil!The brief pro ision for Social ,cti ities in the Beague5s %o enant $as turned into a comprehensi e prescription for international economic and social cooperation, $ith the aim of achie ing conditions of stability and $ell0being recognised as essential for peaceful relations among nations! Under the aegis of a ne$ organ, the -conomic and Social %ouncil, the $or' of e*isting and anticipated Specialized ,gencies in the fields of labour, education, health, agriculture, de elopment and many others $ould be coordinated $ithin the UN system! :acism and repression demanded that another, ne$, people5s element should enter emphatically into the %harter, that of rights! )any sorts of rights, from the right to self0determination, $hich encouraged the independence of colonized peoples, to general human rights, $hich aimed to protect indi iduals, are enshrined in the %harter, the Uni ersal "eclaration of @uman :ights and t$o %o enants $hich ha e become ma1or, standard0setting additions to international la$! 1.! $ember states of the United Nations

There are 19( United Nations .UN/ member states, and each of them is a member of the United Nations +eneral ,ssembly! The criteria for admission of ne$ members are set out in the United Nations %harter, %hapter 22, ,rticle 4E 1! )embership in the United Nations is open to all other peace0lo ing states $hich accept the obligations contained in the present %harter and, in the 1udgment of the &rganization, are able and $illing to carry out these obligations! 6! The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations $ill be effected by a decision of the +eneral ,ssembly upon the recommendation of the Security %ouncil!

Chapter 2 The %tructure of the United Nations


2n 1955 the UN $as indeed present but distant, not the least because the UN $or'ed in so many different fields, through so many different agencies, and $ith such a ariety of different goals! 2t $as, as it still remains, FFa $eird 8icasso abstraction,44 an organizational hybrid, its many functions impossible to e*plain in plain language! There is no point in mincing $ordsE the UN is a structural monstrosity, a conglomeration of organizations, di isions, bodies, and secretariats all $ith their distincti e acronyms that fe$ can e er imagine being able to master! This, alone, e*plains many of the UN4s problems! The central point, though, is that the rationale behind the creation of this hybridGthe 8icasso abstraction in @ammars'1oHld4s $ords G is simpleE it $as made up by people from many nations, $ith di ergent bac'grounds and goals! -#ually important, the founders of the UN .and the designers of its structure/ $ere faced $ith the e erlasting dilemmaE ho$ to reconcile national interestsGnational security, national prosperity, national la$sG$ith the international Ginternational security, global de elopment, uni ersal 1ustice, and human rights! The structure that $as created reflected this dilemma and is one of the reasons for the outcomeE a painting that is part abstraction, part real! 2.1&r'an of the United Nation( 2n 1945 the si* principal organs of the UN $ere the +eneral ,ssembly, Security %ouncil, -conomic and Social %ouncil, Trusteeship %ouncil, 2nternational %ourt of ;ustice, and the Secretariat! With the e*ception of the Trusteeship %ouncil, $hich became obsolete $ith the completion of the decolonization process it o ersa$, these organs still constitute the basic superstructure of the UN! ,ll of them meet regularly, and their members ote and ma'e decisions, issue declarations, and debate the issues of the day! Iet the functions of these organs are astly differentE $hile the +, is
<

basically the parliament of the UN and the Security %ouncil its e*ecuti e committee, the Secretariat is the operational body of the bureaucracy that runsGthe UN! The UN FFfamily,44 though, is much larger, encompassing fifteen agencies and se eral programs and bodies! Some of the organizations, such as the 2nternational Babor &rganization .2B&/, $ere founded during the Beague of Nations era in the 196As! )any more ha e been created since 1945 to address the specific problems that the UN has been called to sol e! )uch of this proliferationGand the ensuing comple*ity of the UNGis the result of a rapid gro$th in membership that, in the decades follo$ing the founding of the organization, contributed to the escalation of the tas's that the UN has been charged to underta'e! ,s a result, ne$ bodies and programs ha e been .and continue to be/ added on a regular basis! &thers, such as the United Nations @igh %ommissioner for :efugees .UN@%:/, $ere originally meant to be temporary but ha e since been transformed into permanent organs! Some, ine itably, o erlap $ith others! To top it all off, the UN has a hybrid set of FFsubsidiaries44 and partners! Throughout its history, the UN has associated $ith almost three thousand N+&s! This $as already en isioned in 1945E article >> of the UN %harter e*plicitly states that the UN FFmay ma'e suitable arrangements for consultation $ith nongo ernmental organizations JN+&sK $hich are concerned $ith matters $ithin its competence!44 2n practice this means that e ery year the UN $or's together $ith hundreds of N+&s to underta'e humanitarian tas's in the $orld4s conflict zones! 9or e*ample, bet$een 1995 and 6AA6 the UN )ission in ?osnia and @erzego ina .UN)2?@/ o ersa$ that country4s process of peacebuilding Gmost significantly the establishment of the rule of la$Gafter a nasty $ar! Throughout the period it participated $ith close to forty local N+&s that offered their e*pertise on a $ide range of competencies ranging from the clearing of land mines to protecting the en ironment! 2n addition to their cooperation $ith the many UN 2n addition to their cooperation $ith the many UN missions, N+&s also act as lobbying groups for arious causes! 2n 6AA>, for e*ample, thirty0t$o N+&s issued an open
>

letter FFurging44 UN Secretary0+eneral ?an Di0moon to pressure Sudan4s reluctant go ernment into permitting a ;oint ,frican UnionLUnited Nations 8eace'eeping 9orce to enter the conflict0ridden "arfur region! This e*ample hints at another $ay in $hich the UN has increasingly been forced to admit the limits of its o$n capacities and forge alliances else$here! 8articularly since the early 199As, the UN has FFsubcontracted44 peace'eeping tas's to non0UN institutions .such regional organizations as N,T& or the ,fricanUnion/ or e en to pri ate security companies! 2n 6AA1 the latter e en formed their o$n N+&, the 2nternational 8eace &perations ,ssociation .28&,/, $hich acts as a public relations lobbying group for firms that in pre ious times $ould ha e been referred to as bands of mercenaries! This structural comple*ity also reflects an effort to create an organization that $ould a oid some of the problems faced by the Beague of Nations and one that could adapt to the changing international en ironment as needed! The Beague had had as many similar organs as the UN! 9or e*ample, there had been the Beague %ouncil .an e*ecuti e committee that resembled the UN Security %ouncil/ and the Beague ,ssembly .the rough e#ui alent of the UN +eneral ,ssembly/! The UN4s organization $as ultimately based on a combination of inherited structures, ne$ challenges, and historical lessons! The principal organ of the UN System $as the United Nations itself, and consists of si* principal organs established by the %harter of the United Nations! Principa or'ans of the United Nations UN )enera Assemb y 0 "eliberati e member one ote/ M compulsory UN %ecretariat Internationa Uni ersal Court of court for 0 ,dministrati e organ of *ustice states the UN Secretary +eneral bodies administrati ely, international la$ .based in Ndecides disputes states that

assembly of all UN the UN 0 its chairman is 0 .each country has

Nsupports the other UN The @ague/ 0

Nmay resol e non0 e!g! in the organization of bet$een conferences,


=

$riting recognize its 1urisdiction

recommendations to states, reports and studies, and the and creates legal opinions or suggestions to the preparation of the budget0 plan +eneral 0 Nthe 15 1udges are elected by the UN +eneral is renders 1udgement $ith UNS% .not a 8arliament/ Ndecides on the admission the UNS% of

Nits chairman 0 the UN ,ssembly for nine years! 2t

ne$ Secretary

members, on proposal of elected by the UN +eneral relati e ma1ority ,ssembly for a fi e0year Nparties on the 2%; can international and other Nadopts the budget mandate and is the most only be countries, ho$e er elects the non0permanent important representati e of no members of the UNS%, all the UN members of -%&S&%, on organizations

N beside its head#uarters sub1ects of international main offices in $ith the 2%%/ and UN Trusteeship Counci 0 Was administering trust acti e/ 0 N$as to originally manage

the proposal of the UNS% in Ne$ Ior' %ity it has la$ .not to be confused the UN Secretary +eneral, three 2%; UN %ecurity Counci issues maintenance international security peace of and the 15 1udges of the +ene a, Nairobi

Cienna! UN +conomic and %ocia

0 9or international security Counci Nresponsible for the and social affairs Nresponsible for

0 9or global economical territories .currently not

and cooperation bet$een states designed

on economic and social colonial possessions that

Nthe most po$erful fields .raising the general $ere earlier Beague of organ of the UN, as it may standard of li ing, sol e Nations mandates adopt resolutions compulsory economic, health of culture as $ell social and Nis inacti e since 1994, attaining problems, $ith the last trust territory human .Namibia/ as and independence in 199A

Nits decisions include promotion peace'eeping0 and peace rights, enforcement0missions, as education,

$ell

as

non0military humanitarian aid/ Ntherefore it has established and numerous regional

pressure mediums, such as trade embargos

Nhas 15 membersE fi e functional eto po$er, and ten

permanent members $ith commissions Nalso coordinates the cooperation numerous Nations Nhas 54 members, $ho are elected by the UN +eneral ,ssembly to ser e staggered mandates three0year $ith the specialized elected members

agencies of the United

a) The General Assembly 2f the UNS% is $here the UNGor those countries that are members of the S% at any gi en timeGusually reacts to the many conflicts around the globe, the +eneral ,ssembly .+,/ is the forum $here each of the 196 member states can ma'e its case heard! ,s the main deliberati e organ of the United Nations, it is in many $ays a'in to a national parliament! -ach member state, regardless of its size, has one ote! This arrangement seems to ma'e the +, much li'e the U!S! Senate, $here each of the fifty states is represented by t$o senators regardless of the size of the population or landmass of a gi en state! The +eneral ,ssembly, composed of representati es of all member states, is the UN5s central deliberati e body, empo$ered to discuss and ma'e recommendations on any sub1ect falling $ithin the scope of the charter itself! 2t also

1A

appro es the UN5s budget and determinesGalone or $ith the Security %ouncilGpart of the composition of the other main organs, including the Security %ouncil!

UN %ecretaries()enera 194<M56 Tryg e Bie, Nor$ay 195(M<1 "ag @ammars'1oHld, S$eden 19<1M>1 U Thant, )yanmar .?urma/ 19>6M=1 Durt Waldheim, ,ustria 19=6M91 ;a ier 8eOrez de %ueOllar, 8eru 1996M9< ?outros ?outros0+hali, -gypt 199>M6AA< Dofi ,nnan, +hana 6AA>M ?an Di0moon, :epublic of Dorea .South Dorea/

b)The Security Council The Security %ouncil is the central organ of the entire UN system!2t has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security! To that effect, the S% $as granted $ide po$ers that $ould ma'e it an acti e participant in international affairs! 2t could in estigate any dispute or situation that might lead to international friction and it $as authorized to decide on economic sanctions or military action! The S% $as therefore mandated to use its po$ers both as a means of pre enting a conflict and as a $ay of enforcing a state4s compliance $ith a specific decision or resolution! The $ide po$ers granted to the Security %ouncil can be understood as a result of the desire to build a more effecti e guardian of international peace and security than the Beague of Nations had been! 9e$ at the time or after$ards ha e disputed the need for such an organization! ?ut the structure of the S% is not unproblematic! 2t reflects one of the central tensions that ha e o ershado$ed the UN Gand often hampered its effecti eness! 2n particular, its t$o0tiered membership
11

organization, $hich ga e disproportionately more po$er to fi e of the ma1or ictorious po$ers of World War 22, recognized +reat 8o$er prerogati es as an important element of the UN %harter! The nation0state and narro$ national interests $ere thus 1u*taposed against the uni ersal ideals that $ere at the foundation of the UN! The Security %ouncil $as initially made up of ele en members .or states/, a number that $as increased to fifteen in 19<5! &f these, fi eGthe United States, +reat ?ritain, 9rance, %hina, and :ussia .until 1991 the So iet Union/Gare permanent members .'no$n as the 805/! The other ten are nonpermanent members, elected by the UN +eneral ,ssembly for t$o0year terms! Their selection reflects an effort to find someGbut hardly perfectGregional balanceE ,frica has three seats, $hile Western -urope and &ceania, ,sia, and Batin ,merica and the %aribbean each get t$o! The last seat is reser ed for -astern -urope! -ach year fi e of these ten nonpermanent members lea e the S% and are replaced! T$o 'ey features differentiate the Security %ouncil from the Beague %ouncil! 9irst, the decisions of the Security %ouncil are binding and re#uire a ma1ority of nine out of fifteenGrather than unanimity as $as the case in the BeagueGto be passed! Second, the permanent members are clearly more po$erful than the nonpermanent onesE any one of the fi e can bloc' a decision by using its right of eto! This clause has prompted numerous calls for reformE the fi e permanent members may ha e been the FFgreat po$ers44 of 19453 they certainly $ere the 'ey ictorious po$ers of World War 22! This is not automatically the case in the t$enty0first century, though! ?ut since the founding of the UN the only ma1or reform has been the increase in the number of nonpermanent members in 19<5! The concentration of po$er in the hands of fi e countries has been a sub1ect of criticism in large part because the S% e*ercises a broad range of po$ers o er the rest of the UN system! 9or e*ample, the S% can recommend the admission of ne$ member states, it basically chooses the Secretary0+eneral, and, $ith the +,, it selects the 1udges of the 2nternational %ourt of ;ustice! 9aulty or not, the Security %ouncil and its fi e permanent members simply o ershado$ all other organs of the UN!

16

%hapter > of the UN %harter defines the Security %ouncil4s prerogati es! Some of the 'ey articles includeE Artic e 3, The Security %ouncil shall determine the e*istence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall ma'e recommendations, or decide $hat measures shall be ta'en in accordance $ith ,rticles 41 and 46, to maintain or restore international peace and security! Artic e 42n order to pre ent an aggra ation of the situation, the Security %ouncil may, before ma'ing the recommendations or deciding upon the measures pro ided for in ,rticle (9, call upon the parties concerned to comply $ith such pro isional measures as it deems necessary or desirable! Such pro isional measures shall be $ithout pre1udice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned! The Security %ouncil shall duly ta'e account of failure to comply $ith such pro isional measures! Artic e 41 The Security %ouncil may decide $hat measures not in ol ing the use of armed force are to be employed to gi e effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the )embers of the United Nations to apply such measures! These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the se erance of diplomatic relations! Artic e 42 Should the Security %ouncil consider that measures pro ided for in ,rticle 41 $ould be inade#uate or ha e pro ed to be inade#uate, it may ta'e such action by air, sea, or land forces as
1(

may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security! Such action may include demonstrations, bloc'ade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of )embers of the United Nations! Artic e 43 1! ,ll )embers of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, underta'e to ma'e a ailable to the Security %ouncil, on its call and in accordance $ith a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security! ! ! ! c.The +conomic and %ocia Counci The -conomic and Social %ouncil .-%&S&%/ is assigned the tas' of organizing the UN5s $or' on economic and social matters and the promotion of human rights! 2t consists of 54 members elected for o erlapping three0year terms by the +eneral ,ssembly! d.The Trusteeship Counci The Trusteeship %ouncil operated the UN trusteeship system established under the charter! 2t $as originally composed of member nations administering trust territories, the permanent members of the Security %ouncil, and a sufficient number of other members, elected by the +eneral ,ssembly for three0year terms, to ensure an e#ual di ision of administering and nonadministering po$ers! ,fter 19>5, it $as composed of the fi e permanent members of the Security %ouncilGthe United States, the sole remaining administering po$er, and the four permanent nonadministering po$ers! The last trust territory, the 8acific island of 8alau, oted for affiliation $ith the United States in late 199(! The Trusteeship %ouncil oted in 1994 to suspend operation,
14

con ening only at the re#uest of its 8resident, a ma1ority of its member states, the +eneral ,ssembly, or the Security %ouncil! e.The Internationa Court of *ustice The 2nternational %ourt of ;ustice is the principal 1udicial organ of the UN! 2t consists of 15 1udges elected to nine0year terms by the +eneral ,ssembly and the Security %ouncil oting independently! 2t may not include more than one 1udge of any nationality! The )embers of the %ourt do not represent their go ernments but are independent magistrates! The 2nternational %ourt of ;ustice, located at the @ague in the Netherlands, is the principal 1udicial organ of the United Nations! 2t settles legal disputes bet$een states and gi es ad isory opinions to the UN and its specialized agencies! 2ts Statute is an integral part of the United Nations %harter! f.The %ecretariat The Secretariat is the administrati e arm of the organization! 2t is headed by a Secretary0+eneral appointed by the +eneral ,ssembly upon the recommendation of the Security %ouncil for a fi e0year, rene$able term! The Secretariat carries out the day0to0day $or' of the &rganization! 2t ser ices the other principal organs and carries out tas's as aried as the issues dealt $ith by the UNE administering peace'eeping operations, sur eying economic and social trends, preparing studies on human rights, among others! 2.2/unds and pro'rams Throughout its history the United Nations +eneral ,ssembly has established a number of programs and funds to address particular humanitarian and de elopment concerns! These bodies usually report to the +eneral ,ssembly through an e*ecuti e board of some type! &nly one UN program has e er closed in the history of the organization, the United Nations :elief and :ehabilitation ,dministration .UN::,/, $hich ceased to e*ist in 1959 and $as subse#uently replaced by the UN@%:!

15

-ach of the funds and programs is headed by an -*ecuti e "irector at the Under0 Secretary0+eneral le el and is go erned by an -*ecuti e ?oard! &ne former fund, the United Nations "e elopment 9und for Women .UN29-)/, $as merged $ith other elements of the United Nations System into a ne$ organization, UN Women, in ;anuary 6A11! 2nternational Trade %entre .2T%/ &ffice of the United Nations @igh %ommissioner for :efugees .@%:/ &ffice of the United Nations @igh %ommissioner for @uman :ights .&@%@:/ United Nations %hildren5s 9und .UN2%-9/ United Nations %onference on Trade and "e elopment .UN%T,"/ United Nations "e elopment 8rogramme .UN"8/ United Nations %apital "e elopment 9und .UN%"9/ United Nations Colunteers .UNC/ United Nations -n ironment 8rogramme .UN-8/ United Nations @uman Settlements 8rogramme .UN0@,?2T,T/ United Nations &ffice on "rugs and %rime .UN&"%/ United Nations 8opulation 9und .UN98,/ United Nations :elief and Wor's ,gency for 8alestine :efugees in the Near -ast .UN:W,/ World 9ood 8rogramme .W98/

1<

Chapter 3 The 0o e of the United Nations


,s the most representati e inter0go ernmental organization of the $orld today, the United Nations5 role in $orld affairs is irreplaceable by any other international or regional organizations! The United Nations has made enormous positi e contributions in maintaining international peace and security, promoting cooperation among states and international de elopment! Today, people of the $orld still face the t$o ma1or issues of peace and de elopment! &nly by international cooperation can man'ind meet the challenges of the global and regional issues! The United Nations can play a pi otal and positi e role in this regard! Strengthening the role of the United Nations in the ne$ century and promoting the establishment of a 1ust and reasonable international political and economic order goes along $ith the trend of history and is in the interest of all nations! 2n order to strengthen the role of the United Nations, efforts should be made to uphold the purposes and principles of the %harter of the United Nations! The authority of the Security %ouncil in maintaining international peace and security must be preser ed and role of the United Nations in de elopment area should be strengthened! To strengthen the role of the United Nations, it is essential to ensure to all )ember States of the United Nations the right to e#ual participation in international affairs and the rights and interests of the de eloping countries should be safeguarded! 3.1 0o e of security counci to ensure security in the 1or d :esol ed to strengthen the United Nations central role in peace'eeping, the Security %ouncil coalesced around a resolution G the first of its 'ind in 1A years G $hich recognized the importance of multidimensional peace'eeping and stressed that
1>

peace'eeping acti ities should be conducted in a manner that facilitated post0conflict peacebuilding, helped pre ent a relapse into conflict and assisted progress to$ards sustainable peace and de elopment! The %ouncil noted in its resolution 6A=< .6A16/, adopted unanimously, that multidimensional peace'eeping G the focus of debate led by 8a'istan4s delegation, $hich is %ouncil 8resident this month G must ensure coherence bet$een peacema'ing, peace'eeping, peacebuilding and de elopment in order to respond effecti ely to post0conflict situations from the outset! 2t also highlighted that the approach brought comparati e ad antages in early peacebuilding, including by dra$ing strength from international legitimacy and political le erage deri ed from a %ouncil mandate, and using a mi* of ci ilian, police, and military capabilities under a unified leadership! The resolution noted that such missions might be mandated to assist national security sector frame$or's, support the strengthening of rule of la$ institutions in the host country, as $ell as peace consolidation and inclusi e political processes, and, among others, protect ci ilians, particularly those under imminent threat of physical iolence, $hile recognizing that that $as the primary responsibility of the host country! ,lso by its te*t, the %ouncil reiterated its resol e to gi e the operations clear, credible and achie able mandates, matched by appropriate resources, and it recognized the need to strengthen the cooperation and consultations $ith troop0 and police0 contributing countries! 2t encouraged national +o ernments, the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations to broaden the pool of ci ilian capacities for peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict! 3.2 0o e of united nation to ensure human ri'hts

1=

-nduring structural impro ements in human rights are

ery difficult to achie e!

+lobal indices suggest that the $orld is little different today from a decade ago! 2n 6AA6, 9reedom @ouse, a non0go ernmental organization in the United States, recorded that =5 states $ere PfreeQ, 59 $ere Ppartly freeQ and 4= $ere Pnot freeQ! 2n 6A11 only t$o additional countries $ere 1udged PfreeQ and one fe$er Pnot freeQ! The 8olitical Terror Scale, an annual report $hich focuses on integrity iolations and $hich is compiled from reports of ,mnesty 2nternational and the US State "epartment, tells a similar story! &n a scale of 1 to 5, $ith 1 being the best and 5 the $orst, the global a erage in 6AA1 $as 6!5=! "espite differences $ithin data, the global a erage in 6A1A remained at 6!5=! This apparent in0 tractability seems to confirm mounting e idence that foreign assistance for go ernance and human rights are unli'ely to deli er sustainable national impro ements $ithout genuine local political leadership! These figures might also tell us that in the face of strong counter ailing forces, the United Nations has to run 1ust to stand still! %riticism of the Secretary0+eneral4s o$n performance in relation to human rights tended to focus on his percei ed failure to denounce iolations, especially in )yanmar, Sri Ban'a, and %hina! Such criticism runs counter to recent academic research $hich has sho$n that isolating states is a relati ely ineffecti e $ay of responding to chronic human rights problems! ,nd, for the record, the Secretary0 +eneral has repeatedly oiced concern about human rights in )yanmar, Sri Ban'a, and else$here! The dispute, though, is more about tactics than substance! -ach indi idual case is different, and $hat might $or' in one place might not in another! Sometimes the Secretary0+eneral has ta'en considerable political ris's to protect human rights, most notably in the case of %Rte d42 oire, in early 6A11! Such tactics are not li'ely to $or' often! Nonetheless, significant problems and challenges remainE

19

,s recent e*perience $ith Syria sho$s, it continues to pro e difficult in some cases to build consensus on specific issues relating to the protection of human rights! The @uman :ights %ouncil remains prone to politicization, as e idenced by decisions that pri ilege political interests o er human rights protection, as in its 6AA9 resolution commending Sri Ban'a in ad ance of proper in estigations! The human rights of already marginalized groups ha e come under concerted attac' from arious #uarters in recent years! 8articularly notable are the iolation of $omen4s human rights, the proliferation of homophobic legislation and other iolations against homose*uals, a trend to$ards the arbitrary detention of those that see' asylum, and abuses against itinerant peoples! 8roblems of coherence remain! Some United Nations officials in the field remain uncertain about the place of human rights in their $or' and are unsure as to $hether they are e*pected to raise protection issues $ith host +o ernments! &stensibly, the protection of human rights is central to the $or' of many missions and agencies, but some officials continue to e*hibit reticence about pursuing these mandates, fearing a political bac'lash! 8arts of the $orld ha e effecti ely become Phuman rights free zonesQ, $here core rights are abused $ith impunity! Somalia stands out as a country characterized by human rights abuses so massi e and generalized, as to ma'e the language of human rights sound ironic or irrele ant! There are other UN organizations that help promote a culture of peace! UN2%-9, the United Nations %hildren5s 9und .$$$!unicef!org/, helps to protect the rights of children! 2t carries out both pre enti e initiati es to help promote the education of children in de eloping countries and protecti e actions to help children in times of $ar, $hen they are often the most ulnerable ictims! 2ndeed, if the future is to be
6A

ensured, it is important that children be educated and not be mistreated! %hildren ensure a country5s future! -nsuring that children are not mistreated helps both to de elop a country5s capacities and to pre ent, as much as is possible, the outbrea' of future conflicts! UN98,, the United Nations 8opulation 9und .$$$!unfpa!org/, also helps to promote a culture of peace by de eloping information programs for $omen, especially $ith regard to se* education! 2t pro ides $omen in particular $ith all the necessary information and resources! This allo$s them in turn to ma'e fully informed decisions and thereby contribute to a better management of the planet5s population! W@&, the World @ealth &rganization .$$$!$ho!int/, promotes scientific cooperation in health matters, helps reinforce health systems and assists go ernments $hich as' for emergency aid! The pro ision of care to populations in distress alle iates many ills, $hether they be physical or psychological! The W98, the World 9ood 8rogramme .$$$!$fp!org/, promotes better nutrition by using food aid to support economic and social de elopment! 2t is helped in this by the 9,&, the 9ood and ,griculture &rganization of the United Nations .$$$!fao!org/, $hich sets up programs to help foster greater agricultural producti ity, thereby fighting hunger and po erty around the $orld! @unger and po erty are t$o important factors in the outbrea' of conflicts! ,ll of these UN programs are attempting, $ith the means that are a ailable to them, to pre ent conflicts and ha e a $orld that is free of iolence! @o$e er, it $ill be some time before $e reach this en iable state on our planet! This being true, the UN $ill ha e to continue to separate belligerents by inter ening through peace'eeping missions!

61

Chapter 4 /acin' 2ars3 confrontin' threats: the UN %ecurity Counci in action


2f the purpose of the UN $as to sa e man'ind from the destruction that had o ershado$ed the history of the first half of the t$entieth century, measuring its success depends on one4s perspecti e! &n the one hand, it could be argued that since no World War 222 has erupted, the founders had created a successful organization! &n the other hand, not a day has gone by since 1945 $ithout a deathly military conflict some$here on the globe! )any such conflicts ha e transpired and continued $ith the full 'no$ledge of the United Nations Security %ouncil .UNS%/! 2n short, the UN may ha e played a role in sa ing man'ind from the de astation of global $ar, but it has not come close to eliminating the scourge of $ar from our planet! Nor is it clear $hether the absence of global military confrontation has had much to do $ith the UN and its e*ecuti e body, the Security %ouncil! 2t can be argued that the e*istence and proliferation of nuclear $eapons acted as a deterrent against a direct military confrontation bet$een the United States and the So iet Union! The potential conse#uences of such a $arGa rapid annihilation of one4s o$n countryGremo ed the incenti e to go to $ar far more effecti ely than any deliberations at the UN! ?ut the United States and the USS: $ere more than happy to inter ene in military conflicts around the globe that did not seem li'ely to escalate into a direct superpo$er confrontation! ,fter the %old military conflicts around the globe that did not seem li'ely to escalate into a direct superpo$er confrontation! ,fter the %old War ne$ antagonisms emerged, most e idently $ithin the conte*t of the United States4 call for regime change in 2ra# in 6AA6MA(! This does not mean that the Security %ouncil $as or is irrele ant! 2t simply underlines the fact that at its ery founding, this central organ of the UN could be effecti e only $hen the so0called 805 $ere in agreement! 2n fact, the UNS% has on numerous occasions e*ercised an important role as a global
66

troubleshooter! Ta'ing into account the dependence of the UNS% on the unanimity of its fi e permanent membersGand hence on the national interests of %hina, 9rance, +reat ?ritain, :ussia .formerly the So iet Union/, and the United StatesGit has actually been remar'ably successful and acti e! 2deally, the Security %ouncil4s role should not be purely reacti e! 2t should also be able to address potential threats and pre ent them from materializing! The relationship bet$een UNS% and the 2nternational ,tomic -nergy ,gency .2,-,/, sometimes referred to as the UN4s FFnuclear $atchdog,44 is a good e*ample of the potential that the UN has for ma'ing a positi e impact on international security in the t$enty0first century! There is probably no other issue besides the possibility of a nuclear holocaust to bring peoples and countries together! Iet the attempt to safeguard against the proliferation of such $eapons has been a half0hearted success at best! &nce again, national interests ha e clashed $ith global security concerns to produce a series of imperfect compromises and temporary solutions! 4.1Political constraints: the veto conundrum 2n theory, the Security %ouncil has fe$ limits to its po$er! 2ts remit is broad3 its resolutions are binding on all members of the UN! 2n short, if the UNS% decided somethingGto impose sanctions against a country or to enforce a ceasefire in a conflict areaGthe order $ould ha e to be implemented! &ne could not, in other $ords, ignore the collecti e $ill of the 805 that effecti ely determines the decisions of the UNS%! ?ut finding such collecti e $ill has often been an elusi e #uest! The #uestion of national so ereignty is at the top of the list, and it is something that those $ho are FFmore e#ual44 than othersGthat is, the 805Ghold particularly dear! ,nd since they ha e the right to eto decisions, they are li'ely to do so should a proposed resolution be against their national interest! The 8054s right of eto has complicated the UNS%4s $or' more than any other issue! 2ndeed, the fact that fi e nationsGout of a total of 196Gha e a pri ileged position seems absurd! 2f the 8eople4s :epublic of %hina .and, more absurdly, bet$een 1949 and 19>1 the small island of Tai$an,
6(

'no$n as the :epublic of %hina/, 9rance, +reat ?ritain, :ussia, and the United States can agree on a course, then the UN can act! 2f they do notGor if only one of them decides that a certain resolution is ob1ectionableGthen the UNS% is effecti ely paralyzed! Thus, the use of the eto can actually pre ent the UN from enforcing measures to end a $ar! This $as the case, for e*ample, in "ecember 19>1, $hen the So iet Union etoed a UN resolution calling for a ceasefire in a $ar bet$een 2ndia and 8a'istan! ?y doing so the So iets $ere helping 2ndia to continue its military ad ances against 8a'istan, a firm ,merican ally in the %old War! Truth be told, 8a'istan had $on fe$ friends because of its repression of an independence mo ement in $hat $as soon to become the independent nation of ?angladesh .but $as until 19>1 formally 'no$n as -ast 8a'istan/! Iet the 8a'istani go ernment $as perfectly $ithin its rights $hen it complained that the international community $as failing to enforce a peaceful resolution and, in effect, left the outmaneu ered 8a'istanis no alternati e but to surrender .$hich they did on "ecember 1<, 19>1/! Witnessing his country4s hardships from Ne$ Ior', Sulfi'ar ,li ?hutto, the foreign minister of 8a'istan, erupted in front of a UN Security %ouncil meetingE FFBet4s build a monument for the eto! Bet4s build a monument for impotence and incapacity!441 To be sure, the +eneral ,ssembly has often issued resolutions despite a 805 eto! ?ut such resolutions simply do not carry the authority necessary to out$eigh a stubborn permanent UNS% member! Nor does the fact that the nonpermanent members of the UNS% hold a theoretical FFsi*th eto44 since the e*pansion of Security %ouncil membership in the 19<As ma'e the body either more effecti e or less dri en by great po$er prerogati es! The UNS%, for better or $orse, $as and remains an arena of po$er and realpoliti'! ,nd despite attempts to reform it, the body remains, after si* decades, more or less the $ay it $as at the foundingE empo$ered in theory but incapacitated in practice! 4.2 &perationa constraints: the $i itary %taff Committee

64

2n order to pre ent $ars and stop the ones that did erupt, the UN needed a military capacity! @o$ else could the organization thro$ its $eight around but by dispatching troops to a troubled regionT @o$ else could the UN force $arring partiesGun$illing to yield to diplomatic or economic pressureGto cease fighting but by displaying superior military pro$essT The UN %harter addressed these #uestions! 2t set up the )ilitary Staff %ommittee .)S%/ as a subsidiary body of the Security %ouncil and charged it $ith the planning of UN military operations! The )S% $as further mandated to assist the Security %ouncil in arms regulation .including, implicitly, the regulation of nuclear arms/! )oreo er, the )S% $as to pro ide the command staff for a set of air force contingents pro ided by the 805! The contingents themsel es $ere to be scattered on UN bases around the globe so that the Security %ouncil could call upon them as needed! The problem $ith this plan soon became e ident! None of the 805 sa$ an independent military force ser ing their interests! The mistrust and tensions of the early %old WarGincluding the creation of such military alliances as N,T& and the Warsa$ 8actGmeant that none of the 805 pro ided the re#uired forces! ,lready in ;uly 194=Gfollo$ing t$o years of negotiationsGthe )S% reported to the Security %ouncil that it $as unable to fulfill its mandate! %onse#uently, although it $as the only subsidiary body of the Security %ouncil mentioned in the charter, the )S% became FFdormant44 .or irrele ant, in non0UN language/! To be sure, there $as a brief re i al of interest in the )S% in 199A $hen it played a role in coordinating na al operations during the +ulf War! 2n the end, ho$e er, the UN has shifted to$ard subcontracting force out to regional bodies such as N,T& .for e*ample in Doso o/ or the ,frican Union .in "arfur/ rather than creating a structured and effecti e military capacity of its o$n! ,fter si*ty years the )S% still e*ists as an ad isory body that plays a role in the planning and conduct of UN peace'eeping operations! 2t consists of army, na al, and air force representati es of the 805! This group meets e ery t$o $ee's at the UN head#uarters in Ne$ Ior'! &ther UN members are included in meetings regarding peace'eeping operations in

65

$hich their country4s forces are deployed! ?ut the practical significance of the )S% remains, as it al$ays has been, e*tremely limited!

Chapter ! Peace4eepin' to Peacebui din'


FF%ertainly the idea of an international police force effecti e against a big disturber of the peace seems today unrealizable to the point of absurdity!44 2t $as an une*pected line from Bester ?! 8earson, deli ered as part of his Nobel 8eace 8rize acceptance speech in "ecember 195>! ,fter all, peace'eeping is among the most isible roles that the UN plays on e ery continent .sa e North ,merica/! 2n the summer of 6AA= there $ere t$enty0t$o indi idual acti e missions, manned by appro*imately 9A,AAA soldiers from more than a hundred countries! Iet as 8earson, $hose remar'able career included stints as %anada4s foreign and prime minister, indicated, trust in the success of such operations has not al$ays been e*cessi ely high!1 2ndeed, as 8earsonG$ho $as at the time the %anadian representati e at the UN and $ho can ta'e much of the credit for the creation of the first large0scale peace'eeping force in 195< .to protect the Suez %anal/Gpercei ed half a century ago, the UN has not li ed up to the high e*pectations of its founders! &ne statistic illustrates this factE bet$een 194= and 19== the UNS% had authorized only thirteen peace'eeping missions! 2n those same years a number of interstate and an increasing number of intrastate .or ci il/ $ars too' place around the globe! 2n 19=6 alone, more than forty intrastate conflicts $ere under $ay! 5.1 The U Charter and !eace"ee!in#

The UN %harter itself does not refer to FFpeace'eeping,44 but the concept de eloped .and became a central part of the UN4s agenda/ in later years! This $as in part a result of the simple fact that the fifty0one founders of the UN re1ected the idea that the
6<

organization could inter ene in internal affairs of a country! Thus peace'eepingG $hich e entually meant placing military $ithin the borders of a state for the specific purpose of bloc'ing hostilitiesG could easily be regarded as a breach of national so ereignty! To guard against that possibility, FFtraditional44Gor $hat is often referred to as FFfirst generation44Gpeace'eeping $as possible only $ith the consent of the hostile parties! Unfortunately this could also $or' in re erseE a FFhost44 country could demand that the UN peace'eeping force e*it its territory .for e*ample, -gypt in 19<>/ or simply refuse them entry! Nor did the UN ha e the means at its disposal for e*tensi e peace'eeping missions! The idea of ha ing permanent UN bases scattered around the $orld, originally en isioned in article 4( of the UN %harter, ne er got off the ground! Though this failure o$ed much to the emergence of So iet0,merican ri alry in the immediate post$ar years, it $as also lin'ed to the reality that the $orld of 1945 $as go erned $ith empires that assumed that they $ere entitled to play the role of a policing po$er $ithin their FFsphere!44 %ountries such as ?ritain and 9rance considered their imperial possessions as falling $ithin the limits of their national so ereignty! 2n possession of the eto right in the UN Security %ouncil, they $ere in a position to bloc' the establishment of anything resembling an international rapid0 reaction force! @o$e er, the s$ift dissolution of -uropean empires in the aftermath of World War 22 created problems and conflicts that re#uired a ne$ 'ind of policing po$er! 2n 194>M4= the large0scale 'illings related to the partition of 2ndia and 8a'istan, as $ell as the first ,rab02sraeli War and the emergence of the 8alestinian refugee issue, clearly indicated that the UN re#uired a military arm if it $as e er to subdue conflicts around the globe! These t$o crises resulted in the founding of the t$o longest0lasting UN peace'eeping missionsE in )ay 194= the United Nations Truce Super ision &rganization .UNTS&/ in the )iddle -ast $as established $ith head#uarters in ;erusalem3 in ;anuary 1949 the UN )ilitary &bser er +roup in 2ndia and 8a'istan .UN)&+28/ $as deployed to monitor the ceasefire in the Dashmir region! ?oth $ere and remain small0scale obser atory missions! Their e*traordinary longe ity is not a happy symbol for either region! The Dorean conflict of 195A sa$
6>

the deployment of the largest UN force in a conflict area! ?ut the purpose of the ,merican dominated mission $as to counter an attac' that had already ta'en place, not to police a fragile peace! Bess $ell 'no$n is the fact that UN peace'eepers remained on the South Dorean side of the demilitarized zone until 19<>, at $hich point U!S! and South Dorean troops too' o er! 2t $as only in the mid0195As that peace'eepingGFFthe first genuinely international police force,44 as 8earson put itG $as born! 5.$ Sue% and !eace"ee!in# The -gyptian nationalization of the Suez %anal in the summer of 195< $as follo$ed by an 2sraeli in asion and ,nglo09rench inter ention! With the UNS% paralyzed, the +eneral ,ssembly passed a landmar' resolution .+, :es! 99=/ on No ember 4, 195< authorizing the S$edish Secretary +eneral, "ag @ammars'1oHld, to raise and deploy a UN -mergency 9orce .UN-9/, responsible to @ammars'1oHld and headed by a neutral officer! The proposal originated $ith Bester 8earson, $ho initially suggested that the force consist of mainly %anadian soldiers! ?ut the -gyptians $ere suspicious of ha ing a %ommon$ealth nation defend them against +reat ?ritain and her allies! 2n the end, a $ide ariety of national forces $ere dra$n upon to ensure national di ersity! 8earson recei ed the 195> Nobel 8eace 8rize for his role and is today considered a father of modern peace'eeping! The purpose of the <,AAA0strong multinational peace'eeping force $as straightfor$ardE to erect a physical barrier bet$een 2srael and -gypt! 2t $or'ed, if only for a decade! UN-94s presence depended on the consent of the regional .or host/ nations! 2n 19<>-gyptian leader +amal ,bdel Nasser told UN-9 to lea e shortly before the so0called Si*0"ay War, during $hich 2srael occupied the Sinai peninsula .as $ell as the +olan @eights and the West ?an'/! The main significance of the Suez crisis from the perspecti e of the UN $as as a prototype of modern peace'eeping! 2n numerous other conflicts after 195<, the blue helmets, $orn mainly by soldiers from countries that $ere not among the 805, $ould arri e and pro ide a shield against future hostilities! They $ould not be authorized to
6=

fire their guns e*cept in self0defense! ,s its name implies, UN-9 $as created simply to soothe an emergency situation! 2ts 1ob $as not to resol e the deeper sources of the conflict or enforce a permanent settlement! )oreo er, the blue0helmeted soldiers $ho $ere stationed on the $estern part of the Sinai peninsula could be told to lea e by their host country, -gypt, at any moment! 2n other $ords, peace could ultimately be 'ept only if those on either side of the conflict found it in their interest! , decade after the Suez conflict the -gyptians as'ed UN-9 peace'eepers to lea e on the e e of the Si*0"ay War! The repercussions of that 19<> conflict set the bac'drop for the seemingly ne er0ending 2sraeli08alestinian conflict! "espite its limited long0term success, the prototype established at Suez $as the general model used in most %old WarMera UN peace'eeping missions! The particular characteristics of this type of FFfirst generation44 peace'eeping mission $ere their stringent neutrality and impartiality in the conflict in #uestion, $hich allo$ed the UN and its member states to refrain from choosing sides! 2n an era characterized by the -ast0West ri alry, this $as irtually the only $ay in $hich an international military mission could gain the support of states on opposite sides of the %old War di ide! @o$e er, the emphasis placed upon monitoring the situation, rather than influencing it, the need to ha e the consent of the conflicting parties, and the nonuse of force .e*cept in self0defense/ made the Suez prototype unfit for all types of conflict situations, particularly the many succession struggles that erupted in the aftermath of -uropean decolonization in the 195As and 19<As! 5.&The birth o' !eace en'orcement: the Con#o ,lthough the Suez crisis set the pattern of modern UN peace'eeping in conflicts bet$een nation0states, the %ongo conundrum represented a ne$ 'ind of challenge! The sudden independence of the former ?elgian colony in early 19<A created not only the largest country in sub0Saharan ,frica but one that $as rife $ith internal po$er struggles, rich in resources, and ripe for e*ternal inter ention! The richest pro ince of the %ongo, Datanga, declared itself independent after recei ing support from
69

:hodesia and South ,frica .both countries ruled by $hite minorities/! When ?elgian troops returned to the %ongo, the country4s prime minister, 8atrice Bumumba, appealed to the UN for help! ?ut the arri al of peace'eepers did not immediately sol e the crisis as the UN Security %ouncil debated the implications of inter ention in the internal affairs of %ongo, $hich had been a UN member state since September 19<A!The %ongo became, in effect, the first case in $hich the UN $as engaged in a FFpeace enforcement44 mission! The 6A,AAA0strong United Nations &peration in the %ongo .&peOration des Nations Unies au %ongo, or &NU%/ faced physical limitations and constant attac's from local groups! 2n the same year 8atrice Bumumba $as captured and 'illed by his internal opponents! The mayhem in %ongo $as almost total until 19<4, $hen the unity of the country $asGfor the time beingGrestored and a central go ernment headed by )obutu Sese Sei'o $as firmly in po$er in Dinshasa! The last UN troops left the %ongo in the summer of 19<4! With 65A UN casualties, &NU% $as the deadliest UN peace'eeping operation in the %old War era! ,mong the casualties $as the UN Secretary0+eneral! Tragically, "ag @ammars'1oHld4s plane crashed in 19<1 $hile he $as shuttling around the region in an effort to mediate an end to the conflict! The legacy of the UN4s role in the %ongo $as mi*ed! - en though the &NU%played a role in ensuring the sur i al of the ne$nation as one unitary state, it had done little to sol e the sources of future unrest and instability! %olonialism $as gone, and the unity of $hat loo'ed li'e a FFfailed state44 had been preser ed by the UN inter ention! ?ut the outcome $as a corrupt dictatorship! & er three subse#uent decades )obutu pro ed a ruthless dictator, enriching his personal fortunes and fa oring his support base $hile hiding behind the facUade of a stable nation0state! - entually in the 199As, a lengthy ci il $ar $ould ensue and)obutu$ould be deposed! 2f peace'eeping aV la Suez left the door open for interstate conflict, peace enforcement aV la %ongo pro ided no basis for future internal harmony! 5.4 Peace"ee!in# and Cold (ar constraints
(A

Suez and the %ongo $ere t$o e*amples of $hat might be termed the FFprototypical44 UN peace'eeping and peace enforcement missions! They $ere constrained by the ability of the Security %ouncil4s permanent members to eto any action if it seemed contrary to their national interest! ,lthough Suez sho$ed that e en in cases $here t$o of the 805 $ere in ol ed, the UN $as indeed capable of some action3 it $as e#ually clear that $ithout tremendous ,merican and So iet pressure nothing $ould ha e been done to curtail the inter entions of ?ritain and 9rance! Suez remained an e*ception in this regard! "uring most of the %old War era, until the late 19=As, UN peace'eeping and peace enforcement $as not possible in a number of areas! "uring the bloody conflict in ,lgeria, for e*ample, the UN $as unable to inter ene because of 9rench ability to bloc' any action! The Cietnam $arsGboth its 9rench .194<M54/ and ,merican .19<AM >5/ phasesG$ent by $ithout the UN playing any significant role! When the So iet Union in aded ,fghanistan in 19>9 or the %hinese attac'ed Cietnam in the same year, the UN could do nothing but offer to mediate! The lone mission in the Western @emisphereGa region the United States continued to dominateG $as established in the "ominican :epublic in )ay 19<5, follo$ing the unilateral military inter ention by 6A,AAA U!S! marines! The )ission of the :epresentati e of the Secretary0+eneral in the "ominican :epublic4s ."&):-8/ mandate lasted until &ctober 19<<, $hen its FFinfrastructure44 .t$o military obser ers and a tiny ci ilian staff/ $as disbanded! Still, the blue helmets e*panded their operations e en during the %old War! 9rom the 19<As to the 19=As, peace'eepers $ere sent to numerous conflict regions, particularly in the )iddle -ast! Some of these operations ha e become part of the regional landscape! 9or e*ample, the UN 8eace'eeping 9orce in %yprus .UN92%I8/ has been present on the eastern )editerranean island since 19<4, and the UN "isengagement &bser er 9orce .UN"&9/ that $as created to obser e the border bet$een 2srael and Syria in 19>4 still remains in place! 8erhaps most astonishingly, the misnamed UN2nterim9orce in Bebanon .UN292B/ $as e*panded in the summer of 6AA< follo$ing the 2sraeli0 @ezbollah conflict that threatened to destroy Bebanon4s efforts to mo e to$ard some
(1

form of normality! UN292B $as originally created in 19>=! 2t has been a long FFinterim!44 & erall, a total of eighteen UN peace'eeping missions $ere created during the %old War! Unli'e the fe$ 1ust cited, most $ere relati ely short0li ed! Se eralGthe "ominican :epublic one being an e*treme e*ampleG$ere essentially obser er missions! The good ne$s $as that fatalities $ere relati ely fe$E bet$een 194= and 199A, =5A peace'eepers died! )oreo er, UN forces diffused and FFfroze44 a number of iolent conflicts and, at a minimum, made negotiations bet$een conflicting parties possible! ?y doing so, they sa ed li es and promoted the o erall cause of peace3 a much belated recognition of this role $as the a$arding of the Nobel 8eace 8rize to UN peace'eepers in 19==! Ne ertheless, as e idenced by the long0 dra$n0out conflicts in the )iddle -ast and the e er0present UN obser ers in Dashmir, the impact that UN peace'eepers could ha e on the actual resolution of disputes remained limited! Since the late 19=As the situation has become e en more complicated! 5.5The challen#e o' !eacebuildin# Since the mid0194As the business of 'eeping, maintaining, and enforcing peace has been high on the UN4s agenda! 2t remains so today and is li'ely to continue as long as military conflicts persistG as they unfortunately are li'ely to doGin the future! :ecognizing this fact and the limited successes of peace operations .as spelled out in the ?rahimi :eport/ in general, the UN +eneral ,ssembly oted to establish the 8eacebuilding %ommission .8%/ in late 6AA5! The commission held its first meeting in the summer of 6AA<! 2ts mission $as to FFmarshal resources at the disposal of the international community to ad ise and propose integrated strategies for post0conflict reco ery, focusing attention on reconstruction, institution0building and sustainable de elopment, in countries emerging from conflict!446 This $as a fine idea! 2t reflected the fact that in the ne$ millennium the scope for traditional peace'eeping aV la Suez post0195< $as obsolete and peace enforcement $as possible only under specific conditionsG$hen there $as no opposition to such an effort from the UN Security
(6

%ouncil4s 805! The 6AA( U!S!0led inter ention had further demonstrated the incapacity of the UN in 'eeping a superpo$er li'e the United States from using its military might to deadly effect $ithout the UN4s blessing! @o$e er, the 2ra# $ar4s aftermath has sho$ed ho$ crucial a role the UN could potentially play in a post0 conflict en ironment! Traditional peace'eeping $as meant to buy time for interstate diplomacy and conflict resolution! The UN4s peacebuilders are to buy time for the transition period that follo$ed the many t$enty0first0century internal conflicts around the globe! The founding of the 8eacebuilding %ommission is a commendable step to$ard a more nuanced and fle*ible $ay of addressing the future of the $orld4s ma1or trouble spots! Iet the commission alone $ill be able to accomplish little! 2t is an ad isory body, consisting of thirty0one representati es of UN member states .including the 805/! ,s its $ebsite spells out FFthe %ommission4s po$er $ill come from the #uality of its ad ice and the $eight carried by its membership!44( 2n other $ords, it $or's by consensus and can ultimately do little more than offer ad ice! 2t is no miracle cure! 2f there is one lesson to be learned from this latest de elopment, it is the fact that there is a continued need for measures that go beyond the simple bloc'ing of t$o hostile sides from attac'ing each other! Deeping peace may $ell ha e been $hat the first UN peace operations aimed to do, but the far more arduous challenge is the building of peace! 2n order to do this, the 8eacebuilding %ommission $as to FFbring together the UN4s broad capacities and e*perience in conflict pre ention, mediation, peace'eeping, respect for human rights, the rule of la$, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction and long0term de elopment!44 8eacebuilding is, therefore, a holistic e*ercise that recognizes both the significance of the UN4s economic role as $ell as contributions of the arious $ell0'no$n humanitarian organizations that together form the FFsofter side44 of the United Nations!

((

Chapter # +conomic de5e opment to human de5e opment


The UN %harter dre$ a lin' bet$een international security and global po erty! The founders belie ed that World War 22 $as in large measure an outcome of the +reat "epression of the 19(As3 in other $ords, that economic turmoil had been transformed into political instability, $hich in turn $as a precondition to the Nazi ta'eo er in +ermany! &ne of the UN4s central goals $as to pre ent similar economic uphea al and the political conse#uences that deri ed from it! The foundersGat least some of themGhoped to head off economic collapse, $ar, and re olution by a dose of social democratic reforms and intergo ernmental policy coordination! ?ut $hile the UN %harter spea's of promoting FFhigher standards of li ing44 and creating FFconditions of economic and social progress and de elopment,44 there has ne er been an agreement on ho$ these goals should be ad anced! 2n the early post$ar years the ma1or issue on the agenda $as the reco ery of Western -urope and ;apan! 2n the 195As and 19<As the process of decolonization and the emergence of the so0called Third World shifted the focus to$ard #uestions of global ine#uality! ,lthough international relations may ha e been guided by the -ast0West conflict, the persistent North0South di ide o ershado$ed the UN4s efforts to reshape the global economy! ,nd so it remained $hen, in September 6AAA, the +eneral ,ssembly adopted the )illennium "e elopment +oals .)"+s/! The UN4s ma1or tas' $as to ma'e the $orld a better place by, among other things, eradicating po erty and hunger, achie ing uni ersal education, empo$ering $omen, and fighting infant mortality! None of these e*tremely $orthy goals $as ne$! ,ll remain FFgoals44 today! Iet, as )iguel ,! ,lbornoz, the -cuadorian ambassador to the UN, succinctly put it in a speech at theUN+eneral ,ssembly in 19=5E FF2n the de eloping countries the United
(4

Nations doesn4t mean frustration, confrontation or condemnation! 2t means en ironmental sanitation, agricultural production, telecommunications, the fight against illiteracy, the great struggle against po erty, ignorance and disease!441 2n spite of its problems and in the minds of many at the recei ing end, the UN has done more than any other organization or single nation to alle iate the economic and social problems of the less de eloped countries! 2t is a story thatGho$e er imperfect the end resultsGcannot be ignored in putting the UN4s economic acti ities in perspecti e! ).1 *econstruction a'ter (orld (ar ++ In 1945 Europe was in ruins. Most ancient capitals were physically crumbling, unemployment was at record high levels, millions of refugees were displaced, and famine loomed. In sia, !apan and "hina were both reeling from the physical destruction caused by a war that had, for all intents and purposes, begun in 19#$. In "hina a civil war continued until the formation of the %eople&s 'epublic of "hina on (ctober 1, 1949. )he only ma*or e+ception in the blea, picture was the -nited .tates, a country that produced half of the world&s industrial goods in 1945. )hus it was no accident that the mericans shaped the postwar into the world. "old /et, 0ar, because the of the simultaneous descent economic

reconstruction of most of the globe became e+cessively politici1ed. 2rom 1943 to 1954 the Marshall %lan5or the European 'ecovery %rogram 6E'%75benefited only 0estern Europe, the .oviet -nion having pressured the eastern half to stay out of such schemes. )he fear of losing control over its new satellite countries in East8"entral Europe made the 9remlin particularly antagonistic to any economic or political scheme that might have helped vest the region from .oviet control. )his also meant, however, that one of the charter&s main ideas, the world body&s commitment to ::economic and social
(5

progress and

development,&& was essentially a casualty of the

political division ofthe world after 1945. (f course, no one openly disputed the need for economic progress. ;ut the instruments by which it could be promoted were controversial. .pecifically, the first and second worlds had their own ideas about how to promote economic and social progress. )he mericans emphasi1ed free trade and the role of the private sector< the .oviets heralded the salutary effects of government control and refused to *oin in the global trade networ,. lthough in 1944=45 many mericans thought that governments and businesses should cooperate closely in postwar reconstruction efforts, they saw this as at best a temporary phenomenon. >uring the "old 0ar this .oviet8 merican, socialist8 capitalist dichotomy laid a shadow over the -?&s role in promoting development and reducing poverty. ).$ Trade and #ro,th )he -?&s economic agenda was originally controlled by the so8called ;retton 0oods institutions, named after the city in ?ew @ampshire where, in !uly 1944, representatives of forty8three countries met to contemplate the postwar international economic order. )he three ,ey institutions of this system are still operational and influential todayA the International Monetary 2und 6IM27, the 0orld ;an, 6originally called the International ;an, for 'econstruction and >evelopment, or I;'>7, and the 0orld )rade (rgani1ation 60)(, ,nown as the Beneral greement on )ariffs and ll three reflected a into an institution )rade, or B )), between 194$ and 19957. functionA while the B ))C0)( developed

certain ideological view on how the international economy should upholding the principle of ever8freer trading rules 6if not always
(<

successfully7, the IM2 was set up to increase stability in the world&s currency mar,et, and the I;'>C0orld ;an, was to provide financial assistance to countries willing but otherwise unable to *oin the world mar,et. )hese were institutions conceived to prop up, e+pand, and regulate the global mar,etplace. )hey were, by and large, nglo8 merican in their design. )he 0orld ;an,, for e+ample, received appro+imately #5 percent of its original D9.1 billion capitali1ation from the -nited .tates. Moreover, it is important to note that the 0orld ;an, and the IM2 in particular were founded as organi1ations in which the power lay with those who paid. In other words, the voting power in these organi1ations was s,ewed to the rich and powerful countries 6the ma*or contributors7, with the -nited .tates at the top. 0hile the -nited .tates and other rich 0estern nations were undoubtedly concerned over economic stability and security, their agenda was dominated by the belief that the promotion of free trade through international treaties and mechanisms was the best guarantee against future international economic collapse and offered the best hope of future prosperity around the globe. ).& Globali%ation and human develo!ment The creation of the UN "e elopment 8rogram .UN"8/ in 19<5 $as a milestone in global de elopment policy! The UN"84s confidence reflected a long o erdue paradigm shift! 2nstead of loo'ing at such plain statistics as the gro$th of a country4s +N8 or the a erage income le els in arious nations, the @": $anted to FFassess the le el of people4s long0term $ell0being!44 Thus, such indicators as life e*pectancy, education, health, nutrition, sanitation, and gender discrimination $ere considered e#ually, if not more, important in assessing $here a gi en country ran'ed in the

(>

@uman "e elopment 2nde* .@"2/! The inde* $as de eloped in 199A by 8a'istani economist )ahbub ul @a# and has been used in the @":s since 199(! The goal of the @":s and @"2s $as to disco er ho$ de elopment policies affected a erage people4s daily li es! The reports $ere then to be used to impro e policies and assure that the circle of de elopment beneficiaries $as e*tended! 2n simple terms, the sheer accumulation of $ealth and assets $as merely one among many indicators used to assess human de elopment! The first @": $as, in fact, rather depressing reading! ,mong other things, in 199AE ! a erage life e*pectancy in the South remained t$el e years shorter than in the North ! 1AA million primary0school age children could not attend school in the South ! 9AA million adults $ere illiterate .in South ,sia o erall literacy rate $as only 41 percent/3 female literacy rates $ere roughly t$o thirds that of males ! in the 19=As per capita income declined by 6!4 percent in sub0 Saharan ,frica ! 14 million children died e ery year before their fifth birthday ! ( billion people .roughly half of the $orld4s population/ li ed $ithout proper sanitation ! There $ere, ob iously, plenty of challenges for the future and plenty of $or' for the arious specialized UN agencies! UN"8 itself could coordinate some of it, yet others Gthe World @ealth &rganization .W@&/, the UN %hildren4s 9und .UN2%-9/, the 9ood and ,griculture &rganization .9,&/, the World 9ood 8rogram .W98/, and the UN -ducational, Scientific, and %ultural &rganization .UN-S%&/ among othersG $ere often better fitted to meeting many of the specific challenges! Thus, in 1994 Secretary0+eneral ?outros ?outros0+hali issued FF,n ,genda for "e elopment44 that emphasized the need for coordination across UN agencies through UN"8 resident coordinators that $ould be guided by specific FFcountry strategy notes!44 ).4The so'ter side o' develo!ment: U +C-.

(=

2n "ecember 194< the +eneral ,ssembly created $hat remains probably the most $idely admired UN agency, the UN 2nternational %hildren4s -mergency 9und .or UN2%-93 although the name $ould later be shortened to the UN %hildren4s 9und, the acronym remained, than'fully, the same/! ?ased in Ne$ Ior', UN2%-9 is intended to pro ide humanitarian and de elopmental assistance to children and their mothers, mainly in the de eloping $orld! UN2%-94s first mission $as to ease the suffering in post$ar -urope! ?et$een 194< and 195A UN2%-9 distributed clothes to fi e million children, accinated eight million against tuberculosis, and pro ided supplemental meals to millions of children! -uropean reco ery $as undoubtedly eased by these efforts! Starting in the 195As, ho$e er, UN2%-9 e*panded its operations to other parts of the globe and became increasingly acti e in the decolonized $orld! @ealth campaigns, including large0scale accination pro1ects .against malaria, ya$s, leprosy/, remained central to the organization4s program! ,t the same time as UN"8 emerged as the UN4s de elopment arm, UN2%-9 $as transformed from a short0term emergency agency into a long0term de elopmental one! While it continued to meet emergency needs of children caught in conflict areas or rendered homeless by natural disasters, UN2%-9 mo ed into the long0range benefit approach! To raise nutritional standards for children, UN2%-9 helped countries produce and distribute lo$0cost, high0protein foods, and fostered programs to educate people in their use! To pro ide for the social $elfare of children, UN2%-9 instituted informal training of mothers in child rearing and home impro ement, and aided ser ices for children through day care and neighborhood centers, family counseling, 2n later decades, UN2%-9 further broadened its policy by adopting the so0called country approach!

(9

Chapter 6 0i'hts and responsibi ities: human ri'hts to human security


,mong the plethora of issues on the UN4s agenda, fe$ can be considered more important and challenging than the protection of indi idual human rights! ?ut ma'ing sure that people can li e in FFfreedom from fear,44 as Secretary0+eneral "ag @ammars'1oHld summed up his philosophy of human rights in 195<, is not such a straightfor$ard tas' as it may appear!1 The basic problem is simpleE the ma1or iolators of human rights tend to be states, and states are the ma1or entities that ma'e up the UN! /.1 The canon: the +nternational 0ill o' *i#hts @uman rights $ere a central issue at the ery founding of the UN! T$o mileposts from the 194As established the UN4s human rights agendaE 2n "ecember 194<, the first meeting of the -conomic and Social %ouncil .-%&S&%/ established the UN
4A

%ommission on @uman :ights .UN%@:/! &ne of its 'ey members $as -leanor :oose elt, the former 9irst Bady of the United States! 2t $as in large part due to her persistence that e*actly t$o years later the +eneral ,ssembly issued the Uni ersal "eclaration of @uman :ights, a document that $ould later be considered a central part of the so0called 2nternational ?ill of :ights! Upon submitting the te*t of the declaration to the UN +eneral ,ssembly in 194=, :oose elt spo'e elo#uentlyE We stand today at the threshold of a great e ent both in the life of the United Nations and in the life of man'ind! This declaration may $ell become the international )agna %arta for all men e ery$here! We hope its proclamation by the +eneral ,ssembly $ill be an e ent comparable to the proclamation in 1>=9 Jof the 9rench "eclaration of the :ights of )anK, the adoption of the ?ill of :ights by the people of the United States, and the adoption of comparable declarations at different times in other countries!6 The 194= declaration $as based on a simple notionE the FFinherent dignity44 of all human beings! 2t lin'ed human rights $ith international security by maintaining that the respect for human rights FF$as the foundation of freedom, 1ustice, and peace in our $orld!44 The declaration further specified a number of the most ob ious iolations of human rights, such as sla ery and denial of the right to freedom of e*pression! The 2nternational ?ill of @uman :ights To supplement the Uni ersal "eclaration of @uman :ights .194=/, the UN +eneral ,ssembly appro ed t$o additional co enants in 19<<! Together, these documents comprise the basic canon of human rights today! 1! 2nternational %o enant on %i il and 8olitical :ights FFinclude the rights to life, liberty, security of the person, pri acy and property3 the right to marry and found a family3 the right to a fair trial3 freedom from sla ery, torture and right to a nationality3 freedom of thought, conscience and relation3 freedom of opinion and e*pression3 freedom of assembly and association3 and the right to free elections, uni ersal suffrage and participation in public affairs!44 6! 2nternational %o enant on -conomic, Social and %ultural :ights FFinclude the right to $or' and a 1ust re$ard3 the right to form and 1oin trade unions3 the right to rest and
41

leisure3 and to periodic holidays $ith pay3 the right to a standard of li ing ade#uate to health and $ell0being3 the right to social security3 the right to education3 and the right to participation in the cultural life of a community!44 /.$ 1uman security and the 22res!onsibility to !rotect33 The term FFhuman security44 became common usage after the 19>5 @elsin'i %onference on Security and %ooperation in -urope! The signing of the so0called @elsin'i ,ccords in early ,ugust 19>5 $as a remar'able feat of multilateral diplomacyE thirty0fi e -uropean countries as $ell as the United States, %anada, and the So iet Union agreed on a document that established such basic rules as the in iolability of post01945 borders in -urope! )ost contro ersially at the time, ho$e er, the @elsin'i ,ccords included a number of clausesGhidden in FF?as'et 22244 of the documentGthat emphasized respect for human rights as an important element of international security! The 19>5 agreements therefore indicated a shift from a narro$ state0centered concern o er security to a more all0encompassing one! The rights of indi iduals and human lin'ages across national borders $ere gi en a special place alongside more traditional #uestions of borders! ,t the height of the %old War a motto from the @elsin'i conference captured the basic ideaE FFSecurity is not gained by erecting fences3 security is enhanced by building bridges!44 /.&*e'u#ees4 dis!laced !ersons4 and the U 1C* Since the da$n of time people ha e fled their homelands and been unable or un$illing to return because they fear persecution! 2n many cases the cause of a refugee problem has been military con#uest3 in others it may ha e been a regime that, once installed in po$er, has started persecuting a group of people $ithin the nation4s borders .for instance, ;e$s in Nazi +ermany/! Whate er the cause of a specific refugee #uestion, it is $arfare and the mo ement of national boundaries that has traditionally been the greatest cause of $hat is generally referred to as forced migration! ,nd it is a phenomenon as old as $arfare itself!

46

%ategories of FFpeople of concern to UN@%:44 There are millions of people $ho ha e become homeless and are in desperate circumstances but do not legally #ualify as refugees .and are therefore not eligible for normal relief or protection/! Thus, UN@%: acti ities ha e been broadened and include at least the follo$ing groupsE :efugees .ca! =!4 million in 6AA</ 8eople $ho ha e fled their homeland and sought sanctuary in a second country in order to escape persecution, $ar, terrorism, e*treme po erty, famines, and natural disaster! 2nternally displaced people .>!1 million/ 8eople $ho ha e fled their homes, generally during a ci il $ar, but ha e stayed in their nati e countries rather than see'ing refuge abroad! Stateless people .(!( million/ 8eople $ithout citizenship as a result of se eral possible circumstancesE .a/ the state that ga e their pre ious nationality may ha e ceased to e*ist and there is no successor state3 .b/ their nationality has been repudiated by their o$n state3 .c/ they are members of a group that is denied citizen status in the country in $hose territory they are born, etc! :eturnees .1!1 million/ 8eople $ho ha e returned to their o$n countries but still recei e help from UN@%: in their reintegration! ,sylum see'ers .>>A,AAA/ 8eople $ho ha e as'ed for refugee status but are still a$aiting decision! /.4 The endurin# !arado5 o' human ri#hts

4(

There is no getting around the parado*! &n the one hand, human rights ha e been a central part of the UN4s agenda from the ery beginning, and there has been success in raising the le els of respect for many of the indi idual rights as defined in the 194= Uni ersal "eclaration! &n the other hand, the global respect for human rights has remained contingent on the agaries of the international en ironment and the $hims of nation0states! @uman rights, e en as they are undoubtedly more diligently monitored in the t$enty0first century than e er before, are constantly iolated on e ery continent!

Chapter 7 United Nations in 8an' adesh


7.1 UN Country Team in 8an' adesh The ?angladesh the UN country team .UN%T/ consists of representati es from 1> UN agencies, funds and programmes, UN2% and UN"SS con ened under UN :esident %oordinator .:%/! The UN%T meets at regular inter als, generally once each month, under the chairmanship of the UN :esident %oordinator to discuss and decide on issues of common interest! @eads of ,gencies are responsible for o erall o ersight and policy decisions for their respecti e agencies and the UN%T meetings ser e as a forum for inter0agency discussions aimed at optimizing and harmonizing the UN System4s synergies at country0le el! The UN%T is supported by the UN :esident %oordinator4s &ffice, UN",9 8illars, UN",9 )W- +roup and any other inter0agency thematic groups as re#uired!

44

2n response to the +o ernment of ?angladesh 8o erty :eduction Strategy, and follo$ing a 1oint assessment of the de elopment needs .UN %ommon %ountry ,ssessment 0 %%,/ in 6AA5, the +o ernment of ?angladesh and the UN%T agreed on si* priority areas of cooperation in the UN "e elopment ,ssistance 9rame$or' .UN",9/ 6AA<06A1A! The UN",9 $as e*tended by one year to 6A11 to ensure greater alignment $ith the ;oint %ooperation Strategy .;%S/, de eloped by +o ernment and "e elopment 8artners to strengthen aid deli ery and management! The formulation of ?angladesh5s ne$ UN",9 .6A1606A1</ began in 6A1A! The UN System and the +o ernment of ?angladesh undertoo' a rigorous and comprehensi e assessment of the status of the )"+s in ?angladesh! The results and findings $ere documented in the 5)"+ ?angladesh 8rogress :eport 6AA95 and ser ed as ?angladesh5s country analysis, replacing the need for a UN %ommon %ountry ,ssessment .%%,/! 2n addition to the results from the )"+ assessment, the UN",9 6A1606A1< also builds on the 'ey de elopment priorities outlined in +o ernment4s &utline 8erspecti e 8lan of ?angladesh 6A1AM6A61 .)a'ing Cision 6A61 a :eality/, the emerging Si*th 9i e Iear National "e elopment 8lan! Se en UN",9 thematic pillars ha e been identified along $ith leadLcon ening UN agenciesE 1! "emocratic +o ernance and @uman :ights .BeadE UN"8/ 6! 8ro0poor -conomic +ro$th $ith -#uity .BeadE UN"8/ (! Social Ser ices for @uman "e elopment .BeadE UN2%-9/ 4! 9ood Security and Nutrition .BeadE W98/ 5! %limate %hange, -n ironment, "isaster :is' :eduction W :esponse .BeadE UN"8/ <! 8ro08oor Urban "e elopment .BeadE UN"8/ >! +ender -#uality and Women5s ,d ancement .BeadE UN98,/

45

2mplementation of the ne$ UN",9 implementation began in 6A16, under a common operational plan, the country4s first, the UN",9 ,ction 8lan 6A1606A1<! &n 66nd &ctober 6A16, the UN System in ?angladesh celebrated the <>th birthday of the United Nations! The e ent $as embraced by the @on4ble 9oreign )inister, dignitaries from the diplomatic communities, eminent national personalities and not to mention the current and former United Nations staffs in ?angladesh!

7.2 8an' adesh UN Peace4eepin' /orce The ?angladesh ,rmy has been acti ely in ol ed in a number of United Nations 8eace Support &perations .UN8S&/ since its formation in the 19>As! 2ts first deployments came in 19==, $hen it participated in t$o operations 0 UN22)&+ in 2ra# and UNT,+ in Namibia!The then soldier turned politician 0 8resident elect of ?angladesh, Bieutenant +eneral @ussain )uhammad -rshad initiated these deployments in 19== for the first time $ith UN22)&+! Bater, as part of the UN2D&) force deployed to Du$ait and Saudi ,rabia follo$ing the +ulf War the ?angladesh ,rmy sent a mechanized infantry brigade .appro*! 6,19( personnel/! Since then, the ?angladesh ,rmy has been in ol ed in up to thirty different UN8D&5s co ering as many as t$enty fi e countries!This has included acti ities in Namibia, %ambodia, Somalia, Uganda, :$anda, )ozambi#ue, former Iugosla ia, Biberia, @aiti, Ta1i'istan, Western Sahara, Sierra Beone, Doso o, +eorgia, -ast Timor, %ongo, %Rte d52 oire and -thiopia! ,s of September 6A1A, ?angladesh contributed the highest number of troops to United Nations 8eace'eeping &perations3 $ith 1A,=55 personnel .military and la$ enforcement/ attached to arious UN peace'eeping forces $orld$ide! 7.3 8an' adesh in UN Peace4eepin' $ission

4<

?angladesh ,rmy started its 1ourney in the UN peace'eeping mission in 19== $ith 15 obser ers in UN2)&+ .2ra#02ran/! Since then it is maintaining its dominance as a leading troop contributor country in UN peace'eeping! ?angladesh ,rmed 9orces has so far participated in !2 peace'eeping missions in 4- countries! , total of 1AA,A14 members from ?angladesh ,rmed 9orces ha e participated in the noble tas' of peace'eeping! , consolidated list is appended belo$E

Country Afganistan Afganistan -Pakistan Ango a &'r'n(i +a,-o(ia +ongo "ast S o0enia "ast Ti,or "thio1ia/ "ritrea Georga 2aiti $ra4 $ran/$ra4 $ra4 $0or5 +oast 6oso0o 6'7ait .i-eria Mece(onia Mo:a,-i4'e Na,i-ia

Name of the Misson UNAMA UNSMA/UNGOMAP UNA!"M UNA!"M $$$ &$NU& UNAM$+ / UNTA+ UNM.T MONU+/ MONUS+O UNTA"S UNAM"T / UNTA"T / UNM$S"T UNM"" UNOM$G UNM$2 / MN3 UNG+$ UN$$MOG UNMO!$+ M$NU+$/ONU+$/UNO+$ UNM$6 UN$6OM UNOM$. UNM$. UNP8"9"P ONUMO; UNTAG

Army 3 2 0 4%0 1 1002 1 10#8# 1% 1308 10#3 #4 2023 #0 31 0 20*3# 12 %#11 12# 200)0 4 24*8 2)

Navy 4 0 0 # ) 0 0 2)* 0 3 * 1# )0 18 0 2 334 0 4* 1# 1)3 0 1) 0

Air 1 0 # 0 0 0 0 2128 0 %1 # 18 )2 13 0 1 31% 0 281 0 4# 3 3# 0

Total 8 2 # 4%# * 1002 1 133%3 1% 1382 1108 131 212) 121 31 3 212#0 12 8238 148 202)2 % 2)22 2)

4>

8a7an(a Sierra .eone So,a ia

UNAM$8 UNAMS$. UNOSOM-$ UNOSOM $$ AM$SOM S'(an UNM$S Ta<iskistan UNMOT Ugan(a/ 8a7an(a UNOMU8 =esten Sahara M$NU8SO >'gos a0ia?3or,er@ UNP8O3O8 / UNMOP Sierra .eone UN$OS$. +A8 A +ha( M$NU8+AT 9arf'r UNAM$9 .e-anon UN$3$. =est Africa UNO=A S5ria UNSM$S G/Total SourceE ,9" .9oreign ,ffairs Section/ ,rchi e

##0 11#08 ) 1#*% 1 8*21 34 20 123 1381 3 # 1342 0 1 14

% 22 0 0 0 *83 3 0 1# 18 0 1 20 32* 0 1

1) 14 2 0 0 %8 3 0 4 24 0 43 32 1 0 1 3207

1012 11#44 % 1#*% 1 #382 40 20 14* 1423 3 )3 13#4 32% 1 1* 00!0 4

94768 2039

Chapter , 0eform and cha en'es: the future of the United Nations
FF2f the United Nations is to sur i e, those $ho represent it must bolster it3 those $ho ad ocate it must submit to it3 and those $ho belie e in it must fight for it!441 Norman %ousins, a prominent 1ournalist and peace ad ocate, uttered these $ords in 195<! They continue to resonate today, for the UN is hardly a perfect institution! 2t is structurally fla$ed and operationally cumbersome! 2t often lac's the means of implementation e en as it may ser e as the source of e*cellent ideas! 2ts different

4=

programs often duplicate $or' that might be better done by one centralized agency! 2n short, the UN is in need of reform and support if it is to ha e a meaningful future! 6.1 eed 'or re'orm: the Security Council

)he .ecurity "ouncil is destined to remain undemocratic and virtually unchanged. 0hile its composition may be tin,ered with, there is not going to be a dramatic overhaul< an addition of a few new members is possible, but is the creation of permanent seats for certain countries 6such as those *ust mentioned7 possibleE )he %85 will not give up their powers voluntarily. 'eform of the -nited ?ations .ecurity "ouncil 6-?."7 encompasses five ,ey issuesA categories of membership, the Fuestion of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the si1e of an enlarged "ouncil and its wor,ing methods, and the .ecurity "ouncil8 Beneral ssembly relationship. Member .tates, regional groups and other Member .tate interest groupings developed different positions and proposals on how to move forward on this contested issue. )he reform of the .ecurity "ouncil reFuires the agreement of at least two8thirds of -? member states and that of all the permanent members of the -?.", en*oying the veto right. 6.$ eed 'or re'orm: !eace o!erations )he drive toward reforming the -?&s peace operations gathered force in the 199Gs. number of Fuestions have been repeatedly raised. @ow to ma,e most of a limited number of troops in difficult situationsE @ow to prevent abuses of power5in the form of se+ual e+ploitation and human traffic,ing5by the peace,eepers themselvesE @ow to ma,e sure that a peace operation does not
49

interfere in a country&s democratic process and thus create new problemsE @ow to do all this while preventing a repeat of the tragic events in ;osnia, 'wanda, and .omalia in the 199GsE )hese and other Fuestions were addressed in the 4GGG ;rahimi 'eport on %eace,eeping. )he report, not une+pectedly, pointed out the obvious and need lac, of resources that hampered many -? peace of -? operations, emphasi1ed the need for clear and realistic mandates, heralded to the insufficient ::a rapid general strategic planning for operations. ;ut it also, and perhaps most significantly, flagged the develop deployment capacity&& peace,eepers. )he report itself provided the bac,drop for the creation of the -? %eacebuilding "ommission in 4GGH. 0ithin the -.?. system, the -.?. "harter places the principal responsibility for maintaining international peace and security on the .ecurity "ouncil. )he charter gives the .ecurity "ouncil e+tensive powers to investigate disputes to determine whether they endanger international peace and security< to call on participants in a dispute to settle the conflict through peaceful negotiation< to impose economic, travel, and diplomatic sanctions< and, ultimately, to authori1e the use of military force. )his robust vision of the -.?. as a ,ey vehicle for maintaining international peace and security Fuic,ly ran afoul of the interests of member states, particularly during the "old 0ar when opposing alliances largely prevented the -.?. from ta,ing decisive action, e+cept when the interests of the ma*or powers were minimally involved. s a result, the -nited ?ations established only 13 peace operations between 1945 and 199G, despite a multitude of conflicts that threatened international peace and security to varying degrees.
5A

)raditionally, .ecurity "ouncil authori1ations of military force have involved deployments into relatively low8ris, situations, such as truce monitoring. )he bul, of these peace operations were fact8 finding missions, observer missions, and other roles in assisting peace processes in which the parties had agreed to cease hostilities. -.?. peace operations were rarely authori1ed with the e+pectation that they would involve the use of force. .ince the end of the "old 0ar, the -.?. .ecurity "ouncil has been far more active in establishing peace operations. In the early 199Gs, crises in the ;al,ans, .omalia, and "ambodia led to a dramatic increase in missions. @owever, the debacle in .omalia and the failure of -.?. peace,eepers to intervene and prevent the 1994 genocide in 'wanda and to stop the 1995 massacre in .rebrenica, ;osnia, led to a necessary s,epticism about -.?. peace,eeping and a decline in the breadth and freFuency of -.?. peace,eeping in the mid and late 199Gs. )his lull was short8lived. 0ith a number of troubling situations, many of them in frica, receiving increasing attention from the media in recent years, the .ecurity "ouncil has found itself under pressure to respond and Ido something.I 2or better or worse, the .ecurity "ouncil has often responded by establishing additional peace,eeping operations. .ince 199G, the .ecurity "ouncil has approved more than 4G new peace operations, half of them since 4GGG. )hese post8199G operations have often involved mandates that go beyond traditional peace,eeping in scope, purpose, and responsibilities. Moreover,
51

these missions have often focused on Fuelling civil wars, reflecting a change in the nature of conflict from interstate conflict between nations to intrastate conflict within nations. )his e+pansion of ris, and responsibilities was *ustified by pointing out the international conseFuences of each conflict, such as refugees fleeing to neighboring countries or widespread conflict and instability. s a result, from a rather modest history of monitoring cease8fires, demilitari1ed 1ones, and post8conflict security, -.?. peace operations have e+panded to include multiple responsibilities, including more comple+ military interventions, civilian police duties, human rights interventions, reconstruction, overseeing elections, and post8conflict reconstruction.0hile such actions may be *ustified in some cases, they represent a dramatic shift from earlier doctrine. t the end of !une 4GG9, the -.?. >epartment of %eace,eeping (perations operations 6>%9(7 6;urundi was and directing and two and supporting or .even 1H -.?. peace,eeping operations political peace8building peace,eeping

fghanistan7.

operations were in

frica 6"entral

frican 'epublic and "had, "Jte

dKIvoire, >arfur, >emocratic 'epublic of the "ongo, Liberia, .udan, and 0estern .ahara7. (ne was in the "aribbean 6@aiti7. )hree were in Europe 6"yprus, Beorgia, and 9osovo7. )hree were in the Middle East 6Lebanon, the .yrian Bolan @eights, and a region8wide mission7, and two were in sia 6East )imor and India and %a,istan7. )he si1e and e+pense of -.?. peace operations have risen to unprecedented levels. )he 1H peace,eeping missions involve some 9#,GGG uniformed personnel from 113 countries, including over
56

$9,GGG troops, over 4,GGG military observers, and about 11,GGG police personnel. More than 4G,GGG -.?. volunteers and other international and local civilian personnel are employed in these 1H operations, and more than 4,GGG military observers, police, international and local civilians, and -.?. volunteers are involved in the two political or peace8building missions. In total, at the end of !une 4GG9, the >%9( was overseeing more than 115,GGG personnel involved in -.?. peace,eeping, political, or peace8building operations, including international and local civilian personnel and -.?. volunteers. )he >%9( is currently overseeing the deployment of more uniformed personnel than any single nation, e+cept the -nited .tates, has outside of its borders. )his hightened activity has led to a dramatically increased budget. )he approved budget for the >%9(88*ust one department in the -.?. .ecretariat88from !uly 1, 4GG9, to !une 4G, 4G1G, was D$.$5 billion. )his is appro+imately a threefold increase in budget and personnel since 4GG#. ;y comparison, the annual peace,eeping budget is roughly triple the si1e of the annuali1ed -.?. regular biennial 4GG38 4GG9 budget for the rest of the .ecretariat. )he -... contributes the largest share of funding for peace,eeping operations. ll permanent members of the .ecurity "ouncil88"hina, 2rance, 'ussia, the -nited 9ingdom, and the -nited .tates88are charged a premium above their regular -.?. assessment rate. .pecifically, the -... is assessed 44 percent of the -.?. regular budget, but *ust under 4H percent of the -.?. peace,eeping budget for 4GG9. "hina is assessed #.15 percent of the peace,eeping
5(

budget< 2rance, $.4 percent< 'ussia, 1.4 percent< and the -.9., $.3 percent. )hus, the -... is assessed more than all other permanent members combined. !apan 61H.H percent7 and Bermany 63.H percent7 ran, second and third in assessments, even though they are not permanent members of the .ecurity "ouncil. ;ased on the -.?.Ks budget of D$.$5 billion for peace,eeping from !uly 1, 4GG9, to !une 4G, 4G1G, the -... will be as,ed to pay more than D4 billion for -.?. peace,eeping activities for the year.)he more than #G countries that are assessed the lowest rate of G.GGG1 percent of the peace,eeping budget will be as,ed to pay appro+imately D$,$5G each. lthough the -... and other developed countries regularly provide transportation 6particularly airlift7 and logistic support for -.?. peace,eeping, many developed countries with trained personnel and other essential resources are reluctant to participate directly in -.?. peace operations. )he five permanent members contributed 5 percent of -.?. uniformed personnel as of !une #G, 4GG9.)he -... contribution totaled 1G troops, 9 military observers, and $4 police. )his is roughly comparable to 'ussia, which contributed #43 uniformed personnel, and the -.9., which contributed 43#. "hina contributed 4,15#, and 2rance contributed 1,3$9 personnel. )he top 1G contributors of uniformed personnel to -.?. operations account for slightly less than HG percent of the total. )hey are nearly all developing countriesA %a,istan 61G,HG#7, ;angladesh 69,9347< India 63,HG$7< ?igeria 65,9HG7< ?epal 64,1437< 'wanda 6#,5347< !ordan 6#,4#17, Bhana 6#,1597, Egypt 64,95H7, and Italy
54

64,H9G7.

number of reasons account for this situation, including

the fact that ma*or contributors often use -.?. peace,eeping as a form of training and income. )he -... clearly should support -.?. peace,eeping operations when they further mericaKs national interests. @owever, the broadening of -.?. peace operations into nontraditional missions88such as peace enforcement88and their inability to garner broad international support in terms of troop contributions, logistics support, and funding raise legitimate Fuestions as to whether the -.?. should be engaging in the current number of missions and whether these situations are best addressed through the -.?. or through regional, multilateral, or ad hoc efforts. .pecifically, strong evidence indicates that the system as currently structured is incapable of meeting its responsibilities. Indisputably, the unprecedented freFuency and si1e of recent -.?. deployments and their resulting financial demands have challenged and overwhelmed the capabilities of the >%9(A I)he scope and magnitude of -? field operations today is straining the .ecretariat infrastructure that was not designed for current levels of activity. )his stress has contributed to serious problems of mismanagement, misconduct, poor planning, corruption, se+ual abuse by -.?. personnel, unclear mandates, and other wea,nesses. 6.& )he eed 'or re'orm: develo!ment eight Millennium the first >evelopment common Boals 6M>Bs7 for of 4GGG human global agenda

constituted

development. It was much overdue and received, by and large,


55

Millennium >eclaration, the 4GG5 0orld .ummit to assess progress on the M>Bs and other development goals, various resolutions of the -? Beneral Effectiveness, ssembly, the (E"> 4GG5 %aris >eclaration on and, most recently, the ?ovember id 4GGH

recommendations of the @igh8Level %anel on -? .ystem80ide "oherence titled >elivering as (ne. )his last report in particular had the potential of ma,ing a difference in the overall wor, of the -? and its development wor,. )he fifteen members of the panel included several presidents and prime ministers, as well as Bordon ;rown, who would move to become ;ritish %rime Minister in 4GG$. >elivering as (ne identified -? development assistance as ::fragmented and wea,.&& )hus, it called for a well8governed, well8 funded -? eFuipped to meet the changing needs of countries. )he report emphasi1ed nation8level planning and e+ecution of development aid. It therefore proposed consolidating most -? country activities under one strategic program, one budgetary framewor,, one strong country team leader, and one office. In short, it called for centrali1ation at the country level. 6.4 eed 'or re'orm: human ri#hts

)he promise of human rights remains unfulfilled as daily evidence5 torture, denial of basic political rights, ab*ect poverty of people5 clearly indicates. (ver the past decades human rights watch groups have proliferated. ;ut their reports remain gloomy< more awareness has not resulted in obvious practical progress. (ver the years, the -? "ommission on @uman 'ights5which drafted the -niversal >eclaration of @uman 'ights under the leadership of its first chair, Eleanor 'oosevelt5had less and less lived up to that documentKs promises. In recent years, the body counted among its members
5<

some of the worldKs most repressive regimesA "uba, Libya 6its 4GG# chair7, .audi rabia, .udan, and Mimbabwe, for e+ample. )hese regimes were able to *oin the "ommission because there were no membership standards beyond nomination by their regional group. (nce on the "ommission, they sat in *udgment of others while shielding their own records of abuse. s a result, the "ommission became infected by politici1ation and selectivity. )oo often, it ignored serious situations of gross human rights violations. In its 4GG5 session, for e+ample, the "ommission failed to even consider the denial of women&s rights in .audia rabia, the repression of political freedoms in Mimbabwe, or the state8organi1ed violence against *ournalists in Iran. /et it adopted four resolutions condemning Israel, a number eFual to the total of its resolutions against all other states in the world. 6;elarus, "uba, Myanmar, and ?orth 9orea were the sub*ect of one resolution each.7

Chapter 1Conc udin' 0emar4 Conc usion


With all its achie ements and shortcomings, the UN remains an indispensable part of the global community of the early t$entyfirst century! 2f it suddenly disappearedG that is, if its constituent parts $ere allo$ed to disintegrateGmillions of people around the $orld $ould soon be $orse off! That, alone, is sufficient cause for upholding and supporting the UN! Iet, in gauging the significance of the United Nations and the possibilities for impro ing it a fe$ salient points should be 'ept in mind! 9irst, the UN cannot be the FFdefinite guaranty of peace44 that Woodro$ Wilson had hoped the Beague of Nations $ould be! ,s long as the concept of nation0

5>

state is the basic form of organizing the different entities $e 'no$ as countries, as long as there is something called the national interest, as long as go ernments are responsible for the $ell0being .or lac' thereof / of their citizens, the UN $ill lac' the means of acting independently! 2t remains, in other $ords, a tool of nations, albeit in a $orld $here the threats to security tend to emanate not from nations but rather from either $ithin them or from arious transnational groups! Second, in its more than si*ty years of e*istence, the UN has de eloped structures and bureaucracies that in some $ays are its o$n $orst enemy! 9or li'e any organization, theUNis a place $here indi iduals build careers, compete $ith each other, establish entrenched positions, and resist change! ,ll this ma'es the UN too easily a target of condemnation! ?ut more importantly, the UN has a tendency not to reform but to build ne$ structures on top of already e*isting ones! ,s a result, meager resources often are s#uandered due to lac' of operational coherence! 2t is a long $ay off for the UN being able to deli er as one, a challenge that the current UN Secretary0 +eneral, ?an Di0moon, and his staff $ill ha e to address! Third, the UN cannot continue to ha e a positi e impact $ithout a sufficient support base! This lays a primary responsibility for funding the organization to the $ealthier countries of the globe! The parado* is e identE it translates to the $ealthy fe$ paying for operations and policies that are mainly directed to$ard helping others! &ne of the greatest future challenges $ill be for the richest member statesGparticularly, but not e*clusi ely, the United States and the countries of the -uropean UnionGto e*plain to their citizens $hy a proportion, ho$e er small, of their national income should be used to fund the numerous UN operations! )eeting this challenge successfully $ill determine, if not the future e*istence of the UN, then at least the effecti eness of the organization! 2n the end, the UN cannot and should not be e*pected to offer solutions to all of the $orld4s ills! 2t does much good humanitarian $or' and often pro ides $ays of easing tension and sol ing crises! 2t often enables people stuc' in po erty to impro e their
5=

lot! The UN is hardly perfect! ?ut it remains an indispensable organization e en as its beha ior and effecti enessGmuch li'e that of indi idual countriesGis in constant need of impro ement!

8ib io'raphy
%econdary documents: 8oo4s 0 0 @anhima'i ;ussi )! PThe United NationsE , Cery Short 2ntroductionQ.published by &*ford Uni ersity press3 2nc ,6AA=/ Beonard ?arry! P?asic 9acts ,bout the United NationsQ.published by united nations, department of public information3 Ne$ Ior' ,1999/

1ebsites

1!

httpELL$$$!un!orgLenLmainbodiesLinde*!shtml
59

6! (! 4! 5! <! >! =! 9! 1A! 11! 16! 1(! 14! 15!

httpELLen!$i'ipedia!orgL$i'iLUnitedXNationsXSystem $$$!un!orgLappsLne$sLstory!aspTNe$s2"Y4(4A1 $$$!utanri'israduneyti!isLmediaLframbodL,lysonX?ailes!doc $$$!un!orgL!!!L>billionpeople1unitednationsL!!! httpELL$$$1!umn!eduLhumanrtsLedumatLhreduseriesLhereandno$L8art0 1Lunited0nations!htm httpELL$$$!unac!orgLpeacecpLfactsheetLrole!html unidir!orgLpdfLarticlesLpdf0art6A1= $$$!un!orgLenLaboutunLhistoryL httpELL$$$!un!orgLcyberschoolbusLunintroLunintro5!htm $$$!heritage!orgL!!!Lcritical0reforms0 $$$!un$atch!org Z !!! Z 2ssues in 9ocus $$$!un0bd!orgL httpELLen!$i'ipedia!orgL$i'iL?angladeshXUNX8eace'eepingX9orce httpELL$$$!afd!go !bdLT#YnodeL65

<A