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.EBCS2
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STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
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EBCS2
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structural
use of concrete
Technical Committee Members NegussieTebedge(Secretary) Asrat Tessema Bekele Mekonnen Mikyas Abayneh ShifferawTaye
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FOREWORD
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The Proclamation to defme the powers and duties of the Central and Regional Executive Org~s of the Transitional Governmentof Ethiopia No. 41/1993 empowersthe Ministry of Works and Urban Developmentto preparethe Country's Building Code, issue Standardsfor design and .constructionworks, and follow up and supervisethe implementationof same. ,In exercise of thesepowers and in dischargeof its responsibility, the Ministry is issuing a series of Building Code Standards of generalapplication. The purpose of these standards is to serve as nationally recognized documents, the application of which is deemedto ensurecomplianceof buildings with the minimum requirements for design, constructionand quality of materials set down by the National Building Code. The major benefits to be gained in applying these standardsare the harmonization of professional practice and the ensuringof appropriatelevels of safety, health and economywith due consideration of the objective conditions and needsof the country. As these standardsare technical documentswhich, by their very nature, require periodic updating, revised editions will be issued by the Ministry from time to time as appropriate. The Ministry welcomescommentsand suggestions on all aspectof the Ethiopian Building Standards. All feedbackreceived will be carefully reviewed by professionalexperts in the field of building construction with a view to possible incorporation of amendments in future editions.
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Code
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1.1 1.2 '1.3 1.4
T ABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL SCOPE CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETEWORKS UNITS NOTATIONS 1 1 1 1 1 2 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 EBCS2 1995 vii
CHAPrER 2 DATA ONCONCRETE AND SrEEL 2,1 2.2 2.~ 2.4 2.5 GENERAL GRADES OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTIC COMPRESSIVESTRENGTH OF CONCRETE CHARACTERISTIC TENSILE STRENGTH DEFQRMATION PROPERTIESOF CONCRETE 2.5.1 StressStrain Diagrams 2.5.2 Modulus of Elasticity 2.5'.3 Poisson'sRatio 2.5.4 Creep and Shrinkage 2.5.5 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 2.6 CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF REINFORCING STEEL 2.7 CLASSIFICATION AND GEOMETRY OF REINFORCING STEEL 2.8 PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING STEEL 2.9 PHYSICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING STEEL 2.9.1 Strength 2.9.2 Ductility 2.9.3 StressStrain Diagram 2.9.4 Modulus of Elasticity 2.9.5 Fatigtle 2.10 TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 2.10.1 Bond and Anchorage 2.10.2 Weldability CHAPfER 3 BASIS OF D~GN 3.1 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 3.2 LIMIT STATES 3.2.1 General 3.2.2 Ultimate Limit States 3.2.3 ServiceabilityLimit States 3.3 DESIGN SITUATIONS 3.4 ACTIONS 3.4.1 Definitions and Principal Classification 3.4.2 Representative Values of Actions Representative Values of Permanent Actions 3.4.4 Representative Values of Variable Actions
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3.4.5 Representative Values of Accidental Actions 3.4.6 Design Values of Actions 3.4.4 Design Values of the Effects of Actions 3.5 MATERIALS 3.5.1 CharacteristicStrength 3.5.2 DesignStrength Partial Safety Factors for Materials , 3.5.3 3.5.3.1 Ultimate limit State 3.5.3.2 ServiceabilityLimit States ,3.5.4 Design Strengthfor Concrete 3.5.5 Design Strengthfor Steel 3.6 COMBINATION OF ACTIONS 3.6.1 Ultimate Limit States 3.7 ANALYSIS OF LINE ELEMENTS 3.7.1 Methods of Analysis 3.7.2 Load Arrangements and Load Cases 3.7.3 Imperfections 3.7.4 Time DependentEffects 3.7.5 Idealization of the Structure 3.7.6 Stiffness 3.7.7 Effective SpanLength 3.7.8 Effective Flange Width for T Beamsand LBeams 3.7.9 Redistribution of Moments 3.7.10 SecondOrder Effects 3.8 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PLANE ELEMENTS 3.8.1 Slabs 3.8.1.1 Methods ofAnalysis 3.8.1.2 Linear Analysis, with or without Redistribution Plastic Analysis 3.8.2 Flat Slabs 3.8.2.1 Definition 3.8.2.2 Method ofAnalysis CHAPI'ER 4 .ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 26i 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 31 .31 31 31 31 31 32 ~
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4.1 SCOPE 4.2 BASIS OF DESIGN 4.2.1 Analysis of Sections 4.2.2 Strain Distribution 4.2.3 Idealized StressStrain Diagram for Concrete 4.2.3.1 ParabolicRectangular Diagram 4.2.3.2 RectanglarDiagram 4.2.4 StressStrain Diagram for Steel 4.3 FLEXURAL MEMBERS 4.3.1 General 4.3.2 DistanceBetweenLateral Supportsof Flexural Members 4.4 COMPRESSIONMEMBERS 4.4.1 Scopeand Definition 4.4.2 Anal)Jis and Design Procedures
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4.4.3 Allowance for Imperfections 4.4.4 Classificationof Structuresand Structural Elements 4.4.4.1 General 4.4.4.2 SYvay or !VonS~ Stnuctures 4.4.4.3 Braced or UnbracedStnuctures 4.4.4.4 Isolated Columns 4.4.5 Definition of Slenderness Ratio 4.4.6 Limits of Slenderness 4.4.7 EffeCtiveBuckling Length of Compression Members 4.4.8 Frame stability 4.4.8.1 General 4.4.8.2 Analysis of SwayFrames 4.4.9 Design of NonSwayFrames 4.4.10 Design of Isolated Columns 4.4.10.1 General 4.4.10.2 Total Eccentricity 4.4.10.3 SecondOrder Eccentricity 4.4.11 Amplified Sway MomentsMethod for SwayFrames 4.4.12 Determination of Story Buckling Load !Vcr 4.4.13 Effect of Creep 4.4.14 SlenderColumns Bent About the Major Axis 4.4.15 Biaxial Bending of Columns 4.4.15.1 Small Ratios ofRelative Eccentricity 4.4.15.2 OverlappingBuckling Curves 4.4.15.3 ApproximateMethod 4.5 SHEAR General 4.5.2 Limiting Value of Ultimate ShearForce 4.5.3 ShearResistance of Concrete in Beamsand Slabs 4.5.3.1 Members WithoutSignlflcant Axial Forces 4.5.3.2 MembersSubjectedto Signlflcant Axial Compression 4.5.3.3 MembersSubjectedto Axial Tension 4.5.4 Design of Shear Reinforcement 4.5.5 WebFlanie Connections 4.5.5.1 General 4.5.5.2 Resistance to Inclined Compression 4.5.5.3 Resistance to Diagonal Tension 4.6 TORSION 4.6.1 Definitions
32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 47 47
.4.5.1
4.6.2 General
4.6.3 Limitini Value of Ultimate Torque 4.6.4 Torsional Resistance of Concrete 4.6.5 Deaiin of Torsional Reinforcement 4.6.6 Combined ActionEffects 4.6.6.1 Torsion and Bending and/or Longitudinal S!resses Torsion and Shear
47
48 48 48 49 49 49
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4.7 PUNCHING 4.7.1 General 4.7.2 Loaded Area 4.7.3 Critical Section 4.7.3.1 ~Area Remotefroman Openingora Free Edge 4.7.3.2 LoadedArea Qose to an Opening 4.7.3.3 LoadedArea Qose to Free Edge 4.7.4 Applied Load Effect , 4.7.5 Moment Transfer BetweenSlabsand Columns 4.7.6 Resistance of Slabsor Footings Without PunchingShearReinforcement 4.7.7 Resistance of Slabsor Footings with PunchingShearReinforcement
SO SO 50 50 51 51 51 52 53 53 53
SS
55 55 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 S9 59 59 59 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67
6.1 SCOPE 6.2 WALLS 6.2.1 Reinforced ConcreteWalls 6.2.1.1 Design of ReinforcedConcreteWallsfor Flexure and Axial Loads 6.2.1.2 ShearResistanceofReinforcedWalls 6.2.2 Plain ConcreteWalls :..!(. 6.2.2.1 Design ofPlain ConcreteWallsfor Flexure and Axial Loads 6.2.2.2 ShearResistanceofPlain Walls 6.3 DEEP BEAMS 6.3.1 General 6.3.2 Design for Shear 6.3.2.1 Definitions and Limitation 6.3.2.2 Shear Strength of DeepShearSpans 6.3.2.3 Shear Carried by DeepShearSpans
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6.5 FOOTINGS 6.5.1 Moment in Footings 6.5.2 Flexural Reinforcement 6.5.4 Bearing 6.5.5 Minimum Footing Depth 6.5.6 Plain ConcretePedestals and Footings 6.6 PILE CAPS 6.6.1 Moment in Pile Caps 6.6.2 Flexural Reinforcement 6.6.3 Shear 6.6.4 Footings on Two Piles 6.6.5 Minimum Thickness 6.7 PARTICULAR CASES '6.7.1 Local Forces 6.7.2 Concentrated Forces 6.7.3 Bursting Forces 6.7.4 Indirect Supports CHAPTER 7 DETAILING PROVISIONS
,,68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 73 75 75 75 75 75 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82
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7.1 DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT 7.1.1 General Bending of Bars 7.1.3 ConcreteCover to Reinforcement Spacingof Reinforcement 7.1.5 Bond 7.1.5.1 Design Bond Strength 7.1.6 Anchorageof Reinforcement 7.1.6.1 Basic AnchorageLength 7.1.6.2 RequiredAnchorageLength 7.1.6.3 Additional Requirements for Loops 7.1.6.4 l1es and Sti~ps 7.1.6.5 Laps and Joints 7.1.6.6 Additional Rulesfor DefonnedBars of Large Diameter p > 32 m:m) 7.1.6.7 Additional Rulesfor BundledBars 7.1.7 Curtailment of Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcement 7.1.7.1 StaggeringRule 7.1.7.2 AnchorageLength of Reinforcement 7.1.7.3 Anchorageof BottomReinforcement at Supports
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7.2 DETAILING OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 7.2.1 Beams 7.2.1.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement 7.2.1.2 Shear Reinforcement 7.2.1.3 Torsional Reinforcement 83 83 83 83 83
84 84
84 84
7.2.3.1 Sizes
7.2.3.2 Minimum Reinforcement 7.2.3.3 1ransverseRibs 7.2.4 Columns
84
84 85 85
7.2.4.1 Size
7.2.4.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 7.2.4.3 Lateral Reinforcement 7.2.5 WALLS
85
85 85 86 ,
7.2.5.1 Sizes
7.2.5.2 Vertical Reinforcement 7.2.5.3 Horizontal Reinforcement 7.2.5.4 1ransverse Reinforcement 7.2.6 Deep Beams
86
86 87 87 87
7.2.6.1 Thickness
7.2.6.2 Supplementary Reinforcement
87
87
7.2.7 Corbels
CHAFfER 8 MATERIAlS AND CONSTRUCTION
88
89 89 89 89 89
8.1 SCOPE 8.2 SPECIFICATION OF CONCRETE 8.2.1 Methods of SpecifyingConcrete 8.2.2 ConstituentMaterials of Concrete
89 89 89 91
91 91 91
8.2.4.2 Temperature
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91 91 91 92 92 92 93 93
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8.2.5 Hot Weather Concretini 8...nera 2 5 1 at I 8.2.5.2 'Placing of Concrttt 8.2.5.3 Curing of Concrttt 8.2.6 Minimum CementContent 8.2.7 Maximum CementContent 8.3 SPECIFICATION OF REINFORCEMENT 8.3.1 Basic requirements
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8.4 .8.4.2
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION RULES 8.4.1 General Handling and Storageof the Materials usedfor Making Concrete 8.4.2.1 Cement 8.4.3 Batching and Mixing 8.4.4 Transporting, Placing and Compacting 8.4.5 ConstructionJoints 8.4.6 Formwork 8.4.6.1 Basic Requirements 8.4.6.2 SurfaceFinish 8.4.6.3 TemporaryWork Inserts 8.4.6.4 Removal ofFormwork and Falsework 8.4.7 Curing 8.5 REINFORCING STEEL CONSTRUCTION RULES 8.5.1 Transport, Storageand Fabricationof the Reinforcement 8.5.2 Surface Condition 8.5.3 Welding 8.5.4 Joints 8.5.5 Fabrication, Assemblyand Placing of the Steel 8.6 TOLERANCES 8.6.1 General 8.6.2 Toleranceswith regarato Structural Safety 8.6.3 Tolerancesfor ConcreteCover 8.6.4 Tolerancesfor ConstructionPurposes 9 QUALITY CONTROL
93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 97 ~7 97 97 97 98 98 98 99 99 99 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 102 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 105
.CHAPTER
.9.2
9.1 DEFINITIONS PRODUCTION CONTROL 9.2.1 Inspectionof Materials 9.2.2 InspectionPrior to Concreting 9.2.3 Control of Mixing, Transportationand Placement of Concrete 9.2.4 Control for Curing the Concrete 9.2.5 Information of ConstructionProcedures 9.3 COMPLIANCE CONTROLS 9.3.1 ComplianceControls for Concrete 9.3.1.1 Samplingand TestingMethods 9.3.1.2 Size of Lot and Frequencyof Sampling 9.3.1.3 ComplianceCriteria 9.3.2 ComplianceControls for the CompletedStructure 9.4 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF NONCOMPLIANCE 9.4.1 General 9.4.2 Sequence of Measures 9.4.3 Check Testson Structural Concrete 9.4.3.1 General 9.4.3.2 1YpesofOleck Tests
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9.4.4 Load Tests of Structure or Parts of Structures 9.4.4.1 General 9.4.4.2 TestLoads 9.4.4.3 Measurements During the Tests 9.4.4.4 Assessment of Results APPENDIX A ANALYSIS
105 105 105 105 1<W> 107 107 107 .107 107 107 107 ! 108 110 ': 110 .: 110 112 112 112 115 115 115 115 115 111 11& 119 119 119 121 121 122 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125. 125 125 125
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OF SLABS
A.1 SCOPE A.2 ONEWAY SLABS 'A.2.1 General A.2.4 Distribution of Concentratoo Loads A.3 TWOWAY SLABS A.3.1 General A.3.2 Individual Panel Moments A.3.3 Moments in ContinuousSlabs A.3.3.1 General A.3.3.2 Method I A.3.3.3 Method11 A.3.4 Elastic Values of Support Moments A.3.5 Loads on SupportingBeams A.4 FLAT SLABS A.4.1 Scope A.4.2 Definitions A.4.3 Analysis of Flat Slab Structures A.4.3.1 General A.4.3.2 EquivalentFrame Method A.4.3.3 Simplified Method A.4.3.4 Division of MomentsBetweenColwnn and Middle Strips A.4.4 Design Considerations A.4.4.1 General A.4.4.2 Internal Panels A.4.4.3 Edge Panels A.4.4.4 Moment Transfer BetweenSlaband Colwnn A.4.4.5 Panel with Marginal Beamsor Walls A.4.4.6 NegativeMomentsat Free Edge A.4.5 Opening in Panels A.4.5.1 General
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A.4.5.2 Holes in Areas Boundedby Colwnn Strips A.4.5.3 Holes in Areas Commonto Thlo Colwnn Strips A.4.5.4 Holes in Areas Commonto a Colwnn Strip and a Middle Strip APPENDIX B PRFSf~ED CONCRErE
B.1 SCOPE B.2 DATA ON PRESTRESSED STEEL AND PRESTRESSING DEVICES B.2.1 Prestressing Steel B.2.1.1 General B.2.1.2 OasSijicatiOlland Geometry
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B.2.1.4.1 Strength
B.2.1.4.2 StressStram Diagram B.2.1.4.3 Ductility C/'.aract'ristics B.2.1.4.4 Modulus of Elasticity B.2.1.4.5 Fatigue B.2.1.4.6 },[ultiAxial Stresses B.2.1.5 Technological Frope.rtil!s B.2 .1. 5.1 Surface Conditi''l1
126
126 126 127 127 127 127 127
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B.2.1.5.2 Relaxation
B.2.1.5.3 Susceptibilit)' to .5tressCorro,\'ion B.2.2 Prestr~ssing Device.s B.2.2.1 Anchorage.\' and CoIl;plers
127
127 128 128
B.2.2.1.1 Genl!rlll
B.2.2,1.2 Mec,ltanical Pr(>pertie.s B.2.2.2 Ducts and Sheath.'i
128
128 129
B.2,2.2.1 General
B.3 BASIS OF DES!GN B.3.! Partial S3fety Factors for Materials B.3.2 Partial Safety Factors f()r .\ction on Building Structures B.4 ANALYSIS B.4.1 Prestressed 5130.5 Anchorage Zcne,sfor Post~Tel\SioningForces B.4.3 Determination of the Ef~ect~ of P(e~tre.~sjng
129
129 129 129 130 130 130 130
B.4.2.
B.4.3.1 General
.B.4.3.2 Dete;mil1atiol1 o.fPrrstre\'S'in,gforce B.4.3.3 Effects of Prestre.'i.~ing under Service Conl:itions 13.4.3.4 F.ffect,\'ofPr:,.\'tre'ising ot the Ultimate Limit States B.4.3.4.1 Structural Allal~sis I..inear Methods B.4.3.4.2 De.\"i~71 {)_fSecli!).'1.~ B.4.3.5 DetelminatitJ1! oflhe Effect.so.fTime Dependent Deformation of Concrete
130
131 132 132 132 132 13.3
B.4.3.5.1 General
B.5. SECTION AND MEMBER DESIGN B.5.1 Prestressing Steel: General B.5.2 Physical Properties of Pre.strE',ssing Steel B.5.3 Mechanical Properties of Prestressing Steel
133
134' 134 134 135
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B.5.3.2 of Ela.\'ticity B.5.3.3 Modulus ..S'tressStrain Diagram B.5.3.4 Ductility B.5.3.5 Fatigue B.5.3.6 Multi,ixial Stresses B.5.3.7 Anchorage or Coupler Assemblies of Tendons B.S.4 Technological Propertie... of Prestressing Steel B.S.4.1 Relaxation Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion B.5.4.3 Temperature Depe71l1ent Behaviour
135
135 135 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 138
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B.5.5 Design of Members in Prestressed Concrete B.5.5.1 General B.5.5.2 Minimum Strength Class for Prestressed Concrete B.5.5.3 Minimum Number of PrestressingUnits in Isolated StructuralElements B.5.5.4 Initial Prestressing Force B.5.5.5 Loss of Prestress B.5.5.6 AnchorageZones of Pretensioned Members , B.5.5.7 AnchorageZone.\'of Posttensioned Members B.5.5.8 Designfor Shear B.5.5.8.1 Memberswith Inclined Prestre\".\'ing Tendons .B.5.5.9 Limit State of Cracking B.5.5.9.1 General B.5.5.9.2 Minimum Rein:forcement Areas B.5.9.9.3 Control of Cracking without Direct Calculation B.6 DETAILING PROVISIONS B.6.1 Arrangementof the Prestressing Units B.6.2 Concrete Cover B.6.3 Horizontal and Vertical Spacing B.6.3.1 Pretensioning B.6.3.2 Posttensioning B.6.4 Anchoragesand Couplers for Prestressing Tendons B.6.5 AnchorageZones for PostTensioning Forces B.7 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKMANSHIP B.7.1 Objectives B.7.2 Basic Requirements B.7.3 Transport and Storageof the Tendons B.7.4 Fabrication of Tendons B. 7.5 Placing of Tendons B.7.6 Tensioningof the Tendons B. 7.6.1 Pretensioning B.7.6.2 Posttensioning B.7.7 Grouting and other Protective Measures B.7.7.2 CementGrout B. 7.7.3 Instructionsto the Site B.7.7.4 Grouting Operations B. 7.7.5 Sealing B.7.7.6 Other Protections B.8 QUALITY CONTROL ~ B.8.1 Objectives B.8.2 ComplianceControls B.8.2 Control prior to Concreting and during Prestressing
138 138 138 138 139 140 142 144 145 145 145 146 146 146 147 147 147 147 147 147 147 148 148 148 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 151~ 151 152 152 152 153 153 153 153 153
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EBCS 2 1995
CHAPTER
GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
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(1) This Code of Practice applies to the design of buildings and civil engineeringworks in plain, reinforced and prestressed concretemade with normal weight aggregates. (2) The Code has beenpublished in two parts: Part 1: Design, Materials and Construction Part 2: Design Aids (3) This Code is only concernedwith the requirements for resistance,serviceabilityand durability of concretestructures. Other requirements, such as those concerningthermal or sound insulation, are not covered. (4) Constructionis coveredto the extent that is necessary to indicatethe quality of the construction materials and products which should be used and the standardof workmanship on site neededto comply with the assumptionsof the design rules. Construction and workmanship are covered in Chapters8 and 9, and are to be consideredas minimum requirementswhich may haveto be further developedfor particular types of buildings or civil engineering works and methodsof construction. .(5) This Code does not cover the special requirementsof seismicdesign. Provisionsrelatedto such requirements are given in EBCS 8 "Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance" which complements,and is consistent with, EBCS 2. (6) Numerical values of the actionson buildings and civil engineering works to be takeninto account in the designare not given in this Code. They are provided in EBCS 1 "Basis of Designand Actions on Structures" applicableto the various typefi of construction. (7) The design aids in Part 2 have beenprepared in accordancewith the assumptions laid down in Part 1, with the intention that they may be used as standarddesignaids and so avoid duplication of efforts by individual designoffices. , (8) It has beenassumedin the drafting of this Code that the designof concretestructuresis entrusted to registeredstructural or civil engineers, appropriately qualified, for whose guidance it has been prepared and that the execution of the work is carried out under the direction of appropriately qualified supervisors. 1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE WORKS (1) Concreteworks are classifiedas either Class lor II depending on the quality of workmanshipand the competence of the supervisorsdirecting the works. (2) Works carried out under the direction of appropriately qualified supervisors ensuring the attainmentof level of quality control envisagedin Chapter9 are classifiedas ClassI works. EBCS2 199'i 1 .
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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
(3) Works with a lower level of quality control are classified as Class n works. (4) Class n works are permissible only for single story structures.
1.3 UNITS ,
The units used in this Code are those of the International System of units known as SI, and shall be
1.4 NOTAnONS
The symbols used in this Code are in accordance with ISO Standard 3898. The symbols used in this Code are as follows: Ac Ac,'1 AcA Acl Ad A, AIj A, A, A", A,.. A"cal A',1j A'l A'A A", Ay AI A2 al ay aI' ~ b b, b.. bl b2 b..
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Area of concrete The section of the zone of the concretewhere the reinforcing bars can effectively influence the crack widths Area of rectangular core of column measuredouttoout of hoop Area of concrete within tensile zone. The tensile zone 'is that part of the section which is calculated to be in tension just before formation of the first crack Desiin value (specified value) of the accidental action The crosssectionalof the longitudinal rainforcement Enclosed area within a mean polygonal perimeter Area of prestressingtendon or tendons Area of tension reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement Crosssectionalarea of shear reinforcement Theoretical area of reinforcement required by the design Area of reinforcement actually provided Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length perpendicular to the webflange interface Area of transverse hoop bar The l<?ngitudinalsteel inside the slab, within the projection of the slab The area of shear reinforcement within a distance s Lcaded area of the restricted zone under local contact pressure Distribution area of the local contact pressure Distance for displacing the moment diagram (Fig. 103) Shear span The side length of area AI and Az1 respectively Width of wall measuredcentertocenter of bracing walls, or width measuredfrom the center of a bracing wall to the free edge, or actual flange width in a T or L beam The effective width of aTbeam Width of the web or rib of a member Side to the to eccentricity Slde length lenith of of the the rectangle rectanile of of outline outline u u parallel perpendicular the eccentricity Width of the web on T I I, or L beams Concrete cover The distance from extreme compression to centroid of tension reinforcemtne The diameter of the lariest circle which can be inscribed within UIj
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~ .Ec Ecd Ed Ec(l) Ec. E, Ec(t,) EcZ8 e ea e. e.q e, eD eol eoz ez elDl Fd F Ii F I +q,i Fi Fp. F,., F, Ibd /c /cd /c* /c. /cr..! !rid /clt /c... Id it /p lpi lpO,1 lpO,l* Tangent modulus of elasticity of concrete at a stress O'c= 0 and at 28 days Design value of the secantmodulus of elasticity Short term elastic modulus of concrete Tangent modulus of elasticity of concrete at a stress of O'c= 0 and at time t Secantmodulus of elasticity of concrete Elastic modulus of reinforcement or prestressing steel Tangent modulus of elasticity at time tD Tangent modulus of elasticity at 28 days Eccentricity Additional ~entricity according to Eq 4.1 Equivalent constant firstorder eccentricity of the design axial load Equivalent uniaxial eccentricity Initial ~entricity Equivalent uniform first order eccentricity Smaller first order eccentricity Larger first order eccentricity Secondorder eccentricity (Section 4.4.10.3). Total eccentricity in the direction of the larger relative eccentricity Design load Characteristic axial load of long duration causing creep Characteristic total axial load Characteristic load Ultimate tendon force Service value Frequent values Tensile force developed by anchorage
1..GENERAL
Design bond strength Compressive strength of concrete Design compreseivestrength of concrete Characteristic compressive stren~h of concrete Mean value of concretecompressive streneth Tensile strength of the concrete effective at the time when the cracks may first be expectedto occur Desiin tensile streneth of concrete Characteristic tensile streneth of concrete Mean value of axial tensile streneth of concrete Desiin strenith Characteristic strenith Tensile strenith of prestressinsteel ~c' Charactersistic tensile strenerh of prestressini steel ,,' 0.1 % proofstress of prestressing steel Charactersistic0.1 % proofstress of prestressing steel Tensile strenitb of reinforcement Characteristic tensile str~nith of reinforcement Yield strenith of reinforcement Desiin yield strenith of reinforcement Characteristic yield strenith of reiforcement Desiin yield strenitb of stirrups Yield 8trenith of reinforcement at 0.2% offsct
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FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
Indirect action Characteristic permanentload Lower characteristic value of the permanentaction Upper characteristic value of the permanentaction Characteristic value of permanentactions Permanentstabilizing action Permanentnonstabilizing action is the uniformly distributed design permanentload Overall depth of section in the plane of bending. Crosssectional dimension in the direction of buckling Thickness of equivalent hollow section Thickness of flange Height of supported beam Height of girder Moments of inertia of the concrete and reinforcement sections, respectively, of the substitute column, with respect to the centroid of the concrete section Sec6nd moment area of the uncracked transformed concrete section Radius of gyration Dispertion length Creep function at time t Flexural stiffness of column Flexural stiffness of equivalent column Effective beam stiffness coefficient (EIIL) Total lateral stiffness of the columns of the story (story rigidity), with modulus of elasticity taken as unity Relative eccentricity ratio Unintentional angular displacement (per unit length) related to the profile of the tendons Coefficient which takes account of the nature of the stress distribution within the section immediately prior to cracking Margin of strength Clear span or clear height of a member Effective buckling length Distance betweenpoints of zero moments Length of the shorter sid~ of a panel Length of the longer side of a panel Nominal dimension Anchorage length Basic anchorage length
Minimum anchorage length
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k kc k, ,~ L Le Lc Lx 4 I 10 Ib
Ib""u.
Ib"", I" 10
Required anchorage length Length of clear span in direction that moments are being determined, measuredfacetoface of supports Let'lgth of lap of bars
EBCS 2 1995
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CHAPTER 7: GENERAL I.,miIt Ip I, II lz Mbal Mcr Md Mt Mo M'd M. M1 M2 mJ ~ .mzJ ~J Ncr Nd Ndt NId NSd NM NMb n Minimum lap length Transmission length Distance between points of zero shear Length of span in direction that momentsare being determined, measured centertocenter of
supports
Length of span transverse to It, measuredcentertocenter of supports Balanced moment capacity of the column. Theoretical cracking moment Design moment at the critical section including secondorder effects Maximum applied moment at midspan due to sustainedcharacteristic loads Total factored static moment Design value of the applied internal bending moment Ultimate moment Smaller first order moment due to design load Larger first order moment due to design load Span moment in twoway slab Moment per unit width at the point of reference Span moment in the shorter direction of a panel Span moment in the longer direction "'1 a panel Critical value for failure in a sway mode Design axial load Maximum design axial load acting on a column or wall during an eal1hquake Transverse tensile force Design axial force (tension or compression) Ultimate axial load Axial load capacity of simultaneousassumedstrain of concrete and yielding of tension steel Number of bars in a bundle Modular ratio, E,/Eclft
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~p c Loss due to elastic deformation of the member at transfer Pd Design value of prestress at ultimate limit state ~P1r Shortterm relaxation loss Pt,'IIp' Pt,~Jare respectively the upper and lower characteristic values P1ft Prestress after occurrence of all losses P1ft ,0 Initial prestress at time 1 = 0 P1ft ,I Mean value of the prestressing at time 1 and at a particular point along the member Po Initial force at the active end of the tendon immediately after stressing ~P'I Loss due to anchorage slip ~P,(l) Loss due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at time 1 ~P ,.(x) Loss due to friction
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Characteristic imposed loads Characteristic values of one of the variable actions Characteristic value of the other variable actions Variable nonstabilizing action Uniformly distributed design live load Coefficient given in Table A2 EBCS 2 7995 5
Design situation for combination of action for ultimate limit statesfor persistentand transient design situation Shear reinforcement spacing in the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement Spacing of horizontal stirrups Maximum spacing between stirrups .Standard deviation of the set of sampl,eresults Average distance between cracks Spacing of vertical stirrups Torque caried by the concrete Torsional resistance of the reinforcement Torsional resistance of a section Design torsional moment strength provided by torsion reinforcement
t
to " "'f Vc V cd V cw V~ Vu VUI V K4l V, V.fd v vl4 v14.Wi w. WI Wz
Time
Time at initial loading of the concrete Periphery of critical section Mean polygonal perimeter Shear carried by the concrete Shear resistance of the concrete Additional shear force of a member subjected to axial force Shear resistance of horizontal stirrups Shear resistance of a section Shear resistance to inclined compression Shear resistance to diagonal tension Shear resistance of vertical stirrups Shear acting along the periphery" of the critical section Punching shear Longitudinal unit shear Punching unit shear Maximum punching unit shear Characteristic crack. width Mean crack. width Limining value of crack. width Limiting value of crack.width
.% Neutral axis depth .%I,.%z~ Strength of lot Z z a Section Modulus Internal lever arm Coefficient for biaxial bending of columns (Table 51) Ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterally by center lines of adjacentpanels (if any) on each side of a beam Ratio of flexural stiffness of columns abOveand below the slab to combined flexural stiffness of the slabs and beams at a joint taken in the direction of the spanfor which momentsare being
ac
determined
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.CHAPTER
1: GENERAL
Ratio of the sum of the column stiffnessesto the sum of the beam~tiffnessesat one end of the Ratio of the sum of the column stiffnessesto the sum of the beam stiffnesses at the other end of the column The minimum of acl and ac2 Ratio of flexural stiffness of equivalent column to combined flexural stiffness of the slabs and beams at a joint taken in the direction of the span for which momentsare being determined Coefficient given in Table A1 as function of aspectratio Ly11.% and support conditions Minimum ac a in the direction of 11 a in the direction of 12 Shear coefficient given by Eq.613 Deflection coefficient depending on the loading condition Ratio of long side to short sipe of footing Coefficient for effective depth given in Table 81 Ratio of dead load per unit area to live load per unit area (in eachcase without load factors) Factor for transmission length of prestressingstrand Reduction factor for torsion due to combined action effects Reduction factor for shear due to combined action effects
Partial safety factor for concrete Partial safety factor for loads Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure at slabcolumn connection 'Ym Partial safety factor for materials 'Y p Partial safety factor for prestress 'Y. Partial safety factor for steel 'Y F' 'Y G' 'Y 12''Y A and 'Yp Partial safety factors for the action cnn...irlpred taking account of, for example, k the possibility of unfavorable deviation of the actions 'YG,III! Lower value of the partial safety factor for the permanentaction 'Y G,sup Upper value of the partial safety factor for th~ permanentaction 'Y GJ Partial safety factor for permanent action j 'Y GA. i as 'Y G. i' but for accidental design situations
~Gp.c+.+rVariation of stress in the tendons due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at location x, at time
l
Gpgo ~Gpr E.(l, l,J ltI(l, l.J 0 0, 01/ ,.,t :~ OmIU 01/llU
Initial stress in the tendons due to prestressand permanentactions Variation of stress in the tendons at section x due to relaxation Estimated shrinkage strain, derived from the values in Table 2.7 for final shrinkage Creep coefficient, as defined in Section 2.5.4 Reduction coefficient for redistribution of moments Deflection due to the theoretical cracking moment Mcr acting on the uncracked transformed section Deflection due to the balance of the applied moment over and above the cracking value and acting on a section with an equivalent stiffness of 75% of the cracked value. Deflection of fully cracked section Deflection of fully cracked section
EBCS 2 7995
ETHIOPIAN
Strain in concrete fiber Strain of reinforcement Mean strain of reinforcement considering the contribution of concrete in tension The larger concrete strain below the neutral axis of the cracked section The smaller concrete strain below the neutral axis of the cracked section Final shirinkage strain Characteristic value of the elongation at maximum load Sum of the angular displacementsover a distance x (irrespective of direction or sign) Correction coefficient to take account of the effect of the slope of stirrups on the spacing of
cracks
Coefficient which characterisesthe bond properties of bars Coefficient representing the influence of the form of the strees diagram Slendernessof a column Coefficient for standard deviation of the set of sample results Coefficient of friction betweenthe tendons and their ducts Relative design axial load Geometrical ratio of reinforcement Effective geometrical ratio of reinforcement Geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the x direction Geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the y direction Maximum geometrical ratio of reinforcement Minimum geometrical ratio of reinforcement Geometrical ratio of web reinforcement Minimum geometrical ratio of web reinforcement Initial stress in the concrete adjacentto the tendons, due to prestress Stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons, due to selfweight and any other permanent actions Maximum tensile stress in the concrete appropriate to a serviceability limit state Maximum stress applied to the tendon Stress in the tendon immediately after tensioning or transfer Maximum stress permitted in the reinforcement immediately after formation of the c~ck Steel stress at rupture of concrete section Diameter of reinforcement bar Creep coefficient
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.
p p. Pu Pey Pmax PmiJI P'" P""miJI (Jcpo (JC8 (JCI (Jo,max (Jpmo (J. (J., tP tP(I"O) 
4(.".,)
tPb tP. tP(I",,) (U ~oFk ~2Fk ~o ~I ~2 ~O'~I'~2
Final creepcoefficient
Diameter of bars forming the bundle Effective diameter of the bundle Creep coefficient related to the elastic deformation at 28 days Mechanical reinforcement ratio Combination values Quasipermanentvalues Combination value Frequent value Quasipermanentvalue Partial safety factors defined in Section 3.4.4 (3).
;1;'
. .CHAPTER DATA
2.1 GENERAL (1) The strength and other. datafor the concreteare defined on the basis testa. ..;, of standard 2;2 GRAD~ OF CONCRETE ;~I
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ON CONCRETE
2 AND STEEL
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(1) Concreteis gradedin terms of its characteristiccompressive cubestrength. The gradeof concrete to be used in designdependson the cl~sification of the concretework and the intendeduse. (2) Table 2.1 gives the permissiblegradesof concretefor the two classesof concreteworks.
...
MPa.
Table 2.1 Grades of Concrete .Class I n C5 C5 C15 C15 PermissibleGradesof Concrete C20 C20 C25 C30 C40 CSO C6O
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2.3 CHARACTERISTIC COMPRF$SIVE STRENGm OF CONCRETE (1) For the purpose of this Code, compressivestrength of concreteis determinedfrom testson 150 mm cubes at the age of 28 days in accordance with Ethiopian Standards. (2) The characteristiccompressive strengthis defined as that strengthbelow which 5% of all possible strength measurements may be expected to fall. In practice, the concrete may be regarded as complyingwith the gradespecifiedfor the designif the resultsof the testscomply with the acceptance criteria laid down in Chapter9. (3) Cylindrical or cubical specimensof other sizes may also be used with conversion factors determinedfrom a comprehensive series of tests. In the absence of suchtests,the conversionfactors given in Table 2.2 may be appliedto obtainthe equivalentcharacteristicstrengthon the basis of 150 mm cubes. (4) In Table 2.3 the characteristiccylinder compressive strength!.! are given for the different grades of concrete.
EBCS 2 1995
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FOR STRUCTURAL
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Table 2.2 Conversion Factors for Strength Size and Type of Test Specimen Cube (200 mm) Cylinder (150 mm diameter300 mm height)
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Table 2.3 Grades of Concrete and Characteristic Cylinder Compressive Strength I.k Gradesof Concrete 1.1 C15 12 C20 16 C25 20 C30 24 C40 32 C50 40 C60 48
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(1) In this Code, the char.acteristic tensile strengthrefers to the axial tensile stren~ as determined by tests ip accordancewith standards issuedor approvedby Ethiopian Standards. (2) In the absence of more accuratedata, the characteristictensile strength may also be determined from the characteristiccylinder compressive strength accordingto Eq. 2.1. I.It = 0.7icbn wherehbnis the meanvalue given by Eq. 2.2. icbn= 0.3ick2/3 (2.2) (2.1) ~
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(3) The corresponding valuesoficlt andhbn for the different gradesof concreteare given in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4 Grades of Concrete and Values of I./Aand I./m Gradesof Concrete icbn hit C15 1.6 1.1 C20 1.9 1.3 C25 2.2 1.5 C30 2.5 1.7 C40 3.0 2.1 C50 3.5 2.5 C60 4.0 2.8
OF CONCRETE
(1) The values of the material properties required for the calculation of i~tantaneous and time dependent deformationsof concretedependnot only upon the gradesof concrete but also upon the propertiesof the aggregates and other parameters relatedto the mix designand the environment.For this reason,wherean accuratecalculationis considered necessary, the valuesshallbe established fromI
known data appropriate approximate to the particular materials and conditions of use. For many calculations an estimate will usually be sufficient.II
1
10
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EBCS 2 1995
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.CHAPTER
2.5.1 StressStrain Diagrams (1) Any idealized stressstrain diagram which results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with the results of comprehensive tests may be used (see Section 4.4) 2.5.2 Modulus of Elasticity (1) The modulus of elasticity depends not only on the concrete grade but also on the actual properties of the aggregates used (see Section 2.5(1) above). (2) In the absenceof more accurate data, or in caseswhere great accuracy is not required, an estimate of the mean value of the secant modulus Ecmcan be obtained from Table 2.5 for a given concrete grade. Table 2.5 Values of the Secant Modulus of Elasticity Ec,,"in GPa Grades of Concrete Ecm '.i
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CIS 26
C20 27
C25 29
C30 32
C40 35
C50 37
C60 39
(3) The values in Table 2.5 are based on the following equation: .Ecm = 9.5 ifck + 8)1/3 (2.3)
made
Where Ecmis in GPa andfck is in MPa. They relate to concrete cured under normal conditions'and with aggregates predominantly consisting of quartzite gravel. When deflections are of great importance, tests shall be carried out on concrete made with the aggregate to be used in the structure. In other casesexperience with a particular aggregate, backed by general test data, will often provide a reliable value for Ecm' but with unknown aggregates, it would be advisable to consider a range of values. (4) As a rule, since the grade of concrete corresponds to a strength at an age of 28 days, the values of Ecmin Table 2.5 also relate to that same age. Where great accuracy is not required, Ecmcan also be determined from Eq.2.3 for a concrete age t other than 28 days. In this case,tk is replaced by the actual cylinder concrete strength at time t. 2.5.3 Poisson's Ratio (1) Any value between 0 and 0.2 can be adopted for Poisson's ratio. 2.5.4 Creep and Shrinkage (1) Creep and shrinkage of the concrete depend mainly on the ambient humidity, the dimensions of the element and the composition of the concrete, Creep is also influenced by the maturity of the concrete when the load is first applied and on the duration and magnitude of the loading. Any estimation of the creep coefficient ct>(I./OJ' and of the basic shrinkage strain, fcs' shall take these parameters into account.
.EBCS
2 1995
11.
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1
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(2) In cases where great accuracyis not required, the values given in Tables2.6 and 2.7 respectively can be consideredas the final creep coefficient cp(~.",) and the final shrinkagestrain Ec.r of a normal weight concretesubjectedto a compressive stressnot exceeding 0.45tk at the time to at fIrst loading. (3) The data given in Tables2.6 and 2.7 apply for a range of the meantemperatureof the concrete between10 C and 20 C. Maximum seasonal temperatureup to 40 C can be accepted.In the same way, variations in relative humidity aroundthe meanvaluesgiven in Tables2.6 and 2.7 between RH =,20% and RH = 100%are acceptable. (4) Linear interpolationbetweenthe values in Tables2.6 and 2.7 is permitted. Table 2.6 Final Creep Coefficient ~(""') of Normal Weight Concrete Notional size 2Aju (in mm) Age at Loading t (da;s) 50 150 600 50 150 600
,...
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Dry atmospheric conditions (inside) (RH = 50%) 5.5 3.9 3.0 2.4 1.8 4.6 3.1 2.5 2.0 1.5 3.7 2.6 2.0 1.6 1.2
Humid atmospheric conditions (outside) (RH = 80%) 3.6 2.6 1.9 1.5 1.1 3.2 2.3 1.7 1.4 1.0 2.9 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 
1 7 28 90 365
Table 2.7 Final Shrinkage Strains fcl~ (in 0/00) of Normal Weight Concrete Location of the number Inside Relative humidity (%) 50 Notional size 2Aju (mm) ~ 150 600 0.60 0.50 0.28
(5) The values of Tables 2.6 and 2.7 apply to concretehaving plastic consistencywhen fresh. For concreteof other consistency the valueshaveto be multiplied by 0.70 (stiff consistency) or 1.20 (soft consistency) (6) For concretewith superplasticizers, the consistency beforeaddingthe superplasticizers is usedfor the evaluationof the creepand shrinkagecoefficientsas given in Tables 2.6 and 2.7. 2.5.5 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (1) The coefficient of thermal expansion may be taken as 10'x 106 per OC. .
12
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EBCS 2 1995
.
i:,' ~ CHAPTER 2: DATAON CONCRETE AND STEEL
2.6 CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF REINFORCING STEEL
~ (1) The mechanical and technological properties of steel used for reinforced concrete shall be defined by standard and/or agr~ment documents or by certificates of compliance. (2) The characteristic strength fyt is defined as the 5% fractile of the proof stress /y or 0.2 % offset strength, denoted as/0.2 (3) If the steel supplier guarantees a minimum value for f, or /0.2' that value may be taken as the characteristic strength.
(e) Weldability (2) Each consignment shall be accompanied by a certificate containing all the information necessary for its identification with regard to (a) to (e) above, and additional information where necessary. (3) The actual cross sectional area of the products shall not differ from their nominal cross sectional area by more than the limits specified in relevant Standards. (4) In this Code, two classes of ductility are defined (see Section 2.9.2): (a) high (Class A) (b) normal (Class B) (5) In this Code two shapes of surface characteristics are defined: (a) Ribbed bars, resulting in high bond action (b) Plain, smooth bars, resulting in low bond action. (6) For other types of bar, with other surface characteristics (ribs or indentations), reference should be made to relevant documents, based on test data. (7) Welded fabric, used as reinforcing steel, shall comply with the dimensional requirements in relevant Standards. 2.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING STEEL
(1) The following mean values may be assumed: (a) Density (b) Coefficient of thermal expansion 7 850 kg/m3 10 x 106per DC
EBCS 2 1995
13
2.9.1 Strel1lth
(1) The yield stress!,. and the tensile strength!. are defined respectivelyu the charactetiltlc value of the yield load, and the characteristicmaximum load in direct axial tension, each divided by the l1ominal cross sectionalarea. (2) For products without a pronounced yield stress!,. ,the 0.2% proof stressfo.~may be substituted. 2.9..2 Ductility (1) The products shall have adequate ductility in elongation,as specified in relevantStandards. (2) Adequateductility in elongationmaybe assumed, for designpurposes,if the productssatisfy the following ductility requirements: (a) High ductility: (b) Nonnal ductility: E. > S% ; E. > 2.S%; value of (J;/1,). > 1.08 value of (J;/1,). > 1.0S
In whicHE. denotesthe characteristicvalue of the elongationat maximum load. (3) High bond bars with diameterslessthan 6 mm shall not be treatedas having high ductility. (4) The products shall have adequate bendabilityfor the anticipateduse. 2.9.3 Str~sStrain Diagram (1) In the absence of more accurateinfonnation, an elastoplastic diagram can be usedfor hot rolled steelor steelcold worked by drawing pr rolling. (2) For other types of production, the actual stressstrain diagrams can be replaced by bil inear, trilinear or other diagramschosenso that the approximations are on the safe side. 2.9.4 Modulus of Elasticity (1) The meanvalue of modulus of elasticity E, may be assumed as 200 GPa. 2.9.5 Fatigue (1) Where required, the productsshall have adequate fatigue strength. 2.10 TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTI~ 2.10.1 Bond and Anchorage (1) The surface characteristicsof ribbed bars shall be such that adequate bond is obtained with the concrete,permitting the full force that is assumed in design,to be developedin the reinforcement. (2) Ribbed bars, having projected ribs not satisfyingthe requirements for high bond bars given in reievantstandards shall be treatedas plain bars with respectto bond. 14 EBCS.2. 1995 ! 
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(3) The behavior in bond of reinforcing steels with other surface shapes shall be defined in relevant Standards or technical approved documents. (4) The strength of the welded joints along the anchorage length of welded fabric shall be adequate. (5) The strength of the welded joint can withstand a shearing force not less than 30% of a force equivalent to the specified characteristic yield stress times the nominal cross sectional area of the anchored wire. 2.10.2 Weldability (1) The products shall have weldability properties adequate for the anticipated use (2) Where required, and where the weldability is unknown, tests should be requested. (3) Ductility characteristics; as specified in Section 2.9.2, shall be maintained, when necessary, at sections near to weld.
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EBCS2 .7995 15
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EBCS 2 1995
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.CHAPTER BASIS
3.1 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
(1) A structure shall be designedand constructedin sucha way that: (a) With acceptable probability, it will remain fit for the use for which it is required, havingdue regard to its intendedlife, and (b) with appropriatedegreesof reliability, it will sustainall actionsand influenceslikely to occur during normal executionand use and have adequate durability. (2) A structure shall also be designed in such a way that it will not be damagedby eventslike explosions, impact or consequences of human errors, to an extent disproportionateto the origin,\!
3 OF DESIGN
cause.
,
(3) The potential damagedue to the eventsin (2) aboveshallbe minimized or avoidedby appropriate choice of one or more of the following: (a) Avoiding, eliminating or reducing the hazardswhich the structureis to sustain. (b) Selectinga structural form which has low sensitivityto the hazardsconsidered. (c) Selectinga structural form and designthat can survive adequately the accidentalremoval of an individual element. (d) Tying the structure together. (4) The above requirementsshall be met by the choice of suitable materials, by appropriatedesign and detailing and by compliance with control procedures for production, construction and use .envisaged in this Code. r 3.2 LIMIT srA~ 3.2.1 General (1) A structure, or part of a structure, is consideredunfit for use when it exceeds a particular state, called a limit state, beyond which it infringes one of the criteria governing its performanceor use. (2) All relevant limit statesshall be consideredin the designso as to ensurean adequate degreeof safety and serviceability. The usual approachwill be to designon the basisof the most critical limit state and then to check that the remaining limit stateswill not be reached. (3) The limit statescan be placed in two categories: (a) The Ultimate Limit Statesarethoseassociated with collapse,or with other forms of structural failure which may endangerthe safety of people. Statesprior to structural collapsewhich, for simplicity. are consideredin place of the collapseitself are also treatedas ultimate limit .states. (b) The Serviceability Limit States correspond to states beyond which specified service requirementsare no longer met.
..EBCS
2 1995
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3.2.2 Ultimate Limit Stat~ (1) The ultimate limit stateswhich may require consideration include: (a) Loss of equilibrium of a part or ~e whole of the structureconsidered as a ri&id body" (b) Failure by excessive deformation, rupture or loss of stability of the structureor my part of it, including supportsand foundations.
3.2.3 Serviceability Umit State (1) Serviceabilitylimit stateswhich may require co~ideration include; (a) Deformationsor deflections which affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (includingthe malfunction of machines or services) or cause damageto finishes of nonstructural elements. (b) Vibration which causes discomfort to people,damageto the building or its contents,or which limits its functional effectiveness. (0) Cracking of the concretewhich is likely to affect appearance, durability or water tightness adversely. 3.3 D~IGN SITUAnONS
(1) Design situationsare classified as: (a) Persistentsituationscorrespondingto normal conditionsof use of the structure. (b) Transientsituations, suchas those, for exampleduring constructionor repair. (c) Accidentalsituations. .
3.4 ACnONS
3.4.1 Definitions and Principal Classification (1) An actionF is: (a) A force (load) appliedto the structure (direct action), or (b) an imposeddeformation (indirect action); for example,temperatureeffectsor settlement. (2) Actions are classified: (a) By their variation in time: (i) Permanentactions (G), e.g. selfweight of structures, fittings ancillaries and fIXed equipment. (ii) Variable actions (Q), e.g. imposedloadsor wind loads. (iii) Accidental actions (A), e.g. explosions or impact from vehicles. (b) By their spatialvariation: (i) Fixed actions,e.g. selfweight. (ii) Free actions, which result in different arrangements of actions, e.g. movableimposed loads and wind loads. (3) Prestressing (F) is a permanentactionbut, for practical reasons,it is treateds~parately. . 
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EBCS 2 1995
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C4). Indirect actions are either permanent Ow (e.g. settlementof support) or variable~ .temperature) and are treatedaccordingly.
(e.g.
(S) Supplementaryclassificationsrelating to the responseof the structure are given in the relevant ,sections CJf this Code. 3.4.2 ~epr~entative Values of Actions (1) For verification in the partial safetyfactor method, actio~ are introducedinto the calculationsby representativevalues, i.e. by values correspondingto certain levels of intensity. For different calculations,one may have to distinguishdifferent representative values of an action accordingto its variation in time. The comp~ete set of representative values is as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) Characteristicvalues, Fk Combinationvalues, ~oFk Frequentvalues, ~IFk Quasipermanent values, ~.}f k
The abovevalues are evaluatedmainly o~ a statisticalbasis. (2) l+.:'!uimum values and minimum values, whi:h may be zero, are defined when appropriate. (3) Dependingon the variation with time of certainactions, their representative valuesare sometimes subclassifiedas actions of long duration (or sustained actions) or of short duration (or transient actionS).In special cases,certain actionshave their representative valuesdivided into sustained and transientcomponents. .3.4.3 Representative Values of Permanent Actions (1) The representative values of permanent actionsare specifiedas: (a) The characteristic values Fk specified in EBCS1 "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures", or (b) by the client, or the designer in consultation with the client, provided that minimum provisions, specified in the relevantcodesor by the competent authority, are observed. (2) The other representative valuesare assumed to be equal to those in Section3.4.2(1). (3) For permanentactions where the coefficient of variation is large or where the actions are likely to vary during the life of the structure (e.g. for some superimposedpermanent loads), two characteristicvalues are distinguished,an upper (Ok ) and a lower (Ok. 11'/).Elsewhere, a single characteristicvalue (GJ is sufficient. (4) The selfweight of the structure may, in most cases,be calculatedon the basis of the nominal dimensionsand mean unit masses.
EBCS2 1995
19
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE 3.4.4 Representative Values or Variable Actions (1) The main representative value is the characteristic value Q.. (2) For variable actions, the characteristic value (QJ corresponds to either: (a) The upper value with an intended probability of not being exceeded or the lower value with an intended probability of not being reached, during some reference period, having regard ~ to the intended life of the structure or the assumed duration of the design situation, or (b) the specified value. (3) Other representative values are expressed in terms of the characteristic value Q. by means of a factor 1/1/.These values are defined as: (a) Combination value: (b) Frequent value: (c) Quasipermanent value: 1/10 Q. 1/11 Q. 1/12 Q.
(4) Supplementary representative values are used for fatigue verification and dynamic analysis. ~ 1 t 1 ~
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(5) The factors 1/Iiare specified: (a) in EBCS1 "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures", or (b) by the client or the designer in conjunction with the client, provided that minimum provisions, specified in the relevant codes or by the competent public authority, are observed. 3.4.5 Representative Values or Accidental Actions (1) The representative value of accidental actions is the characteristic value A. (when relevant) and generally correspond to a specified unique nominal value beyond which there is. no longer an assurance of a probability of survival of the structure. (2) Their service, combination and frequent values are considered negligible or zero. .
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3.4.6
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(1) The design value F d of an action is expressed in general terms as Fd = "fFF. Specific examples are: Gd = Qd = Ad = Pd = "fGG. "fa Q. or "fa 1/1/ Q. "fAA. (if Ad is not directly specified) "fp P. (3.1)
I I I ~f,.;",' ;.,;,
(3.2)
where "fF' "fG, "fa' "fA and "fp are the partial safety factors for the action considered taking account of, for exaIr!ple, the possibility of unfavorable deviations of the actions, the possibility of inaccurate modelling of the actions, uncertainties in the assessmentof effects of actions, and uncertainties in the assessmentof the limit state considered.
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EBCS 2 7995
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CHAPTER 3: BASIS OF DESIGN
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(2) The upper and lower designvaluesof permanentactionsare expressed asfollows: ~ (a) Where only a single characteristicvalue Gkis used, then G" = "Ya Gk G".ir(= "Ya..;Gk (b) Where upper and lower characteristicvalues of permanentactionsare used, then G" G".ir( = = "Ya.ir( "Ya Gk,ir( Gk
..f i
is the lower characteristicvalue of the permanentaction is the upper characteristicvalue of the permanentaction is the lower value of the partial safety factor for the permanentaction is the uppervalue of the partial safety factor for the permanentaction
(1) The effects of actionsare responses (e.g. internal forces and moments,stresses,strains) of the structure to the actions. Designvalues of the effectsof actionsare determinedfrom the designvalues of the actions, geometricaldata and material properties when relevant. (2) In some cases,in particular for nonlinear analysis,the effect of the randomness of the inten,sity of the actionsand the uncertaintyassociated with the analytical procedures,e.g. the modelsused i~ the calculations, shall be consideredseparately. This may be achieved by the application of a coefficient of model uncertainty, either appliedto the actionsor to the internal forces and moments. 3.5 MATERlAI..S 3.5.1 Characteristic Strength (1) A material property is represented by a characteristicvalue which in general correspondsto a fractile in the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material, specified by relevantstandardsand testedunder specified conditions. (2) In certain cases,a nominal value is used as the characteristicvalue. (3) The characteristicstrengthof concreteand steel is defined in Sections2.3 and 2.6, respectively, 3.5.2 Design Strength i j
I
(1) The design strength for a given material property and limit state is obtained, in principle, by divi~ing the characteristicstrengthh by the appropriatepartial safetyfactor for the material property
"Y~, I.e.,
'. j ; :
t
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(3.3)
(2) However, in the caseof concreteunder compression,a further correctionfactor is introducedin this Code for convenience (seeEq. 3.4).
EBCS 2 7995
21
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
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A
3.5.3 Partial Safety Factors for Materials 3.5.3.1 Ultimate Umit State (1) Partial safetyfactor for materialsappropri~teto various designsituations,ordinary and accidental, are given in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 for the two classesof concrete works, Class I and Class II, re~pectively .
\
Table 3.1 Partial Safety Factor for Materials CI3SS I Wor~ Design Situations Persistent and Transient Accidental Concrete, "t'o 1.50 1.30 Reinforcing Steel, 'YI 1.15 1.00
Table 3.2 Partial Safety Factor for Materials Class II Wor~ Design Situations Persistentand Transient Accidental 3.5.3.2 ServiceabilityUmit States (1) The value of 'YIft in the serviceability limit statesmaybe takenas 1.0 for both steel and concrete. 3.5.4 Design Strength for Concrete (1) The designstrengthof concreteis defined by: (a) In compression Iod = 0.85101 :;:(3.4) Concrete, 'Yo 1.65 1.45 Reinforcing Steel, 'YI 1.20 1.10 . .
3.5.5 Design Strength for Steel (1) The designstrengthof steel in tensionand compression is defined by:
fyd = {
(3.6)
22
EBCS 2 1995
,
CHAPTER 3: BASIS OF DESIGN
~
3.6 COMBINATION .~
OF ACTIONS
3.6:1 Ultimate Limit States (1) The combination of actions for the ultimate limit states for persIstent and transient design situation ~hall be in accordance with Eq, 3,7:
Sd =S{ E'YG,jGt,j+ 'YQ,lQt,1 + L
/ >1
'YQ,/If'O,/Qt'i }
(3.7)
I
.1
(3,8)
wher~
I
i
Gtj is the characteristic value of permanent actions Qt,l is the characteristic value of one of the variable actions Qt, / is the characteristic value of the other variable actions Ad is the design value (specified value) of the accidental action 'YGj is the partial safety factor for permanent action j 'Y G4, j is as 'Y Gj' but for accidental design situations 'YQ,/ is the partial safety factor for variable action i If'o, If'l, 1f'2 are partial safety factors defined in Section 3.4.4 (3).
: :
(3) Combinations for accidental design situations either involve an explicit accidental action A (e.g. shock) or refer to a situation after an accidental event (A = 0). Unless specified otherwise, 'YG4 = 1 may be used. (4) Partial safety factors for various design situations are given in Table 3,3. Table 3.3 Partial Safety Factors for Actions in Building Structures Design Situation Persistent Transient Accidental Factor 'Y 'Y G 'YQ 'Y G
'.
and
(5) For building structures, Eq, 3.9 may be used in lieu of Eqs, 3.7 and 3.8: Sd = S(1.30G + 1.60QvJ I .Sd .Sd Sd = S(1.0G + 1.60QM) " = S(1.20(G + Qvt + QM) = S(A" + G + Qvi)
I
.
f.J..s,)'
EBCS 2 1995
23
.., ,
ETHIOPIANBUILDINGCODESTANDARDFORSTRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE (6) The combinationfor static equilibrium may be taken as S" = S(0.9G11.IG2 1.6QJ where G1is the permanentstabilizing action G2is the permanentnonstabilizingaction QI is the variable nonstabilizingaction (3.10)
r'
3.7 ANALYSIS OF LINE ELEMENTS 3.7;1 Methods of Analysis (1) For analysis in the Ultimate Limit State, plastic, nonlinear and linear elastic theory may be applied. (2) Elastic methodsof analysismay be applied for analysisin the Serviceability Limit Stateand for the Alternate Designmethod. 3.7.2 Load Arrangements and Load Cases (1) A load arrangement identifies the position, magnitudeand direction of a free action. (2) A load case identifies compatible load arrangements, sets of deformations and imperfections consideredfor a particular verification. (3) Detailed rules on load arrangements and load cases are given in EBCS1 "Basis of Design and' Actions on Structures" (4) The following simplifying assumptions maybe madefor computing loadeffectsin framesdue to gravity loading: (a) The live load may be considered to be applied only to the floor or roof under consideration, and the far ends of the columnsmay be assumed as fixed. (b) Considerationmay be limited to the following load cases: (i) Designdeadload on all spanswith full designlive load on two adjacentspans. (ii) Designdeadload on all spanswith full designlive load on alternatespans. 3.7.3 Imperfections (1) In the Ultimate Limit State, considerationshall be given to the effects of possible imperfections in the geometryof the unloadedstructure.Where significant, any possibleunfavorable effect of such imperfections shall be taken into account. (2) Individual sections shall be designedfor the internal forces and moments arising from global analysis, combiningeffects of actionsand imperfectionsof the structure as a whole. (3) In the absence of other provisions, the effectsof imperfectionsmay be assessed by assumingthat the structure is inclined to the vertical at an angle ct> defined by:
. .
24
EBCS2 ::J"
",.",,
"
(a) For single storey frames or for structures loaded mainly at the top tan,l. 
'..'
~;f~;:j
(b) For other types of frames
r'"
..1
:150
(3. 11)
1 tan<tl = 200
(3.12)
(4) Where the effects of imperfections are smaller than the effects of design horizontal actions, their influence may be ignored. Imperfections need not be considered in accidental combinations of actions. 3.7.4 Time Dependent Effects (1) Time dependent effects shall be taken into account where significant. (2) Creep and shrinkage normally need only be considered for the Serviceability Limit State except where their influence on secondorder effects are likely to be significant. 3.7.S Idealization of the Structure
(1) The elements of a structure are normally classified, by consideration of their nature and function, as beams, columns, slabs, walls, plates, arches, shells, etc. Rules are provided for the analysis of the commoner of these elements and of structures consisting of combinations of these elements. (2) To be considered as a beam or a column, the span or length of the member shall not be less than twice the overall section depth. A beam whose span is less than twice its depth is considered as a deep
.beam.
(3) To be considered as a slab, the minimum span shall not be less than four times the overall slab
thickness.
(4) A slab subjected to predominantly uniformly distributed loads may be considered to be oneway spanning if either: (a) it possess two free (unsupported) and sensibly parallel edges, or (b) if it is the central part of a sensibly rectangular slab supported on four edges with a ratio of the longer to shorter span greater than 2. (5) Ribbed or waffle slabs may be treated as solid slabs for the purposes of analysis, provided that the flange of structural topping and transverse ribs have sufficient torsional stiff'ness. This may be assumed provided: (a) The rib spacing does not exceed 1.5 m. (b) The depth of the rib below the flange does not exceed four times its width. (c) The depth of the flange is at least 1/10 of the clear distance between ribs or 50 mm, whichever is greater. (d) Transverse ribs are provided at a clear spacing not exceeding 10 times the overall depth of
the slab.
The minimum flange thickness of 50 mm may he redul:ed to 40 mm where permanent hlol:ks are incorporated between the ribs. EBCS 2 1995 25
!.
~'~!J
jrl
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD
(6) A wall shall have a horizontal length
FOR STRUCTURAL
of at least four times
USE OF CONCRETE
its thickness. Otherwise it shall be
treated
as a column.
3.7.6
(1) Any
Stiffness
reasonable of members. assumptions The may be adopted made shall for be computing consistent the relative flexural. the analysis. and torsional
stiffness
assumptions
throughout
,
3.7.7 Effective Span Length
effective
span
of a simply
supported
member
shall
be taken
as the
lower
of the
following
two
(a) (b)
The The
distance clear
between
the
center the
lines faces
of the of the
distance
between
(2)
The
span
of a continuous
element
shall
normally
be
taken
as the
distance
between
the
center
supports.
(3)
For
a cantilever,
the
effective
span
is taken
to be
its length,
measured
from:
(a) (b)
The The
face center
of the line
supports, of the
for support
an for
isolated,
fixedended which
a cantilever
3.7.8
Effective
Flange
Width
for
T
Beams
and
LBeams
(1)
In the for
absence a given
of a more span
accurate
determination, T beam
the shall
width the
to obtain
the load
effects
of a symmetrical
(a) (b)
The The
thickness actual
of the width
web
plus top
onefifth (extending
of the
effective the
span, centers
of the
slab
between
(2)
The
effective
width for
shall
be
taken
as
constant
over
the
entire
span,
including
the
parts
near
intermediate
supports
continuous
beams.
(3)
For
edge
beams
(Lbeams),
the
effective
width
shall
not
exceed
the
lesser
of:
thickness thickness
of the of the
web web
plus plus
of the clear
effective
distance
3.7.9
Redistribution
of Moments
(1)
Moments
obtained
from c5provided
analysis moments
may
be
reduced
by in other
multiplying sections
by
the
following to maintain
reduction equilibrium.
coefficient
are increased
in order
26
EBCS 2 1995
;~~II
.._1'
"
r'
(2) For continuousbeamsand for beamsin rigid jointed bracedframes with span/effectivedepth ratio
not greater than 20,
)
,} !
.0.44
+ 1.25(d)
(3.13)
The neutral axis height, x, is calculatedat the ultimate limit stateand the term x/d refers to the sectionwhere the momentis reduced. (3) For other continuousbeamsand rigid jointed bracedframes
0 ~ 0.75 (3.14)
3.7.10 SecondQrder Effects (1) Secondordereffects shall be taken into accountwhere they may significantly affect the overall stability of a structure or the attainmentof the ultimate limit state at critical sections. (2) For normal buildings, secondordereffects may be neglectedwhere they increasethe moments, calculated ignoring displacements, by not more than 10%. 3.8 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PLANE ELEMENTS
3.8.1 Slabs
3.8.1.1 Methods of Analysis (1) Moments and internal shear forces may be determined on the basis of the following types of
analysis:
(a) Linear analysis, optionally followed by redistribution (b) Plastic analysis (c) Nonlinear analysis 3.8.1.2 Linear Alwlysis, with or without Redistribution (1) The linear analysis shall be basedgenerally on the gross crosssections by adoptingfor Poisson's ratio a value ~etween0 and 0.2. (2) Linear analysis is valid for the Serviceability Limit Statesand for the Ultimate Limit States. (3) If required, the support momentsin continuousslabs. resulting from a linear analysis may be by not more than 25%, for an appropriatewidth, provided that the corresponding average moments for the s:}Inewidth at midspan,are adjusted to satisfy equilibrium, provided further that the provisionsof Section3.7.9 (1) and (2) are complied with. (4) Appendix A, which is basedon linear analysis with redistribution, may be usedfor the analysis of twoway slabs. No further redistribution is, however, allowed.
reduced
~~;i~
.c,$,
EBCS 2 1995
27
"t..00.~
.'
c
":'Cc
,
:;; j
ETHIOPIAN
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
.
~
3.8.1.3 Plastic Analysis (1) In general, plastic analysisis only applicableto the ultimate limit states. Both static (e.g., the strip method)and dynamic (e.g., yield line theory) methodsmay be used. (2) The following conditionsshall be satisfied: , (a) When using plastic analysis,the area of tensile reinforcementshall not exceed,at any point or in any direction a value corresponding to x/d = 0.25. (b) If a static methodis used,the momentdistributionselectedshall not differ substantially from the elastic momentdistribution. (c) If a dynamicmethodis used,the ratio of the supportmoments to the midspanmoments shall normally be not less than 0.5, nor more than 2.
3.8.2 Flat Slabs 3.8.2.1 Definition (1) The term flat slabsor plate meansa reinforcedconcreteslab with or without drops and supported, generally without beams,by columnswith or without flared column heads. 3.8.2.2 Method of Analysis (1) The forces acting in the middle plane of a plate can be determined on the basis of any of the following types of analysis: (a) Linear Analysis (b) Plastic Analysis (c) Nonlinear Analysis (2) The empirical methodor the equivalentframe methodgiven in Appendix A may be used for the analysisof flat slabsand twoway slab systems.
28
EBCS 2 1995
r
..,
.CHAPTER , ULTIMATE
4 LIMIT STATES
4.1 SCOPE (1) Th~~c?aptergives.methodsof analysisan~ desi~ o~ linear elements that in general ensure .that the objectives set out m Chapter3 for the Ultimate LImit Stateare met.
"
r~; ':'l,i
c,;':',
(2) Other meth~s maybe usedprovidedthey canbe shownto be satisfactorytor the type of structure or memberconsidered. (3) It is assumed that the ultimate limit state is the critical limit state. 4.2 BASIS OF DF$IGN 4.2.1 Analysis of Sections (1) The calc~ation of the.ulti~ate r~i.stanceof me~bers.for fl~xure and axial loads shall be based on the followmg assumptions,to additionto those gIven to SectiOns 3.7 and 3.8. (a) Plane sectionsremainplane (b) The reinforcememis subjected to the samevariations in strain as the adjacentconcrete .(d) .0.002 (c) The tensile strengthof the concreteis neglected The maximum compressive strain in the concreteis taken to be: 0.0035 in bending (simple or compound) in axial compression (e) The maximum tensile strain in the reinforcementis takento be 0.01. 4.2.2 Strain Distribution (1) Referring to Fig. 4.1, the straindiagram shaiibe assumed to passthroughone of the three points A, B or C. 4.2.3 Idealized StressStrain Diagram for Concrete 4.2.3.1 ParabolicRectangularDiagram (1) The parabolicrectanglarstress distribution shown in Fig. 4.2 may be used for calculation of sectioncapacity. 4.2.3.2 Rectanglar Diagram (1) For sectionswhich are partly in tension(beamsor columns with large eccentricity), the simplified rectangularstressblock shown in Fig. 4.3 may be used. 4.2.4 StressStrain Diagram for Steel (1) The elastoplasticdiagram shown in Fig. 4.4 may be used for oroinary steel.
.I
I
'~ " , ,.. :
iJ :!f t
., .,
:;
EBCS2 1995
29
I.
.\
'" ..,
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
0.01
':It !
""
T
h
T
d
.~
,
.,
0.002
'" I
",'"
..'" ".J
,
I I
_O811~n DIagram I
I
I I
I I I II
,,"
I I
I
I
0.67f.k fcd = I I
I I .
I
I
I
Y.
I, / '_fc
0.002
I
0.001
I ,
0.002 o.oo!e
fCd = O.85fck/
Yc
o.ex I'
Fc
1
I
L
i
c
.~.
E
s
'
..&.
30
W"
f.
0.01 .
E
(1) Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be used to increase the strength of flexural members. (2) In the analysis of a crosssection of a beam which has to resist a small axial load, the effect of the ultimate axial load may be ignored if the axial load does not exceed 0.1!cktimes the crosssectional
.
.4.3.2
area.
(3) Design of deep beams shall be in accordance with Section 6.3. Distance Between Lateral Supports of Flexural Members (1) The spacing of lateral supports for a beam shall not exceed 50 times the least width of the compression flange or face. Effects of lateral eccentricity of load shall be taken in determining the spacing of lateral supports. 4.4 COMPRESSION MEMBERS
4.4.1 Scope and Definition (I) This section refers to slender structures or slender members mainly subjected to compression whose load carrying capacity is significantly influenced by their deformations (secondorder effects). (2) The principles given in this section apply to linear reinforced concrete members subjected to axial compression, with or without bending, for which the effects of torsion can be neglected. (3) These principles may also be applied to other types of structural member, such as walls, shells, slender beams in which lateral buckling of the compre,.~sion zone may occur, deep beams or other exceptil)nal ~tructures or members in which significant local deformations may arise. (4) In compre~~ion members, the influence of second()rder eft"ectsshall be considered if the increase th~ tir~torder bending moments due to deflections exceeds 10%. EBCS 2. 7995 31
ahl)'..e
v,
i
Procedures
either:
(1) The internal forces and momentsmay generallybe determinedby elastic global analysis using
(a) Firstorder theory, using the initial geometryof the structure,or (b) Secondorder theory~taking into.accountthe influence of the deformationof the stfl'cture. (2) Firstorder theory may be us.edfor the global analysisin the following cases: (a) Nonswayframes (Section. 4.4.4.2) (b) Braced frames (Section4;4.4.3) (c) Design methodswhich make indirect allow?ncesfor secondorder effects. (3) Secondorder theory may be used for the global analysisin all cases. (4) Design for structural stability taking accountof secondorder effectsshall ensurethat, for the most unfavorable combinationsof actions at the ultimate limit state, loss of static equilibrium (locally or for the structure as a whole) does not occur or the resistanceof individual crosssections subjected to bendingand longitudinal force is not exceeded. (5) The structural behavior shall be consideredin any direction in which failure due to secondorder effects may occur. 4.4.3 Allowance for Imperfections (1) Allowance shall be made for the uncertaintiesassociated with the prediction of secondorder effectsand, in particular, dimensionalinaccuracies anduncertaintiesin the positionand line of action of the axial loads. (2) Suitable equivalentgeometric imperfections maybe used, with values which reflect the possible effectsof all types of imperfection. (3) For frame structuresthe effects of imperfectionsmay be allowed for in frame analysisby means of an equivalentgeometric imperfection in the form of an initial sway imperfection <P determinedin accordancewith Section3.7.3. I (4) For isolated elements,the equivalentgeometricimperfectionsmay be introduced by increasingI the eccentricity of the longitudinal force by an additional eccentricity ea, acting in the mostI
unfavorable j direction: L
(4.1)
32
';
4.4.4 Classification of Structur~ and Structural Elements ..4.4.4.1 General (I) For the purpose of design calculations,structuresor structural membersmay be classified as bracedor unbraceddependingon the provision or not of bracing elements and as sway or nonsway depending on their sensitivity to secondorder effectsdue to lateral displacements. (2) Similarly, isolated columnsare classifiedas slenderor nonslender. 4.4.4.2 Swayor NonSway Structures (1) A frame may be classifiedas nonswayif its response to inplanehorizontalforces is sufficiently stiff for it to be acceptably accurateto neglectany additionalinternal forcesor momentsarisingfrom horizontal displacements of its nodes. (2) Any other frame shall be classifiedas a swayframe andthe effectsof the horizontal displacements of its nodesshall be taken into accountin its design(see Section4.4.2). (3) A frame may be classified as nonswayfor a given load caseif the critical load ratio NSd/Ncr for that load casesatisfiesthe criterion:
NSd~Ncr~ 0.1 (4.2)
:
I
j ;
..Ncr .(4)
where Nsd is the designvalue of the total vertical load is its critical value for failure in a sway mode (seeSection4.4.12). Beamandcolumn type plane frames in building structureswith beamsconnectingeach column at each story level may be classified as nonswayfor a given load case, when firstorder theory is used,the horizontal displacements in eachstory due to the designloads (bothhorizontal andvertical), plus the initial sway imperfection(see Section4.4.3) satisfythe criterion of Eq. 4.3.
No "HI ~ C.1
(4.3)
,Ii)j ,.c; ..
where 0 is the horizontal at the top of the story, (see (5) below) displacement  relative to the bottom of the story L is the story height H is the total horizontal reaction at the bottom of the story N is the total vertical reaction at the bottom of the story. (5) The displacement 0 in (4) aboveshall be determinedusingstiffnessvaluesfor beamsand columns corresponding to the ultimate limit state.As anapproximation,displacements calculatedusingmoment of inertia of the gross section may be multiplied by the ratio of the gross column stiffness to the effective column stiffness in Section4.4.12 to obtain o.
. (6) For sway frames, the requirementsfor frame stability given in Section 4.4.8 shall also be satisfied.
EBCS 2 1995
33
I
I
(2) A bracedframe may be treated as fully supportedlaterally. (3) The effects of the initial sway imperfections(see Section4.4.3(3)) in the bracedframe shall be taken into accountin the designof the bracing system. (4) The initiallway imperfections(or the equivalenthorizontal forces), plus any horizontal loads applied to a bracedfr~e, may be treated as affecting only the bracing system. (5) The bracing systemshall be designedto resist: (a) Any horizontal loads applied to the frameswhich it braceS. (b) Any horizontal or vertical loads applied directly to the bracingsystem. (c) The effects of the initial sway imperfections(or the equivalenthorizontal forces) from the bracing systemitself and from all the frameswhich it braces. ,(6)Wherethe bracing systemis a frame or subframe, it may itself be either sway or nonsway(see Section4.4.4.2.) (7) When applying the criterion given in Section4.4.4.2(3) to a frame or subftame acting as a bracing system,the total vertical load actingan all the frameswhi~h it bracesshall also be included. (8) When applying the \:riterion given in Section 4:4.4.2(4) to a frame or subframe acting as a bracingsystem,the total horizo,ntal andvertical load acting on all the frameswhich it bracesshallalso be included, plus the initial sway imperfectionapp~ied in the form of the equivalenthorizontalforces from the bracing systemitself and from all the frames which it braces. ..
4.4.4.4 IsolatedColumns
(1) Columns may be consideredas isolated columnswhen they are isolated compr~sion members (such as individual isolated columns and columns with articulations in a nonswaystructure), or CQ~pression memberswhich are integral partsof a structurebut which are considered to be 'isolated for designpurposes(such as slenderbracing elements considered as isolatedcolumns, and columns with restrainedends in a nonswaystructure).
(4.4)
is the effective buckling length is the p'1nimumradius of gyration of the concretesection only.
EBCS 2: Part 1 1994 
l4
, ,'"',
CHAPTER
sway frames comprising rectangular subframes, the following expressionmay be Used (2) For to multistory calculatethe slenderness ratio of the columns in the samestory:
~ '" ."
f*
XL
,
,
,!
y{
' ('. c,
,;"
12A .(4.5)
:,'11 ,j
'1
"
'tti
where A is the sumof the crosssectional areasof all the columnsof the stot>: K, is the total lateral stiffnas of the columnaof the story (storyriJidity), with nmulus of elasticity taken as unity
L
.i
4.4.6 Limits of Slendern~ (1) The slenderness ratio of concretecolumnsshall not exceed 140 (2) Secondorder effects in compressivemembersneed not be taken into accountin the following cases: (a) For sway frames, the greaterof Eq. 4.6a or 4.6b ). ~ 25 (4.6a)
,'~ 'I
). ~ (4.6b)
15
..r;:
(4.7)
~
.!
whereM1 and M2 are the firstorder (calculated)moments at the ends,M2 being alwayspositive and greaterin magnitudethanMl' and M] beingpositive if memberis bent in single curvature and negativeif bent in doublecurvature
JI d = N ../f..,;.tc
t f k
~
,
j
(1) The effective buckling length L, of a column in a givenplane maybe obtainedfrom the following approximateequa:tions provided the restriction in (3) below is compliedwith: (a) Nonswaymode
~ .~~~
L a
~ 0.7
(4.8)
+ 0.8
EBCS 2 1996
3S
;..,
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
L.
1.15
(49 . )
.
i
.L
or conservatively
L
r;:!,
!. ./i:O~L
~ 1.15
(4.10)
(2) For the theoreticalmodel shownin Fig. 4.5, the stiffnesscoefficientsal and a2 are obtainedfrom
a
,~
I .K
K I + Kc + K
II 12
(4.11)
~ + Kc
: a2 .~I +~ a +a (4.12)
aWl~r where KI and K2 are column stiffness coefficients(EI/L) Kc is the stiffness coefficient (EIIL) of the column being designed Kij is the effective beamstiffnesscoefficient (EIIL) = 1.0 oppositeend elasticallyor rigidly restrained = 0.5 oppositeend free to rotate = 0 for a cantileverbeam
(4.13)
Ib I
EXAMPLE
Calculation of aA in A
a =
Lb.
Ib3
~4
for E = constant
~gure 4.5 Model for Computation of Stiffness Coefficient (3) The aboveapproximateequations for effective length calculationare applicablefor values of al or a2 not exceeding 10. For higher valuesmore accurate methodsmustbe used.
36
"
'""::\~""'""~"~~~
t. ;'
, ,
CHAPTER 4: uL TIMATELIMIT STATES ~ (4) When calculatinga, only membersproperly framed into the end of the column in the appropriate;' plane of bendingshallbe considered. The stiffneSsof eachmembershallbe obtainedby dividingthe second momentof area of its concretesectionby its actual length. moment athe at such positions shall be takenas 10. If base a base designed toto resist the column (5) When connection between a column and its is is not designed resist other thanmoment, nominal a maybe taken as 1.0. (6) For flats sla~ construction,an ,eQuivalent beam shall be takenas having the width and thickness of the 5labformmg the columnstrip. 4..Frame 48
stabl \
': c,:~
!
i
c,i
!."
1(['. ;!i
1\fl,
i~~ "..~
",, 'if '1
~ 'tl
It
i'. ',I' 1
1Ity .9/
4.4.8.1 General (1) All frames shall have adequateresistanceto failure in a sway mode, (see Section4.4.11). However, where the frame is showntq be a nonswayframe (see Section4.4.4.2), no further sway modeverification is required. (2) All frames mcluding swayframes shall also be checkedfor adequate resistance to failure in nonswaymodes(see Section4.4.9). 4.4.8.2 An.alysis of SwayFrames ~ (1) Whenglobal analysisis used,the secondorder effects in the swaymode shallbe included, either directly by using secondorderelastic analysis, or indirectly by using firstorder analysis with amplified sway moments(seeSection4.4.11). (2) When secondorder elasticglobal analysisis used,the resultingforces and momentsmay directly be usedfor memberdesi gn
:
I
"
'
"
...
i ,:
Ii
.,
(3) Whenfirstorder elasticanalysis,with secondorder moments is usedfor columndesign,the sway momentsin the ?eaInsand the bearntocolumn co~ections shall be amplified by at least 1.2 unless a smallervalue ISshown to be adequate by analysIs. 4.4.9 Design of NonSway Fram~
(1) .Individual n?nsway compression members shall be considered to be isolated elements and be
i I ~ ~
~
i t\ '"
1 ~ ,I
P
t
designed accordmgly.
(2) Bracing elements,or in nonswayframes without bracing elements,the individual compression membersshallbe designed for the relevanthorizontal forces andvertical loads taking accountof the equivalent geometric imperfections defined in Section3.7.3 and 4.4.3, respectively. (3) For individual compression members,the designrules for isolatedcolumns(Section4.4.10)apply. The effective buckling length L, may generallybe determinedaccordingto Section4.4.7.
I
!
I!
.;
, ,
EBCS 2 1995
37
j .
!0
I
~.4.10 Delip or Isolated Columl18 4.4.10.1 GtMrul (1) For buildings, a designmethod may be used which assum~ die compression membeR to be isolated and adopts a simplified shape for the deformed axis of die column. The additional eccentricity induced in the column by its deflection is then calculatedas a function of Ilei1d~ ratio. 4.4.10.2 TotGleccentricity (1) The total eccentricityto be usedfor the desianof columnsof constantcrossaection at the critical sectionis given by: e. = e. + eG+e2 (4.14) w,hece e, is equivalentconstantfirstorder eccentricity of the desi&naxial load, see (2) and (3) below eG is the additional eccentricityaccordingto Eq 4.1 e2 is the secondorder eccentricity(Section4.4.10.3). (2) For firstorder eccentricityeoequal at both endsof a column,
e. = eo
(4.15)
(3) For firstorder moments varying linearly alongthe lenith, the equivalenteccentricityis the higher of the fo"owin~ two values: e, ~ 0.6t112 + O.4eOI (4.16a)
e. = 0.4e112
(4.16b)
where eol and el12 are the firstorder eccentricitiesat the ends, el12 being positive and greater in magnitudethan eol. (4) For different eccentricitiesat the ends, (3) above, the critical end section shall be checkedfor firstorder moments: e~ = el12 + eQ (4.17'\ 4.4.10.3 SecondOrderEccentricity (1) For nonswayframes, the secondorder eccentricitye2of an isolated column may be obtainedas ) e2 z ~ 10 ( 1/,
k L2
(4.18)
1
~
where L, is the effective buckling length of the column kl = X/20 0.75 for 15 ~ A ~ 35 kl = 1.0 for A > 35 1/, is the curvature at the critical section, see (2) below.
.
38 EBCS 2: Part 7 7994
.
l~
1
(2) The curvature is generally a nonlinear function of the axial load and bending moment in the critical section, but the following approximatevalue may be used in the absence of more accurate methods: ! r whered
kz
~(~) d
103
(4.19)
is the column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the longitudinal reinforcement
= MjM...,
M" is the designmoment at the critical section including secondorder effects M..., is the balancedmomentcapacityof the column. (3) The appropriatevalue of kz may be found iteratively taking an initial value corresponding to firstorder actions. '4.4.11 Amplified SwayMoments,Method/or Sway Frames (1) In the amplified sway momentsmethod,the sway moments found by a firstorder analysis shall be increased by multiplying them by the momentmagnificationfactor:
01 (4.20) 1 No.. IN
..cr
.Nor
where NS4is the designvalue of the total vertical load is its critical value for failure in a swaymode. (2) The amplified sway moments methodshall not be usedwhen the critical load ratio NsJNc,is more
.than
0.25. (3) Sway momentsare those associated with the horizontal translation of the top of a story relative to the bottom of that story. They arise from horizontal loading and may also arise from vertical loading if either the structureor the loading is asymmetrical. (4) As an alternativeto determiningNS4 INc,direct, the following approximationmaybe used in beamandcolumntyPe frames as describedin 4.4.4.2(4): ~ ~ Nc' HL where 0, L, H and N are as defined 4.4.4.2(4). (5) In the presenceof torsional eccentricityin any floor of a structure,unlessmore accuratemethods are used, the sway momentsdue to torsion should be increasedby multiplying them by the larger momentmagnification factor 01obtainedfor the two orthogonal directionsof the lateral loads acting (4.21)
.

on the structure.
EBCS 2. 7995
39
..
,
where EI, is the effective stiffness of the substitutecolumn designed in accordancewith (4) below L, is the effective length (2) In lieu of a more accuratedetermination,the effectivestiffness of a column EI, in Eq 4.22 may be taken as: EI, = 0.2E). + EI, (4.23) where
E. =
E, I., I,
1100/..1
is the modulus of elasticity of steel are the momentsof inertia of the concreteand reinforcementsections,respectively, of the substitutecolumn, with respectto the centroid of the concrete section (see Fig 4.6(c.
0.4E... I
(4.24)
where M... is the balancedmomentcapacityof the substitutecolumn (l/r..,,) is the curvature at balancedload and may be taken as
~ .(~) 103
r... d
(4.25)
(3) In Eq 4.22 L, may be determinedin accordance with Section4.4.7 using the stiffnessproperties of the gross concretesectionfor both beamsand columnsof the substituteframe (Fig. 4.6(b. (4) The equivalentreinforcementareas,A,%l' in the substitutecolumn(seeFig. 4.6(c to be used for calculatingI, and M... in (2) above may be obtainedby designingthe substitutecolumn at eachfloor level to carry the story design axial load and amplified sway moment at the critical section (see Section4.4.11). The equivalentcolumn dimensions of the substitutecolumn may be taken as shown in Fig. 4.6(c), in the case of rectangularcolumns. Circular columns may be replaced by square columns of the samecrosssectional area. In the above,concretecover and bar arrar.gement in the substitute columns shall be takento be the sameas thoseof the actual columns. (5) The amplified sway moment, to be usedfor the designof the substitutecolumn (see (4) above), may be found iteratively taking the firstorder designmomentin the substitute column as an initial
value.
40
~ .2 I kb
tkc
EQuivalent Ground Bet
la)
Actual
f'rame
(b)
SUbltltutl
IlamColumn
Framl
fc
CalculatinG
Efflc11VI
LenO1hl.
b \
\EJ "
A.,tat
~ h "
l..
~.!\
'
"
SIc110n for of Substitute Elc !,; CalculatinG
and Mbal.
Figure 4.6 Substitute Multi~Story BeamColumn Frame .(6) In lieu of more accurate determination, the firstorder design moment, Mdl' at the critical section of the substitute column may be determined using Eq. 4.26. Mdl .HL
!:X2+ 3
(4.26)
1.
i~
~
!:Xl + !:X2 + 6
where !:XIand a" are defined in Section 4.4.7 and shall not exceed 10. 4.4.13 Effect or Creep
~
j'
:;
: );
J,
(1) Cree~ effects ma~ b~ ignored if the increase in the firstorder bending moments due to creep deformation and longitudinal force does not exceed 10%. (2) In nonsway buildings, creep deformation of slender compression members connected monolithically to slabs or beams at their two ends may normally be disregarded because their effects are by ends other reduce influences neglected in the design. so In interior columns, the generally restraints compensated at the column the which creep are deformations significantly that they can be neglected. In edge columns with different eccentricities at each end, creep increases the deformations but it does not deflections decrease the capacity because critical column in bearing the relevant failure state. these deformations are not additional.to ' the
i .. ~ : i."
(3)
For isolated columns in nonsway structures, creep may be allowed for by multj~y!ng the curvature for shortterm loads (Eq. 4.19) by (1 + ~.J, where ~d is the ratio of dead loaiJ ae.~ign moment to total design moment, always taken as positive.
EBCS2. 1995
41
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE

(4) For sway frames, the effective columnstiffness(Eq. 4.23 or 4.24) may be divided by (1 + .aJ, where .adis as in (3) above. 4.4.14 Slender Columns Bent About the Major Axis (1) A slender column bent about its major axis may be treated as biaxially loaded with initial eccentricitye" acting aboutthe minor axis. 4,4.15 Biaxial Bending of Columns 4.4.15.1 Smoll Ratios of RelativeEccentricity (1) Columns of rectangular crosssectionwhich are subjectedto biaxial bending may be checked separately for uniaxial bendingin eachrespectivedircctionprovidedthe relative eccentricitiesare~uch that k S 0.2; where k denotesthe ratio of the smaller relative eccentricity to the larger relative eccentricity . (2) The relative eccentricity, for a given direction, is defined as the ratio of the total eccentricity, allowing for initial eccentricity and secondorder effects in that direction, to the column width in the samedirection. 4.4.15.2 Overlapping Buckling Curves (1) Separate checksas in Section 4.4.15.1 is equallyapplicable to biaxial bending in general,provided the central onethird parts of the effective lengthsof the buckled column in the principal directions do not overlap (seeFig. 4.7).
. .
/
I
'
\\
I I
T
L
..
LOI
IT
\~
\
\
\
:JL
'
,)1~
,\
\.
F1lUre 4.7 Buckling Curv~ for Bending in each of the Two Principal Directions 4.4.15.3 Approximate Method (1) If neither of the conditions in Sections4.4.15.1 and 4.4.15.2 is satisfied, then the approximate methodof calculation given in this section maybe adopted,in the absence of more accuratemethods.
42
"
"
.('2) A
For'this approximate method, onefourth of the total reinforcementmust either be distributed Ilona"eacht:aceof the ~lumn or at eachcorner. The column shallbe d~igned for uniaxial bending with the followina equivalentuniaxial eccentricityof load, eo,' along the axis parallel to the larger relative eccentricity:
e0' .e
kJt
(1 + ka)
(4.27)
where t. k a
denotesthe total eccentricity in the direction of the larger relative eccentricity denotesthe relative eccentricityratio defined in Section4.4.15.1(2) maybe obtainedfrom Table4.1 as a function of the relative normal force JI= N./(f..,..ot) Table 4.1 Values or Factor a
I
~ ...it ')
f\;;, t~
II!
,
0 0.6
0.2 0.8
0.4 0.9
0.6 0.7
0.8 0.6
~ 1.0!~ 0.5
,!I
I~
r"
..,~ " ,
a
4.5 SHEAR
4.5.1 General
~
!c
(1) This Sectionapplies to beamsand slabsdesignedfor flexure in accordance with Section4.3. It also appliesto columnssubjected to significantshearforcesdesignedin accordance with Sections 4.3
j f
and4.4.
(2) Provisions for minimum shearreinforcementare given in Chapter7. .(3) The ultimate limit state in shear is characterised by either diagonal compression failure of the concreteor failure of the web reinforcement due to diagonaltension. Resistance to diagonal tensionis obtainedas the sum of the resistances of the web reinforcement and of the concretesection. (5) Critical sectionfor shearis at a distanced from the face of supports. Sectionscloserthan d shall be designedfor the shear at d. (6) Twoway action (punching)shall be consideredaccordingto Section 4.10. 4.5.2 Limiting Value or Ultimate Shear Force (1) In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete,the shearresistanceVRd of a sectiongiven by Eq. 4.28 shall not be less than the appliedshearforce V.. VRd = 0.25!clJ,.d whereb", is the minimum width of the web. (4.28) f, ..
I
'i
't :
:,} !: .t
.. .I
.(4)
~
~
,
I
i
:{
.4
,
I
\
i i
;;
I;
!!
,\
r
11
')
"
EBCS 2 1995
43
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
.
~
4.5.3 Shear Resistanceof Concrete in Beams and Slabs 4.5.3.1 Members Without Significant Axial Forces (1) The shear force Vccarried by the concrete in memberswithout significant axial forces shall be taken as: , Vc 0.25fcld klk2bwd (4.29)
where k1 = (1 + 50p) ~ 2.0 ~ = 1.6 d ~ 1.0 (d in meters). For memberswhere more than 50% of the bottom reinforcementis curtailed, ~ = 1 p = A/b..d A. is the area of the tensile reinforcement anchoredbeyondthe intersectionof the steel and the line of a possible450crack starting from the edge of the section (seeFig.
4.8)
Ib t r'=!!.:,
Vsd
As
section considered
d ~ 
..
As
As
.
Figure 4.8 A, to be introduced in Eq. 4.29 4.5.3.2 Members Subjectedto Significant Axial CompressionI (1) For memberssubjectedto axial compression, Eq. 4.30 may be used to computethe additionalI shearforce Vc"carried by the concrete.I 4 V .O.IO~N CPO A
c
(4.30) S,t
where NS,t is the design axial force 4.5.3.3 Members Subjectedto Axial Tension (1) For memberssubjected to axial tension, shearreinforcement shall be designed to carry total shear. (2) In the caseof fatigue loading, the shear reinforcementshall carry the total shear. .
....
44
..
S1 A rES
4.5.4
Design of Shear Reinforcement (1) In beams, bentupbars shall not be used u shear reinforcementsexcept in combination with stirrups. At least50% of the designshearforce ~S4 shall be resistedby vertiCalstirrups. (2) WJlere inclined shear reinforcement is used, the angle betweenthe reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of the beam shall not be lessthan 45. (3) Where the load is not acting at the top of the beam or when.the supportis not at the bottom of the beam suspension reinforcementshall be provided to transferthe load to the top of the beam. (4) Whenshear reinforcementperpendicularto the longitudinal axis is used, its shearresistanceV, may be calculatedas: V
.s
= ~
(4.31)
whereA. is the area of shearreinforcementwithin distances. (5) When inclined stirrups are used,the shearresistanceof the stirrups may be calculatedas: V = A.dfyd(sina + cosa) .s where a is the angle of inclination from the horizontal. (6) Whenshearreinforcementconsistsof a single bar or a single group of parallel bars, all bent up at the samedistancefrom the support, the shearresistance of the reinforcement maybe calculated as: V. = A.fyd sina 4.5.5 WebFlange Connections (4.33) (4.32)
..
4.5.5.1 General
(1) The shear strength of the flange may be calculated consideringth~ flange as a system of compressive struts combinedwith ties in the form of tensile reinforcement. (2) The junction of the flanges with the web shall be checkedfor longitudinal shear. (3) The ultimate limit state in longitudinal shear is governedeither by the effect of inclined flange compression (acting parallel to its middle plane) or by tension in the transverse reinforcement. (4) The longitudinal shear per unit length v..t, which may be obtainedas a function of the applied transverseshear VSd from Eqs. 4.32 and 4.33, shall not exceedthe limits of resistancegiven by Eqs. 4.34 and 4.35.
",'i
!~
EBCS 2 1995 45
(5) Calculation of longitudinal shear per unit length: (a) For flange in compression
b
V.oi = ('
b
V
W)~
'.
,
(P) for flange in tension
V.oi = ('
2b
\4.34)
A
JW)~
(4.35)
is the effective width of aTsection is the width of the web Z is the internal lever arm A, is the area of the longitudinal steel in the effective flanges outside the projection of the web into the slab AJWis the area of the longitudinal steel inside the slab within the projection of the web into the slab.
4.5.52
(1) The resistance to inclined compression per unit length VRdl shall be computed as
..
VRdI = O.25tdhl where hI is the total thickness of the flange. 4.5.5.3 Resistance to Diagonal Tension (4.36)'
(1) The resistance to diagonal tension per unit length VRd2 shall be computed as VRd2 = O.5fctd hI + 1 where As! is the area of transverse reinforcement per unit length, perpendicular to the web. flange interface (see Fig. 4.9) (4.37)
(2) If, at the section with M = Mmax (see Fig 4.9), the flange is subjected to a tensile force, the concrete contribution O.50tldhl in Eq. 4.37 should be neglected. (3) The cross sectional area of the transverse flexural reinforcement which crosses the interface between web and flange can be taken into account in calculating As!. If this reinforcement is not sufficient as determined from Eq. 4.37, then additional reinforcement shall be provided.
I.
46 EBCS 2: Part 1 1994
'~
;,
"
1
\ i
(
! .1
.: .. ~ .
,
figure
(4) The reinforcement crossing the plane of the junction shall be: .1. ,,' t .(b) ...~.
;"
(a) Placed ~n the part of the flange subjected to tension by transverse bending if the latter is predommant. Evenly distributed between the upper and lower parts if the transverse bending is slight. 4.6 TORSION 4.6.1 Definitions
'J'f
i
(I) Campa/ibiliry torsion. Torques which are due solely to the restraint of the angular rotatif1r. induced by adjacent members. (2) Equilibrium torsion. Torques which are necessary for equilihrium. 4.6.2 General
(I) Torques due to compatibility torsion are not necessary for equilihrium and may he negle<.:ted in ultimate limit state calculations. However, the resulting secondary effe<.:ts shall he <.:()nsidered in the serviceability limit states and in detailing. (2) The torsional resistance of any section may be calculated on the ha.'iis of an equivalent h()ll()w section with thin walls (see Fig 4.10). (3) For T sections and other sections which can be subdivided into rectangles, the torsi()nal resistan<.:e may be taken as the sum of the capacities of the individual rectangular se<.:tions. The suhdivish)n ()f the section may be chosen so as to maximize the calculate{! resistance (see Se<.:th)ns 4.6.3 and 4.6.4).
.EBCS
2 199~~7
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OE CONCRETE
(4) For hollow sections, the equivalent wall thickness shall not exceed the actual wall thickness. Actual wall thickness fQr hollow sections that is less than twice the concrete cover to longitudinal bars is not allowed. (5) The equivalent hollow section has the same outer boundary as the actual section and an equivalent thic~ess h., obtained as h.1 ~ A/u ~ the actual wall thickness (where u is the outer perimeter and A is the total area of the crosssection enclosoo by the outer perimeter, including inner hollow areas). (6) The critical section for torque is at the face of supports. /", Centre Line
Perimeter
h.,
Figure 4.10 Equivalent Hollow Section
~
.'
4.6.3 Limiting
.
(4.38)
(1) In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete, the torsional resistance TRJof a section given by Eq. 4.38 shall not be less than the applied torque T sct. TRJ= O.80/cdA'lh'l where
A'I is the area enclosed within the centerline of the thinwall crosssection including inner hollow areas (see Section 4.6.2).
4.6.4 Torsional Resistance of Concrete (1) The torque Tc carried by the concrete shal.l be taken as: Tc = 1.2/ctdA'lh'l 4.6.5 Design of Torsional Reinforcement (4.39)
,i
'
(1) Torsional reinforcement in the torm of closed links and longitudinal reinforcement is required to carry the excess torque whenever the applied torque ~xceeds the concrete resistance given by
Eq.4.39.
(2) The volume of longitudinal torsional reinforcement shall be chosen to be equal to the volume of the links (closed stirrups). .
48
(3) Minimum torsional reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided as required in .Chapter 7. (4) The torsionalresistance'ofthe reinforcementT~is given by Eqs. 4.40 and 4.41.
U.,/ AI
(4.40)
(4.41)
where AI is the crosssectional areaof the stirrups in the effective wall A, is the crosssectional areaof the lon9itudinal reinforcement u./ is the mean perimeterenclosing the areaA" (seeFig.4.9). (2) The longitudinal reinforcement may'be distributedevenlyaroundthe inside perimeterof the links or concentrated in the cornerswhere there shall alwaysbe at leastone bar. (3) Additional requirements are given in Chapter7. 4.6.6 Combined Action.Errects 4.6.6.1 Torsion and Bending and/or Longitudinal Stresses. {1) The longitudinal reinforcementshall be determinedseparatelyfor torsion acCGrding to Section 4.6.5 and for flexure and axial loads accordingto Chapter4. (2) The areaof reinforcement furnished shall be the sum of the areasthus determined. 4.6.6.2 Torsion and Shear (1) The limiting valuesof torsional and shearresistance shallbe takenasthe basic values from Eqs. 4.38 and 4.28, respectivelymultiplied by the following reductionfactors .8,and .8.. (a) torsion
.8, 
F!,?i
1 + (TIT
U
54tV U
(4.42)
54
(b) shear
.8. =
1 )2 (4.43)
1 + (~ /T
.V54/VU
" '(~
., ','~
ii: , i;~
"
EBCS2 1995
49
"
(2) The torsional and shear resistance of the concrete shall be taken as the basic values fromEqs.4.~9 and 4.29, respectively, multiplied by the reduction factors fJlcand fJ"c' (a) torsion fJlc = 1
;,,'!,~c!'::';~f\
~'"'~~r"""',
p:;;;jil
1
'+ sa c
".. V c 2 (T IT )
(4.44)
~.;.,:~,f;~
I
'
(b) shear fJvc =
I
I I 4.7 PUNCHING
r;g;
1T 1 + (VIii)2 sa c
(4.45)
4.7.1 General
(1) This section applies to the punching of slabs and footings that are provided with the necessary flexural reinforcement. (2) The following requirements supplement those of Section 4.5 which must be checked to ensure adequate resistance for oneway action. (3) The ultimate limit state in punching is characterised by the formation of a truncated punching cone or pyramid around concentrated loads or reactions. 4.7.2 Loaded Area
~
(1) The provisions of this section are appli~able to the following types of loaded area: (a) Shape (d denotes the average effective depth of the slab or footing): rectangular, with perimeter not exceeding 11d and the ratio of length to breadth not
exceeding 2
circular, with diameter not exceeding 3.5d any shape, with perimeter not exceeding 11d. (b) The loaded area is not so close to other concentrated forces that their critical perimeters intersect, nor in a zone subjected to significant shear forces of a different origin. . (2) If the conditions in l(a) above are not satisfied for wall or rectangular column supports, the critical redu~ed perimeters according to Fig. 4.11 shall be taken into account, since the shear forces in wallshaped supports are concentrated in the corners.
SO
~,
,"
CHAPTER I
,",
1.5d1 .\
.'~ .i.
''.
b1i ,
{8
8, ~ 2b
.~
5!/;"!i"~
~";,\ !
t:
: .
8 >b
F1gure 4.11 Applicitron oTPuncltrng Provisions In NonStandard Cas~ ,4.7.3.1 Loaded Area Remote from an Opening or a Free Edge (1) The outline of the critical sectionis the closedoutline of the minimum perimetersurroundingthe loadedarea. However, it neednot approachcloserto the loadedareathan lines located at a distance 1.5d from that areaand parallel to its boundaries(seeFig. 4.12).
.
: , ,J ': .! " ,I
1.5d
1.5d
"
~
, , ,t
I
,. .
..'" , ~ Remote. . from a Free Edge F1gure """~ 4.12 Critical Section
4.7.3.2 LoadedArea Qose to an Opening (1) When openingsin slabsand footings (seeFig. 4.13) are located at a distanceless than 6d from the edge of the concentratedload, then that part of .the perimeter which is enclosed by radial projectionsfrom the centroid of the loadedarea to the openingsis considered ineffective. (2) Where a single hole is adjacent to the column and its greatest width is lessthan one quarterof the column side or one half of the slab depth, whichever1sthe lesSer,its presencemay be ignored. 4.7.3.3 Loaded Area Q'Ose to Free Edge (1) In the vicinity of a free edge certainparts of the o\ltline defined for the caseof remote opening or free edge shall be repla~edby perpendicular lines to thoseedgesif the resulting lengthdeveloped this way, excl~dingthe free edges,is smallerthanthe length of the closedoutline wholly enclosing the loaded area (seeFig. 4.14).
.in
EBCS 2 1995
51",i
.
i~:
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD
C ' t'
~
r
J,
1 .5d
I ~ ~~ff8Ctive 1 I
I
n
L
>
'I.LI~L!
,Op~in9
.Area
I
I
For!
_..:_.1=~::~
I
i I 1 I
Free Edge
I
I I
1.5di
8
,/,
/"
'I
I
1.5d
'
"
'"
"
~
...
I
I I I
,L 1.5d
I
1.5d
/
"
~
Figure 4.14 Critical Sections Near Free Edges 4.7.4 Applied Load Effect (1) In the case of a centric load or reaction, the punching shear force V~ shall not exl::c;;d the punching shear resistance VRdI or VRtIlgiven by Eqs. 4.36 or 4.37 as appropriate. (2) In the case of an eccentric load or reaction, the applied load effect of tile puol;hing shear forl;e V.tdwith eccentricity e shall be taken to be equal to that of an equivalent centric load V.q given by
Eq. 4.46.
V.q = ,BV Sd where ,B = 1 + l1eudlZ e is the eccentricity of the load or reaction with respect to the centroid of the critil.:al section, always positive Z is the section modulus of the critical section, corresponding to tile direction of the eccentricity 11denotes fraction of moment which is considered transferred by eccentricity of the shear about the centroid of the critical section (4.46)
= 1/(1 + .J(b2IbJ
bl and b2 are sides of the rectangle of outline u, bl being parallel to the direction of the. eccentricity e.
52
,
,i CHAPTER 4: VL TIMA TE LIMIT " STATES
.~.. ~_\
.~
(3) Conservatively, tite following values of fJ in (2) above may be used for flat slabs witit approximately equal spar.s and for footings: (a) Interior column: (b) Edge column: (c) Corner column: fJ == 1.15 .6 = 1.40 .6 == i.SO
~. 7.5 Moment Transfer Between Slabs and Columns (1) A fraction "7of the moment is assumed to be transferred by eccentricity of tite shear about the centroid of the with critical section. A. The remaining moment shall be considered to be transferred by flexure in accordance Appendix 
4.7.6 Resistance of Slabs or Footings Without Punching Shear Reinforcement (1) The punching re.sistanceVRdlshall he given by Eq. 4.47. VRoiI = 0.25/cldk1k2ud where k. = k; = (4.47)
{I,x ..d
(\ + SOp) ~ 2.0 1.6 d ~ 1.0 (d in mete,.. For members where more titan 50% oftite bottom feinforcement is curtailed, k1 = 1 d = (dx + d,)/2 P, = (p,, + pry)li2 ~ 0.015 anj J."ry correspond to tite g~)metric ratios longitudinal reinforcement parallel to x and y, respectively is th~ averag~ eff~ctive height in the x and y directions
4.7.7 Resistance of Slabs or Footings ~.ith Punching Shear Reinforcement (I) The punching resistancc witit punching shear reinforcement VRd2 shall be given by Eq. 4.48. VRd2 = 1.6VRJI (4.48)
r i
(2) The shear resistance of tite reinforcement may be calculated using Eq.4.33, where A~ is the sum of the areas of web reinforcement within tite I.:ritical perimeter.
EBCS 2 1995
53
"
LEFf BLANK]
...~.".
..
;~'
c
54
.CHAPTER
5.1 SCOPE
(1) This Chaptercoversthe commonserviceabilitylimit states.Theseare deflectioncontrol and crack control. Other limit states(suchas stressor vibration) maybe of importancein particular structuresbut these are not coveredin this Code. 5.2 LIMIT STATE OF DEFLECTION
5.2.1 General
(1) The deflection of a structure or any part of the structure shall not adverselyaffect the proper functioningor appearance of the structure. (2) This maybe ensuredeither by keepingcalculateddeflectionsbelow the limiting values in Section 5.2.2 or by compliancewith the requirements for minimum effective depthgiven in Section5.2.3. 5.2.2 Limits on Deflection (1) The final deflection(including the effects of temperature,creepand shrinkage)of all horizontal membersshall not, in general, exceedthe value. L
() = ~
(5.1)
where, L. = the effective span (2) For roof or floor constructionsupportingor attached to nonstructurale1ements (e.g partitionsand finishes) likely to be da.'11aged by large deflections, that part of the deflectionwhich occurs after the attachment of the nonstructuralelementsshall not exceedthe value. L () = ~
350
20 mm
(5.2)
(3) In any calculatiqnof deflections,the designpropertiesof the materialsand the designloads shall be thosedefined in Sections3.4 and 3.5 as appropriatefor a serviceabilitylimit state. 5.2.3 Requirements for Effective Depth (1) The minimum effective depthobtained from Eq. 5.3 shall be provided unless computationof deflection indicates that smaller thickness may be used without exceeding the limits stipulated in 5.2.2.
Section
EBCS 2 1995
55
= (0.4 + 0.6~)~
400 .Ba
(5.3)
where
/yt is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement (MPA). L. is the effective span; and, for twoway slabs, the shorter span. .Ba is the appropriate constant from Table 5.1, and for slabs carrying partition walls likely to crack, shall be taken as.Ba ~ 150lLo La is the distance in meter between points of zero moments; and for a cantilever, twice the length to the face of the support. Table 5.1 Values of .Ba (Eq. 5.3) Simply End Interior Cantilevers
Supported 20
25 35
Spans 24
30 40
Spans 28
35 45
10
12 10 
Flat slabs (based on longer span) 24 Note: For s a s With intermediate span ratios Interpolate mearly. 5.2.4 Calculation of Deflections
(1) When calculating deflections, the effect of creep and shrinkage strains on the curvature,' and thereby on the deflection, shall be considered.
(5.4)
jj
= {JL2
O.75E,A,z(dx)
M t M cr
(5.51
0 = max
{JL2
M tI E,A,z (d x)
(5.6)I
(2) Unless the theoretical moment which causes cracking is obtained by a more comprehensiveI method, it shall be computed by
Mcr = 1. 70htk Z (5.7),
.I
I .I
56
1
\ \
EBCS 2 1995
CHAPTER
5: SERVICEABILITY
LIMIT STATES
where
Note:
is the deflection due to the theoretical cracking moment M", acting on the uncracked transformed section. Ojj is the deflection due to the balance of the applied moment over and above the cracking value and acting on a section with an equivalent stiffness of 75 % of the cracked value. 0 is the deflection of fully cracked section As is the area of the tension reinforcement E"WI is the short term elastic modulus (tangent modulus) of the concrete (Table 2.5). Es is the modulus of elasticity of steel Ii is the moment of inertia of the uncracked transformed concrete section Mi is the maximum applied moment at midspan due to sustained characteristic loads; for cantilevers Mi is the moment at the face of the support Z is the section modulus d is the effective depth of the section x is the neutral axis depth at the section of maximum moment z is the internal lever arm at the section of maximum moment .8 is the deflection coefficient depending on the loading and support conditions (e.g. .8 = 5/48 for simply supported span subjected to uniformly distributed load). The value of x and z may be determined for the service load condition using a modular ratio of 10, or for the ultimate load condition. Long Tenn Deflections
OJ
5.2.4.2
(I) Unless values are obtained by more comprehensive analysis, the additional longterm deflection of flexural members shall be obtained by multiplying the immediate deflection caused by the sustained load considered, computed in accordance with Section 5.2.4.1, by the factor 12 1.2As'/As] ~ 0.6 As' is the area of compression reinforcement As is the area of tension reinforcement STATES Of CRACKING Y (5.8)
where
5.3 LI~IIT
5.3.1 General
(I) For reinforced concrete, tW() limit states of cracking: the limit state of crack formation and the I imit state of crack widths are of interest. (2) The particular limit state to be checked is chosen on the basis of the requirements t()r durahility and appearance. Th~ requirements for durahility dep~nd ()n the conditions of ~xposur~ and th~ s~nsitivity of th~ r~inforc~ment t(1corrosion
.memher
.EBCS
2 7995
57
(a) Restraintof intrinsic imposeddeformationswhere stresses are generatedin a memberdue to dimensional changes of the member consideredbeing restrained (for example stress induced in a memberdue to restraintto shrinkageof the member). (b) Restraintof extrinsic imposeddeformations where the stresses are generated in the member considered by its resistance to externallyapplieddeformations(for ex~mplewhere a member is stressed due to settlementof a support). (~) It is also necessary to d.istinguish between two basictypes of stressdistribution within the member at the onsetof cracking. Theseare: '(a) Bending where the tensile stressdistributionwithin the sectionis triangular (i.e. somepart of the section remains in compression). (b) Tension where the whole of the sectionis subjectto tensile stress. (3) Unlessmore rigorous I;alculationshowsa lesserareato be adequate, the required minimum areas of reinforcementmay be calculatedfrom the relation givenbe Eq. 5.9. As = kcktcto.fAct las (5.9) where As is the area of reinforcement Act is the area of concretewithin tensilezone. The tensile zone is that part of the section which is calculatedto be in tensionjust before formation of the first crack. as is.the maximum stresspermitted in the reinforcementimmediatelyafter formation of the crack. This may be takenas 100%of the yield strengthof the reinforcement,/yt. A lower value may, however, be needed to satisfythe crack with limits !clot! is the tensile strengthof the concrete effective at the time whenthe cracksmay first be expectedto occur. In many cases,suchas where the dominantimposed defonnation arises from dissipation of the heat of hydration, this may be within 35 days from casting dependingon the environmental conditions,the shapeof the memberand the nature of the formwork. When the time of cracking cannot be established with confidenceas being lessthan 28 days, it is suggested that a minimum tensile strength of 3 MPa be adopted. kc is a coefficient which takes accountof the nature of the stressdistribution within the sectionimmediatelyprior to cracking. The stressdistribution is that resulting from the combinationof effects of loading and restrainedimposeddeformation. = 1.0 for pure tension = 0.4 for bending without normal compressive force k is a coefficient which allows for the effect of nonuniform selfequilibratingstresses Values of k for various situationsare given below: (a) tensile stresses due to restraint of intrinsic deformationsgenerallyk = 0.8 for rectangularsectionswhen h ~ 300 mm, k = 0.8 h ~ 800 mm k = 0.5 (b) tensile stresses due to restraint of extrinsic deformationsk = 1.0. Parts of sectionsdistant from the main tensionreinforcement,suchas outstanding parts of a section or the webs of deep sections, may be considered to be subjectedto imposeddeformations by the tension chord of the member. For such cases,a value in the range 0.5 < k < 1.0 will be appropriate. 58 EBCS2 1995 .
!'
CHAPTER
(4) The minimum reinforcementmaybe reducedor evenbe dispensed with altogetherif the imposed deformation is sufficiently small that it is unlikely to cause cracking. In such casesminimum reinforcementneedonly be provided to resistthe tensionsdue to the restraint. 5..3.3 Limit State of Crack Formation (1) The maximum tensile stressesin the concrete. are calculatedunder the action of design loads appropriate to a serviceability limit state and on the basis of the geometrical properties of the transformeduncrackedconcretecrosssection. (2) .Thecalculatedstresses shall not exceedthe following values: (a) Flexure
U", = 1.70/"tk
(3) In addition to the above, minimum reinforcement in accordance with Chapter 7 shall be provided for the control of cracking.
5.3.4.1 General
(1) Adequateprotection againstcorrosionmaybe assumed providedthatthe minimum concretecovers in Section7.1.3 are complied with and provided further that the characteristiccrackwidths Wido not .exceed the limiting values given in Table 5.2 appropriateto the different conditionsof exposure. Table 5.2 Characteristic Crack Width for Concrete Members
Dry environment: Interior of buildings of normal habitation or offices Humid environment: Interior components (e.g. laundries); exterior components;components in nonaggressive soil and/or water (Moderate) 0.2 Seawater and/or aggressive chemicalenvironment: Components completelyor partially submergedin seawater;componentsin saturatedsalt air; aggressive "industrialatmospheres (Severe) 0.1
Type of exposure
5.3.4.2 Cracks due to Flexure (1) Checking of the limit state of flexural crack widths is generally not necessaryfor reinforced concretewhere (a) at leastthe minimum reinforcementgiven by Section5.3.2 is provided (b) the reinforcementconsistsof deformedbars, and their diameterdoes not exceedthe maximum values in Table 5.3.
.(c)
.EBCS
2 1995
59
EJ'H)IIIAN
BtaDlNO
USE OF CONCRETE 
Table 5.3 Maximum Bar Diameter for which Checking flexural Crack Width may be ~Ued Wt = 0.4 mm
0'1~) ~ ,(mm)
I
w., = 0.2 mm
0'1(MPa) <P(nlm)
,200
1.6()
25 16 12 6 4
In Table 5.2 0'1.istbe IteeI str~ Underservice condition Wi is the pennitted characteristiccrack width (2) If crack widths have to be calculat~. the following approximateequationsmay he used in the aence of more accuratemethods Wt = 1.7w. (5.12) w.. == S_Ewhere Wi w. s.. E(5.13)
is the characteristiccrack width is the meaDcrack width is the averagedistancebetweencracks is the mean strain of the reinforcementconsideringth~ contribution of concrete in tension.
(5.14)
where ~ is the bar diameter ":1 is a coefficient which characterizes the bond propertiesof the bars I = 0.8 fordeform~ bars I = 1.6 for plain bars 2is a coefficient representing the influenceof the forD}of the stressdiagram 2 = 0.50 for bending 2 = 1.00 for pure tension 2 = (fl + EJ/2El for bendingwith tension EI. E2 are the larger andthe smallerconcrete strain.~, r.espectively. belowthe neutral axis of the crack~ sectiongiven in Fig. 5.1.
60
EBCS 2 1995
.CHAPTER
5: SERVICEASIUTY11MITSTATES
Pr =where
AJ A c.if
AI is the area of ~e reinforcement contained in Ac..! Ac..! is the section of the zone of the concrete (effective embedment zone) where the reinforcing bars can eft.ectively influence the crac~ widths shown by the shaded area in Fig. 5.1.
(al Beam
II
(bl
Slab
"7? 1'..r"""",,"7".rrr.rrr~"...f
~~ ...11~".",.",.,.LesserOf25(C'./2)
I
or (h..i/3
.(cl
Member
in tension
. .
.
Lesser Of 2.5 (c. P/2)or t;'l
Figure 5.1 Definition of At..! (4) The meall strain of the reinforcement may be obtained as
0' 0' 2 0'
E ""
= ~[1 E
J
.B
.B (~ I 2 0'
J
) ] ~ 0.4~ E
J
(5.16)
where
I I.
.repetition
O'J is the service stress in the steel and may be obtained by elastic theory using modular ratio equal to 10 O'rr is the steel stress at rupture of concrete section; i.e., stress for the cracked section under the action of the theoretical moment Mtr defined in Section 5.2.4.1 .Bj is a coefficient which characterizes the bond properties of the bars and is equal to .Bj = 1.0 for high bond bars .Bz= 0.5 for plain bars .Bz is a coefticient representing the influence of the duration of the application or of the loads. .Bz = 1.0 at the first loading .Bz ':= 0.5 tor sustained loads or for a large number of load cycles
EBCS 2 1995
61
.,
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
5.3.4.3
I
~
(1) Checking of shear crack widths is not necessary in slabs and in the web of beams if the spacing of the stirrups does not exceed the values given in Table 5.4. Table 5.4 ,Width Maximum Spacing (mm) of Vertical Stirrups is Omitted Wk(mm) 0.4 220 (1) 400 (2) 300 250 200 360 (1) 500 (2) 250 200 ISO 220 (I) 400 (2) 200 ISO 100 for which Checking of Shear Crack
j I
j
~
~ i
In Table 5.4, Wi is the permitted characteristic crack width V.. is the shear acting during the combination under consideration Vc is the shear resistance of concrete; Eqs. 4.29 and 4.30. (2) If more precise data are available, then the widths of the shear cracks in the webs of beams can be calculated for sustained loads by means of Eq. 5.13 together with the following equations: W = 1.7K W
i w '" dx; .
(5.17) ~
S.w. = 50 + 0.25KJKi<p pr fV
sma a ~ 0.4i
I
(5 . 18) (5.19)
a = i[1
I.. V
V 2 (V)]
1
b dp
..c.
(sina
+ cosa).
40 MPa
(5 20)
where
w", is the mean crack width (see Eq. 5.12) a is the angle of inclination of the stirrup from the horizontal K", is a correction coefficient to take account of the effect of slope of the stirrups on the spacing of the cracks. K", = 1.2 for vertical stirrups (a = 90") K", = 0.8 for inclined stirrups with a = 450 to 6<r P'" is the geometric percentage of web reinforcement x; is the height of the compression zone in the cracked sel.'tion
(3) When several adjacent bars in the same layer are bent in the same zone (for example, at the corners of a frame), the diameter of mandrel shall be chosen with a view to avoiding crushing or splitting of the concrete under the effect of the pressure that occurs inside the bend (see Eq. 7.7).
62
EBCS 2 1995
J~
6
CHAPfER I SPECIAL
6.1 SCOPE (1) This chapter gives methods of analysis and design of special structural elements that in general ensure that the objectives set out in Chapter 3 are met.
j
:~ 1, ., f,
[! I;
iJ
STRUCTURAL
ELEMENTS
:1
I:
I.
i ;
(2) Other methods may be used provided they can be shown to be satisfactory for the types of structure or member considered. (3) It is assumed that the ultimate limit state is the critical limit state.
6.2 WALLS 6.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Walls (1) A reinforced concrete wall is a vertical loadbearing member whose greatest lateral dimension is more than four times its leaSt lateral dimension, and in which the reinforcement is taken into account when considering its strength. For walls subjected predominantly to outofplane bending, the rules for slabs apply. (2) The requirements on minimum areas of reinforcement given in Chapter 7 shall be complied with. (3) A reinforced wall shall be considered as either short or slender and as either braced or unbraced as follows: Short or Slender Walls: A wall may be considered short when the ratio of its effective height to its thickness does not exceed 7. It shall otherwise be considered slender. j
i i i
Braced or Unbraced Walls: A wall may be considered as braced if, at right angles to the plane of the wall, lateral stability to the structure as a whole is provided by walls or other suitable bracing designed to resist all lateral forces in that direction. It shall otherwise be considered as unbraced. (4) The overall stability of a multistory building shall not, in any direction, depend on unbraced walls alone. 6.2.1.1 Design of Reinforced Concrete Wails for Flexure and Axial Loads
I I
(1) Walls subject to combined flexure and axial load shall be designed under the provisions of Chapter 4, unless designed in accordance with Section 6.2.2. (2) The length of the wall to be considered effective for each concentrated load sh~ll not exceed the centertocenter distance between loads, nor shall it exceed the width of the bearing olus four times the wall thickness.
.; !
., :
i
,~
,
EBCS 2 1995 63
I
I
.
(3) Effective Height: The effective height Le of reinforced concrete walls in the nonsway mode shall be determined from Eq. 6.1. L. = fJL (6.1) where L is the story height of the wall fJ is the coefficient defined in Eqs. 6.2 to 6.5 The , following values shall be adopted for the coefficient fJ: (1) Walls with two edges restrained
fJ = 1.00
(6.2)
1 1 + (L/3b)'
0.3
;,
(6. 3)
fJ =
' 1 2 (L/b)
for
>
(6.5)
where
b is the width of the wall measured centertocenter of the bracing walls, or width measured from the center of a bracing wall to the free edge.
...
64
EBCS 2 1995
ELEMENTS
.6.2..2.1
I
I
'
(1) The simplified design procedure given below may be used for plain concrete walls with .eccentricities of load in the plane of the wall of up to onethird the length of the wall and at right angles to the wall of up to half the thickness of the wall. (2) The slenderness ratio A shall not exceed 100. (3) Effective Height: The effective height of plain concrete walls shall be determined from Eq. 6.1 as for reinforced concrete walls. (4) Axial Load Capacity: Design axial load strength of plain concrete wall shall be computed from:
I
"
J "
1\,
1i
(a) Braced Walls: for short braced walls, the axial load resistance NRd is given by: NRd = (1 2e/h)Actd where e (6.6);!
: I ~ J ..
i F
'I."
!
1
" !
is the resultant eccentricity of load at right angles to the plane of the wall (minimum value of O.OSh) h is the thickness of the wall Ac is the crosssectional area of the wall.
the axial load resistance is given by Eq.6.6 with the eccentricity e
I 'I J .. 11
~I ,\
u
.{
)'
c
,...
eo is the resultant eccentricity of load at right angles to the plane of the wall (minimum of O.OSh). e2 is the second order eccentricity is given by 0.4h(L./10h)2 The axial load resistance NRdis calculated at the top and at the bottom of the wall using Eq. 6.7 but with e redefined and calculat~ as given below:
eo!
(6.8)
I
;
:'
';
(6.9)
;~ i
where
eo! is the first order eccentricity at the top of the Wall e02 the first order eccentricity at the bottom of the wall e2 is the second order eccentricity given by 0.4h(L./10h)2
!
I !
i
6.2.2.2 Shear Resistance of Plain Walls Design for shear resistance of plain walls shall be in accordance with the provisions for reinforced walls given in Section 6.2.1.2.
I .,
~ 1
EBCS2 1995
65
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
(1) Flexural members with spantodepth ratios less than 2 for simple spans, or 2.5 for continuous spans are defined as deep beams. (2) Deep beams under a concentrated load may be designed using a simple strut and tie model. (3) In some cases, e.g. lower depth/span ratios, distributed loads, more than one concentrated load, etc., models combining strut and tie action with truss action may be used. , (4) Continuous deep beams are sensitive to differential settlement. A range of support reactions, corresponding to possible settlements, should therefore be considered. (5) Design for shear effects shall be in accordance with Section 6.3.2. (6) The detailing requirements of Chapter 7 generally, and Section 7.2.6 in particular, shall be met. 6.3.2 Dt'Sign for Shear (1) These provisions apply to: (a) Shear spans supporting a principal load as defined in Section 6.3.2.1 located at a distance Q" not greater than twice the effective depth d.
I'
(b) Shear spans not supporting a principal load or portions of beams supporting uniform loads in which the distance IJ between the points of zero shear and the support is less than three times the effective depth. (2) In each case, the beams shall be loaded on the top face and supported on the hottom face. For beams loaded by members framing into the sides, the load may he assumed to he applied at the U)p of the supported member provided that reinforcement satisfying the requirements fi)r indirect supp()rts given in Section 6.6.3 is provided. (3) Beams supported on members framing into the sides may he a.~sumed U) he supported at the level of the bottom of the supporting memher. 6.3.2.1 Definitions and Limitation
I I
(I) For a given shear span, a principal load is a concentrated l()ad which causes 50 percent or more of the shear at the support of that shear span. (2) The shear span Q" shall be taken equal to the distance from the center of the principal IlIad U) the center of the support. This span shall ru)t he more than 1.15 times the clear distanc:e fr()m the fac:e of the load to the face of the support. The distance IJ shall he taken equal U) the distance t'r()m the point of zero shear to the center of the support hut not more than 1.15 times the clear distance t'r()m the point of zero shear to the face of the support.
66
EBCS 2 .1995
..,.
'
.,"'"
'[
6.3.2.2 ShearStrength
.[I'
(1) The shear resistance of deep shear spans SRJ shall be obtained as the sum of the resistances of the coQcrete Vcdand the vertical and horizontal stirrups V, and V~, respectively. . (2) The applied shear V sashall not exceed the'limit imposed by Eq.4.28. 6.3.2.3 Shear Carried by Deep Shear Spans (1) For deep shear spans supporting a principal load, (a) The shear resistance VRJshall be computed at aj2. The shear reinforcement required at this section shall be used throughout the entire shear span. (b) The shear force Vc carried by the concrete shall be taken as the value obtained from Eq. 4.28 multiplied with
2d .B = a
y
'2: 1.0
(6.10)
(c) The shear force V, transferred by vertical stirrups shall be given by d AJyd (ay 2) Aydfyd V, = .)' ~ sy y
(6.11)
(d) The shear force Vii transferred by horizontal stirrups shall be given by Vii = Avilfyd(T
3d
Sil
ay)
A vii dfyd
Sil
(6.12)
where
area of vertical stirrl:lps area of horizontal stirrups spacing of the vertical stirrups (Sy ~ d/4) spacing of the horizontal stirrups Sil ~ d/3)
(2) Ay and Avil shall satisfy the minimum requirement given in Section 7.2.1.2 (3) For deep shear spans not supporting a principal load, the above provisions apply with ay /2 replaced by 1.. /3.
taken
.EBCS
2 7995
67
6.4.2 Design
(1) Corbels with 0.4d ~ ay ~ d may be designed using a simple strut and tie model. (2) For deepercorbels (ay > d), other adequate strut and tie models may be considered. (3) Corbels for which ay > d may be designed as cantileverbeams. , (4) Unless special provision is madeto limit horizontal forces on the support, or other justification is given, the corbel shall be designedfor the vertical force Fy, and a horizontal force Hc ~ 0.2 Fy .acting at the bearingarea. (5) The effective depth d of the corbel shall be determinedfrom considerationsof shear (see Section4.5). (6) The local effects due to the assumedstrut and tie systemshould be consideredon the overall design of the supportingmember. (7) The detailing requirements of Chapter7 generally,and Section7.2.7 in particular, shall be met.
av Fy
.
.
tle
u
l
Hc
/~
,;S"/
hc
Figure 6.1 Example of a Corbel with a Strut and Tie Model 6.5 FOOTINGS 6.5.1 Moment in Footings (1) The external momenton any sectionof a footing shall be determinedby passinga vertical plane through the footing, and computingthe momentof the forces acting over the entire areaof the footing on one side of that vertical plane. (2) The critical sectionfor momentshall be taken as follows: (a) At the face of column, pedestal,or wall, for footings supportinga concretecolumn pedestal or wall (b) Halfway betweenmiddle and edgeof wall, for footings supportinga masonrywall. (c) Halfway between face of column andedgeof steelbasefor footings supportinga column with . steel baseplates.
68
EBCS 2 1995
I',
.'
r
6.5.2 Flexural Reinforcement (1)Distribution: In onewayfootingsand twoway squarefootings, reinforcement shallbe distributed uniformly acrossthe entire width of footing. (2) In two.;wayrectangularfootings, reinforcementshall be distributed as follows: (a) Reinforcementin long direction shall be distributed uniformly acrossthe entire width of
footing.
(b) For reinforcementin the short direction, a portion of the total reinforcementgiven by Eq. 6.13 shall be distributed uniformly over a band width (centeredon centerline of columnor pedestal)equal to the length of the short side of footing. The remainderof the reinforcement required in the short direction shall be distributed uniformly outside the centerband widm of the footing. Reinforcementi~ b~d w~~th. = ..?:.Total reinforcement in ~hort direction {3 + 1 where {3is the ratio of long side to short side of footing. (3) Anchorage: If the projection of the footing from the critical section for moment defined in Section6.5.1 does not exceedthe effective depthd at that section,the bottom reinforcementshall be provided with full anchorage length measured from the end of the straight portion of the bars. (4),If the projection exceedsd, the anchoragelength may be measuredfrom a sectionsituated at a distanced from the abovedefined critical sectionfor moment. 6.5.3 Shear in Footings (1) Design of footings for shearshall be in accordance with provisionsfor slabs in Section4.5. (2) The location of the critical sectionfor shear in accordance with Section4.5 shall be measured from face of column, pedestalor wall for footings supportinga column, pedestal,or wall. (3) For footings supportinga column or pedestalwith steelbaseplates, the critical section shall be measuredfrom the location defined in Section6.5.1. (6.13)
6.5.4 Bearing
(1) All forces and momentsapplied at the baseof a columnor pedestalshallbe transferredto the top of the supporting pedestalor footing by bearing on concreteand by reinforcement. (2) The design bearing strength on concrete shall not exceedthe designcompressivestrength !cd' exceptas follows: (a) When the supportingsurface is wider on all sidesthan the loaded area, the design bearing strength on the load area may be multiplied by v(A;iA;)but not more than 2.
.EBCS
2 1995
69
~,
ETHIOPIAN BUILDINGCODESTANDARDFOR STRUCTURAL USEOF CONCRETE (b) When the supportingsurfaceis slopedor stepped,A2 may be takenas the area of the lower baseof the largest frustrum of a right pyramid or cone containedwholly within the support and having for its upper base the loaded area, and having side slopes of 2 vertical to 1
~ horizontal.
In the aboveA1 is the loaded area, and Az is the maximumarea of the portion of the supporting 'surface that is geometricallysimilar to and concentricwith the loadedarea. 6.5.5 Minimum Footing Depth (1) The depth of footing above bottom reinforcementshall not be lessthan 150 rom for footings on soil, nor 300 rom for footings on piles. 6.5.6 Plain Concrete Pedestalsand Footings (1) The maximumcompressive stressin plain concrete pedestals shall not exceedthe concretebearing strength given in Section6.5.4. (2) Plain concretefooting may be usedprovided thatthe projection of the footing beyondthe critical sectiondefined in Section6.5.1 does not exceedhalf the thicknessof the footing at that section. (3) Flexural designstressesin plain concreteshall not exceed1.70fc/d' (4) Shearand punching shall be checkedin accordance with Sections4.8 and 4.10. (5) Plain concrete shall not be usedfor pile caps. (6) The depthof plain concretefootings shall not be less than 200 mm. 6.6 PILE CAPS 6.6.1 Moment in Pile Caps (1) Section6.6.1 shall apply to pile capsalso. 6.6.2 li1exural Reinforcement (1) Distribution: The bottom reinforcementmay consistpartly of bars placed in strips betweenthe piles. (2) Anchorage: The reinforcementshall alwaysbe arranged,n such a way that adequate anchorage is provided beyond the axial plane of the piles. (3) This may be deemedto be satisfied if the tensileforce in the reinforcementcrossinga pile, within a width of 3 pile diameters, is not less than the pile reaction, assumingthe reinforcementis fully. . . 
stressed .
..
'70 E~ ' ~ 1995
.
CHAPTER 6: SPECIAL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
6.6.3 Shear
(1) Computationof shearon any sectionthrough a pile cap shallbe in accordance with the following: (a) The total reaction from any pile whose ~en~er is located half pile diameteror more outside the section shall be considered as producing shear on that section. (b) Reactionfrom any pile whose centeris loc~ed half pile diameteror more inside the section shall be consideredas producingno shearon that section. (c) Eorintermediate positionsof pile center, linear interpolationbetween(a) and (b) above may be assumed. 6.6.4 Footings on Two Piles (1) Secondary reinforcement distributed horizontally and vertically is required only for footings resting on only two piles, in considerationof onewaydeepbeam action of suchfootings. (2) The amount of the secondary reinforcementto be provided shall be as for deep beams (see Section6.6:2): 6.6.5 Minimum Thickness (1) The thickness'of pile abovethe bottom reinforcementshall not be lessthan 300 mIn. 6.7 PARTICULAR CAS~ 6.7.1 Local Forces (1) When a local compressivestressis applied at the end of a structural memberor the intersection of two structural members, transversereinforcementcapableof resisting the resulting transverse tensile stresses shall, in general, be provided. However, this requirementmay be waived provided the dispersion of the pressure is not steeperthan 2 vertical to 1 horizontal as stipulated in Section6.7.4. (2) Whentransversereinforcementis provided, it shallbe evenlydistributedover a distancemeasured perpendicularto area Ai betweenO.1~ and~; ~ being the side length of are.a A2 measuredin the direction of the d;spersionof the local force (seeFig. 6.2). (3) The transversetensile force may be obtainedfor two()rthogonaldirectionsas:
Ntd = O.3F,,(1 ) ai
a2
t ~~ "
(6.14)
.ai 6.7.2
where F" is the local force is the side length of area Al measured parallel to ~ (seeFig. 6.2). Concentrated Forces
(1) Where one or more concentrated forces act at the end of a memberor at the intersectionof two structural members, local supplementary reinforcementshould be provided capableof resistingthe .transverse tensile forces causedby theseforces.
EBCS2 1995
71
~ ..III.I.i,!.?" ;
!;~~
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
2 .1
1
02,
of the Transverse Force
6.7.2 Concentrated Forces (1) Where one or more concentrated forces act at the end of a member or at the intersection of two structural members, local supplementary reinforcement should be provided capable of resisting the transverse tensile forces caused by these forces. , (2) This supplementary reinforcement may consist of links or of layers of reinforcement bent in the shape of hair pins. (3) For a uniform distribution of load on area AcD' (Fig. 6.3), the concentrated resistance force can be determined as follows: F Rdu = ~~~ 3.3tdAcD (6.15)
v/A:JA:
where AcDdenotes the loaded area Acl denotes the maximum area corresponding geometrically to AcD' having the same center of gravity, which it is possible to inscribe in the total area AcI situated in the same plane as the loaded area.
If Ac and Acocorrespond geometrically and have the same center of gravity: Acl = Ac. The value of FRduobtained from Eq. B.20 should be reduced if the load is not uniformly distributed on area ACD or if it is accompanied by large shear forces. This method applies to posttensioned members and does not apply to the anchorages of prestressing tenqons (Section B.4.2.1). 6.7.3 Bursting Forces (1) Concentrated bursting forces which occur when there are major changes in the direction in which internal forces act as in frame joints, for example, shall be resisted by additional suitably anchored reinforcement (see Fig. 6.4). . 
72
EBCS 2 1995
,'..'
.:
'
I
~
..;I;~
"
Ac,
Ac
AcO
plan view
figure 6.3 Definition or the Areas to be intr~duced in Eq.B.l
':,'
..c',
'0;;;::=
(0)
Rt{rF:C
F:
1;';
) ~
~
.( b) C
EBCS 2 1995
73
r:
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
~
~
(4) Transmission reinforcement shall be composed preferably of stirrups surrounding the main reinforcement of the girder. The stirrups shall be distributed in tIle girder within a distance O.5h1on either side of the beams. (5) The ma~n reinforcement in the supported beam shall be placed above that of the girder.
\
t
f
I
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(b) Mutual R taction
h I.
(c)
of an Indirect Support
74 ""
EBCS 2 1995
~,.".,.';"Tc"""',
:'
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1 DETAILING
7.1 DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT
7.1.1 General
CHAPTEi:t
i\
PROVISIONS
(1) The mechanical and bonding properties of the reinforcement shall meet the requirements of the specified standard. 7.1.2 Bending of Bars (1) The t:ninimum diameter to which' a bar is bent shall be such as to avoid crushing or splitting of the concrete inside the bend of the bar, and to avoid bending cracks in the bar. (2) The minimum diameter of the mandrel used shall be at least equal to the minimum specified for the bendrebend test of the reinforcement. (3) For bars or'.';fires, the minimum diameter of the mandrel used should be not less than the values
Main Reinforcement
5c;i> 6c;i> 8c;i> lOc;i>
c;i> ~
c;i> 32 32
(4) When several adjacent bars in the same layer are bent in the same zone (for example, at the corners of a frame), the diameter of mandrel shall be chosen with a view to avoiding crushing or splitting of the concrete under the effect of the pressure that occurs inside the bend (see Eq. 7.7) 7.1.3 Concrete Cover to Reinforcement (1) The concrete cover is the distance between the outer surface of the reinforcement (including links and stirrups) and the nearest concrete surface. (2) A minimum concrete cover shall be provided in order to ensure: (a) the safe transmission of bond forces; that spalling will not occur; (c) an adequate fire resistance; (d) the protection of the steel against corrosion.
EBCS 2 1995 75
(b)
.
(3) The protection of reinforcement against corrosion depends upon the continuing presence of a surrounding alkaline environment provided by an adequate thickness of good quality, wellcured concrete. The thickness of cover required depends both upon the exposure conditions and on the concrete quality. (4) The minimum concrete cover required for the criterion in (3) above shal\first be determined; This shall be increased by an allowable (Ah) for tolerances, which is dependent.on the type and size of \ structural element, the type of construction, standards of workmanship and quality control, ~d detailing practice. The result is the required nominal cover which shall be specified on the drawings. (5) To transmit bond forces safely, and to ensure adequatecompaction, the concrete cover, to the b~ or tendon being considered, should never be less than: . (a) <P or <Po (~ 40 mm), or (b) p + 5 mm) or Po + 5 mm) if dB > 32 mm where <P is the diameter of the bar <Po is the equivalent diameter for a bundle dBis the largest nominal maximum aggregate size. .
~ j J I I
t
(6) The minimum concrete cover to all reinforcement including links and stirrups should not be less than the appropriate values given in Table 7.2. Table 7.2 l"\l1inimum Cover Requirements for Concrete Members Dry environment: Interior of buildings of normal habitation or offices Humid environment: Interior components (e.g. laundries); exterior components; components in soil and/or water (Mild) (Moderate) 25 Seawaterand/or aggressive chemicalenvironment: Components completely or partially submerged in seawater;components in saturatedsalt air; aggressive industrial atmospheres (Severe) 50 
Type of exposure
.nonaggressive
..Minimum
.cover
4
4
15
(mm)
.(7)
Where surface reinforcement is used, the cover should either comply with (6) above, or protective measures should be taken (e.g. protective coatings); in any case, the minimum cover shall not be less than 20 mm. (8) The allowance (Ah) for tolerance will usually be in the range of 0 mm < Ah < 5 mm, for precast elements, if production control can guarantee these values and if this is verified by quality control. The allowance will be in the range of 5 mm < &z < 10 mm for insitu reinforced concrete construction. (9) For concrete cast against uneven surfaces, the minimum covers given in Table 7.1 should generally be increased by larger allowances for tolerances. For example, for concrete cast directly against the earth, the minimum cover should be greater than 75 mm; for concrete cast against prepared ground (including blinding) the minimum cover should be greater than 40 mm. Surfaces having design features, such as ribbed finishes or exposed aggregate, also require increased cover. 
76
~
EBCS2 1995
""
" CHAPTER 6: DETAILING PROVI51
1
1 ,~
I :.
r .,
(10) The nominal cover shall alwaysbe at leastequal to the diameterof the bar cp and in the caseof .bundles
1
.~
.cp
.{ri"
(7.1)
is the effective diameterof the bundle is the diameterof bars forming the bundle is the numberof bars in the bundle
I:
.I
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The required minimum coversgiven in Table 7.1, as Inodified to allow for tolerances,may be insufficient for fire protection. Particular requirements for fire resistance are given in the National Building Code. 7.1.4 Spacing of R,einCorcement (1) The spacingof bars shall be suitablefor the proper compactionof concreteand when an internal vibrator is likely to be used,sufficientspaceshallbe left between reinforcement to enablethe vibrator to be inserted. (2) The maximumaggregate size d, shouldbe chosen to permit adequate compaction of the concrete round the bars.
f;~
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(3) The clear horizontal andvertical distancebetweenbars shallbe at leastequal to the largestof the followmg values: (a) 20 mm (b) The diameterof the largestbar or effective diameterof the bundle (c) The maximumsize of the aggregate d, plus 5 mm (4) Where bars are positionedin separate horizontal layers, the bars in eachlayer should be located vertically above eachother and the spacebetweenthe resulting columnsof bars should permit the .passage of an internalvibrator.
.
,~
(5) Lappedbars may touchone anotherwithin the lap length. (6) Maximum distancebetweenbars shall comply with the requirements of Section7.2. 7.1.5 Bond 7.1.5.1 Design Bond Strength (1) The designbond strengthfwdepends on the type of reinforcement,the concretestrengthand the position of the bar during concreting. (2) The bond conditionsare considered to be good for: (a) All bars which are in the lower half of an element (b) All bars in, elements whosedepthdoes not exceed300 mm All b2IS which are at least300 mm from the top of an elementin which they are placed (d) All bars with an.inclination of 450to 90" to the horizont.al during concreting.
(c)
EBC5 2 1995
77
ETHIOPIAN CODE STANDARD FO~strength STRUCTUR;;~~~ CONCRETE~ (3) For goodBUILDING bond conditions, the design bond ~ of plain bars OF may be obtained from Eq. 7.2
fiNi = fctd (4) For deformed bars twice the value for I:>lain bars may be used.
(7.2)
(5) For other bond conditions, the design bond strength may be taken as 0.7 times the value for good bond conditions. 7.1.6 Anchorage of Reinforcement 0) All reinforcement shall be properly anchored at each end with due consideration for the effect of arch action and shear cracks. (2) To prevent bond failure, the tension or compression in any bar at any section due to ultimate loads shall be developed. on each side of the section by an appropriate embedment length or end anchorage or a combination thereof. Hooks may be used in developing bars in tension. 7.1.6.1 Basic Anchorage Length
(1) The basic anchorage length is the embedment length required to develop the full design strength of a straight reinforcing bar. ~
j
(2) The basic anchorage length lb for a bar of diameter <I> is: I
b 4.
<I>
~d
(7.3)II
7.1.6.2 I
(1) The required anchorage length lb,"" depends on the type of anchorage and on the stress in tile reinforcement and can be calculated as: lb,ner A = albT s...! where As.caJis the As...! is the a = 1.0 = 0.7 the<Jretil;alarea of reinf(Jrl;ement required oy the dt.:sign area of reint(Jrl;em~nt actually provided' for straight bar anl;h(Jrag~in t~nsion or I;(Jmpr~ssi(m for anl;horag~ in t~nsitJn with th~ standard h()()ks (JfFig. 7.2 ~ lb.min (7.4) .
()r
(3) F()r oars in 1;()mpressi(Jn, lh""", =
()r
~200mm
(7.))
O.(J/h ~
~
101>
200 mm (7.(,) 
78
EBCS 2 1995
'/""""',c
."
""c.c"C~""""'.i'.C'
..CHAPTER
6:DETAILlNQ
PROVISIONS.
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.(b)
a~~_~ I.
},b,net I ~
Figure 7.1 Standard Hooks 7.1.6.3 Additional Requirements for Loops (1) In order to prevent concretefailure in the plane of a loop anchorage, the diameterof the mandrel used must satisfy Eq. 7.7. d ~
cp C1sd (0.7 + 1.4)cp s 1.51c"
(7.7)
where C1 sd is the stressin the bar at the start of the bend s is the smallerof: the spacingbetweenthe loops the cover c increasedby half the diametercp 7.1.6.4 Ties and Stirrups (1) The type of anchorage used shall not induce splitting or spalling of the concretecover. (2) Anchorageby hooks (1350to 1800) is required for plain bars. (3) Anchorageby bends (900to 1350) is only allowed for deformedbars. (4) The required anchorage Ib,MI shall be measured from the middepthof the member.
.
EBCS 2 1995 79
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE

7.1.6.5
. . lo,m (7.8)
(1) The length of lap 10shall be at least equal to: 10 ~ where ~ lo,m = 0.3aaJb ~ 15~ aJb,Ml ~
or ~ 200 mrn Ib'Mland a are given in Section 7.1.6.2. al is a function of the percentage of the reinforcement lapped at anyone section as given in Table 7.3. Lapped joints are considered to be at the same section if the distance between their centers does not exceed the required lap length. Table 7.3 Values of al for Eq. 7.8 and 7.9 Distance Between Two Adjacent Laps a Distance to Nearest Surface b Percentage of Reinforcement Lapped Within Required Lap Length 20% 25% 33% 50% 100%
a ~ a >
b ~ b >
5~ 5~
1.2 1.0
1.4 1.1
1.6 1.2
1.8 1.3
2.0 1.4
, (2) The lap length 10shall be at least equal to the basic anchorage length lb' (3) The percentage of lapped bars in compression in anyone section may be 100% of the total steel cross section. (4) The separation of the bars at the joint shall be as small as possible and shall not exceed 4~ except in slabs and walls. The distance between two adjacent laps shall be equal to: . (a) In the transverse direction: 2~ ~ 20 mm (clear distance). (b) In the longitudinal direction: 1.510 (centertocenter distance) (5) Transverse forces in lapped joints shall be checked where (a) ~ ~ 16 mm, or (b) the joint affects more than onehalf of the total area of the bars. 7.1.6.6 Additional Rules for Defonned Bars of Large Diameter (cp > 32 mm)
(1) Bars of Diameter ~ > 32 mm shall be used only in elements of thickness at least equal to 15 <p. (2) When large bars are used at relatively wide spacings, skin reinforcement is requiroo for adequate
crack control.
(3) The design bond strengthfw from Section 7.5.1 shall be reducoo by the factor:
.132
'7 100
cp
(7
.
9)
where ~ is in mm.
80
EBCS 2 1995
.CHAPTER
."

6: DETAILING PROVISIONS
(4) As a generalrule only straight anchorageor mechanicalanchorage is allowed. (5) Lap joints are not allowed atjoints. 7.1.6.7 Additional RIdesfor BundledBars (1) For design. bundles of bars containingn bars having the samediameterare replacedby a single notional bar having the samecenterof gravity. and an equivalentdiameter: cPft .<Pfii ~ 55 mm (7.10)
,; i;
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ii,.
f ~. {
where n is the number of bars in a bundle. which mustbe limited to n ~ 4 for vertical bars in compression and for bars of a lappedjoint n ~ 3 for all other cases. (2) The equivalentdiameter cPft is takeninto accountin evaluating the minimum cover. However. the cover provided shall be measured from the actual outside contour of the bundle. (3) The anchora~es of the bars of a bundle can only be straightanchorages. (4) The anchorage of a bundle is dependent upon the anchorage of the individual bars. (5) The anchoragesshall be staggered; for bundles of 2. 3. or 4 bars the staggering shall be respectively. 1.2, 1.3 or 1.4 times the anchorage length of the individual bars. (6) Joints can be made on only one bar at a time but at any sectionthere shall be no more than four bars in a bundle. The laps of the individual bars shall be staggeredin accordancewith Section 7.6.7.3 7.1.7 Curtailment of Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcement
I.
(2) The displacement a, depends on the spacingof potential shearcracksand maybe taken asfollows. in the absence of more accuratedetermination: (a) Members without shear reinforcement(e.g slabs) (b) memberswith V.J < 2V. (c) memberswith V.J ~ 2V. where V.Jis the applied designshearforce. a, = 1.Od a, = O.75d a, = O.5Od
(3)
Near points of zero moment, a, ~ d shall be takenfor both positive and negativemoments.
EBCS 2 ~1
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
:
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(1) Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required to resist tension for a length given by: (a) Ib according to Eq. 7.3, or (b) Ib".., ~ d according to Eq. 7.4 provided that in this case, the continuing bars are capable of resisting twice the applied moment at the section. (2) The anchorage length of bars that are bent up as shear reinforcem~nt shall be at least equal to I.3/b".., in zones subjected to tension and to 0.7/b.,..,in zones subjected to compression. 7.1.7.3 Anchorage of Bottom Reinforcement at Supports
(3) At least onequarter of the positive moment reinforcement in simple beams and onehalf of the positive moment reinforcement in slabs shall extend along the same face of the member into the
support.
(4) The anchorage of this reinforcement shall be capable of developing the following tensile force F,. F, .VJdat
0.5VJd
(7.11)
(5) The anchorage length is measured from: (a) The face of the support, for a direct support (b) A plane inside the support located at a distance of 1/3 the width of the support from the face of the support, for an indirect support. (6) The anchorage length of the bottom reinforcement at intermediate supports shall be at lea.'it 10</>.
82
EBCS 2 1995
.CHAPTER
6: DETAILING
PROVISIONS
J
;i
7.2 DETAILING
OF STRUCTURAL
MEMBERS
~ ,
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.I.
7.2.1
Beams
7.2.1.1
Longitudinal Reinforcement
!' 1;i~ if \:
(1) The geometrical ratio of reinforcement p at any section of a beam where positive reinforcement is required by analysis sha11 not be less than that given by 06
:;
Plnin.j;~( _
"l
...
.I:
,L
VA
(7 .12)
!"I:' ~i;';
t,! !It Ii " C c,~ :i
v. ..'
where hk is in MPa. (2) In T beams and joists where the web is in tension, the ratio p shall be computed for this purpose using width of web. (3) The maximum reinforcement ratio P.. for either tensile or compressive reinforcement shall be 0 04
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t,! }; Ii
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7.2.1.2 Shear Reinforcement (1) All beams, except joists of ribbed slabs, shall be provided with at least the minimum web reinforcement given by: P
",,1nIn
kj;
04
.
= ~
(7 .13)
,;~'I
~ "
~ "
~
~t( I~
fyk
"1'
where /yk is in MPa. (2) The maximum spacing Sw= betweenstirrups, in the longitudinal direction, shall be as given below: Smax= 0.5d ~ 300 mm If V.oct ~ "3VRD
.2
(7.14)
,
:
Smax = 0.3d
200 mm if V.oct>
2 V Rd 3
(7.15)
"
" l [[ !lor'
(3) The transverse spacing of legs of stirrups shall not exceed d, or 800 mm, whichever is the smaller. 7.2.1.3 Torsional Reinforcement
: ,
j
(1) The minimum web reinforcement given by Eq. 7.2 shall be provided in the form of closoo stirrups for the case of torsional reinforcement.
c, t! J
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(2) The spacing of the stirrups shall not exceed Utl/S" (3) The longitudinal bars required for torsion shr...!be distributed uniformly around the perimeter of the closed stirrups at a spacing not exceeding 350 mIn. At least one longitudinal bar shall be placed in each corner of the closed stirrups.
EBCS 2 1995 83
~i r;
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.1
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
'.
,'"
I
4
!: '.
, I
:~:,
(7.16)
where ht is in MPa. (3) The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or' 350 rnm. (4) The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.
7.2.3
7.2.3.1 Sizes
(I) Ribs shall not be less than 70 mm in width; and shall have a depth, excluding any topping, of not more than 4 times the minimum width of the rib. The rib spacing shall not exceed 1.0 m. (2) Thickness of topping shall not be less than 40 mm, nor less than 1/10 the cleat. distance between
84
EBCS 2 1995
1t,~Z
.CHAPTER 6: DET A/LING PRO \,'/S/ONS
.:
,.
.II, ; :ji ! ; :
..
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1.2.4.1 Size
(1) The minimum lateral dimension of a column shall be at least 150 mrn.
".
I.
.(4)
'
t 1
(5) Spirals or circular ties may be used for longitudinal bars located around the perimeter of a circle. The pitch of spirals shall not exceed 100 mm.
350 mm
i."
EBCS
2. 1995 8S
/,
~
an 150 :nm
,
May be ~reater than 150 mm No intermediate tie required
Figure 7.3 Measurements Between Laterally SUDDorted Cnhlmn Bars ~I. Longitudinal bars ctlt. Main ties
E E
0 0
Intermediate
tIe
"

..4:
C
VI
~18~\~
~ 500 mm
oo!
7.2.5 WALLS
7.2.5.1 Sizes
(1) The thickness of load bearing walls shall not be less than 1/25 of the unsupported height or width, whichever is shorter, nor less than 150 mm. (2) The overall thIckness of panel and partition walls shall not be less than 1/30 of the distance between supporting or enclosing members, nor less than 100 mm.
86
EBCS2 1995
(3) The diamd;erof vertical bars shall not be lessthan 8 mm. ..(4) The s~ing of vertical bars shall not exceedtwice the wall thicknessnor 300 mm.
7.2.5.3 Horlr.olltal Reiiiforctmellt
of horizontal reinforcement shall not be less than onehalf of that of the vertical
!..
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(2)The spacingof horizontal bars shall not exceed300 mIn. The diameterof horizontal bars shall 00t be lessthan one quarter of that of the vertical bars. (3) Horizontal reinforcementshall;enclosethe vertical reinforcement. The horizontal bars shall be tied to the vertical bars so as to form a rigid mat.
7.2.5.4 TransJ'erse Reinforctmen! .~j
..f \,
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(1) The matsat the two facesof a wall shall be connected to eachother by at least 4 transverseSties per m2. when the diameterof the vertical reinforcementis 16 rom or greater. (2) If the area of required reinforcementexceedsO.OU.. then ties as required for columns (see Section7.2.4.3) shall be provided.
7.2.6 Deep Beams
~ it'
.7.2.6.1
.(1)
11aidness
The thicknessof deep beamsshall not be lessthan 100 rom.
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7.2.6.2
Supplementary Reinforcement
(1) To supplement the main reinforcement,one layer of meshreinforcementshall be provided near eachface of deepbeams. The minimum percentage of reinforcementof eachmeshin eachdirection shall be givenby:
0.3 P = 7;
(7.17)
wherefyt is in MFa. (1) The spacingbetween adjacentbars shall not exceedtwice the thickness of the deep beam or 300 mIn.
EBCS 2 1995
87
ETHIOPIAN
USE OF CONCRETE
7.2.7Corbels
(1) The reinforcement, corresponding to the ties considered in the designmodel (Section6.4), should be fully anchoredbeyond the node under the bearingplate by using Vhoops or anchorage devices unlessa length Ib./It, is available betweenthe node and the front of the corbel. The length Ib./It, should be measuredfrom the point where the compression stresses changetheir direction. (2) In corbel with hc ~ 300 mm, when the area of the Qrimaryhorizontal tie AJis such that , AJ ~ f
O.4A Iii
(7.18)
(where Ac is the sectional area of the concrete in the corbel at the column), then closed stirrups, having a total area not less than O.4AJ'should be distributed over the effective depthd in order to cater for splitting stressesin the concretestrut. They can be placed either horizontally (Fig. 7.5(a) or inclined (Fig. 7.5(b)). Fy Fy
As
looped
stirrups
~ Q.4As
stirrups
! 0.4 As
88
EBCS 2. 1995
,. ,
,\
.CHAPTER .MATERIALS
8.1 SCOPE
8 AND WORKMANSHIP
I' \
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'1
(1) This Chapterprovides minimum specificationrequirements for materialsand for the .standard of workmanshipthat must be achieved on site in order to ensurethatthe designassumptions in this Code are valid and hencethat the intendedlevels of safetyand of durability will be attained.
(2) This Chapter is neither intended as, nor extensive enough for, a contract document.
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8.2 SPECIF1CATION OF CONCRETE 8.2.1 Methods of Specifying Concrete (1) Concretemay be specified in one of three ways: , (a) ~igned Withthat thismay method the required compressive strength is specified, together with any mix~: other limits be required, such as maximum aggregate size, minimum cementcontent, and workability, (b) Pr~cribed mixes: With this method,the designerassumes responsibilityfor designingthe mix and stipulates to the producer the mix proportions and the materials which shall be
employed.
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Standard (or Nominal) mixes: The mix proportionswhich are appropriate for gradesC5 to C30 may be takenfrom Table 8,1. Thesestandard mixes which are rich in cement,and are intendedfor use where the cost of trial mixes or of acceptance cure te.sting is not justified, be used without verification of compressive strengthby testing. (2) The limitation on constituentmaterialsgiven in Section8,2.2 shall be compliedwith. 8.2.2 Constituent Materials or Concrete
l I
8.2.2.1 Cement
(1) The cement usedshallbe Portlandor PortlandPozzolana cement complyingwith the requirements of the latestEthiopian Standards'on suchcements. (2) Where cements other than thosecomplying with thesestandards are used, accountshall be taken of their propertiesand any particular conditionsof use.
8.2.2.2Aggregates
(1) In general agireiates shall comply with the requirements of the latestEthiopian Standard~ for aggregates.
8.2.2.3 Water
(1) M!xing water shall be clean and free from harmful matter.
EBCS 2 1995
89
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90
EBCS 2. 1995
.,,'
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8.2.2.4 Admixtures
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(1) Suitable admixtures may be used in concrete mixes, in special cases, with the prior approval of the engineer. (2) Many admixtures are highly active chemicals and may impart undesirable as well as desirable pro~erties th~Increase concrete; shall generally be verified by trial mixes. Chlorides, in particular, to may theth:ir risk suitability. of corrosion. 8.2.3 Composition or the Concrete
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(1) The choice of the constituents and of their mix proportions shall be such as to satisfy requirements concerning: (a) The properties of the fresh concrete (see Section 8.2.4 to 8.2.6) (b) The specified properties of the, hardened concrete (strength or other limit requirements, see Section 8.2.1) (c) The durability, taking account of the conditions of exposure. In particular, the total content of deleterious substances shall be restricted. 8.2.4 Requirements or Fresh Concrete
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(1) The workability of the fresh concrete shall be such that the concrete is suitable for the conditions handling and placing so that after compaction it surrounds all reinforcement and completely fills the formwork.
8.2.4.2 Temperature
..
(1) Where the minimum dimension of concrete to be placed at a single time is greater than 600 mm and especially where the cement content is likely to be 400 kg/m3 or more, measures to reduce the temperature, such as the selection of a cement type with a slower release of heat of hydration shall be considered. In exceptional cases other measures to reduce the temperature or to remove evolved heat may be necessary. 8.2.5 Hot Weather Concreting
8.2.5.1 General
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(1) Hot weather is defined as any combination of high air temperature, low relative humidity, and wind velocity tending to impair the quality of fresh or hardened concrete or otherwise resulting in abnormal properties. The effects of hot weather are most critical during periods of rising temperature, falling relative humidity, or both.
l
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.EBCS
(2) Hot weather introduces problems in preparation, placing, and curing cement concrete that can adversely affect tl1~ properties and serviceability of the hardened concrete.
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(2) For best assurance of good results with concrete placing in hot weather, the initial concrete placement should be limited between 25C and 40C. Every effort shall be made to keep the concrete temperature uniform. (3) Under extreme conditions of high ambient temperature, exposure to direct rays of t.~e sun, low relative humidity, and wind, it is suggestedto restrict concrete placement to late afternoon or evening.
.
..
(1) In hot weather there is great need for continuous curing, preferably by water. The need is gr,eatestduring the first few hours, and throughout the first day after the concrete is placoo. (2) In hot weather, forms shall be covered and kept moist. The forms shall be loosened, as soon as this can be done without damage to concrete, and provisions made for the curing water to rtJDdown inside them. During form removal, care shall be taken to provide wet cover to newly exposed surfaces to avoid exposure to hot sun and wind. At the end of the prescribed curing period (10 days is recommended), the covering shall be left in place without wetting for at least four days, so that the concrete surface will dry slowly and be less subject to surface shrinkage cracking. 8.2.6 Minimum Cement Content
(1) One of the main characteristics influencing the durability of any concrete is its permeability, (2) With strong, dense aggregates, a suitably low permeability is achieved by having a sufticil;ntly low water/cement ratio, by ensuring complete compaction of the concrete, and by ensuring suftl'::.ient hydration of the cement through proper curing methods. (3) The cement content shall be sufficient to provide adequat~ workability with low water/cement ratio. so that the concrete can be completely compacted with the means available.
(4) Tahle 8.2 gives the minimum cement ~l)ntent required and maximum nt:t water/l.:em~nt ratio
re~l)mmended, when u5ing a partil:ular size of aggregate in Pl)rtland I:emt:nt I:l)nl:rete, to pro...ide a~~eptahle durahility under the apprl)priate ~l)nditions l)f eXpl)$Ure. (5) ~rh~ cement I.:llntent~in Table 8.2 may be redu~~d by 20kg/m:l when trial mixes have verifi~ that a Cl)nl.:retewith a maximum net wat~r/~ement ratil) nl)t greater than that given for the particular conditil)n. can he I.:l)n~i~tt:ntly prl)duct:d and that it i~ ~uitahle fl)r the cl)nditil)ns l)f plai:ing and i:ompactil)n. 8.2.7 Muximum Cement Cuntl'nt
(I) Cem~nt I.:ontl.:nt~ in t:XI.:~~~ l)f 550 kg/m:l ~hall ",It be u~ed unle~s ~pel.:ialconsid~ratil)n has b~en givt:n in d~~ign tll th~ ini:rt:iI~l.:dri~k l)f I:ral:king du~ tl) drying shrinkage in thin ~~I;til)n~l)r to thermal ~trt:~!\I.:!\ in thii:kl.:r !\I.:i:tilln~.
92
EBCS2. 7995
~
CHAPTER 8: MA TERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP
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Table 8.2
Minimum
under
Exp<)su~
Max w/c
Mild: E.g. Completely protectedagainstweather, or aggressiveconditions, except for a brief period of exposure to nonnal weather conditions during construction Moderate: E.g. Sheltered from severrain. Buried concreteand concrete continuous under water Sever: E.g. Exposedto sea water, driving main alternate wetting and drying. Subject to heavy condensation or comJsive fumes
230
260
280
300
0.65
220
230
260
280
0.70
. 270
300
330
350
0.55
230
260
290
310
0.60
330
420
0.45
0.50
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8.3 SPECIFICATION
OF REINFORCEMENT
8.3.1 Basic requirements (1) Reinforcing steel shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2.6 to 2.10 of this Code, Reinforcing steel shall comply with the requirements of the latest Ethiopian Standards for
reinforcement.
(2) Only steel specified in the design documents may be used as reinforcements. 8.4 CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION RULES
8.4,1 General
(1) The supervision employed shall be such as to ensure the required standard of control over materials and workmanship. The engineer shall be afforded all reasonable opportunity and facility to inspect the materials and the manufacture of concrete and to take any samples or to make any tests. All such inspection, sampling and testiIlg shall be carried out with the process of manufacture and delivery. 8.4,2 Handling and Storage or the Materials used Cor Making Concrete
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(1)
8.4.2.1 Cement
Cement shall be transported and stored in clean containers and protected from moisture both in transit and during storage. (2) Provision shall be made to prevent accidental mixing of different types.
EBCS 2 1995
USE OF CONCRETE
8.4.2.2 Aggregates
(1) Aggregatesshall be handled and stored so as to minimize segregation and contaminationwith undesirableconstituents. Separatestoragefacilities with adequateprovision for drainage shall be provided for eachdifferent nominal size of aggregate used. 8.4.3 Batching and Mixing
,
(1) The mixing shall be carried out in such a way that the constituentmaterials are uniformly distributed and the mixture has uniform workability. (2) The quantity of cement,the quantity of fine aggregate and the quantitiesof the various sizes of coarseaggregates shall be measuredby weight exceptthat aggregates may be measuredby volume for Class II Concreteor for standardmixes. (3) The batch weights of aggregates shall be adjustedto allow for a moisture contenttypical of the aggregates being used. 8.4.4 Transporting, Placing and Compacting (1) Concreteshallbe transportedfrom the mixer to the formwork as rapidly as practicableby methods which will prevent the segregation or loss of any of the ingredients, and maintain the required workability. It shall be depositedas nearly as practicablein its final position to avoid rehandling. (2) All placing and compactingshall be carried out under the direct supervisionof a competent memberof the contractor's (or manufacturer's) staff. Class I concreteof gradesC20 and aboveshall be compactedby using vibrators. (3) Concrete shall be placed soon after mixing and thoroughly compactedduring the operation of placing. It shall be thoroughly worked aroundthe reinforcement,tendonsor duct formers, around embedded fixtures and into corners of formwork to form a solid massfree from voids. (4) Care shall be taken to avoid the displacement of re~nforcement or movementof formwork and damageto faces of formwork. (5) The depth of lift to be concretedshall be determinedby the contractoror the manufacturerin consultationwith the engineer. (6) In order to avoid segregation, the free fall of concretemassshall be restrictedto a maximum of three metersunlessthe systemof placing concreteis approvedby the designer. (7) When vibrators are usedto compactthe concrete, vibration shall be applied continuouslyduring the placing of eachbatchof concreteuntil the expulsionof air has practically ceased and in a manner which does not promote segregation of the ingredients. (8) The mix shall be such that there will not be excesswater on the top surface on completion of compaction. 8.4.5 Construction Joints (1) The number of constructionjoints shall be kept as few as possible consistentwith reasonable precauti(;t..,againstshrinkage. Concretingshallbe carried out continuouslyup to construction joints.
94
EBCS 2 1995
.CHAPTER
: :
(2) Where it is necessary to introduceconstruction joints, careful consideration shall be given to their exactlocation, which shall be indicatedon the drawings. Alternatively, the location and details of joints shall be subject to the agreement betweenthe engineerand the contractorbefore any work commences. Constructionjoints shallbe at right anglesto the generaldirection of the member.and shall take due accountof shearand other stresses.
(3) Particular care shall be taken in the placing of the new concreteclose to the joint. The surface of concreteconstruction joints shallbe thoronghlycleaned andlaitanceremoved. Immediatelybefore new concreteis placed, all construction joints shall be wetted and standingwater removed.
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8.4.6 Formwork
8.4.6.1 Basic RequiremenJs (1) Formwork and falsework shall be designedand constructed so that they are capableof resisting all actionswhich may occur during the construction process.They shall remainundisturbeduntil the concretehas achieved sufficient strengthto withstand the stresses to which it will be subjectedon stripping or release, with an acceptable margin of safety. (2) The.formwork and falsework shall be sufficiently stiff and tight to ensurethat the tolerancesfor the structure are satisfiedand that its loadbearing capacityis not affectedandto preventloss of grout or mortar from the concreteat all stagesand for the appropriatemethodof placing and compacting. (3) The gene1:allayout of the formwork shallbe suchthatthe correctplacingof reinforcement as well as correct compactionof the concreteis possible. (4) The formwork and the falsework shall be designedand erected by suitably trained persons. Supervisionand control shall be suchas to ensurethat the erectionis completedin accordance with the drawings and specifications. (5) The formwork shall be capableof being removedfrom the concretewithout causingshock or damage. (6) Where necessary, the camperbuilt into the formwork shouldbe that required by the designerof the structureand falsework. (7) Ground support for the falsework should also be constructedby suitably trained personnelin accordancewith the drawings and specifications. Deformations and displaceIilentsimposed by prestressing should be taken into accountin the designof the falsework. (8) Joints betweenthe panelsof the formwork shouldbe adequately tight. (9) The internal surface of the formwork must be clean. Approved mouldreleaseagentsshould be applied in continuous and uniform layers on the internal surface and the concreteshould then be placedwhile these agents are still effective. Any possibledetrimentalinfluence of theseagentson the concretesurfacehas to be takeninto consideration. (10) Formwork spacersleft in the concreteshould not impair its durability or appearance.
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'c EBCS 2 1995 95
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(1) The fonnwork shall be designed and constructed so that there is no loss of fines, or blemish of the concrete surface. (2) Where a particular grade or type of finish is required for practical or aesthetic reasons, the requirements shall be specified directly or by reference to appropriate national or international documents or by sample surfaces.
removed;
(b) The concrete strength at the time of removal; (c) The ambient climatic conditions and the measures available to protect the concrete once the formwork is removed; (d) The presence, or otherwise, of reentrant angle formwork, which should be removed as soon as possible, while complying with other iemoval criteria. (3) The formwork shall not be removed before the structure has gained enough strength to safely carryall the possible loads. The time at which formwork is struck will be influenced by the following factors: (a) concrete strength (b) stresses in the concrete at any stage in the construction period (c) curing (Section 8.4.7) (d) subsequent surface treatment requirements (e) presence of reentrant angles requiring formwork to be removed as soon as possible after concrete has set to avoid shrinkage cracks. (4) Provided the concrete strength is confirmed by tests on cubes stored as far as possible under the same conditions, formwork supporting castinsitu concrete may be removed when the cube strength is 50% if the nominal strength or twice the stress to which it will th;en be subjected whichever is greater, provided that such earlier removal will not result in unacceptable deflections such as due to shrinkage and creep.
96
EBCS 2 1995
developmentof the concreteand on the function of the formwork. In the absence of more accurate data, the following minimum periods are recommended: (a) For nonload bearingparts of formwork (e.g. vertical formwork of b~; formwork for columnsand walls) 18 hours (b) For soffit fo~work to slabs 7 days (c) For props to slabs 14 days (d) For soffit formwork to beams 14 days (e) For props to beams 21 days (5) Where sliding or climbing formwork is used, shorterperiodsthan thoserecommended abovemay be permitted. 8.4.7 Curing (1) The methods of curing and their'duration shall be such that the concretewill have s~tisfactory durability anq strength and the member will suffer a minimum of distortion, be free of excessive efflorescenceand will not cause,by its shrinkage,undue cracking in the structure.
8.5.3 Welding
(1) Welding must only be carried out on reinforcing steel that is suitable for welding. (2) Welding connections must be made and checked by persons suitably trained in welding of reinforcement.
EBCS 2 1995 97
,~ "
USE OF CONCRETE
(3) Welding shallbe used in accordance with internationalor national standards. (4) Where a risk of fatigue exists,the weldingof reinforcement mustconform to special~equirements as given in relevantstandards. (5) The production and checking of the welded connections shall comply with the relevant requiremen~ in internationalor nationalstandards. (6) Welding methodspermittedinclude: (a) electric flash welding; (b) electric resistancewelding (c) electric arc welding (with coatedelectrodes or under a protective gas envelope); (d) high pressuregas welding.
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8.5.4 Joints
(1) The lengili and position of lappedjoints ~hallbe in accordance with the designand the drawings. If the bar lengthsdeliveredto the site do not conform with the drawings, thenmodificationsshall only be introducedwith the apPi'OVal of the designeror of the supervisoryauthority. (2) In general, reinforcing bars shall not be welded at or near bends in a bar. j , I 8.5.5 Fabrication, &sembly and Placing or the Steel (1) The assembly of the reinforcementshallbe robust enough to ensurethat the bars do not shift their prescribed position during transportation, placing and concreting. The specified cover to the reinforcementshall be maintainedby the use of approvedchairs and spacers.
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(2) The tolerances required for the fiXing of reinforcement shall be as given in Section 8.2. Alternatively, they shall be statedin the contraCt documents. (3) Bendingshouldbe carried out by mechanical methods,at constantspeedwithoutjerking, with the aid of mandrelsso that the bentpart hasa constant curvature. If the ambienttemperature is .towerth_an a specifiedvalue, additional precautions may b:eneeded. {4) The reinforcement shallbe securedagainstany displacement andthe position of the reinforcement shall be checkedbefore concreting. (5) In areasof conge$ted reinforcement, sufficient spacingof the bars shall be provided to allow proper compaCtion of the concrete.
8.6 TOLERANC~
8~6.1 General (1) In order to ensurethe requiroopropertiesof the structure,the tolerancesmust be clearly defined before constructionwork starts. (2) For durability reasons,independently from the defined tolerances,the cover to reinforcements shall Dotbe less than the minimum values given in Section7.1. (3) The dimensions given on the working drawingsshall be observedwith the appropriatetolerance.
EBCS 2 1995
..
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(8.2)
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(8.3)
(3) Tolerancesother than those defined in (1) above can also be specifiedprovided that it can be demonstrated that they do not reducethe required level fo safety. 8.6.3 Tolerances for Concrete Cover (1) For the tolerancesof concretecovetto reinforcement,e.g. the differencebetween the nominal and the minimum cover, Section7.1 (8) applies. No positive permitted deviation is specified. 8.6.4 Tolerances for Construction Purpos~ (1) For other purposes,e.g. construction or dimensionaltolerancesin buildings as a whole, stricter tolerancesthan defined is Section8.6.2 may required. Thesevalues should be specified separately from this Code. For the maximum sag of slabs, however Section5.2.2 (1) and (2) apply.
EBCS 2 1995 ~
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
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100 EBCS 2 1995
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.CHAPTER
9: QUALITY
CONTROL
QUALITY
CHAPTER 9 CONTROL
9.1 DEFINITIONS
! I (1) Quality Control: Comprises a combination of actions and decisions taken in compliance with specifications and checks to ensure that these are satisfied. Quality control consists of two distinct, but intercoriDected parts, namely production control and compliance control. (2) Production Control: Comprises a combination of actions and decisions taken during production to check the operation and to obtain a reasonable assurance that the specifications will be satisfied. (3) Compliance Control: Comprises a combiLation of actions and decisions, in accordance with compliance rules adopted in advance, to check the compliance of the product with the specifications.
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9.2 PRODUCTIONCONTROL
9.2.1 (1) Inspection of Materials
Inspection of materials on site shall be made at delivery to check compliance with the specifications and the requirements of this Code (Chapter 8). Inspection Prior to Concreting (1) This inspection shall be made to check:
.9.2.2
, i r ; : i i
(a) the rigidity of the scaffolding and shuttering (b) the leaktightness of joints between formwork elements (c) conformity of the dimensions of the formwork with the drawings (d) the cleanliness of the formwork (e) the surface condition of the reinforcement (f) the position and size of reinforcement (g) the rigidity of the reinforcement securing systems, and the quality of the joints between bars. 9.2.3 Control of Mixing, Transportation and Placement of Concrete The consistency of the fresh
(1) The accuracy of the mix proportions shall be checked regularly. concrete shall be checked periodically with the slump test.
.structure
(2) During concreting, checks shall be made on the deformations of the formwork and its supporting and on any leakage of water.
9.2.4
.
.EBCS
2 1995 101
USE OF CONCRETE
9.2.5 Information
of Construction Procedures
(1) A site book shall be kept and for large structures, it shall contain the following information: (a) dates on which concreting and stripping of formwork has taken place (b) acceptance of materials and components (c) results of tests and measurements (d) concrete mix used (type and origin of cement and aggregates) (e) inspection and measurement reports of the positioning of reinforcement (t) important instructions received (g) description of any incidents.
(1) Compliance with specified properties of concrete shall be judged by tests made on proper specimens at an age of 28 days unless there is evidence, satisfactory to the authority having jurisdiction, that a particular testing regime is capable of predicting the strength at 28 days of concrete tested at an earlier age, in which case compliance may be based on the results of such tests alone. (2) The concrete for the specimen shall normally be taken when the concrete is actually being poured. (3) Compliance of prescribed and standard mixes (Section 8.2) shall be based on checks made on the mix properties (such as aggregate gradation, cement content, mix proportions, and workability); but, because strength tests provide an implicit check on the quality of the mix, they may, alternatively, be used for the acceptance of concretes made with prescribed and standard mixes.
!
.(1) The lot is defined as the quantity of concrete produced in the same essential conditions and subjected to individual assessment. (2) The lots shall be defined before the commencement of construction, hy taking into account the number ofbe tests required for a decision (see Section 9.3.1.3) as well as the frequency of sampling and testing to adopted. (3) The minimum rate of sampling shall be decided by the engineer taking into account the nature of the work. Higher rates would be appropriate at the start of the work, to establish quickly the level of quality, or during periods of production when quality is in doubt, or for highlystressed structural. elements.
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.CHAPTER 9: QUALITY CONTROL
(4) In general, the following may be adopted as the minimum requirement on size of lot and .frequency of sampling, exceptfor the specialcasesgivenhereunder: (a) No individual sampling can,represent,on the average,more than 100 mixes or 100 m', whichever is the smallervolume of Concrete. (b) For eachgrade of concrete, at leastone sampleshall be takenevery week (c) For eachgrad~ of concrete,at leasttWo lots shall be made. (4) Exception: For smallbuildings (e.g., havinga total volume of lessthan)OOm3of concrete)usinj, concretegrade C30 or lower, Condition (3) neednot be compliedwith. 9.3.1.3 Compliance Criteria (1) Two compliancecriteria are envisaged: (2) Criterion 1: This criterion may'be applied in all casesbut is lesssuited to largescalesampling. Eachlot. is represented by three samples,the strengthof which are XI < Xz < ~. (3) The lot is acceptedautomaticallyif the following conditionsare satisfiedsimultaneously: ~ ~ fck + k1 1.1 ~ fck k2
where,
i '1,
(9.1) (9.2)
~ ..f.k
is the meanvalue is the specifiedcharacteristicstrength kl, ~ are the margins of strengthgiven in Table 9.1 1.1 is the averagestrengthof the minimum strengthsfor the severallots.
Table 9.1 Margins or Strength in MPa Margin of Strength kl ~ First two lots 5 1 Third and fourth lot 4 2 Fifth lot and above 3 3
(4) Criterion 2: This criterion is suitablefor large lots. 1 (5) Each lot represented by not lessthan 15 test specimens (n ~ 15) (6) The lot is acceptedautomaticallyif the following conditionsare satisfiedsimultaneously: m" As" ~ fck 1.1 ~ f.k k2 where, 1ft" is the meanvalue s" is the standarddeviationof the set of sampleresults is the characteristicstrength
EBCS 2 1995 .103
(9.3) (9.4)
.f.k
.ETHIOPIAN
A is the coefficient (may be takenas 1.4) ~ is the margin of strength(maybe takenas 4 MPa) n is the numberof specimen (7) If the test resultsdo not satisfy the requirements of the selected acceptance criterion, measures specified in Section9.4 shall be taken.
,
9.3.2 Compliance Controls for the CompletedStructure (1) The acceptance of a completedstructureinvolvesa decisionon each portion of the work subject to acceptance (corresponding to the concretelots) and a decisionon the behaviorof the .structureas a whole. 9.4 MEASl~ 9.4.1 General (1) If the quality of the structure is found to be in doubt after an inspectionor from the test results,then a special examinationshall be madeto verify the soundness of the information receivedand to assess the actual strength of the structure as constructedwith possible recourseto more accurate methodsof calculation. 9.4.2 Sequenceof Measures (1) The following sequentialmeasures shallbe takenwherethe resultsof compliancecontrol testsor inspectionare unsatisfactory: (a) The position of concretewhich does not fulfil the oompliancecriterion shall be identified. (b) The structural safety shall be checkedby appropriatecalculationson the basis of the actual test results which did not comply. If safetyis assured,the concretecan be accepted. (c) If suchstructural safety or durability are not assured,thenthe strengthof the concreteshall be examinedby taking drilled coresor by nondestructive methods(see Section9.4.3). The results of such tests shall be assessed on the basis of the prescribedacceptance criterion, taking into accountany differencesin age. (e) If this new informationshowsthat structuralsafetyis assured, the concretemay be accepted after it has beendecided whetherrepairs are necessary to ensuredurability. (t) If the resultsof check testsby nondestructive methods(3) show that the quality of concrete is inadequate or showother defects,the engineer mayrequirea loadingtestto be madewhich shall then be carried out in accordance with Section 9.4.4. (g) If structural safety and durability are not assured,then the possibility of strength~ning the structure must be investigated. If strengthening is not feasible, then the concrete shall be rejected, and the structure or memberdemolished or given a reducedstructural grading by limiting its service rating, as appropriate. 9.4.3 Check Tests on Structural Concrete TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF NONCOMPLIANCE
9.4.3.1 General
(1) Check testsby nondestructivemethodsare applicableto hardenedconcretein the finish~ parts of a structureor in precastunits. They may be usedin routine inspectionfor quality control. They are also of usewhen concreteis found defectivefrom visual inspection and when lcw cubestrengths are obtained when assessing the strengthof the concrete used. 
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9.4.3.2 1)pes of Check Tests (1) The following types of check testsmay be usedfor different types of checks: (a) Drilled Cores (b) Gamma radiography (c) Ultrasonic test (d) Electromagneticcover measuringdevices (e) Reboundhammertest. (2) The testsmust be conductedby appropriatelytrained personnel and the accuracy of eachtype of testsmust be consideredin interpretingthe resultsobtained. 9.4.4 Lnad Tests or Structure or Parts or Structures
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9.4.4.1 General (1) Test loads are to be applied and removedincrementally. (2) The test should be carried out after th~ expiry of 28 days from the time of placing concrete. When the test is for a reasonother than the quality of the concretein the structurebeing in doubt, the test may be carried out earlier, provided that the concretehas already reached its specified strength. 9.4.4.2 Test Loads The testloadsto be appliedfor the limit statesof deflectionandlocal damage are the appropriate designloads, i.e., the characteristicdeadand imposedloads. (2) When the ultimate limit state is being considered,the test load shall be equalto the sum of the characteristicdeadload plus 1.25 times the characteristicimposedload and shall be maintainedfor a period of 24 hours. (3) If anyof the final deadload is not in positionon the structure,compensating loads shallbe added as necessary. (4) During the test, struts and bracing, strong enoughto supportthe v/hole load, shall be placed in position leaving a gap under the membersto be tested, and adequate precautionsshall be taken to safeguardpersonsin the vicinity of structure. i 9.4.4.3 MeasurementsDuring the Tests (1) Measurements of deflection and crack width shall be taken immediatelyafter the applicationof load and in the case of 24 hours sustained load test; at the end of the 24 hours loadedperiod, after removal of the load and after the 24 hours recoveryperiod. Sufficient measurements shall be taken enableside effectsto be takeninto account. Temperature andweatherconditionsshallbe recorded during the test.
.
.(1)
to
.
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~) The following requirements shall be met: (a) The maximum width of any crack measured immediatelyon applicationof the testload for local damageshall not be more than twothirds of the value for the limit staterequirement. (see Section5.3.4) (b) For members spanningbetweentwo supports,the deflection measuredimmediately after applicationof the testload for deflectionis to be not more than 1/500 of the effective span. Limits shall be agreeduponbefore testingcantilevered portionsof structures. (c) If the maximum deflection in millimeters observedduring 24 hours under.load is less than 40 L.z/h where L. is ~ffective span in meter and h the overall depth of construction in millimeters, it is not necessary for the recoveryto be measured andthe requirements in item (d) below do not apply. (d) If, within 24 hours of the removal of the t~t load for the ultimate limit state as calculated in Section9.4.4.2, a structuredoes not showa recovery of at least 75% of the maximum deflectionshownduringthe 24 hours underload, the loadingshallbe repeated.The structure shall be considered to have failed to passthe test if the recovery after the secondl<rading is not at least 75% of the maximumdeflectionobservedduring the secondloading.
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106 EBCS 2 1995"
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APPENDIX ANALYSIS
A.t SCOPE
1'1 t
i
OF SLABS!~
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Ii !
(1) This appendix providesmethodsof analysisfor onewayslabs,twowayslabsand flat slabswhich are basedon the principles set out on Section3.8.
(1) Onewayslabs transmit their load mainly in one direction (i.e. the direction of span). There is no needto analyzethe actioneffectstransverse to the direction of spanarisingas a result of restrained lateral stra,in.or the transversedisttibution of concentratedor line loads, or causedby a support parallel to the direction of span, which has not bean taken into accountin the calculation. These effectsshall, however, be takeninto accountby making suitable detailingprovisions. A.2.2 D,is~ributi,O;n of Concentrated Loads (1) The width of slab which may be assumed to be effective in carrying a concentrated load may be taken asfollows: .(a) ..the For solid slabs,the effective width may be takenasthe sumof the load width and 2.4x(1x/L) where x is the distancefrom the nearer supportto the sectionunder consideration and L is span. (b) For other slabs, exceptwhere speciallyprovided for, the effective width will dependon the ratio of the transverseand longitudinal flexural rigidities of the slab. When these are approximatelyequal, the value for the effective width as given for solid slabs may be used, but as the ratio decreases a smallervalue shall be taken. The minimumvalue which needbe taken, however, is the load width plus 4x/L(1 x/L) meterswhere x and L are as defined in (a) aboveso that, for a sectionat midspan,the effective width is equalto 1.0 meterplus the load width. (c) Where the concentrated load is near an unsupported edge of a slabthe effect,ivewidth shall not exceedthe value in (a) or (b) aboveas appropriate,nor half that value plus the distance of the center of the load from the unsupportededge(seeFig. AI). A.3 TWOWAY SLABS A.3.t General I (1) The type of slab dealt with here is one composed of rectangularpanelssupportedat all four edges by walls or beams stiff enoughto be treated as unyielding. This may be assumed to be the caseif the requirementsfor the ratio betweenthe depth of a beam and its span are in accordancewith Fig. A2. (2) Thesemethodsare intendedfor slabs with uniformly distributedloads. If a slab is subjected to concentrated or line loads, in additionto a uniform load, thesecan generallybe treatedby considering them as equivalentuniform loads using approximaterules, provided that the'sumof the nonuniform loads on a panel does not exceed20 percentof the total load.
.
.
EBCS 2 1995
107
,
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
Load
f=~::+~:~
~ T ~
Unsupported Edoe
Effective
Width
L
~Load Width
1,2X (1X L
Figure AI Effective Width of Solid Slab Carrying a ConcentratedLoad near an Unsupported Edge
~L, .\
r"'~}
~
.!!.L ~ L,
Z. 5
~~r
(II /l
cz hZ ~
(..!!..!. Lx )
h.
(,.5LI)
Z,5 Z'5(""1:;) ~
,.
.1+"f
.g~ t~
WALL BEAM
L,
Figure A2 Support for TwoWay Slabs A.3.2 Individual Panel Moments
(1) Moments for individual panels with edges either simply supported or fully fixed are calculated as: ml = al (gd + Qd)Lz2 " Ilere mj al gd qd Lz L)' (AI)
is the design moment per unit width at the point of reference is the coefficient given in Table AI as function of aspect ratio L)' /Lz and support conditions is the uniformly distributed design permanent load is the uniformly distributed design live load is the shorter span of the panel is the longer span of the panel
108 EBCS.21995
.i
.Subscripts
f field (span) x: direction of shorterspan )' direction of longer span (2) Notationsfor different critical momentsand edgenumbersare shown in Fig. A3. Division of slab into middle and edgestrips is illustrated in Fig. A4. .
Mxl
, '
::L
jMY1
4~~
Figure A3 Notations for Critical Moments (3) The positive momentcoefficientsin Table A1 may be derived from 'the following equations. The moment coefficients are taken as 4/3 times the positive moment coefficients for the ~ame direction. (24 + 2nd + 1.Snd2) a:tf = 1000 (A.2)
rv fJ '4rj 
.negative ~
(/l~ fJ = ~ {1 ?
y
(A.3) (A.4)
where
nd is the numberof discontinuousedg~ (0 ~ nd ~ 4) r l' r 2, r 3' r 4are the ratios of negative moment capacityat edges1 to 4, respectively, to the span moment capacityin the samedirection and take valuesof 4/3 for continuousedgesor zero for discontinuousedges.
LY:o1I
!
,
!
Middle!
Strip I
I
1
II
Ly
.1
M~;d~:
Strip
'
I
I
: ~
T
II
4C
Edge
Strip
!L.r
T
~ I
\ Edge
'Strip
I:.!:
8
.
.EBCS
2 1995
109
(4) Slabsare considered as divided in each direction into middle strips and edgestrips as shown in Fig. A4, the middle strip being three quartersof the width and each edge strip one eighth of the
width.
(5) The maximum design momentscalculatedas above apply only to the middle strips and no redistribution shall be made. (65 Reinforcementin the middle strips shall be detailed in accordance with Section7.1.7. (7) Reinforcementin an edgestrip, parallel to the edge,neednot be lessthan the minimum given in Section7.2.2.2 (minimum areasof tensionreinforcement). A.3.3 Moments in Continuous Slabs
A.3.3.1General
(1) The first stageof designis to determinesupportand span momentsfor all panelsindividually by treating their edgesas either simply supported or fully fixed (seeSectionA,.3.2). External edgesare generallyconsideredas simply supportedand continuousedgesare considered as fully fixed in this stage. (2) If the slab is connectedwith an external wall or if any of its edgesis partly fixed and partly simply supported,the following proceduremay be adopted: (a) The ratio of the actual supportmomentto the bendingmomentof fully fixed slab, or the ratio of the width of fixed part to the width of the simply supportedpart of the edgeis evaluated. (b) The bending momentsof the slab are then computedby interpolating between different supportconditions. (3) For each $UPport over which the slab is continuousthere will thus generally be two different supportmoments. The difference may be distributedbetween the panelson eitherside of the support to equalizetheir moments,as in the momentdistributionmethodfor frames. (4) Two methodsof differing accuracy,are given here for treating the effectsof this redistribution on momentsaway from the support.
. .
A.3.3.2 MethodI
(1) Method I may be used: (a) When differences betweeninitial support momentsare less than 20 percentof the' larger moment, and (b) only for internal structureswherethe live load doesnot exceed 2.5 times the permanent load (qk ~ 2.5gk) or 0.8 times the deadload for externalstructures(qk ~ 0.8gk). In other caseseither Method II or other more accurate methodsshall be used. (2) ~I'~n Method I is used, dimensioningis nC!rmallycarriedout either using: (a) Initial moments directly, or (b) basedon the averageinitial momentat the support. .
.
110 EBCS 2 1995 'w
APPENDIX A: ANAL YSiSOF~ Table AI Bending Moment Coemclents fqr R~gular with Provision for Torsion at Comers Panels Supported on Four SI~
.!.!
Support Condition
..~ 1.2
r~~~1 ~'m~77/77~
~ ~
0.063 0.048
0.032 0.024
t~~1 ~77~7~
~ ~
0.048 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.063 0.067 0.036 0.039 0.041 0.043 0.047 0.050
0.039 0.029
~ ~
0.039 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.073 0.082 0.089 0.030 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.062 0.067
0.039 0.030
I/////////~ L~
~ ~
0.047 0.056 0.063 0.069 0.074 0.078 0.087 0.093 0.036 0.042 0.047 0.051 0.055 0.059 0.065 0.070
0.047 0.036
0
0
~ ~:
0.046 0.050 0.054 0.057 0.060 0.062 0.067 0.070 0.034 0.038 0.040 0.043 0.045' 0.047 0.050 0.053
0.034
::
O.~OO
~:::
I//~//""""""'I~ L_~J
~ ~:
0.057 0.065 0.071 0.076 0.081 0.084 0.092 0.098 0.043 0.048 0.053 0.057 0.060 0.063 0.069 0.074
0.044
~ 8
~ ~~
""
0.044
0.054
0.063
0.071
0.078
0.084
0.096
0.105
0.058 0.044
I I
~ 9
I I
~""
0.056
0.056
A.3.3.3 Method11
(1) In this method considerationof the effects of changesof support momentsis limited to the adjacent spans. Since no effects on neighboring support sectionsneedbe c.onsidered, only a simple balancing operationis required at eachedgeand no iterative processis involved.
,
(2) The procedurefor applying Method II, is as follows: (a) Supportand span momentsare first calculatedfor individual panelsby assuming each panelto be fully loaded. This is done by using the coefficientsgiven in Table AI as describedin Section A.3.2. (b) The unbalancedmomentis distributed using the momentdistributionmethod. The relative stiffness of eachpanel shall be taken proportional to its gross momentof inertia divided by the smallerspan. (c) If the support momentis decreased, the span momentsn1:v and ~ are then increased to allow for the changesof supportmoments. This increaseis calculatedas being equalto the changeof the 3upportmomentmultiplied by the factors given in Table A2. If a support momentis increased,no adjustmentshall be madeto the spanmoments. A.3.4 Elastic Values of Support Moments (1) The abovemethodsgive averagevalues of supportmoments. In caseswhere maximum elastic moments ' should be considered(e.g. in watertight structures),elastic theory must be used. A.3.S wads on Supporting Beams (1) The designloadson beams supportingsolid slabs spanningin two directions at right anglessupporting uniformly distributed loads may be assessed from the following equations:
Vx = .Bvx(gd + qJLx Vy = .Bvy(gd + qJLx (A.5) (A.6)
(2) Table A3 gives values of load transfer coefficients.The assumed distribution of the load on a supportingbeam is shown in Fig. A5. (3) The designload on a beamdetermined in accordance with (1) and (2) above, may be taken as the maximum shear in the slab at the center of support.II
'I
112 EBCS2 7995 ~
"
~ILa
L,I Lx 1"~._~.'Iy'.~
Cx C,
~Lx
t,
Cx c,
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
0.380 0.356 0.338 0.325 0.315 0.305 0.295 0.285 0.274 0.258 0.238
0.280 0.220 0.172 0.135 0.110 0.094 0.083 0.074 0.066 0.060 0.055
0.280 0.314 0.344 0.373 0.398 0.421 0.443 0.461 0.473 0.481 0.484
0.380 0.374 0.364 0.350 0.331 0.310 0.289 0.272 0.258 0.251 0.248
EBCS 2 1995
I
I ,
,
~ 'c" ';;I~ ;;~'c ft" ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL ~USE OF CONCRETE ~
Table A3 Shear Force Coefficients for Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Panels Supported on Four Sides with Provision for Torsion at Corners
and location
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.75
2.0
'Continuous
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.33
0
2
Continuous Discontinous
0.36
0.39
0.42
0.44
0.45
0.47
0.50
0.52
0.36 0.24
~"~~ ~=J
Continuous Discontinous
0.36 0.24
0.40 0.27
0.44 0.29
0.47 0.31
0.49 0.32
0.51 0.34
0.55 0.36
0.59 0.38
0.36 
F~~~ L__~_J
Continuous Discontinous
0.40 0.26
0.44 0.29
0.47 0.31
0.50 0.33
0.52 0.34
0.54 0.35
0.57 0.38
0.60 0.40
0.40 0.26
r~~1 ~,?:~??~
~ontin~ous Discontmous
0.40
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.26
Q
D
0.26
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.44
0.47
0.40 
Continuous Discontinous
0.45 0.30
0.48 0.32
0.5I 0.34
0.53 0.35
0.55 0.36
0.57 0.37
0.60 0.39
0.63 0.41
0.30
Continuou!l Discontinous 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48
0.45 0.30
Di~l.'onti/1ou!l
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.33
V.
A
~
f1~ure A.5 Distrihution
~+~Wt+1~
L
A
~
~~..
.GG~ (il;;
.APPENDIX
.,
t ti
c
(1) The provision 'given in this chapterare for the design of flat slabs supported by a generallyrectangular arrangement of columnsand where the ratio of the longer to the shorter spansdoes not exceed 2. A.4.2 Definitions
; i\
r f
11
!
#
(1) Column strip is a design strip with a width on eachside of a columncenterlineequal to O.25Lxor if drops with dimensionnot lessthan L,.tI3areusoo..a width equal to the drop dimension. (2) Middle strip is a designstrip boundeAi by two column.strips. (3) The division of panels in flat slabsinto columnInd middle strip is illustrated in Fig. A6. A.4.3 Analysis or Flat Slab Structur~
1 ,
A.4.3.1 General .(1)
.;
; I
f
:
V
A flat slab including supportingcolumnsor walls may be analyzed using the equivalentframe method (Se..."'tion A.4.3.2) or. where applicable.the simplifioo method(Section~.4.3.3). (2) For both methodsof analysis.the negative moments gr~ than thoseat a distance h)2 from the centerlineof the column may be ignoroo providoo the momentMoobtainedas the sum of the maximum positive design momentand the averageof the negativedesignmomentsin anyone spanof the slab for the whole panel width is suchthat:
Mo ~ (gtl + qtl)I.z(Li ~;. (A.1)
1. !
\
I ! I ; ! I ,
where Li is the panel length parallel to span, measured from centersof columns Lz is the panelwidth. measuroofrom centersof columns hc is the effective diameterof a column or columnhead(see (3) below). I
I
I i \ ;!
;
Wh.en the above condition is not satisfioo,the negativedesign momentsshall be increas.ed. (3) The effective diametc;c of a columnor column headhc is the diameterof a circle whoseareaequalsthe
.I crosssectional area of the column or. if column heads are used, the area of the column heOO basoo on the 1 ,
l
! I
effective dimensionsas defined.in (4) below. In no caseshall hcbe takenas greaterthan onequarter of the
shortest span framing into the column.
(4) The
effective
dimensions
of a column
are limit~
,,. t
.according
.~E;
to the depthof the head. In any direction, the effective dimensionof a headL~ shall betaken as
EBCS 2 7995 115
1 ':~
c:j
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
I I
Middle
"tI
\ I
Lx ~
I I I
P
'
Ly
.Dr~p
Ignore DropIf
Dim~n~on<LX/S
,I
Middle S
Ly
Ignore Drop If
Lh. = Lc + 2dh
I
(A.8)
For a flared head, the actual dimensionLhois that measured to tt~ centerof the reinforcing steel(see.Fig.
I
A7). . (5) For the purposesthis sectiona drop may only be considered to influencethe distribution of moments within the slab where the smaller dimensionof the dr.opis at leastone third of the smallerdimensionof the surroundingpanels. Smaller drops may, however, still be takeninto accountwhen assessing the resistance to punchingshear.
.
116 EBCS2 7995
.~
.,/ , ,
Lit.mG.
L~ o ./ /,
~
d..
Lit.mG.
Lho /
~
,," , \ ~
(I) Lh = Lh.mox
, "
':
..
~.I
it! :' ,.
,
;
(III) Ltl8
LtI
Ltlo
(C)
A.4.3.2 EquivalentFrameMethod
(1) The structure may be divided longitudinally and transverselyinto frames consistingof columnsand strips of slab. (2) The width of slab used to define the effective stiffnessof the slab will dependupon the aspectratio of the panelsand the type of loading, but the following provisions maybe applied in the absence of more accuratemethods: (a) In the caseof vertical loading, the full width of the panel, and (b) for lateral loading, half the width of the panel, may be used to calculatethe stiffnessof the slab. (3) The momentof inertia of any sectionof slab or column used in calculatingthe relative stiffnessof membersmay be assumed to be that of the cross sectionof the concretealone. (4) Momentsand forces within a systemof flat slab panels may be obtainedfrom analysisof the structure underthe single load caseof maximum designload on all spansor panelssimultaneously, provided: (a) The ratio of the characteristicimposedload to the characteristicdeadload does not exceed1.25. (b) The characteristicimposedload does not exceed5.0 kN!m2 excludingpartitions. (5) Where it is not appropriateto analyzefor the single load caseof maximum designload on all spans,it will be sufficient to considerfollowing the arrangements of vertical loads: (a) All spansloaded with the maximum designultimate load, and
,
,,_..:..,"'~
!!!
(b) Alternate spanswith the maximum designultimate load and all other spansloadedwith the m~imum designult~ate load (1.0GJ. (6) Each frame may be ~alyzed in its entirety by any elasticmethod. Alternatively, for vertical loadsonly, each strip of floor and roof may be analyzedas a separate frame with the columnsaboveand below fixed in position and direction at their e:x:tremities. In either case,the analysisshall be ~ied out for the'appropriate designultimate loads on eachspan calculatedfor a strip of slab of width equal to the distancebetween centerlines of the panelson eachside of the columns. A.4.3.3 Simplified Method (1) Momentsand shearforces in nonswayflat slab structuresmay be determinedusingTable A4, subject to the conditionsin (2) below. (2) The following limitations shall be observedwhen usingthe simplified method: (a) Designis basedon the single load caseof all spansloaded with the maximumdesignultimate load. (b) There..al'e at leastthree rows of panelsof approximately equalspan in the direction being consid
ered.
(c) Successive spanlength in eachdirection shall not differ by more than onethird of the longerspan. (d) Maximum offsets of columnsfrom either axis betweencenterlines of successive columnsshall not ex~ 10% of the span (in the direction of the offset). Table A4 Bending Moment and Shear Force Coe.fficlentsfor Flat Slabs or Three or More Equal
Spans
Outer support Column Wall Near center of first First interior support Center of interior span Interior support
span
Moment Shear ().O4OFL O.4SF O.O4OFL ().O20FL O.40F O.O22FL O.083fl. O.OOF O.063fl. O.O71FL O.50F O.O22l'I. O.OSSl'I.
Total column
moments
NOTE 1. F is the total design ultimate load on the strip of slab betweenadjacentcolumnsconsidered. 2. L is the effective span = L. 2JJj3. 3. The limitations of Section A.4.3.1(2) neednot be cboc:...ed. 4. The OX)~ts shall not be redistributed.
A.4.3.4 lA'vUion of Moments BetweenColumn and Middle Strips 118 EBCS2 1995
(I) The design momentsobtainedfrom analysi$of the continuousframes using the EquivalentFrame Method (see SectionA.4.3.2) or from Table A4 shall be divided between the columnand middl,estrips in the proportions given in Table A5. Table AS Distributionor ~ign Moments in Pane~ or Flat Slabs
Apportionmentbet;ween column and middle strip expressed as percentages of the total negativeor positive designmoment Column strip (%) Negative Positive
..
75 55
t~~
NOTE: For. the casewhere the width of the colurnn~strip is takenas eq\lal to that of the drop, and the middle strip is therebyincreasedin width, the design momentsto be resistedby the middle strip shall be increasedin proportion to its increasedwidth. The design momentsto be resisted by the column strip may be decreased by an amountsuch that the total positive and the total negativedesign momentsresistedby th~ column strip and middle strip togetherare unchanged.
::i !:~;
'~$ "~
A.4.4.1 General
(1) Details of reinforcementin flat slabs shall be as follows: (a) The reinforcementin flat slabs shall have minimum bend point locationsand extensions for reinforcementas prescribedin Fig. A8. (b) Where adjacentspansare unequal, extensionof negativereinforcement beyondthe face of support as prescribed in Fig. A8 shall be basedon requirements of longer span. (c) Bent bars may be used only when depthtospan ratio permitsuse of bends 450or less. (2) For flat slabs in frames not braced againstsideswayand for flat slabs resistinglateral loads, lengthsof reinforcementshall be determinedby analysisbut shall not be lessthan thoseprescribedin Fig. A8.
A.4.3.
(2) Twothirds of the amountof reinforcementrequired to resistthe negativedesignmoment in the column strip shall be placed in a width equalto half that of the column strip and central with the column. This concentration of reinforcementover the column will increasethe capacityof the slab for transfer of moment the column by flexure (see SectionA.4.4.4)
.to
.
EBCS2 1995 1
I
c.. ~ CJ)~ ir: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CD 9 MINIMUM PERCENTATSECTION
dl
c.. 'CJ) ~ ~ 50 Remainder
*
d
.f. b I'
75 Max.l I
WITH DROPPANELS,
'
el
b.j
~
e
I. b ,I
"
.
.:I:
!:2 ~ c.. ~ ~ ~ ~ 50
iE
~
z 3 2 8
Remainder
c..
50 Remainder
~
,
Max.0.1251
150
I"
dl
*
~
~
UJ
~
z
bi
CD 2 a ~ ~ ~
50 Remainder
0
~
~
:I:
100
ci
<t ~ CD
.
50 0 Ibars).j Max 0 15f ~c . . I Max0151
~ ~ ~ UJ
J
2
a: ~ CJ)
~
~ ~ a
CD Rd emaln er 50 Remainder ~ 50
c..
CJ)
CD
I"
~
~
Z
t:: a
NOTE:
CD Remainder 150
All measurements , In mm
~
c
Clear span.t n
Faceof support
;=f ~ :~~:~j_.t=:
75 Max. 75Max c MINIMUMLENGTH b c d 0221n 030/n
150
=:Ij
Centerto centerspan1 t Interior support Exterior supportt (Continuity provided) (No slob continuity) BARLENGTH FROM FACE OF SUPPORT MAXIMUM LENGTH f Q 020/n 024Jn
I 033ln
.
Figure A8 Minimum Bend Point Locations and Extensiom for Reinforcanent in Flat Sla~
I.ETHIOPIAN 120
EBCS 2 .7995
APPENDIX
A:
ANAL
YSIS
OF
SLABS
A..4.4.3Edgt Panels
(1) The design and moments middle strips shall as be for apportioned an internal and panel. designed exactly as for an internal panel, using the same
column
accordance
4.7.4.
(2) A fraction of the unbalanced moment given 11 by ~ 1 + 1 fj;/i; (A.9)
YOt'OZ
'be slab
considered or drop
by
an
effective
width the
between column as on or
that
are
one
and
one
Concentration
spacing moment
specified the
Section slab
or
reinforcement
be
used
resist
unbalanced
design accordance
for
of
load 4.
from
slab
to
supporting
columns
or
walls
through
shear
and
torsion
shall
(5) width,
As
an m~
to in
(2) the
above, x and
the
slab
may
be
designed
for given
the by
moments A9).
per
unit
y direction,
respectively,
m~
(or
m&iy)
nVSd
(A.
10)
;'
I'
where V Sd is n is the the shear moment force developed coefficient along given in the Table critical A6. section ~
;
il
(6)
In
checking which
the are
corresponding appropriately
resisting anchored
only critical
those
bars
shall
be
taken
into
'j ,\
account,
be analysis transferred of
the
by structure flexure
column (in
accordance moment
larger with
than (2)
and the
M, the
design
edge ~ in the
moment span
in adjusted in
the
slab
shall
be
reduced The
to normal
a value limitations
not
greater on
than
M,."",
and and
the
positive axis
design depth
moments may be
accordingly. case.
redistributions
neutral
disregarded
this
(8) the
in is
excess reinforced
of
M,."", to
may carry
only the
be
to
if by
an
edge torsion.
beam
or
strip
of
slab
along
extra
EBCS 2 1995
~
,
/i
rI
USE OF CONCRETE
..
O.IL;r ~..
.
~ ~
/1
~) m.dy I Iy
Lr ~L
~ La '1
I
_O"'~;~~~~~~~_I
~y
Hgure A9
Bending Moments mSdx and mSdy in SlabColumn Joints subjectea tu Eecentric Loading, anc Effective Width for resisting these Moments
(9) In the absence of an edge beam, an appropriate breadth of slab may be assessedby using the principles illustrated in Fig. AII, for transfer of moments between the slab and an edge or corner column. Table A6 Moment Coefficient n for Equation (A. to)
n for m.w n for msdy
top 0.125
bottom 0
top 0.125
bottom 0
parallel, to xaxis Edge columns edge of slab parallel to yaxis Corner column
0.25
0.15L,
0.125
0.125
(per m)
0.125 0.5
0.125 0.5
(per m) L (per m)
0.25 0.5 L
0 0.5
0.15.Lx (per m)
.4.4.4.5 Panel with Marginal Beams or Walls, (1) Where the slab is supported by a marginal beam with a depth greater than 1.5 times the thickness of the slab, or by a wall then: (a) the total design load to be carried by !he beam or wall shall comprise those loads directly on the wall or beam plus a uniformly distributed load equal to onequarter of the total design load on the panel; and (b) the design moments of the halfcolumn strip adjacent to the beam or wall shall be onequarter of thedesign moments obtainoo from Section A.4.3.
~
122
EBCS2 7995
Wjl
Edge Column
~
Corner
..:~
rr::::;;:::~ .
Section AA
fo!Y
;;_.~YI~lllll~~['\"
I b.
I
~ ~..~ I .Cx+ Y I
.
~ r.JF~
, ."
! 8jf;'
I I ..~ I b. I I I
.
I
18CX+Cy I
fo!Y
}
.~: Figure AII
1
~.~~l.
,~BCS2:1995 123~~ 
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
A.4.S.1General
(1) Exceptfor openingscomplying with Sections A.4.5.2, A.4.5.3 and A.4.5.4, openings~Qall be completely framed on all sides with beamsto carry the loadsto the columns. (2) No openingshall encroach upon a columnhead.
A.4.S.2 Holes in Areas Bounded by Column StripsI
(a) their greatestdimensionin a direction parallel to a centerlineof the paneldoes not exceedO.4L;,
and
j (b) the total positive and negativedesignmoments are redistributedbetween.theremainingstructureto.1 meet the changedconditions.
~ 
(1) Holes in areascommonto two columnstrips may be formed provided: (a) in aggregate their length or width does not exceedonetenthof the width of the columnstrip; (b) the reducedsections are capableof resistingthe appropriatemoments;and (c) the perimeterfor calculatingthe designshearstressis reducedif appropriate.
A.4.S.4 Holes in Areas Common to a Column Strip and a Middle Strip
(1) Holes in areascommonto a column strip a middle may be formed provided: (a) in aggregate their length or width does not exceedone quarter of the width of the columnstrip; and' (b) the reducedsectionsare capableof resistingthe appropriatedesignmoments.
.
124 EBCS 2 1995 .
APPENDIX g.PRESTRESSED
B.1 SCOPE
(1) Provisionsin this chapterapplyto structuralmembers prestress~ with high strengthsteelmeeting the requirementsfor prestressing steelsin SectionB.2.2. (2) All provisions of this Code'not specificallyexcluded,and not in conflict with the provisions of this chapter, are to be considered applicabi~to prestressed concrete. (3) The following provisions shall not apply to prestressedconcrete unless specifically noted: Sections 3.7.8,3.7.9,6.2,7.2.1,7.2.2,7.2.4,7.2.5, and AppendixA.
CONCRETE
.t i ..;, ';
B.2 DATA ON PRFSI'RE5SED STEEL AND PRFSI'RESSING DEVIC~ B.2.1 Prestr~ing Steel
.B.2.1.1
General
(1) This sectionappliesto wires, barsand strandsusedas prestressing tendonsin concretestructures. (2) The require~ents apply to the product in the condition in whtch it is delivered. (3) The methodsof production, the specifiedcharacteristics, the methodsof testingand the methods of attestationof conformity shall be in accordance with relevantStandards for prestressing materials. (4) Each prOduct shall be clearly identifiable with respectto the classification system in Section
B.2.1.2.
(5) Tensile strength (I,), 0.1 % proof str~ (/P>.J and elongation at maximum load (e..) shall be appropriatelyspecified in relevantStandards, and established by standardtests. (6) For steels complying with this Code, tensile strength, 0.1 % proof s.tress,and elongation at maximumload are specifiedin termsof characteristic values;thesevaluesare designated respectively Ipt,IP>.lk and e... B.2..1.2 Classification and Geometry (1) The products(wires, strandsand bars) shall be classified accordingto: (a) Grade, denotingthe value of the0.1 % proof stressifP>.IJandthe value of the tensile strength <f.) in MFa. (b) Class, indicating the relaxationbehavior (c) Size (d) Surfacecharacteristics.
"111111111111.
L.~~::"'~:~..~; 125
(2) Each coMignmentshall be accompanied by a certificatecontaining all the infonnation necessat.y . for its identification with regard to (a) (d) in (1) aboveand additionalinformation where necessary. (3) The actual crosasectionalarea of the productsshall not differ from theil: normal crosssectional area by more than the limits specified in the relevantStandards;
j
l'
wi
, (4) There shall be no welds in wires and bars. Individual wires of strands may containstaggered't4 welds made only before cold drawing.
. (5) For coiled products, after uncoiling a length of wire or strand lying free on a flat surface,.the
maximum bow heiaht.from a baseline of specifiedlength shall be less than the values specified in the relevantStandards. (6) In this Code, three cl~ of relaxationare defined(see SectionB.2.1.5.2)
(a) Class 1 : for wires and strands,high relaxation .(b) Class 2 : for wires and strands,low relaxation (c) Class3 : for bars. : (7) Where required, surfacecharacteristics of prestressing steel shall comply with relevantStandards.
B.2..t.3 PhyliCGl Properties
(1) The following meanvalues may be assumed : (a) Density (b) Coefficient of thermal expansion : 7850 kg/m' : 10 x l06/OC.
~ 
B..1.1.4Mechanical Properties
B.2..1.4.1 Strength
.
(1) The 0.1 % proof stress(f,.oU> arid the specifioovalue of the tensile strength(f,.J are definedastile .characteristic value of the 0.1 ~ proof load and th~ characteristicmaximum load in axial tension respectively,divided by the oominal cross sectional area. (2) Th~ r:atioof the actual maximumload to the specifiedmaximumload shall not exceed the values speci.fi~ relevantStaOOards. B.2.1.4.2. StressStrain DlagrQln (1) Stress~strain diagrams for the products, basedon production data, shall be preparedand made available by the produceras ail annexto the certificateaccompanying the consignment.
; .
(1) 1:heproductsshall have adequate ductility in elongation,as specified in relevantStandards. '\ (2)The productsshall be assumed to haveadequate ductility in bendingif the characteristicelongation of the prestressing steel at maximumload E.. is at least3.5~. ,,
.
~
126
EBCS 2 .1995
APPENDIX B: PRESTRESSEDCONCRETE
(3) Adequate ductility in bending may be assumedif the products satisfy the requirements for bendability of the relevantStandards. 8.2.1.4.4 Modulus ofElasticity (1) A mean value of 200 GPa may be assumed for wires and bars. The actual value can range from 195to 205 GPa, dependingon the manufacturingprocess. (2) A value of 190 GPa maybe assumed for strand.The actualvalue canrangefrom 175 to 195 GPa, dependingon the manufacturingprocess.Certificatesaccompanying the consignment should give the appropriatevalue. 8.2.1.4.5 Fatigue (1) The products shall have adequate fat,iguestrength. (2) For fatigue requirementsof prestressing steel refer to relevantStandards. B.2.1.4.6 MultiAxial Stresses (1) The behavior of the productsunder multiaxial stresses shall be adequate. (2) Adequa,tebehavior under multiaxial stresses may be assumed if the products satisfy the ,.. requirementS specified in the relevantStandards. B.2.1.5 Technological Properties B.2.1.5.1 Surface Condition (1) The products shall be free from defectswhich could impair their performanceas prestressing
...,,'1
,,~~'" o',..,~ ,
tendons.
(2) Longitudinal cracks need not be consideredas defects if their depth is less than the values specified in relevant Standards.
B.2.1.5.2 Relaxation
(1) The products shall be classifiedfor relaxationpurposes,accordingto the maximum percentages of loss of stress. B.2.1.5.3 Susceptibilityto StressCorrosion (1) The products shall have an acceptablylow level of susceptibilityto stresscorrosion. (2) The level of susceptibilityto stresscorrosion may be assumed to be acceptablylow if the products comply with the criteria specified in relevantStandards.
EBCS 2 1995
127
.
B.2.2 PrestressingDevi~ B.2.2.1 Anchoragesand Couplers .
B.2.2.1.1 General
'(I) This section applies to anchoriIfg devices (anchorages) and coupling device;" (couplers)for applicationin posttensioned construction,where: , (a) Anchorages are used to transmitthe forces in tendonsto the concretein the anchorage zone; (b) Couplersare used to connectindividual lengthsof tendonto make continuous tendons. " .G) The performance requirements, the methodsof testingandthe methodsof attestation of confonnity "shall be defined in relevant, Standards. " (3) In establishing performancerequirements,considerationshall be given to : (a) The relative efficiency of the tendon anchorage/coupler assemblyin comparingthe actual value of the failure load of the assemblywith that of the tendon. (b) The elongationof the anchored/coupled tendonat failure. (c) The fatigue strengthof the anchored/coupled tendon. (d) The load which can be transferred by the anchorageto the concrete, taking accountof the location of the anchoragein the crosssection, the spacingbetweenanchorages, the concrete strengthand the reinforcementin the anchorage zone. Requirementsfor the use of anchorages and couplers, shall be defined in technical approval documents.Detailing of anchorage zones shall comply with SectionsB.5 and B.6. (5) When defining test methods, considerationshall be given totwo modes of testing' (a) Mode a : when components of known geometryand material specificationhave beentaken at random out of production or form stock.I (b) Mode b : when components have beenselectedby the producerof the components or when prototype anchorages or couplersare to be tested. B.2.2.1.2 Mechanical Properties (1) Tendonanchorage assemblies and tendoncoupler assemblies shall have strength, elongationand fatigue characteristics sufficient to meetthe basic requirementsof Chapter3. (2) This may be assumed if : (a) The geometryand material characteristics of the anchorage and coupler components are such that their prematurefailure is precluded. (b) The elongationat failure of the assemblies is not excessive. (c) Tendonanchorage assemblies are not located in otherwisehighlystressed zones. For the fatigue requirements of anchorages and couplers, refer to relevantStandards. (3) The strengthof the anchorage devicesand zonesshall be adequate for the transfer of the tendon
force to the concrete and the formation of the anchorage. of cracks in the anchorage zone does not impair the function .
f ~
~
~ .
.(4) I I
I I
I
(a) The strengthof the anchorage devicesexceeds the characteristicbreakingload of the tendon, either under static loading conditionsor a limited numberof load cycles. (b) The detailing provisions of this Code are met.
i;
documents .
(5) Sheathsshould consist of adequate materialsas specified in relevantStandards.
(2) For the evaluationof local effects(anchorage zones, bursting pressure) an effort equivalentto the ultimate characteristicstrengthshall be applied to the tendons(see SectionB.4.3). (3) For the verification of the designof prestressed elements,the 'Ypvalues in Table B.I should generally be used. However, for the evaluationof the combined effectsof prestressing and of selfweight, reduced values of partial safety factors, which do not include allowances for analytical .uncertainty, may be used (e.g. 'Yp= 1.0 and 'Yo= 1.2).1111111111111
:8.4 ANALYSIS (1) All provisions in Chapter4 shall applyto prestressed concretemembers. B.4.1 Pr~~ed Slabs
,
(2) Regardless of the type of tendons used(e.g. bondedor unhanded),the contactforces due to the curvature and friction of the tendonsand the forces acting on the anchorage devicesmay be treated as externalloads in the serviceability limit states. (3) For the ductility classificationof prestressed tendonssee SectionB.2.1.4.3(3). (4) Plastic analysisshould not be applied to memberswhere pretensionedtendonsare used,unless j'ustified. B.4.2. Anchorage Zon~ ror PostTensioningForces (1) Suchzones, which are subjectedto concentrated for~, account of: shall be analyzedand designedto take
(a) the overall equilibrium of the zone; (b) the transverse tensile effectsdue to the anchorages, individually and as a whole; (c) compression struts, which develop in the anchor~e zone of posttensioned members,and local bearingstresses underthe anchorages. (2) Suchzones in posttensioned membersmay be designedusing the methods given in Section B.4.2.3 or by using adequate strut and tie modelsbasedon Section3.8.1.3. (3) Threedimensional models should be considered,where the dimensionsof the bearingareaare small comparedwith the crosssection of the anchorage zone. (4) The detailing requirements of Chapter7 generally, and SectionB.#;5 andB.6.7.1 in particular, shall be met. B.4.3 Determination or the Effects or Pr~~ing B.4.3.1 General , (1) This sectionrelatesto structureswhere prestress is provided by fully bondedinternal tendons. (2) The effects to be considered are: , (a) Local effects aroundanchorages and where tendonschange uection. (b) Direct effects in determinatestructures. (c) Direct and secoooary indirect effectsdue to reduooant restraints in indeterminate structures. (3) For memberscontainingpermanently unbonded tendonsrefer to relevantStandards. (4) Memberscontainingtendonswhich are temporarilyunbondedduring constructionmay be treated using simplified assumptions.In general, they may be treated as members with bondedtendons, 130 EBCS1 1995
. 
"""",)"
APPENDIX
8:
PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE
0
except
that
at
the
ultimate
limit
state.
The
stress
in
tendons
is
assumed
not
to
have
increased
due
to
.!
loading.
':I.".,
..
8.4.3.1. DtttrMinQtjo. of Prestressing Force i
.
is given by (a) or (b) below. whichever is appropriate: t
(1)
The
mean
value
of
the
prestressing
force
\
(a) For preterisioned members! "
I
p.., = Po fjp. fjp,(t) fjp,.(x) (B. 1) ,I
fjp
.(x)
may
require
consideration
where
deflected
tendons
are
use.
(b)
For
posttensioned
members
p..,
Po
fjp
fjp
,.(x)
fjp..l
fjp,(t)
(B.2)
where
p..,
is
the
mean
value
of
the
prestressing
at
time
and
at
particular
point
along
the
member
Po
is
the
initial
force
at
the
a;tive
end
of
the
tendon
immediately
after
stressing.
fjp
,.(x)
is
the
loss
due
to
friction
fjp
..1
is
the
loss
due
to
anchr
I.'age
slip
fjp
is
the
loss
due
to
elastic
deformation
of
the
member
at
transfer
'
fjp,(t)
is
the
loss
due
to
creep.
shrinkage
and
relaxation
at
time
t.
(2)
For
limits
on
the
initial
prestress
and
methods
of
calculating
losses,
see
Section
B.5.
For
.transmission
lengths
and
the
dispersion
of
prestress.
see
Section
B.5.5.
.(3)
For
serviceability
calculations.
allowance
shall
be
made
for
possible
variations
in
prestress.
Two
characteristic
values
of
the
prestressing
force
at
the
serviceability
limit
state
are
estimated
from:
~.
1,.,..,
",'
(B.3)
P1,i./ =ri./P...,
where
Pt
,.,
and
P1,.,..
are
respectively
the
upper
and
lower
characteristic
values.
p..,
is
the
mean
prestressing
force
estimated
using
the
mean
'values
for
the
deformation
properties
and
the
losses
calculated
in
accordance
with
Section
B.5.
and
r.,..
may
be
taken
as
1.1
and
0.9
respectively
in
absence
of
more
rigorous
determination
and
provided
that
the
sum
of
the
losses
due
to
friction
and
time
dependent
effects
is
30%
of
the
initial
prestress.
,',
(4)
The
values
of
p..,
which
will
generally
be
used
in
design
are
I.
f~I
..0
is
the
initial
prestress
at
time
II
:'
P.
is
the
prestress
after
occurrence
of
all
losses
..
(5)
At
the
ultimate
limit
state
the
design
value
of
prestress
is
given
by:
Ii
".'
(B.
4)
.
v
(6)
Values
for
'Yp
are
given
in
Table
B.l.
EBCS
1995
131
I ;!
f.
,.
..
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
, ,
(7) For considering local effects at the ultimate limit state, the prestressing force shall be taken as equal to the characteristic strength of the tendons. (8) This applies when checking the influence of concentrated forces or bursting effects at anchorages or where tendons change direction Section B.5
B.4.3.4 Effects of Prestressingat the Ultimate Limit States B.4.3.4.1 Structural AnalysisLinear Methods
(1) Statically determinate and indeterminate effects of prestress shall be calculated using the t1.ppropriateultimate design value of the prestressing force. (2) In linear structural analysis 'Ypmay be taken as 1.0. (3) Where linear analysis with redistribution is used the moments to which the redistribution is applied shall be calculated including any statically indeterminate effects of prestress.
tendons.
132
If the conditions are not met, the lower value of 'Ypgiven in Table B.1 should be applied to all
EBt;$ 2 1995
"
"
,,&
1; 7~
.,
APPENDIX B: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE (4) For the effects of inclined tendons, see Section B.5.5.8. (5) Any indirect prestres,c.ing moments due to redundant rf..8traints should be taken at uleir characteristic values.
i ,Ji
: ";1
.'
! 'i~
,I !
temperature.
(4) The effects of steam curing may be taken into account by means of simplified assumptions. (5) The following assumptions may be adoptoo to give an acceptable estimate of the behavior of a concrete section if the stresses are kept within the limits corresponding to the normal serviceI conditions ;I .(a) (c) creep and shrinkage are independent (b) a linear relationship is assumed between creep and the stress causing the creep nonuniform temperature and moisture effects are neglected (d) the principle of superposition is assumedto apply for actions occurring at different ages (e) the above assumptionsalso apply to concrete in tension
i
(6) For the evaluation of the time dependent losses of prestress, the effects of creep, shrinkage and relaxation of the tendons shall be taken into account (see Section B.5.5). (7) The creep function is given by the relationship:
;
1
\ .
'
i
J(t, to) = where to t J(t,t.,) Ee(t) Ee2I <P(I.Io) Values 1/Ee(to) + <p(t,.fo)IEe2I (B.5) is the time at initial loading o{ the concrete is the time considered is the creep function at time t is the tangent modulus of elasticity at time to is the tangent modulus of elasticity at 28 days is the creep coefficient related to the elastic deformation at 28 days \. : i
of
are given in C~lapter 2 for final creep coefficients cP for typical situations. It should be noted, however, that the definitions of Ee(lo) and Ee2S above, differ from that in Section 2.5 where the secantmodulus Ee.is defined. Hence, where the creep coefficients Table 2.6 are used in connection with Ee(toJand Ee.,respectively, and where creep deformations are significant, the values of Table 2.6 should be multiplied by 1.05.
.
EBCS 2 1995 133
(8) On die basis of the assumptions listed in (5) above, the total strain for concrete subjected to initial loidiDa at time t. with a stress 0'0and subjected to subsequent stress variations ~O'(tJ at time tl may be exp~ed as follows: E.(t.t..} = f,.(t) + 0'0J(t.t) + E J(t.tJ~O'(tJ (B.6) In this expression E~(t)denotes an imposed deformation independent of the stresses (e.g. shrinkage, temperature effects).
(9) ~or the purpose of structural analysis, Eq. B.6 may be written as follows: E.(t,t.)
.Ec(t.)
[~
+ x~
Fc28
(B.7)
where the ageing coefficient x depends on the development of strain with time. (10) In normal cases, x may be taken as 0.8. This simplification is good in the case of pure relaxation of the effects of a constant imposed deformation but is also adequate in cases where onlyI long tenD effects are considered., (II) If the stresses in the concrete only vary slightly, the deformations may be calculated using anI effective modulus of elasticity:I Ec.,ff = Ec(to)/(1 + ltI(t.to (B.8) For the notation see (7) above.I j B.5. SECTION AND MEMBER D~IGN I
.I
B.5.1 ~tresing
Steel: General
(1) Data on material properties given in this section are either representative values, correspondingI to the relevant steel grade specified in appropriate Standards, or are idealizations suitable for design
purposesII
(2) In general, the properties specified are those given in Section B.2.1.1(5) or other appropriateI
Standards.
II
(3) Unless stated otherwise, design shall be based on a specified grade, represented by itsI characteristic 0.1 % proof stress ifP>.IJ.I (4) All types of prestressing steel specified in Section B.2.1, which satisfy the mechanical, physical and technological requirements or other relevant Standards may generally be used in design, in accordance with the data given below, unless greater accuracy is required. B.5.2 Physical Properties or Prestressing Steel ~
(1) The values given in Section B.2.1.3 may be used as design data. They may be assumed to be valid in the range from 2O"C to 200"C.
APPENDIX
8: PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE
.B.S.3
B.S.3.1 Strength
(1) For all types of prestressing steelthe values for /p}.\k' E and/pi shall be defined. (2) Relevantproperties for definedtypes and gradesof steel may be takenfrom relevantStandards. For other types of steel, the propertiesare to be confirmedby. technicalapprovaldocuments. (3) Design calculationsmaybe basedon the nominal size or the nominal crosssectional areaof the prestressing steel.
B.S.3.2 Modulus of FJasticity
l
i
(1) The values givep in SectionB.2.1.4.4 apply. B.S.3.3 StressStrain Diagram (1) The generalductility requirements shall be in accordance with SectionB.2.1.4.3 and as specified in relevant Standards.
:
(2) An idealizedbilinear diagramis given in Fig. B1. This diagramis valid for temperatures from 200Cto 200"C.
.r:'
a
1" 11
'" )!
.I ~! c
~'1 i
:) ,} ~ "i
..
.1:.
'"
Ok ,'!~ O.g'Ok '. .I
".
Ideallsed
0.91' gk
~ design I
 'Ok
~s
I /,
e..200kN/mm2
,
i
t
uk Eo t
"
i
(3) Figure B1 may generallybe used for overall analysis,local verifications and the checkingof section capacity. (4) Figure B1 may be modified, e.g with a flatter or horizontal top branch, for local verificatlol~ or sectiondesign. (5) Designvalues for the steelstressare derivedfrom the idealizedcharacteristic diagramby' dividing 'Y.,the partial factor for prestressing steel(see SectionB.3.2)
2 7995 135
(
I
.by
E8CS
I
f
i
i ! ;1
r'
.APPENDIX
B: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
.B.S.3
B.S.3.1 Strength
(1) For all types of prestressingsteelthe valuesfor /~.1k' E,. and/pi shall be defined. (2) Relevantproperties for definedtypes and gradesof steelmay be taken from relevantStandards. For other types of steel, the propertiesare to be confirmed by technicalapprovaldocuments. .,
,
(3) Design calculationsmay be basedon the nominal size or the nominal crosssectional area of the prestressing steel. B.S.3.2 Modulus of Elasticity (1) The values givep in SectionB.2.1.4.4 apply. B.S.3.3 StressStrain Diagram (1) The generalductility requirements shall be in accordance with SectionB.2.1.4.3 and as specified in relevantStandards. (2) An idealizedbilinear diagramis given in Fig. B1. This diagramis valid for temperatures from 200Cto 200"C.
: i i
.
.~
0"
0'9' Dk
0.9"
,
i
,'
,
idealised
Dk'"
Dk
design
I ~s
'Dk
"
e. .200kN/mm2
uk Eo
1
i
\
1 "
(3) Figure B1 may generallybe used for overall analysis,local verifications and the checkingof sectioncapacity. (4) Figure B1 may be modified, e.g with a flatter or horizontal top branch, for local veriticat1ol~ or sectiondesign. (5) Designvalues for the steelstressare derivedfrom the idealizedcharacteristic diagramby.dividing 'Y.,the partial factor for prestressing steel(see SectionB.3.2)
2 1995 135
.by
EBCS
I
r
i i,
.
(6) For sectiondesign, either of the following assumptions may be made: (a) a horizontal top branch to the designcurve in Fig. B1, the stress in the prestressing steelis limited to 0.9 f..I'"(; with no limit to the steel strain, although in some cases it may be convenientto assume a limit. (b) an inclined top branch, with the increasingsteelstrain limited to .0.01. .
B.5.3.4 Ductility
(l)Tbe provisions of SectionB.2.1.4.3 shall apply. (2) For structural analysis,if not statedotherwise,posttensioned tendonsmay be assumed ashaving high ductility: pretensionedtendonsare assumed as having normal ductility.
B.5.3.5 Fatigue
~ (1) For fatigue requirementsfor prestressing steel, refer to relevant standards.
nominal diameter Single wire or strand, deflected after tensioning Single wire or strand, tensionedin smoothduct Single wire or strand, tensionedin ribbed duct 15 20 40
Multi wire or strand tendon Precedingvalues multiplied by n1/~ to num er 0 wires or stran sine ten on ~ = numberof wires or strandstransferringthe radial force of all wires or strandsin the tendonto the deviator (seeFig. B2).
136
EBCS 2 .1995
}
APPENDIX B: PRESTRESSEDCONCRETE
., .",
"
\,
,;'r
~:.t.
~, ,"!
i
l'igure B3 Example or n1/~ value in Table B2 (in this case n1/~ = 7/3 8.5.4 Technological Properties or Prestressing Steel
t
8.5.4.1 Relaxation
.of
(1) Certificates accompanying the consignments shall indicatethe class and relevant relaxation data the prestressingsteel (see SectionB.2.1.5 and relevantstandards). (2) For designcalculations,the valueswhich maybe taken into accountfor lossesat 1000h are either given in the certificate or thoseassumedin Fig. B3 for the three classesof steelshown. The long term values of the relaxationlossesmay be assumed to be three times the relaxationlossesafter 1000h. (3) An indication of how relaxationlossesincreasebetween01000 hours is given in Table B.3. Table B.3 Indication or Relationship Between Relaxation Lossesand Time up to 1000 hours Time in hours Relaxationlossesas percentagesof lossesafter 1000hours I 5 20 100 200 500 1000
those
15
25
35
55
65
85
100
(4) Relaxationat temperatures of the structureover 20"C will be higher than given in Fig. B4. This may affectbuilding structuresin hot climates,power plants, etc. If necessary the producershould be askedto include relevant information in the certificate SectionB.2.1.2(2). " , ..those (5) Shorttermrelaxationlossesat a temperatureof the structure exceeding 6QOC can be 2 to 3 times at 200C. However, in general, heatcuring, over a short per;'Jd, may be considered to have no effect on long term relaxationresults(see SectionB.5.5.5). 8.5.4.2 Susceptibilityto StressCorrosion
EBCS 2 1995
137
i' ,
USE OF CONCRETE
.
It.O CI... I CWlr..)
I.
,
. . .
!
.4
..0 4.
I. .0 Initial St~ (~I I .0
.I
(I) For temperature dependent behaviour refer to relevant Standards on Fire Resistance. B.5.5 Design of Members in Prestressed Concrete
B.5.5.1 General
(1) This section relates to structures where prestress is provided by fully bonded internal tendons. .(2) t The effects of prestressing to beconcrete considered include: (a) minimum requirements for classes (Section B.5.5.2) (b) minimum requirements for prestressing units (Section B.5.5.3), (c) determination of the relevant prestressing force (Section B.4.2)I (d) initial prestressing force section (Section B.5.5.4)I (e) loss of prestress (Section B.5.5.5)I (t) transfer of prestressing forces and anchorage zone design for pretensioned members sectionI (Section B.5.5.6) (g) anchorage zones in posttensioned members (Section B.5.5.7) (3) The provisions Section B.4.3 should be applied in all calculations relating to the effects of prestress both in global and local analysis and in section design for the ultimate and serviceability limit states. B.5.5.2 Minimum Strength Class for Prestressed Concrete
.
.
(1) The minimum class for posttensioned members is C30, and for pretensioned members is C40. B.5.5.3 Minimum Number of Prestressing Units in Isolated Structural Elements
(1) Isolated prestressed concrete members shall contain in the precompressed tensile zone a minimum number of prestressing units in order to ensure that, with an adequate reliability, a failure of a certain number of bars, wires or tendons does not lead to a failure of the member.
.
APPENDIX B: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
.(2)
Item (1) above applies to structural prestressed members in which no additional loadcarrying capacity due to redistribution of internal forces and moments, transverse redistribution of loads or due to other measures (e.g normal steel reinforcement) exists. (3) The requirement of (1) above may be considered to be met if the minimum number of bars,wires or tendons given in Table B.4 is provided. Table B.4 assumes equal diameters of all bars, wires or
tendons.
(4) The requirement may also be assumed to be satisfied if at least one strand with seven or more wires (wire diameter ~ 4.0 rom) is provided in the isolated member. (5) If the actual number of bars, wires or tendons in the isolated member is less than the values given in Table B.4, adequate reliability against failure should be demonstrated. Table B.4: Minimum Number of Bars, Wires and Tendons in the PreCompressed Tensile Zone
of Isolated Members Type of Units Individual bars and wires Bars and wires, forming a strand or a tendon Minimum number 3 7 3
.
.(1)
Tendons except strands (see Item (4) above) B.5.5.4 Initial Prestressing Force
The initial prestressing force shall be determined in accordance with Section B.4.3, which also lists relevant factors affecting loss of prestress. (2) The maximum force applied to a tendon Po (i.e, the force at the active end, immediately after stressing, x = 0, see section B.4.3.2) shall not exceed Ap.C1o.max, where: Ap is the crosssectional area of the tendon C1o.max is the maximum stress applied to the tendon C10.~~ 0.80 fpt or ~ 0.90 fpO.J;.' whichever is the lesser
(B.9)
(3) The prestressing force applied to the concrete immediately after tensioning (posttensioning) or after transfer (pretensioning), i.e, PInO = ApC1pno, shall not exceed the lesser of the forces determined from: ApC1pno = 0.75fpt Ap' or 0.85/p OoJ;.Ap (B. 10)
where C1pno is the stress in the tendon immediately after tensioning or transfer. (4) For pretensioned members, P"',0' in (3) above, is calculated from Eq.(B.13) below: P""o = Po APc fj.lr (APIJ. (x)) where APc' and APIJ.(X) are defined in Section B.4.3.2. is the shortterm relaxation loss. (B.11)
.APlr
EBCS 2 1995
139
(5) For posttensioned members,P111.0 is calculatedfrom Eq.(B.14) below. p111.0 ==Po ~p II M c Mp.(x) (6) Methods for evaluatingMJI, MIr'~c and 4PjJ.(x) are given in SectionB.5.5.5.
(7) The minimum concrete strength required at the time of tensioningor stress transfer shall be If; ~ indicated in technical approval documentsfor the prestressingsystem concerned. Where such documents do not exist, requirementsconcerningreliability and performanceshould be considered.
~c
(8) 1)e limiting values of (2) and (3) above are generally valid; they may be modified, however, depending on a number of factors, e.g.
~,\
whether it is possibleto replacea damaged tendon, the consequences of the fracture of a tendons,in particular dangerto humanlife. the stresslevels in the concretedue to prestressing the grade of steel and type of tendonused, whether or not the tendonsare subsequently bonded, the time when the grout is injected into the ducts, the possibility of achievingthe required prestressing force in the tendon by overstressing when unexpectedlyhigh friction is met: in this exceptionalcase,the maximuminitial force Po may be increasedto 0.95/p O.l~p.
.
140 EBCS 2 1995 M


.For
posttensioning, a progressiveloss occurs when tendonsare not stressed simultaneously.Where gre<\teraccuracyis not required, this should be calculatedon the basis of half the product of the modular ratio and the stressin the adjacentconcreteaveragedalongthe lengthof the tendon.~. (7) The shorttermrelaxationloss (4P,,), which occurs in pretensioning between stressing the tendons and transferring the stressto the concret.e, should be estimatoousingthe data in sectionB.5.4.1. (8) The loss of prestressin posttensioned tendonsdue to friction [APJl.(x)] may be estimated from: APJl.(x) = PD(1 e"'" + LzJ) (B.13)
where p. is the coefficient of friction betweenthe tendons and their ducts 8 is the sum of the angular displacements over a distancex (irrespectiveof direction or k is an unintentionalangUlardisplacement (per unit length)relatedto the profile of the
sign)
tendons.
p. dependson the surfacecharacteristics of the tendonsand the duct, on the presence of rust, on the elongationof the tendonand on the tendonprofile. In the absence of more exactdata, for tendoI1S which fill about50% of the duct, the following valuesfor ,~maybe ~.ssumoo, when using
Eq.(B15).
.deformed
Values for k shouldbe given in technical approvaldocuments,and will generallybe in the range 0.005 < k < 0.01 per meter. The value depends on the quality of workmanship,on the distance betweentendonsupports,on the type of duct or sheathemployed,and on the degreeof vibration \.\Sed in placing the concrete. The aboverecommended values for It and k are meanvalues. The actualvaluesused in design may be .increased or decreased, depending on standardsof control, workmanship, speci3l precautions,etc., provided that the selectedvaluescan bejustified. (9) Time dependent lossesshould be calculated from:
Aa .Es{t, t.)Es + 4a,.. + nf>(t, t)(acI +0"'1KJ)
p.c'
A 1 + n2[(1 AC
(B14)
is the variation of stressin the tendons due to creep,shrinkageand relaxation at locationx, at time t. is the estimatedshrinkagestrain, derived from the values in Table 2.7 for shrinkage.
n
E. Ecwo 4a,.. .may
is EjE..
is the modulus of elasticity for the prestressing steel, taken nom Section B.2.1.4.4. is the modulusof elasticity for the concreteTable 2.5 is the variation of stress in the tendonsat sectionx due to relaxation. This be derived from Fig. B.4 for a ratio of Initial stress/characteristic tensile stress,(a/l.) calculatedfrom: EBCS2 1995 141
.""..,
'I "'
FOR STRUCTURAL
USE OF CONCRETE
(B. IS)
where 0'". is the initial stressin the tendonsdue to prestress and permanent actions. For simplificatiQnand conservatively,the secoooterm in Eq.(B.1S) may be ignored. For normal buildings, 0', may be takenas 0.85 0',.., ~(t. a creep coefficient, as defined in Section 2.S.4 due to selfweightaOO 0'., tj is is the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons, anyother permanentactions. O'cpois the initial stress in the concreteadjacentto the teooons,due to prestress. A, is the area of all the prestressing tendonsat the level being considered. A~ is the area of the concretesection. I~ is the secondmomentof area of the concretesection. Zqo is the distancebetweenthe centerof gravity of the concretesectionandthe tendons. In using Eq.(B.14), an assumed value of total loss will be required initially, to permit the term 4tl".. on the right hand side to be evaluated(this term depends on the level of final prestress). An iterative processis therefore necessaryto solve and balancethe two sidesof Eq.(B.14). (10) The loss of prestresscalculatedin accordance with aboveshouldbe addedto that determinedby above to assess the final prestress (PRa). It is important to rememberthat these proceduresare approximate,and may be adjustedto suit particular materials, stressingor designconditions.
(11) The design procooures to take account of the effects of prestress should be in accordance with Section B.4.3. ~
8.5.5.6 Anchorage Zones of PretensionedMemben (1) Where tensile forces can occur, they shouldbe carrioo by additional reinforcement. (2) A distinction has to be made (seeFig. B4(a between:
(a) TransmissionlengthI.. over which the prestressing force (PJ from a pretensionoo tendon is fully transmittoo to the concrete. (b) Dispersion length i 4' over which the concrete stresses gradually disperse to a linear distribution acrossthe concretesection. (c) anchoragelength I., over which the ultimate tendonforce (F"..) in pretensionoo membersis fully transmittoo to the concrete. (3) The transmissionlength I. is infIuencooby the size and type of tendon, the surface condition of the tendon, the concretestrength, the degreeof compaction of the concrete. Values should be basoo on experimental data or experience with the type of tendon to be usoo. For design purposes,i" Fig. B4(b) the transmissionlength is deflnoo as a multiple of the nominal diameter (fj of the strand or wire.
I. = fJ.fj>
(B.16) .
For strandshaving a crosssectional area ~ 100mm2,and for indentedwires with diameter ~ 8 IDID, all complying with surface characteristics specifioo in relevantstandards and tensionooaccordingto the values given in SectionB.5.5.4, the fJ. valuesgiven in Table B.5 may be adoptoo. The concrete strength takenshould be that at the momentof transfer. Where the use of ribboo wires is proposoo,
~
142
EBCS 2 1995
, 0
..
~
.Table
with diameter ~ 12 mm, valua for ~. Ib(MI1dbe baled on tat do; B.S may be adOpted.
aD
.a
~ I ' d
~
I
'\
~G.Ift8& h
~
Table 8.5 .Actual
,~
I
I
'
I
~!!~.:.~!!~
I bo
10.811
, X
J7'~';:;;:.
Fadon~. to be taken for TrammiSlioo La1&th of PrstnSlinc StraDdI aDd Wir5 (Smooth or Indented) in Relation to Cooaete Strm&tb at the Moment of Transfnconcretestrengthat transfer (MPa) StraOOs and smoothor indentOO wires Ribbed wires 2S 30 35 40 4S 50
~.
75 55
70 50
65 45
~ 40
55 3S
50 30
(4) The designvalue I~ is to be taken at 0.8 I. or 1.2 I. whichever is less favorable for the eff~ considered. (5) Transmissionlength, anchoragelength and dispersionlength are to be takm from the start of effective bond. Start of effective bond should be taken accountof: (a) tendonspurposelydebonded,at the end. (b) a neutralizedzone1..0 in the caseof suddenrelease (6) For rectangular crosssections and straight teOOons, situatednear me bottom of the section, the dispersionlength can be established as: 1'4 .yPbpd + tf2 (B. 17)
.influenced
(7) :be anchorage of pretensioning tendons in flexural members at the ultimate limit state is by the condition, cracked or uncracked, of the and1orage zone. The part of the b~ EBCS2 1995 143
where tendonsare anchored (Fig. B4(a)] may be consideredas uncrackedif the concretetensile stressat the Ultimate Limit State(flexural and principal stresses) does not exceed tlJ' taking account of t..~e relevantvalue of PA,(see SectionB.4.4.5). (8) If the tensil~ stressdoes not exceedtlJ' the conditionof anchorage may be assumed to be fulfilled without further checks.
(8) If the tensilestressdoes not exceed tlJ' it shouldbe shownthat the envelopeof the actingtensile force does not exceedthe resisting tensile force provided by the tendonsand the reinforcing steel within the anchorage zone. The ultimate resistingforce F".. of the tendonsaccordingto Fig. B8(b) may be determined as:
F".. = ~P I
Po as defined in SectionB.4.3.2(1) l/f'li as defined in above
Resisting force
/f'Ii
~ ~~~ '\I
(B18)
",
i
I
Crack
:
".
.~; .Fpx
TA. ~o:
I~
Po max
.
x
, ,.
~J
Figure 8..5: Derivation of Eq. (B.t8) D.S.S.7 Anchorage Zon~ of Posttensioned Members (1) The designof anchorage zonesshallbe in accordance with the proceduresin this sectionandthose SectionsB.4.3, B.5 B.6.5, B.6.6 and B.7.1. (2) When consideringthe effects of the prestressas a concentrated force on the anchorage zone,the characteristictensile strength of the tendonshall be used. (3) The bearingstressbehind anchorage platesshouldbe calculatedin accordance SectionB.6.7.1. (4) Tensile forces due to concentrated forces shouldbe assessed by a strut andthe tie model, or other appropriate representation (see SectionB.4.2). The resulting reinforcementshould be detailed in accordancewith SectionB.6.5 assumingthat it is acting at its designstrength. (5) The prestressing force may be assumed to disperseat an angle of spread2{3(seeFig. B6) starting at the end of the anchorage device, where {3may be assumed to be arc tangent2/3. ~ 
APPENDIX
~ ,
B: PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE' .'
0)
!
I
i
b J
p
[B.
J
I i
I l;
'
i
I , "
: ~ ;
'.
I
'
\
i :
OJ
':
8.5.5.8 Design for Shear 8.5.5.8.1 Members with Inclined PrestressingTendons (1) Taking into accountthe effect of inclined prestressing tendons,the designshearforce is givenby: .VV = V~ V~ (B. 19)
i
\
'
where Vpd denotesthe force componentof the inclined prestressed tendons,parallel to V,.. pd is taken as positive in the samedirection as V,.. .,; (2) EquationB.19 applies in combinationwith Eqs.4.29 and4.30. (3) Concerningthe value Vpi in Eq.B.19, two casesshould be distinguished: Case 1: The stresses in the tendonsdo not exceedthe characteristicstrengthf~.lk The relevant prestressing force is the meanvalue P"" allowing for losses. (seeSectionB.4.3.2(1)) multiplied by the relevantsafetycoefficient(generally'Yp = 0.9). Case2: The steel stressin the tendonsexceeds f~.1k The prestressing force is calculatedwithf~.lk ry.. (4) In shearanalysis,the effective depthd is calculated ignoring the inclined tendons. : '
B.5.5.9
Limit State of Cracking (1) All relevant provisions in Section5.3 shall apply.
.EBCS
2 1995
145
.ETHIOPIAN
.B.5.5.9.1 ~! " ti
General (1) The durability of prestressed membersmay, for humid and sea water of aggressivechemical environmenttypes of exposure, be more critically affected by cracking. In the absenceof more ~~ailed requirements the designcrack width Wkunder the frequentload combinationmay be taken , (a) 0.2 mm for both posttensioned and pretensioned membersfor dry exposure. (b) 0.2 mm for posttensionedand decompressionfor pretensioned members for humid exposure. .(c) Decompreesion or coating of tendonsand 0.2 mm for posttensioned members. (d) The decompression limit requiresthat, underthe frequent combinationof loads, all ~arts of the tendonsor duct lie at least25 mm within concretein. compression. B.5.5.9.2 Minimum ReinforcementAreas (1) In prestressed memberssubjectto compressive normal force the minimum reinforcement areamay be reducedbelow that necessary for ordinary reinforced concretedue to the influenceof: (a) the increased flexural stiffness of the compression zone, and (b) the contribution of the prestressing tendons. (2) I~ prestressed members,the minimum reinforcementfor crack control is not necessary in areas where,' under the rare combination of actions and the relevant estimated characteristicvalue of prestressor normal force, the concreteremains in compression. (3) If the conditions in (2) aboveare not fulfilled, the required minimum area should be calculated accordingto Section5.3.2(3) with the following valuesfor kc. (a) For box sections kc = 0.4 for webs = 0.8 for the tensionchord (b) For rectangularsections,the value of kc may be interpolatedbetween0.4 for pure bending without normal force and zero when (i) the conditionjust satisfy (2) above,or (ii) where, under the action of the relevantestimatedvalue of prestress,the depthof the tensionzone, calculatedon the basisof a cracked sectionunderthe loading conditions leadingto formation of the first crack, does not exceedthe lesserof h/2 or 0.5 m. (4) Prestressing tendons may be taken into accountas minimum reinforcement within a 300 mm square surrounding the tendon, provided that the difference bond behaviour of the tendonsand reinforcementare taken into account. In the absence of better information, this may be done by assumingprestressing tendonsto be 50% effective. B.5.9.9.3 Control of Cracking without Direct Calculation (1) For prestressed slabs in buildings subjected to bending without significant axial tension,measures specifically to control cracking are not necessary where the overall depth does not exceed200 mm and the provisions Section7.2.2 have been applied. (2) For prestressedconcrete sections, Section 5.3.4.2 and Table 5.2 may be applied with Wk= .2 mIn. The stressesin the reinforcementshould be calculated regarding the prestressas an external force without allowing for stressincreasein the tendonsdue to loading. \
APPENDIX B: PRESTRESSEDCONCRETE
,
.B.6
Dfi An..ING PROVISIONS B.6.1 ArranI8D81t or the Prestraslnl Volta (1) In the caseof pretenaionini, the tendonsshall be spacedapart. ('2)In the case of posttensioned members,bundled ducts are not nonnally permitted. (3) A pair of ducts, placed vertically on abovethe other, may be used if adequateprecautionsare taken for teosioninl and aroutlni. Particular care is necessaryif the tendonsare doubly curved.
B.6.2. Conaete Cov
II ~ ~:
1l !, f ,[ f
" . " t
! f \ f tj
,
1
! .'
(1) The concretecover betweenthe inner surface of the formwork and either a pretensionedtendon or 1 duct shall be fixed with due regard to the size of the tendonsof the duct. Minimum covers shall ~ in accordance with Section7.1.3, in addition to the following:
.~
I i t
(I) For pretensionedmembers,the minimum cover shall not be less then 2~, where ~ is the diameterof a tendon. Where ribbed wires are used,the minimum cover shall not be lessthen (b) For posttensioned members,the minimum cover is to the duct. The cover shall not be less than the diameterof the duct. For rectangularducts, the cover shall not be lessthan the lesser dimensionof the duct crosssection nor half the greater dimensionof the duct. B.6.3 Horizontal and Vertical Spacing (1) The spacing of ducts or of pretensionedtendons shall be such as to ensure that placing and compacting of the concrete can be carried out satisfactorily and that good bond can be attained betweenthe concreteand the tendons.
".
:,
3~.
B.6.3.1 ~nsioning
(1) The minimum clear horizontal and vertical spacingof individual tendonsis given in Fig. B7. B.6.3.2. Pos~nsioning (1) Except for pair~ ducts (see SectionB.5.1.1(3, the minimum clear spacingbetweenindividual ducts shouldbe: (a) Horizontal: ~ ~ 40 mm (b) Vertical: ~ ~ SOmID where ~ denotes the diameter of the duct. B.6.4 Anchorages and Couplers for Prestressing Tendons
(1) The anchorage devicesusedfor posttensioned tendonsand the anchoragelengths in the case of pretensioned tendons shall be such as to enable the full design strength of the tendons to be J developed,taking accountof any repeated,rapidl" changingaction effects. (2) Where couplersare used,theseshall be so placed by taking accountof the interferencecausedby devices,i.e. that they do not affect the bearing capacityof the memberand that anytemporary anchoragewhich may be needed during constructioncan bf'introduced in satisfactorymanner.
EBCS 2 1995 147
.theses
..,it
"'
':
;:'
, C;," '.
~ ,c.
i:
!c
II ~ ~;
III \t "
f
(1) In the caseof pretenai~nin8'the tendonsshall be spacedapart.. ("2) In the caseof posttensloned members,bundled ducts are oot oonnally pennltted. (3) A pair of ducts, placed vertically on abovethe other, may be used if adequateprecautionsare taken for tensiOnlnaandJroUtin8. Particular care is necessaryif the tendonsare doubly ~rved. B.'.2 Cona'ete COYS' (1) The concretecover betweenthe inner surface of the formwork and either a pretensioned tendon or 1 duct shall be fixed with due regard to the size of the tendonsof the duct. Minimum covers shall be in accordancewith Section7.1.3, in addition to the following:
.f
~~ :j t
, ,
:~ ~ ~ t t; ~.
(I) For pretensionedmembers,the minimum cover shall not be less then 2<p, where <pis the diameterof a tendon. Where ribbed wires are used,the minimum cover shall not be lessthen
3<p.
'
(b) For posttensioned members,the minimum cover is to the duct. The cover shall not be less than the diameterof the duct. For rectangularducts, the cover shall not be lessthan the lesser dimension of the duct crosssection nor half the greater dimensionof the duct. B.'.3 Horizontal and Vertical Spacing (1) The spacing of ducts or of pretensionedtendons shall be such as to ensure that placing and compacting of the concrete can be carried out satisfactorily and that good bond can be attained betweenthe concreteand the tendons. B.6.3.1 ~nsioning (1) The minimum clear horizontal and vertical spacingof individual tendonsis given in Fig. B7. B.6.3.2 Pos~nsioning (1) Except for pair,c;tducts (see SectionB.5.1.1(3)), the minimum clear spacingbetweenindividual ducts shouldbe:
(a) Horizontal: <p '2: 40 mm
(b) Vertical: <p'2: 50 mm where <p denotes the diameter of the duct. B.6.4 Anchorages and Couplers for PrestressingTendons (1) The anchorage devicesusedfor posttensioned tendonsand the anchoragelengths in the case of .pretensioned tendons shall be such as to enable the full design strength of the tendons to be v developed,taking accountof any repeated,rapidl! changingaction effects. (2) Where couplersare used,theseshall be so place(!by taking accountof the interferencecausedby devices,i.e. that they do not affect the bearing capacityof the memberand that anytemporary anchoragewhich may be needed during constructioncan bt"introduced in satisfactorymanner.
EBCS 2 1995 147
.theses
.
ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCRETE
/
"T8 8, :~.
.r1C1Onwn
..L
11
..cd..t. 5"""
c ~ c 2Omm
grid.
(6) Special attentionshould be given to anchorage zoneshavingcross sectionsdifferent in shape from that of the general crosssection of the beam.
B.7.1 Obj~ves
(I) This Sectionp~ovides,in addition to thosegiven in Chapter8 of this Code, minimum specification requirementsfor prestressing steel and for the standard of wor~~ip that must be achievedon site in order to ensurethat the designassumptions in this Codeare valid and hencethat the intelKledlevels of safety and of durability will be attained. . \
.
~ APPEDIX B: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
.B.7.2
Basic Requirements (1) Prestressing steel shall comply with the requirementsof SectionB.2.1 of this Code. (2) The prestressingdevices (anchorages,couplers, sheaths and ducts) shall comply with the requirementsof SectionB.2.2 of this Code. (3) The tendons(wire, bars, cables),anchorage devices, couplersand sheaths used shall be those in the project design documents.They shall be capableof being identified as such. B.7.3 Transport and Storage of the Tendons (1) Tendons, sheaths,anchorage devices and couplers shall be protected from harmful influences during transport and storage and also when placed in the structure, until after concretinghas taken place. (2) During transport and storageof the tendons,the following shouldbe avoided: (a) (b) (c) (d) any type of chemical, electrochemicalor biological attackliable to causecorrosion; any damageto the tendons; any contamination liable to affect the durability or bond properties of the tendons; any defonnation of the tendons, not provided for the design; 'I j
:: t :
.(g)
.'t
(e) any unprotectedstorage,exposureto rain or contactwith the ground; (t) the use of water transportwithout suitablepackaging; welding in the vicinity of prestressingtendonswithout the provision of special protection (from splashes). (3) For sheaths,the following should be taken into consideration: (a) local damageand corrosion inside should be avoided; (b) watertightness shouldbe ensured; (c) it should be resistantto mechanicaland chemical attack.
B.7.4 Fabrication of Tendons
:~, ! r I' I )
;~.. ,
!
,
J i
(1) The devicesused in jointing the tendons,for their anchorage and coupling shall be as specified in relevant Standards.The prestressingmembers shall be assembledand placed in position in accordance with the relevantStandards. The sheaths and their connections shall be as specified in the project designdocuments. (2) Particular considerationshould be given to: (a) maintaining the identificationmarks on all materials; (b) the appropriatemethodsfor cutting; (c) the straight entry into the anchorage and couPlersas required by the manufacturer; (d) assembly; (e) transportation;when lifting by crane, any local crushingor bending of the tendonsshould be
avoided.
~ B.7.5 Placing of the Tendons (1) Placing of the tendonsshall be carried out in compliancewith the criteria relating to: (a) the concretecover and the spacingof the tendons;
2 1995 149
..
.EBCS
(b) the permissibletolerances in respectof the positionof the tendons,couplersand anchorages; (c) the easewith which the concretecan be cast. (2) The tolerancesrequired for the placing of the prestressing tendonsshallbe those given in Section 8.2. alternativelythey shall be statedin the contractdocuments. (3~ The sheathsshould be fixed carefully accordingto the designer's specificationof dimensions, spacersand supports. (4) After placing the sheathsin position, vents should be provided at both ends and at their high points, as well as at all points where air or water may accumulate; in the case of sheathsof considerable length, vents are also neededat intermediate positions. (5) The sheaths should be protectedfrom penetration of extraneous materialsuntil the completionof grouting. B.7.6 Tensioning of the Tendons (1) Prestressing shall be in accordance with a prearranged stressing program. (2) Written instructionsshall be provided at the site or in the works on the prestressing procedureto followed. (3) Workmen and staff engagedin stressingshall be skilled and have had specialtraining. (4) During prestressing,suitable safetymeasures shouldbe takenand be recordedby an engineer. B.7.6.1 Pretensioning (1) In ~e caseof pretensioning the instructionsfor prestressing shall specify: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) (g) (h) the prestressing tendonsand the prestressing devices; any specialsequence in which the prestressing tendonsare to be tensioned; the jack pressureor the forces at the jacks which must not be exceeded; the final pressure which must be attained after stressing has been completed or the corresponding forces at the jack; the maximum permissibleextensionof the tendonsand slip in the anchorage; the mannerand sequence in which the tendonsare to be released; the required concretestrengthat the time of release,which shouldbe checked; operational suitability of reuseable anchorage components.
.
.
(2) the necessityfor temporary protection of the tendonsafter tensioningand before castingshould be checked. Where necessary,the protective material should not affect bond and should have no detrimental effect on the steelor the concrete. B.7.6.2 Posttensioning (1) The following shall be specified by the designer: U (a) the prestressing processto be employed; (b) the type and grade of the prestressing steel; (c) the number of bars or wires in the individual tendons;
150 EBCS 2 1995
.
\
.
&
'I
.(d)
the required concretestrengthprior to tensioning; (e) the order in which successive tendons shouldbe tensioned,specifyingthe locationwherethe tensionis to be applied; (t) where appropriate,the time of the removal of the falsework during tensioning; (g) the force required to be developedat the jack; (h) the designelongationrequired; (I) the maximumslip; 0) the number, type and location of couplers. (2) The following should be recordedby the supervisingengineerduring the tensioningprocess: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) (g) (h) the type of prestressing devicesused which shouldbe calibrated; the elongationmeasured on site; the measured pressurein the jacks; the observedvalue of slip; the deviation of the measured valuesfrom the designvalues; the actual concretestrength; the actual order in which successive tendonsare tensioned; where appropriate,the time at which the formwork has beenremoved.
1 : :1
B.7.7 Grouting and other Protective Measur~ (1) Tendonsplaced in sheathsor ducts in the concrete, couplers and anchoragedevices shall be protected againstcorrosion.
(2) shouldthe delay betweenstressing and groutingexceedthe time permitted, then protectionof the .tendons shall continue until grouting takesplace. (3) Where temporary protectionis provided, the materialused shall have an approval document and shall not have a deleteriouseffect on the prestressing steelor on the cementgrout. (4) Written instructionsshallbe provided for the site or the works for the preparationand execution of the grouting. (5) Corrosionprotectionof the tendonsis ensuredby filling all voids with a suitablegroutingmaterial : (usually cementmortar); as a rule, the anchorage should be envelopedin concreteor mortar. This I objective is metby: (a) using approved grout materials (must remain alkaline, no harmful components)and by coveringthe tendonscompletely; (b) filling the ducts completely (including voids betweentendons) with a grout which after hardening fulfills the structural requirements (strength, bond, modulus of elasticity,
shrinkage).
(1) The cementgrout usedshall have adequate properties, for example: (a) high fluidity and cohesion when plastic; (b) low shrinkagedeformationwhen hardening; (c) no loss of fines ("bleeding").
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ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL USE OF CONCREtE
(2) Approp~iate materials (typ~ of cement, admixtur~) shall be used and the mixing process (batching, watercement ratio. procedure,time) shall ensurethe requiredproperti~. (c) Chlorides (as ~ by mass cement)from all sourceashall not exceedthe values given in the specified Standards.
(2) The grouting program shallspecify: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) (h) the characteristics of the equipmentand the grout; order of blowing and washingoperations; order of grouting operationsand fresh grout tests(fluidity, segregation); grout volume to be preparedfor eachstageof injection; precautionsto keep ducts clear; instructionsin the eventof incidentsand harmful climatic conditions; where necessary, additionalgrouting.
B.7.7.5 Sealing
(1) Where nec~';~J" all openings,grouting tube.;and ventsshall be sealedhermeticallyto preven penetrationof water and harmful products.
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.B.7
APPE~~~~SSED~~~~
.7.6 Other Protections (1) Tendons may be protectedby materialsbasedon binamen,eI'Oxyresins,rubber, ac, provided that there are no detrimentaleffects on bond, rIte resistance,aOO other essentialp~~es. B.8 QUALITY CONTROL
B.8.1 Objediva
(1) This Sectionprovides, in addition to thosegiven in Chapter9 of this Code, the minimum control measuresfor design and construction of prestressedconcretemembers. They comprise essential actionsand decisions,as well as check to be made, in compliancewith specifications,standardsaOO the general stateoftheart,to ensurethat all specified requirements are met. B.8.2 Compliance Contro~ (1) For prestressingsteelsand prestressing devices, SectionB.7 shall apply. B.8.2 Control prior to Conading and during Pr~tressing (1) Before beingplaced in position, the tendonsshouldfor anydamage that might haveoccurredsince arrival on site or at the factory. .(3) .of Before tensioning it is advisable to check that the prestressingoperation can be carried out correctly. Checksshould be madethat the requirements of SectionB.7.6 are being met, at the time transfer ofthe prestressing force. (4) A prestressing record shouldbe kept of the measurement madeat eachstageof stressing (pressure in the jacks, elongations,slippage at the anchorages, etc.).
(5) The time elapsed betWeen prestressing and the completion (grouting) should be controlled and noted. of the protective measures for the steel
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Before grouting, it shouldbe ensuredthat the provisions of Sections B.7. 7.3 and B.7. 7.4 are applied and checked. (6) During grouting it is necessaryto check the injection pressure,the free flow of the grout from the vents, to look for grout leaks, to check the quantity of injectoo grout as well as to take samples for checking viscosity and loss of water. Where necessary, the strength of the grout should be
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EBCS 2 .1995
153
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INDEX
Cement 89, 93 Cementgrout 150 Characteristiccompressivecube strength 9 Characteristiccrack width 61 Characteristiccylinder compressivestrength 9 Characteristicstrength 21 Characteristicstrengthof concrete 21 Characteristicstrengthof reinforcing steel 13 Characteristictensile strength 10 Characteristicvalues 19 Characteristicyield stress 13 Check tests 105 Check testson structuralconcrete 104 Circular columns 41 Circular ties 86 Classificationand geometryof reinforcing steel 13 Classificationof concreteworks 1 Classificationof structures 34 Closedlinks 49 Coefficient of thennal expansion 12, 13, 124 Coiled products 124 Column strip 119 Columns 25, 35, 84 Combinationof actions 23 Combinationvalue 20 Combinationvalues 19 Combined actioneffects 49 Compatibility torsion 48 Completedstructure .102 Compliancecontrols 102, 150 Compliancecontrols for the completedstructure 102 Compliancecriteria 104 Compositionof the concrete 91 Compression members 31, 36 Compressionreinforcement 31 Compressivestrengthof concrete 9 Concentrated forces 72 Concreteconstructionrules 93 Concretecover 75, 99, 145 Constituentmaterialsof concrete 89 Constructionjoints 95 Constructionprocedures 102 Continuousdeepbeams 66 Continuousslabs 114 Control for curing the concrete 101 Control of cracking 145 Control of mixing 101 Control prior to concreting 150
Accidental actions 18, 20 Accidental situations 18 Actions 1821,23 Additional eccentricity 39 Admixtures 91 Aggregates 89, 94 Allowance for imperfections 32 Alternate design method 24 Amplified sway momentsmethod for sway frames 40, 41 Analysis of flat slab structures 119 Analysis of line elements 24 Analysis of sections 29 Analysis of slabs 107 Analysis of sway frames 38 Anchorage 14,69,71, 78, 81, 126, 134 Anchorage length 78~82, 144 Anchorageof bottom reinforcement at supports 82 Anchoragezones 127, 137, 144, 144, 147 Anchoragezones for posttensioning forces 147 Anchoragezonesof posttensioned members 144 Anchoragezonesof pretensioned members 144 .Anchorages 125, 146 Applied load effect 53 Approximate method 43 .Arches 25 Arrangementof the prestressing units 145 Assessment of results 106 Axial load capacity 66 Bars 124, 147 Basic anchoragelength 78 Basis of design 17. 29, 127 Batching 94 Beams 25, 45 Bearing 70 Bending 49 Bending moment coefficients 115, 122 Bending of bars 75 Biaxial bending of columns 43 Bond 14, 77 Bond forces 75 Bonded tendons 127 Braced frames 32, 35 Bracedwalls 63, 66 Bracing system 35 Buckling curves 43 Bundled bars 81 Bursting forces 73 Cables 147 Calculationof deflections 56
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EBCS2 1995 155
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.Conversion factors for strength 10 Corbels 68, 87 Comer column 53 Couplers 125, 134, 146, 1~7 Crack formation 59 Crack widths 59 Cracking due to shear 63 Cracksdue to flexure 59 Creep 11,25,42,56, 137 Creep coefficient 11 Critical load ratio 34 Cn'tical sectionfor shear 44 Critical section for torque 49 ~bical specimens 9 Curing of concrete 92, 97 Curtailment of longitudinal flexural reinforcement 81 Deep beams31,66, 87 Deep shearspans 67 Deflection 55 Deflecti~ns 18 Deformationpr,operties of concrete 10 Deformations 18 Density 124 Depth of lift 94 Depth of plain concretefooting 70 Design bond strength 77 Design for shear 66, 149 Design of footings 70 Design of isolatedcolumns 39 Design of membersin prestressed concrete 137 Design of plain concretewalls 66 Design of plane elements 27 Design of reinforced concretewalls 63 Design of sections 130 Design of shearreinforcement 46 Design of torsional reinforcement 49 Design procedures 32 Design situations 18 Design strength 21 Design strengthfor concrete 22 Design strengthfor steel 22 Designvalues of actions 20 Design values of the effectsof actions 21 Designed mixes 89 Detailing of reinforcement 75 Detailing of structuralmembers 83 Detailing provisions 75, 145 Diagonal compression 49 Diagonal compression failure 44 Diagonal tension 44, 47 Diameter of ties 84 Diameterof vertical bars 87 Dispersionlength 144 Distancebetweenlateral supports 31 Distribution of concentrated loadll 107 Distribution of design moments 117 Dry environment 59,80 Ductility 13, 14, 127, 132 Ductility characteristics 124 Ducts 127, 147 Durability I, 58, 91, 99 Edge beams 26 Edge column 53 Edge panels 119 Effect of creep 42 Effective buckling length 36 Effective column 43 Effective depth 55 Effective flange width 26 Effective height 64, 66 Effective span length 26 Effective width 26,47, 107 Effects of actions 21 Effects of prestressing 127, 130 Effects of time dependent deformationof concrete 137 Elastic values of supportmoments 116 Equilibrium torsion 48 Equivalentdiameter 81 Equivalentframe method 115 Equivalentgeometric imperfections 32 Equivalenthollow section 48, 49 Equivalentreinforcementareas 41 Equivalentwall thickness 49 . Fabrication 98 Fabricationof tendons 148 Fabricationof the reinforcement 97 Factors for adjustingspan moments 117 Falsework 95 Fatigue 14, 45, 98, 125, 126, 134 Final creep coefficient 12 Final shrinkagestrains 12 Firstorder analysis 38, 40 Firstorder design moment 41 Firstorder eccentricity 39 Firstorder theory 32, 34 Fixed actions 18 Flange in compression 47 Flange in tension 47 Flat slabs 28,53, 107, 119 Flexural members 31 Flexural reinforcement 69,71, 84 Footing depth 70 Footings 68, 70 Footings on two piles 71 Formwork 91,95 Frame 34 Frame stability 38 ' Free actions 18
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Frequencyof sampling 102 Load arrangements 24
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Frequentvalues 19, 20 Fresh concrete 91 Geometry of reinforcing steel 13 Gradesof concrete 9 Grouting 150 Grouting operations 150 High bond bars 14 High ductility 14 Holes in areasboundedby columnstrips 122 Holes in areascommonto a columnstrip and a middle strip 122 Holes in areascommonto two columnstrips 122 Hollow sections 49 Horizontal and vertical spacing 146 Horizontal reinforcement 87 Hot weatherconcreting 91 Humid environment .59, 80 Idealized bitinear diagram 132 Idealized stressstrain diagram for concrete 29 Immediatedeflections 56 Imperfections 24, 32 Inclined compression 47 Inclined shearreinforcement 46 Inclined stimlps 46 Indirect actions 19 .Indirect supports 73 Initial prestressing force 143 Initial swayimperfections 34; 35 .Inspection of materials 101 Inspectionprior to concreting 101 Instructions to the site 150 Interior column 54 Internal panels 117 Isolatedcolumns 34, 42 Isolatedprestressed concretemembers 137 Joints 83, 81,95,98 Lap joints ~1 Lap length 83 Laps 83 Lateral reinforcement 84 Lean concrete 9 Limit stateof crack formation 59 Limit stateof crack widths 59 Limit stateof cracking 149 Limit stateof deflection 55 Limit states 17 Limit statesof cracking 58 Limiting value of ultimate torque 49 Limits of slenderness 36 Limits on deflection 55 Line elements 24 I Linear analysis 27 Linear elastic theory 24 Linear methods 130
Load cases 24: Load testsof structure 105 Loaded area 50 Loads on supportingbeams 116 Local forces 71 Long term deflections 57 Longitudinalbars 84 Longitudinal cracks 125 Longitudinal reinforcement 49, 83, 81, 84 Longitudinal shear .46 Longitudinal stresses 49 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement 49 Loops 83 Loss of prestress 144 Margins of strength 104 Materials 1, 21, 89, 101 Maximum aggregate size 77 Maximum bar diameter 59 Maximum cementcontent 92 Maximum reinforcementratio 83 Maximum spacing 63, 83 Measurements during the tests 105 Mechanicalproperties 124, 126 Mechanicalpropertiesof prestressingsteel 132 Mechanicalpropertiesof reinforcing steel 14 Memberssubjectedto axial tension 45 Members subjected to significant axial compression 45 Members with inclined prestressingtendons 149 Memberswithout significant axial forces 45 Middle strip 119 Minimum cementcontent 92 Minimum concretecover 75 Minimum concretestrength 143 Minimum cover requirements 59, 80 Minimum diameter 75 Minimum diameterof bend 75 Minimum effective depth 56 Minimum flange thickness 25 Minimum footing depth 70 Minimum numberof bars 84, 143 Minimum numberof longitudinal reinforcing bars 84 Minimum reinforcement 58, 59, 84, 149 Minimum shear reinforcement 44 Minimum strengthclass for prestressed concrete 137 Minimum thickness 71 Minimum torsional reinforcement 49 Minimum web reinforcement 83 Mixing 94 Modulus of elasticity 11, 14, 125, 132 Moment coefficients 113 Moment in footin2s 68
EBCS
2 1995 157
Moment in pile caps Moment magnification tactor Moment transfer between slab and column Moment transfer between slabs and columns Multiaxial stresses 125, Negative moments at free edge Non<:ompliance Nonlinear analysis Nonsway frames 'Nonsway mode Nonnal ductility <?neway footings Oneway slabs Opening in panels Openings in slabs Panel moments Panel with marginal beams
Protectivtl mtla!iurtl!i Punching Punching resistanctl Quality control Quasipermanent value Quasipermanent values Rectanglar diagram Rectangular columns Redistribution of moments Reinforced concrete walls Reinforcing steel
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Reinforcing steel construction rultls Relative eccentricity Relaxation 125, Relaxation losses Removal of formwork and falsework Representative values of accidental actions
Parabolicrectangular diagram 29 Partial safety factors 23 Partial safety factors for action 127 Partial safety factors for materials 22, 127 Particular Cases 71 Pedestals 70 Permanent actions 18, 19 Persistent situations 18 Physical properties of prestressing steel 132 Physical properties of reinforcing steel 13 Pile caps 71 Placement of concrete 101 Placing of concrete 91, 94 Placing of steel 98 Placing of tendons 148 Plain concrete footing 70 Plain concrete pedestal 70 Plain concrete walls 66 Plane elements 27 Plane frames 34 Plastic analysis 27 Plates 25 Poisson's ratio 11 Posttensioned members 129, 143, 145, 149 Posttensioning forces Pretensioned members Pretensioning Prescribed mixes Prestressed concrete Prestressed slabs Prestressed steel Prestressing Prestressing steel Prestressing devices Prestressing force Prestressing steel Prestressing tendons Production control 127 129, 143, 145 149 89 1, 129 127 129 18 132 129, 125, 147 129 132 146 101
R~presentative values of actions 19 Representative values of permanent actions 19 Representative values of variable actions 20 Requirements for effective depth 55 Requirements for loops 83 Requirements of fresh concrete 91 Resistance to diagonal tension 47 Resistance to inclined compression 47 Rib spacing 25, 84 Ribbed bars 13, 14 Ribbed slabs 84 Ribbed wires 147 Sampling 102 Sealing 150 Secant modulus of elasticity 11 Secondorder eccentricity 39 Secondorder effects 25, 27, 32, 36 Secondorder elastic global analysis 38 Secondorder theory 32 Secondary reinforcement 84 Section design 132 Segregation 94 Seismic design 1 Sequence of measures 102 Service values Serviceability 19 1
Serviceability limit state 25 Serviceability limit states 17, 22, 24, 25, 48, 55 Shear 17,22,48,49,62,70,71 Shear carried by deep shear spans 67 Shear crack width 62 Shear force coefficients Shear in footings Shear reinforcement Shear resistance of concrete Shear resistance of plain walls Shear resistance of reinforced walls Shear spans 112, 122 70 46, 83 45 66 64 66
158
EBCS 2 1995
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Shearstrengthof deepshearspans 67 Sheaths 127,147 Short walls 63 Shortterm relaxationlosses 135 Shrinkage 11.25.56,137 Shrinkage strain 11 Simplified method 122 Slabs 25. 45, 84, 107 Slenderbracedwalls 66 Slendercolumns 43 Slenderwalls 63 Slenderness ratio 35, 39 Smoothbars 13 Solid slabs 107 Spacingof horizontal bars 87 Spacingof lateral supports 31 Spacingof reinforcement 77 Spacingof vertical bars 87 Spatial variation 18 Special structural elements 63 Specificationof concrete 89 Spe,cification of reinforcement 93 Staggeringrule 81 Standard mixes 89 Stiffness 26 ,Stirrups 46, 49, 62, 83, 83 Storage 97 Storageof tendons 147 Story buckling load 41 Strain distribution 29 Strands 124 Stresscorrosion 125, 137 Stressstrain diagram for steel 31 Stressstraindiagrams 11, 14, 124, 132 Structural concrete 102 Structural elements 34 Structural safety 99 Structural stability 32 Supplementary classifications 19 Supplementaryreinforcement 87 Supportmoments 116 Surface condition 125 Surface finish 96 Susceptibilityto stresscorrosion 125, 137 Sway frames 34, 38, 40, 43 Sway mode 37 Sway moments 40 Tbeams 26,83 T section 47 Tsections 48 Technologicalproperties 14, 125 Technologicalproperties of prestressingsteel 134 Temperature 91 Temperaturedependent behaviour 137 Temporary work inserts 96
Tend,ons 129, 134, 143, 147, 148 Tensllestrength 14 Tensile zoneof isolatedmembers 143 Tensioningof the tendons 148 Test loads 105 Testing methods 102 Thicknessof deepbeams 87 Thin walls 48 Ties 83, 84 Time dependent effects 25 Tolerances 98, 148 Tolerancesfor concretecover 99 Tolerancesfor constructionpurposes 99 Torques 48 Torsion 48, 49 Torsion at comers 115, 112 Torsional eccentricity 40 Torsional reinforcement 49, 83 Torsional resistance 48, 49 Total eccentricity 39 Transientsituations 18 Transmissionlength 144 Transmissionreinforcement 76 Transport 97 Transportof tendons 147 Transportationof concrete 101 Transporting 94 Transversereinforcement 46, 87 Transverse ribs 25, 84 Transversespacing 83 Twoway action 44 Twoway rectangularfootings 69 Twoway slabs 101 Twoway squarefootings 69 Types of check tests 105 Ultimate limit state 22, 24, 44, 46, 105 Ultimate limit state in punching 50 Tultimate limit state in shear 44 Ultimate limit states 17,23, 130 Ultimate shearforce 44 Ultimate torque 49 Unbracedstructures 35 Unbracedwalls 63, 66 Units 2 Values of accidentalactions 20 Values of actions 19,20 Values of permanentactions 19 Values of the effects of actions 21 Values of variable actions 20 Variable actions 18,20 Vertical reinforcement 86 Vertical spacing 146 Vibration 18 wall 25 Walls 25, 63, 86
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.EBCS
2 1995
159
Water Webflange connections Weldability Welded fabric Welded mesh reinforcement Welding Wires Workability Workmanship Yield stress
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EBCS 2 1995
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