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The 1930s: Great Depression and Beyond

A Nation in Need
Mar. 1932

Dust Bowl and Okies (1930s)

The Dust Bowl was a period during the 1930s of severe dust storms in the Midwestern plains in the United States. These storms were responsible for practically destroying the agricultural methods in The Great American Desert. Some of the causes for the dust was the fact that there was major drought and failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion. About 100,00,00 acres of land were affected during the dustbowl in the 30s. The massive dust storms were powerful enough to reach cities all the way in the east like Chicago and Boston. During the first 100 days of President Franklin D. Roosevelts first term in office, governmental programs were implemented to try and conserve soil that was displaced and to restore ecological balance in the midwest. In 1933, interior secretary Harold Ickles established the Soil Erosion Service which was then renamed as the Soil Conservation Service and reorganized under the Department of Agriculture. As part of FDRs New Deal, congress passed the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act in 1936, which made landowners to share land with the laborers.

The image above is of a dust storm that took place in Texas on April 14, 1935. This day was marked as Black Sunday, because of its powerful storm that lasted for days before reaching Chicago. Storms like these were responsible for forcing thousands of families to move westwards into California along the route 66 where they would be unaffected. These migrants were called okies because of the fact that the great majority of them were from Oklahoma. If not for the massive storms, entire families migrated due to the loss of jobs due to drought. The economy was impacted by the enormous decrease in crop production. Most of the blame as on the failure of farmers to shift the focus of production from crops and wheat to animals and Hay.

This was far easier said than done, as time progressed the United States began to realize that remaining isolated was simply not During the 1930s America possible after WWI had catapulted preferred to remain secluded from the US into the position of the foreign affairs. This policy became known as isolationism. This grew out of foremost world power. the nationwide desire to stop attending to the needs of European continents The Good Neighbor Policy and to begin assessing the damages that had been done to the U.S during Roosevelt realized that with a World War I and in the Market Crash. war being waged on the European This policy, known as isolationism is continent it would not be long what prolonged the entrance of the before the war trickled over into the United States into the Second World Western Hemisphere. As a result, War. FDR and the entire nation he created the Good Neighbor preferred to feed the people at home policy through which he hoped to than repair the terrible foreign improve relations with Latin economies. Banks stopped giving out American countries so that if and loans to foreign countries (primarily when the time came for the US to because they did not have money) and enter the war it would have allies they chose to remain out of foreign in its hemisphere willing to protect affairs. it. This led to the withdrawal of troops from several Latin countries Additionally, Roosevelt hoped to avoid conflict with the new Soviet Union, so in order to do so, he recognized it as a country. This small action was not, however, enough to solidify the relations between both nations and they soon began to argue over many issues making relations even worse.

Foreign Policy of the 1930s

Great Depression Hits Hard

The Great Depression has caused everybody to struggle finding the means to provide for themselves and most importantly, obtain something to eat. Men are unable to make the money to support their families because they are unemployed. Long hours in a line is the only way to acquire little food, like bread, to bring back to their families. The minorities were also affected by the effects of the Great Depression. Minorities are also.going through the sane depression as everybody else in the country but did not have as big of an impact on them as it did to the majority of the people in the United States. The minorities are still in similar conditions as they were before the Great Depression came. They were already in a bad situation and were not affected as much as many were. They have an idea on how to make ends meet while not having much to.start with. Unlike everybody else, they have been living in the same conditions and are use to struggling about how to feed their families.

Immigrants were forced to uproot their families and head to the West in search of jobs and a chance of surviving the Great Depression. However many, such as the woman shown above, ran out of money on the drive West and were left in the middle of nowhere without any hope of surviving.

MAR. 4 1932


Country in Depression
Is F.D.R. Our Savior?
In the Election of 1930, the Republican candidate was Herbert Hoover, the acting president, and the Democratic candidate was Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was under President Hoovers administration that the Stock Market Crashed, Black Tuesday, occurred and for the banks to shut down, because of his belief of lassiez-faire and it isnt his right to interfere in business look where that got us. That alone dramatically lowers his chances at reelection, but, also, Franklin Roosevelt has said that he has a New Deal for Americans to get us out of this Depression, but no one quite knows what it is.

New Deal: Good or Bad? F.D.R.s Combat to The Depression

The New Deal is providing more jobs and giving men back their masculinity that they lost when the Depression began, but it is putting the nation into further debt. The deficit spending that F.D.R. is doing is using money that the government doesnt have, and the money that is being used is failing to go back into a circulation by the consumers to combat the deflation. Also, the agencies that F.D.R. is implementing can be stated as unconstitutional and F.D.R. himself can be seen as a tyrant because of his obsessive role. As soon as President Franklin Roosevelt was sworn into office, he ordered for a bank holiday, which shut down all the banks and sent agents to each one to determine what went wrong. He then implements his Alphabet Soup to set up a variety of different organizations help the Americans people and circulate the economy. He created agencies such as: the Public Works Administration that constructed large scale construction like dams, bridges, hospitals, and schools; the Securities Exchange Commission which protected the public from fraud; the Civilian Conservation Corps created construction jobs like draining swamps; Agricultural Adjustment Act controlled basic crops like corn, cotton, etc.; Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which insured peoples money and makes sure it doesnt disappear like it did on the Eve of the Great Depression; the Social Security Act which gave the elderly, crippled, unemployed, and single women with dependent children monthly stipend; and much more. This changed the way how government and the people interacted permanently.

The New Deal

Franklin D. Roosevelt has stuck a New Deal its intent is the 3Rs: relief, recovery and reform. In his first hundred days of being the 1930s president, Roosevelt has big plans. Congress and Roosevelt himself have passed many laws to help get the united states out of the great depression which we find ourselves in today. His policies like the civil works administration which is created jobs are great for the unemployed and homeless to get back on their feet. Roosevelts alphabet soup seem to clearly be helping the united states. Still there are those who believe that he is abusing his power as president. Either way Roosevelt was correct in persuading America that we must spend money to stimulate the economy once more. For example the Civilian Conservation Corps have already protected many acres of trees,

built homes and maintained clean streets. It is clear that these policies will be enforced in the future. Though his new deal Roosevelt has already been called one of the greatest presidents in history. It is certain that he will be loved by future generations. Additionally, through an interview with the great president we managed to get an insight on his second deal soon to come. He stated that the second new deal will have more government spending then the first because so many Americans need to rely on the government for the basics. We also learned that most of the second new deal policies are meant to be long running impacts on American life.