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-basal stock of all bilateria (correlated with motility and cephalization)

oral + ventral sucker (acetabulum) Subclass Eucestoda* scolex acetabulum bothridia bothria neck: behind the scolex strobila: body of the tapeworm proglottids: contains both male and female reproductive organs (craspedote/ acraspedote)

Vermes (all invertebrates) -> Intestina (all worms) -> Entozoa (unsegmented worms) -> Platelmia (flatworms) -> Platyheliminthes

General Morphology and Physiology

Form - bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattened Body Wall tripoblastic and acoelomate (space filled with parenchyma) Integumentary System cellular/acellular; ciliated/ cuticle Muscular System - outer circular, inner longitudinal muscle layers Digestive System - sac-like and incomplete Excretory System protonephridial Reproductive System hermaphroditic but no selffertilization Nervous System - nerve fibers w/ cephalization, nerve cords, sense organs

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Class Turbellaria: tropical/ temperate; aquatic, mostly marine (freshwater forms hide during day); most benthic; meiofauna Class Trematoda: lungs, bile ducts, pancreatic ducts, intestines of definitive host Subclass Eucestoda: endoparasites in the guts of vertebrates

Body Wall
Class Turbellaria Epidermis - ciliated w/ microvilli; ventral cilia only in triclads and polyclads; some w/ syncytial epidermis; most w/ basal lamina Intracellular support (4): terminal web (actin filaments) basal lamina (calcareous spicules) mesh of ciliary rootlets (acoels) parenchyma Gland Systems (2):

External Morphology
Class Turbellaria: head projections short pharyngeal (dorsal) tentacles lateral projections (auricles; freshwater) coloration black, brown, gray brightly colored (marine) Class Trematoda: thick and fleshy/long and threadlike;

duogland adhesive system (3 parts) - may project as papilla frontal gland defense and slime production caudal gland marginal ring Other Structures (4): muscular suckers (large species) adhesive cilia (Paratomella rubra) rhabdoids (forms mucus) nematocysts (from hydroids; defense) Musculature - smooth; circular -> diagonal -> longitudinal; dorsoventral strands Parenchyma: connective tissue bet. body wall and gut Components: mesenchymal cells in fibrous extracellular matrix Matrix: fluid; pseudocoel/ absent in acoels Types of Cells Epidermal Replacement Cells: centrioles -> ciliary basal bodies Neoblasts: totipotent Fixed Parenchymal Cells: interjoins other cells and tissues Chromatophores Parenchymal Cells with

Hemoglobin: oxygen storage Class Trematoda Tegument- non-ciliated cytoplasmic syncitium Subclass Eucesoda Cuticle/Tegument - well developed and living Microtrichia: outer plasma membrane that increases absorptive surface area circular and longitudinal muscles secondary longitudinal, transverse and dorsoventral muscles: encloses inner parenchyma

Class Turbellaria: ciliary, msucular undulations (swimming, ventral sole, ditaxical shuffling), retraction movements, peristaltic movements, mucus thread, somersaulting Class Trematoda larva: swim with help of cilia, tails, etc. adult: less mobile in habitat; crawling/ wriggling Subclass Eucestoda larvae: free-swimming (not all) adult: minimal; squirming

Class Turbellaria - predaceous, scavengers, grazers; intracellular + extracellular mouth pharynx* simple, plicate, bulbous intestines* simple sacs, diverticula, syncytial mass Class Trematoda - extracellular in caeca

muscular sucker: attachment and transport of food bulbous pharynx: ingestion esophagus: leads to two blind intestinal caeca Subclass Eucestoda: no GIT; active transport via tegument

flame cells in parenchyma osmoregulation via tegument!

Class Trematoda: facultative anaerobes Subclass Eucestoda: facultative anaerobes

Nervous System & Sense Organs

Class Turbellaria* subepithelial nerve net + nerve cords + commissures lacks ganglia except in brain Sense Organs pigment-cup eyes most have negative phototaxis statocyst ciliary receptors ciliary or microvilli pits - food location Class Trematoda pair of anterior cerebral ganglia + longitudinal nerve cords (ventral most highly developed) sensory papillae + ocelli Subclass Eucestoda anterior nerve mass/brain (scolex) two lateral longitudinal nerve cords ring commissures/ interproglottidal commissures

Class Turbellaria asexual - transverse fission/budding (freshwater planarians in the summer), paratomy, architomy, regeneration, parthenogenesis sexual - hermaphroditic male female archoophoran/ neoophoran variations* hypodermic impregnation sperm morphology Class Trematoda male female mutual sperm exchange & cross-fertilization rare self-fertilization Sublass Eucestoda - monoecious; most adrogyny/protandry male female may cross-fertilize mostly self-fertilization if without vagina, hypodermic impregnation

Excretion & Osmoregulation

Class Turbellaria branched tubules - ends in blind capillaries tubule cell and cap cell entry nephridiophores - exit Class Trematoda protonephridia: collecting ducts -> bladder -> nephridiophore Sublass Eucestoda - excretory ventrolaeral canals and dorsolateral canals transverse canal

Generalized Life Cycle/ Development

Class Turbellaria lecithotrophic direct spiral, determinate epiboly -> stereogastrula 2 forms of larva: Muellers larva & Goettes larva Class Trematoda

egg -> miracidium -> sporocyst -> redia -> cercaria -> metacercariae -> adult Subclass Eucestoda egg -> oncosphere -> metacestode -> adult

Cycloph yllidea

4 suckers, rostellum * may not have hooks if present 2 bothria, may not have hooks

Lateral; uterine pore absent

1 IH; parasitic in birds and mammal s Egg operculat e w/ coracidiu m; 2 IH

*see table for example s*

Interspecific Relationships
Class Turbellaria Bdelloura: ectocommensal on horseshoe crabs Acoel sp.: w/ green zoochlorellae or golden zooxanthellae or diatoms in parenchyma Facempiidae: endoparasite in crustacean hemocoel

Pseudo phyllide a

Lateral/ dorsal/ ventral; uterine pore present (D/V)

Diphyllob othrium latum (broad sh tapewor m)

Common Name Taenia solium Pork tapeworm Scolex Ovary Host w/ rostellum and hooks Trilobed; 7 -12 uterine branches IH: pig and man (w/ cysticerco us cellulosae )!

Class Turbellaria
Level of organizati on Advanced Vitellaria Egg Developm ent Taenia saginata Beef tapeworm
Classicati on (Based on type of ovary) Neophoran

w/o rostellum and hooks Biloped; 15 uterine branches

DH: man Present Ectolecith al Entolecith al Modied from spiral Spiral IH: cattle/ man (w/ cysticerco us bovis)!

Archoopho ran



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DH: man

Class Trematoda Subclass Digenea Gymnocephalous: large head & simple tail Echinostome: simple tail & head w/ collar of spines Order Echinostomida Lophocercous: tail w/ fins Order Opistorchi ida Xipidocercariae : mouth w/ stylet Furcocercous: w/ forked tail Subclass Aspidogastrea* Subclass Eucestoda
Scolex Genital Pores Host & Reprod Examples

Taenia pisiformi s

IH: rabbits! DH: cats and dogs

Characteristics of Flatworms
Class ! Mode of Living Freeliving

Integ umen t
Cilia & rhabdite s Nonciliated adults (cuticle) Nonciliated adults -

W/ D. System ? Yes

Sucker s

Life Cycle

Turbell aria



Tremat oda

Parasiti c


Oral and ventral

Comple x

Cestod a

Endopa rasitic


More than 1 host No int. host; one egg = one adult

Monog enea

Aquatic ectopar asites


Prohapt or and opistha ptor