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Jamileh Yousefi CIS 6320, W11

Outline

Fuzzy

Image Processing

Why

**Fuzzy Image Processing
**

of Fuzzy Image Processing

Steps

Applications

of Fuzzy Logic in Image Processing

2

**Fuzzy Image Processing
**

Collection

of all approaches that understand, represent

**and process the images, their segments and features
**

as fuzzy sets.

The

representation and processing depend on:

The selected fuzzy technique The problem to be solved

3

Example

Gray-levels: gray, dark gray, and light

4

Example

Colour = { yellow, orange, red, violet, blue }

5

Example

Can we give a crisp definition to light blue?

6

Fuzziness Vs. Vagueness

Fuzziness=Unsharp Boundaries Vagueness=Insufficient Specificity

―I will be back sometime‖

―I will be back in a few minutes‖

Fuzzy

Vague

Fuzzy

7

**Why Fuzzy Image Processing?
**

Low-Level Preprocessing IntermediateLevel Segmentation Representation Description Geometrical Fuzziness High-Level Analysis Interpretation Recognition Vague Knowledge

Grayness Ambiguity

Uncertainty

8

**Why Fuzzy Image Processing?
**

Low-Level Preprocessing IntermediateLevel Segmentation Representation Description Geometrical Fuzziness High-Level Analysis Interpretation Recognition Vague Knowledge

Grayness Ambiguity

Whether a pixel should become darker or brighter than it already is

9

**Why Fuzzy Image Processing?
**

Low-Level Preprocessing IntermediateLevel Segmentation Representation Description Geometrical Fuzziness High-Level Analysis Interpretation Recognition Vague Knowledge

Grayness Ambiguity

Where is the boundary between two image segments

10

**Why Fuzzy Image Processing?
**

Low-Level Preprocessing IntermediateLevel Segmentation Representation Description Geometrical Fuzziness High-Level Analysis Interpretation Recognition Vague Knowledge

Grayness Ambiguity

What is a tree in a scene analysis problem

11

Steps of Fuzzy Image Processing

Expert Knowledge Input Image Output Image

Image Fuzzification

Membership Modification

Image Defuzzification

Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Set Theory

12

Steps of Fuzzy Image Processing

50 58 215

55 205 223

63 210 230

Gray-level plane

Expert Knowledge Output Image

Input Image

Image Fuzzification

Membership Modification

Image Defuzzification

Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Set Theory

13

Steps of Fuzzy Image Processing

Expert Knowledge Input Image Output Image

Image Fuzzification

Membership Modification

Image Defuzzification

**Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Set Theory
**

Membership plane

.19 .23 .84

.21 .80 .87

.25 .82 90

14

Steps of Fuzzy Image Processing

Expert Knowledge Input Image Output Image

Image Fuzzification

Membership Modification

Image Defuzzification

**Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Set Theory
**

Membership plane

.07 .10 .95

.09 .92 .97

.12 .93 .97

15

Steps of Fuzzy Image Processing

Expert Knowledge Input Image Output Image

Image Fuzzification

Membership Modification

Image Defuzzification

**Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Set Theory
**

18 25 242 23 234 247 31 237 250

16

Gray-level plane

**Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Image Processing
**

Contrast

Enhancement

Edge

Noise

Detection

Detection and Removal

Segmentation Geometric Scene

measurement

analysis (Region Labeling)

17

Contrast Enhancement

**Fuzzy Contrast Enhancement
**

Approaches for Fuzzy Contrast Enhancement

Minimization of fuzziness

Equalization using fuzzy expected value Fuzzy Hyperbolization Rule-based approach

19

**Fuzzy Contrast Image Enhancement approaches
**

Original Image

20

**Fuzzy Contrast Image Enhancement approaches
**

Minimization of fuzziness

21

**Fuzzy Contrast Image enhancement approaches
**

Equalization using Fuzzy Expected Value

22

**Fuzzy Contrast Image enhancement approaches
**

Fuzzy Hyperbolization

23

**Fuzzy Contrast Image Enhancement approaches
**

Fuzzy Rulebased approach

24

**Contrast Enhancement with Fuzzy Histogram Hyperbolization (Tizhoosh 1995/1997)
**

1.

Set the membership function

1. 2. 3. 4.

Set the value of fuzzifier ß (a linguistic hedge) Calculate of membership values for each gray level Modify the membership values by linguistic hedge

Generate new gray-levels using equation

25

Contrast Enhancement with Fuzzy Histogram Hyperbolization (Tizhoosh 1995/1997)

26

**Contrast Improvement based on Fuzzy IfThen Ruels (Tizhoosh 1997)
**

1.

**Setting the parameter of inference system
**

input features, membership functions,..

2.

**Fuzzification of the actual pixel
**

memberships to the dark, gray and bright sets of pixels

27

**Contrast Improvement based on Fuzzy IfThen Ruels (Tizhoosh 1997)
**

3.

**Modify the membership values
**

Fuzzy rules:

If Y is Dark => Ye is Darker If Y is Gray => Ye is Midgray If Y is Bright => Ye is Brighter

4.

Defuzzification of the fuzzy result

28

Contrast Improvement based on Fuzzy IfThen Ruels (Tizhoosh 1997)

29

Edge Detection

**Fuzzy Edge Detection
**

Techniques of fuzzy edge detection:

**Membership function edge detection
**

Rule-based fuzzy edge detection

**Membership Function Edge Detection
**

(Tizhoosh, 1997)

A

membership function indicates the degree of

**edginess in each neighborhood.
**

The It

membership function is determined heuristically.

is fast but the performance is limited.

32

**Membership Function Edge Detection
**

(Tizhoosh, 1997)

33

**Membership function edge detection
**

(Tizhoosh, 1997)

**Membership functions of the fuzzy sets associated to the input and to the output
**

34

**Membership function edge detection
**

(Tizhoosh, 1997)

If

E

Then

Checked pixel is Edge

If

Then

Checked pixel is Edge

E

E

Checked pixel is Edge

E

Checked pixel is Edge

E

Checked pixel is Edge

E

Checked pixel is Edge

E

Checked pixel is Edge

E

Checked pixel is Edge

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**Membership Function Edge Detection
**

(Tizhoosh, 1997)

36

**Rule-based Fuzzy Edge Detection (Tizhoosh,
**

1997)

If Then If Then

Else

37

**Rule-based Fuzzy Edge Detection (Tizhoosh,
**

1997)

38

Noise Reduction

**Edges and Noise
**

Both

represent a variation in intensity

Usually

edge has a large variation between adjacent

**pixels, compared to additive noise
**

Directional

gradients is used to capture variations

40

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

Let:

D ∈ dir = {NW, W, SW, S, SE, E, NE, N} ∇D(x,y) : Derivative value Small derivative: most likely caused by noise Large derivative: most likely caused by an edge

NW W

. .

N (x,y) S

NE E SE

41

SW

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

Edge Detection PostProcessing

∇(x,y)

Filtering

Averaging & Rescaling

Δs

42

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

Edge Detection PostProcessing

Drives a fuzzy derivative values for each direction

∇(x,y)

Filtering

Averaging & Rescaling

Δs

Rule 1:

No edge is present in this direction

43

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

Edge Detection PostProcessing

∇(x,y)

Filtering

Averaging & Rescaling

Δs

Separating Noise from Edges

44

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

Edge Detection PostProcessing

For each direction: if is not edge Then compute the correction term (Δs)

∇(x,y)

Filtering

Averaging & Rescaling

Δs

45

**Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N.
**

Baker et al., 2008)

∇(x,y)

Edge Detection

PostProcessing

Filtering

Averaging & Rescaling

Δs

Calculate corrected term Δs Add Δs to pixel luminance value of location (x, y)

46

Colour Image Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering ( N. Baker et al., 2008)

47

Image Segmentation

**Fuzzy Segmentation Approaches
**

Fuzzy

clustering algorithm to build segments

**Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm
**

Rule-based Segmentation

Fuzzy

Extraction of Fuzzy IF-THEN rules

Fuzzy Thresholding

Minimization of image fuzziness

Fuzzy Geometry

49

Linear VS. Fuzzy Segmentation

Oversegmentation

Undersegmentation Sea segments are merged correctly

Region is assigned to a fuzzy set of labels: {rock/0.89,sand/0.46}

50

**Fuzzy Rule-Based Segmentation
**

Interpret

the image features as linguistic variables

Use

fuzzy if-then rules to build segmenats

Example: IF The pixel is dark AND its neighborhood is also dark AND homogeneous THEN it belongs to the background

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Fuzzy Rule-Based Segmentation

52

Fuzzy Thresholding

1.

A membership function is moved pixel by pixel over the existing range of gray levels.

2. 3.

In each position, a measure of fuzziness is calculated. The position with a minimum amount of fuzziness is a suitable

threshold.

53

Fuzzy Thresholding

A comparison between fuzzy and Otsu thresholding algorithm

Test Image

Thresholded by fuzzy method

Thresholded by Otsu algorithm 54

Fuzzy Geometry

Use to measure the geometrical fuzziness of different

regions of an image:

Fuzzy Area Fuzzy Perimeter Fuzzy compactness

**Fuzzy Area and Fuzzy Perimeter
**

Let :

μ(x) is the membership value of a pixel O is the set of pixels corresponding to the object PO is the set of pixels corresponding to the perimeter of the object The image is fuzzified by the fuzzy binarization algorithm

56

**Fuzzy Region labeling
**

Fuzzy Region Labeling is used to:

**Solve over-segmentation problems
**

Assign labels with confidence values to regions Link labels with concepts existing in ontologies

**Fuzzy Region Labeling
**

For each region:

**Visual Descriptor matching with the instances of the concepts in the domain ontology
**

Calculation of a combined distance from multiple descriptors Assignment of labels (concepts) along with a confidence of value (fuzzy set of labels)

**Hierarchical merging of regions based on the fuzzy set of labels
**

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Fuzzy Region Labeling

**S ky S ky Fog M ountain M ountain M ountain W all R oof Field Field Field Field Field
**

Field H ouse M ountain S ky

59

Conclusion

linear

approaches not able to handle the disturbances

**occurring in processing an image.
**

Fuzzy

Image Processing techniques are the most

**efficient solution for this problem.
**

These

techniques with fuzzy sets give much-improved

image compared to the others.

60

Thank You

61

References

1.

Tizhoosh, H.R.

**―Fast and Robust Fuzzy Edge Detection‖, Fuzzy Filters for Image
**

Processing, M. Nachtegael, D. Van der Weken, D. Van De Ville & E.E. Kerre (Eds.), Springer, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, 2002

2.

Tizhoosh, H.R. ―Fuzzy Image Enhancement: An Overview‖, Fuzzy Techniques in Image Processing, Springer, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, pp. 137-171, 2000

62

References

3.

Munther N. Baker , Ali A. Al-Zuky

**“Colour Image Noise Reduction Using Fuzzy Filtering‖, Journal of
**

Engineering and Development, June 2008,Vol. 12, No. 2, 157-166

4.

Abdallah A. Alshennawy, and Ayman A. Aly “Edge Detection in Digital Images Using Fuzzy Logic Technique‖, Engineering and Technology 51, 2009;46:178–186.

5.

Mario.I. Chacon. M ―Fuzzy logic for image processing‖, Advanced Fuzzy logic Techniques in industrial applications, 2006.

63

References

6.

F.Russo

**―Edge Detection In Noisy Images Using fuzzy reasoning‖ IEEE
**

Trans. on instrumentation and measurement,Vol 47,1998, pp 11021105

7.

**M.I. Chacon, and L. Aguilar
**

―A fuzzy Approach to Edge level detection‖. The 10th IEEE international Conference on Fuzzy system Melbourne, Australia, December 2001, pp 809-812.

64

References

8.

Todd Law, Hidenori Itoh, and Hirohisa Seki

**Image Filtering, Edge Detection,and Edge Tracing Using Fuzzy
**

Reasoning, IEEE Ttransaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Inteligence, VOL. 18, NO. 5, MAY 1996 48 1

9.

Fabrizio Russo

Edge Detection in Noisy Images Using Fuzzy Reasoning, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, USA, May 1998, pp 369- 372

65

References

10.

**Fabrizio Russo and Giovanni Ramponi
**

A Fuzzy Operator for the Enhancement of Blurred and Noisy Images, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, VOL. 4. NO. 8. AUGUST 1995, pp 1169-1174

11.

Yau-Hwang Kuo, Chang-Shing Lee and Chao-Chin Liu “A New Fuzzy Edge Detection Method for Image Enhancement” , FU ZZ-IEEE 97, pp 1069-1074

12.

Fabrizio Russo “Recent Advances in Fuzzy Techniques for Image Enhancement”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 47, 1998, pp 1428-1439.

66

References

13.

Han-Pang Huang, Yi-Hung Liu, Li-Wei Liu, Chun-Shin Wong

**Applications of Advanced Fuzzy Logic Techniques in Fuzzy Image
**

Processing Scheme, Advances in Fuzzy Mathematics, Volume 5, Number 1 (2010), pp. 71–76

14.

**Farzam F., Menhaj M. B., Motamedi Seyed A. , and M.T. Hagan
**

“A New Fuzzy Logic Filter for Image Enhancement”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART

B: CYBERNETICS, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2000, pp 110-119.

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fuzzy image processing

fuzzy image processing

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