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UNIT 1 Sound Engineering Introduction to architectural acoustics - Characteristic and measurement of sound, frequency, intensity, decibel scale, auditory

range, effects of sound on humans, loudness.

Need to study Architectural Acoustics 1. Different structure has to be consider separately like place, purpose, environment, economics, phycology and sociology of the group. Likely to use material as per availability and according to basic rules and regulation of the acoustics. 2. Involvement of gadgets that produces noise 3. Technological development develops acoustical problems. These problems has to be solved by evolving effective techniques. 4. Need sufficient loud, without unwanted echo, flutters, sound focuses, dead spaces. 5. Need clarity and yet continuity. 6. Structures that demand acoustical solutions are Workshop, Assembly Hall, Class Room, Drama Theatre, Cinema hall, TV & Radio Stations etc. 7. Population explosion and increase urbanization--- resultant of Noise Pollution. 8. Multi-storied building poses vibrational and sound flanking problems. 9. Study of sound absorbent materials. 10. It should be solved and consider at the planning state and before undertaking actual construction work of the proposed site.

Pioneers and Their Contributions 1. OM can energies and elevate human beings, chanting of different Mantras and Sloks. 2. Sound produces by different elements for future predictions. 3. Greek used OAT at the foot of the hill. 4. Roman started wooden platform and wall behind the platform. 5. 17th century - sound reflection produced whispering galleries and Mersenne measured the velocity of sound. 6. 18th century - Introduction of architect and musicians came close for good acoustics. 7. 19th century - Chladin (1802) presented nature of sound wave by using sand patterns. In 1857 we got Lissajous figures, In 1895 W.C. Sabine conducted experiments to find Echo, Sound absorptions and Reverberation Time. Reyleigh-Disc came up for sound energy. 8. 20th century - Helmholtz (1908) gave cavity resonators & Pierce gave Noise Measurement. In 1912, the concept of motional impedance & in 1917 we got condenser microphone. In 1939, P.E. Sabine came up with automatic recording of RT. 9. Now we have different electro-magnetic devices to study acoustics. Simulation techniques. 10. Prof W.C. Sabine, Lord Rayleigh and Helmholtz are known as Trimurti Pioneers

Sound, Vibration, Frequency, Wavelength and velocity of sound 1. Sound energy is created in our mouth as the tongue moves and creates vibrations in the air present in the mouth. 2. The compression and rerefactions created in the air advance in the outer air in the form of a longitudinal-wave. 3. These advancing vibrations strike our ear drum which in turn vibrates and conveys these vibrations to the brain and then we name these vibrations as Sound. 4. For every vibration of the sound source, the wave moves forward by one wavelength () which is the distance between any two consecutive repeating points on a wave. Frequency (f) is the number of cycle of vibration per second called Hertz (Hz). Velocity is the distance moved in one second (v). 5. The velocity of the sound in the air increases with temperature and humidity. Sound travels faster in liquids and solids than in air because the densities and elasticities of these materials are greater and particles of such materials respond to vibrations as a faster rate.

Sound, Vibration, Frequency, Wavelength and velocity of sound

ABCDEFG= High Tone BH=DI=FJ= Amplitude

ABCDEFG= Low Tone AE= Periodic time, T

Points, B&F, compression Point D, Rerefction Frequency f= 1/T Velocity, v= .f Distance AE= , Wavelength

Sensitivity of hearing depends upon 1. Sound Intensity 2. Pressure 3. Frequency range of sound 4. Duration of exposure of sound 5. Age group 6. Psychology of the Individual

1. Sound Energy impinging on the ear drum causes it to vibrate. 2. Vibrations transmitted to middle ear by three bones: Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup by level action. 3. Middle ear - cavity contains air at Atoms Pressure. It is connected to throat by Eustachian tube. Sudden Pressure changes are manipulated by it. 4. Cochlea Fluid in it stirrup vibrations to brain. 5. External Ear.

Frequency ranges of Audible sound, Human-Ear and Sensitivity of hearing 1. Usually frequency range of audible sound is from 20Hz to 20 KHz. 2. To hear sound of 1000 Hz, minimum pressure change on the ear-drum is 3 x 10-5 N/m2. 3. The same sound of 1000 Hz becomes unbearable when the pressure change on the ear drum is 30 N/m2. 4. Sound of 1000 Hz with Sound- Pressure- Level (SPL) of 2 x 10-5 N/m2 dyne/cm2 is the reference (minimum) Loudness level and is called Loudness of Zero Phone. 5. Loudness depends upon both SPL and Frequency. 6. Generally intelligibility is provided by three octave bands 1. 700-1400 Hz 2. 1400-2800 Hz 3. 2800-5600 Hz
(Octave Band is the range of frequencies between any one frequency and double the frequency) 7. Our ear response to sound energy is logarithmic. If A is radiating 100W power and B is radiating only 100 W power, A will sound only 60 times louder than B.

Inverse Square Law, dB Scale for Sound Intensity, Pressure, Power and Loudness perception The sound intensity from a point source of sound decreases in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the source. i.e. I 1/d Or Intensity = Power (Watts) / Spherical area i.e. I = W / 4d Hence I1 = W / 4d12 and I2 = W / 4d22

I1 / I2 = d22/d12 Where S= Point source of sound 1= Surface Area, A at point D 2 = Spread of Sound Energy 3= Surface Area, 4A at point E SD= Distance d1 SE= Double the distance, d2 =2d1

Inverse Square Law, dB Scale for Sound Intensity, Pressure, Power and Loudness perception

The range of values between the threshold of hearing and the threshold of pain is too large. The ear feels different effects when listening to high intensities and low intensities. As the ear response to sound is logarithmic, the decibel scale is convenient to use.

N = 10 log 10 (I/ I0) = 10 log 10 (W/W0) = 10 log 10 (P/P0)2

Where N = Number of decibels (dB) I = Sound Intensity


Power in W
1 x 10-9 1 x 10-5 0.1

Level in dB
20-30 60-70 100-110

I0 = Reference (Lowest) Intensity (10-12 Watts/m2) Conversation W = Sound power of the source W0 = Reference power (10-12 Watts) P = Sound Pressure P0 = Reference Pressure (2 x 10-5 N/m2)
Radio Human Ear Air Craft Jet

(Maximum) 130-140 100 105 140-150 170-180

Problems 1. Calculate the change in sound level when the intensity of the sound is doubled.

Problems 2. Calculate total SIL caused by combination of levels of 95dB and 90 dB. Given I0 = Reference (Lowest) Intensity (10-12 Watts/m2)

Problems 3. A sound produced at one end of a long tube is heard twice at the other end in an interval of 2 sec. The velocity of sound in metal is 5130 m/s. and that in air is 343 m/s. Find the length of the tube.

Problems 4. 90% of the sound of level 20 dB is absorbed by the wall and the rest is reflected back. Find the level of reflected sound.

UNIT 1 Sound Engineering Introduction to architectural acoustics - Characteristic and measurement of sound, frequency, intensity, decibel scale, auditory range, effects of sound on humans, loudness.

Acoustics and acoustical environment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Archaeoacoustics Aero acoustics Acoustic signal processing Architectural acoustics Bioacoustics Electroacoustics Environmental noise and soundscapes Musical acoustics Psychoacoustics

10. Speech 11. Ultrasonics 12. Underwater acoustics 13. Vibration and dynamics

Acoustics and acoustical environment

1. Basic principles in acoustic quality ? The acoustic environment affects our experience Silence not always a good acoustic environment The significance of nature and the cultural environment Different claims and expectations

Acoustics and acoustical environment

2. How does the acoustic environment affect natural and cultural environments? Requirements for indicators and inventory method Basis in municipal comprehensive planning reporting acoustic qualities in different areas and thus also being able to utilise and develop the areas more actively. Indicators of sound/noise put into practical form important parts of the Swedish Government's environmental objectives A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos, A Magnificent Mountain Environment, Flourishing Lakes and Streams and A Good Built Environment. The indicators are also necessary in order to be able to determine interim targets for natural and cultural environments in transport-policy objectives. Indicators and an inventory method for sound and noise and natural and cultural environments are required in the planning of infrastructure and activities that produce noise.

Acoustics and acoustical environment Indicators usable in practice

Noise sources Road traffic Air traffic (airports) Cross-country vehicles Industrial activity Wind power Rail traffic Shipping and boating Firing ranges and shooting galleries Motor sport

Assessing the acoustic quality of an area

Determine the occurrence and audibility of different sounds of significance in the environment under consideration for impact in the total acoustic picture (acoustic landscape). Determine which sounds are experienced as positive. Estimate the conscious impact of the sound and try to also include unconscious impact. Determine which sounds are experienced as negative. Estimate the conscious impact of the sound and try to also include unconscious impact. Assess the overall acoustic quality by weighing together the impacts of positive and negative sounds. Classify the quality on some scale, which includes at least the grade of good quality.

Behaviour of sound in an enclosed space.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. This occurs when the wavelength of a sound wave is smaller than the surface of an obstacle. In the case of an enclosed space, the sound waves hit every side of the enclosure continuously until the sound energy reduces to zero. The amount of waves reflected depends on the smoothness, size, and softness of the materials of enclosure. The angle of incidence of sound rays is equal to that of the reflected rays only if the surface of the reflector is flat. But when it is curved, the angles are different.

1. 2. 3. When sound waves hit the surface of an obstacle, some of its energy is reflected while some are lost through its transfer to the molecules of the barrier. The lost sound energy is said to have been absorbed by the barrier. The thickness and nature of the material as regards its softness and hardness influences the amount of sound energy absorbed.

1. 2. This is the bending of sound when it travels from one medium into another medium. The difference in the composition of the two different media bends the sound i.e. the angle of incidence changes into an angle of refraction as it travels into the new medium.

1. 2. 3. 4. This is the scattering of waves from a surface. It occurs as a result of the texture and hardness of the obstacle is comparable to the wavelength of the sound. The direction of the incident ray changes when it strikes the surface of the obstacle. Satisfaction is achieved when sound is heard in all direction at equal level.

1. When the wavelength of a sound wave is smaller or equal to the size of the obstacle, the sound rays tend to bend round the edge of the obstacle thereby turning the edge to a sound source.

1. 2. In this phenomenon, sound wave is carried by molecules of the obstacle through vibration and re-emitted at the other side irrespective of the medium. It can be structure borne, air borne or impact sound.

Reverberation and Echo

Reverberation: 1. This is the persistence of sound in an enclosed space as a result of continuous reflection or scattering of sound after the source has stopped. 2. It is one the most prominent behaviours of sound in an enclosure. 3. It occurs when sound waves hits a surface and are reflected toward another surface which also reflects it. 4. Some of the sound is absorbed with this continuous reflection which gradually reduces the energy of the sound to zero. 5. The phenomenon can affect the audibility of sound in an enclosure, especially if the reverberation time, which is the time taken for the sound pressure level to diminish to 60 dB below its initial value is considerably long. Echo: 1. This occurs when the reverberation time is long enough to cause a distinct repetition of the direct sound. 2. This condition is an advanced form of reverberation where the sound is heard clearly and repeatedly after some time until it fades.

Factors that affect the behaviour of sound in an enclosed space.

The way in which sound behaves in an enclosed space depends on many factors which include: Reduction in its intensity of sound This can results due to the distance between its source and the receiver. Absorption of direct sound by the audience The listeners of the sound absorb some of the sound in the process of hearing. Absorption of direct and reflected sound by surfaces The walls, ceiling and floor of the enclosure absorbs and reflect sound waves thereby controlling the way the sounds behave. Reflection of sounds from right-angled corners Sound incident to a right-angled corner of room will be reflected back towards source if surfaces are acoustically reflective. This can in turn produce echoes especially in large spaces. Dispersion of the sides of an enclosure Reflections can be controlled by making one surface dispersive i.e. not at right angle to each. This would have affected the reflection of the sound thereby affecting its behaviour.

Factors that affect the behaviour of sound in an enclosed space.

Edge diffraction of sound Edge diffraction results in the curvature of part of a sound wave around the edge of a barrier. This causes the obstacles to scatter the sound waves making it behave like a source of sound. Sound shadow Any barrier interrupting a sound wave will create a shadow, synonymous to light rays. However, because of edge diffraction some sound will creep into this but such penetration is frequency dependent - high frequencies are less diffracted than low frequencies. Such problems can occur in auditorium with balconies. Primary reflection This depends on the angle of incidence which is equal to the angle of reflection. Also, the nature of sound reflector is important. Panel resonance Sound waves can propagate "through" a solid material by panel vibration. The sound does not actually penetrate the material but rather causes this to vibrate and act as a sound source itself. The panel will be vibrated by both direct and reflected sound waves.

Reverberation and Reverberation time calculation. Sabine equation. Dead and Live Rooms
Reverberation : Several repetitive sound reflections from different surfaces in a room reduce the sound energy. Even when the sound source is stopped, some sound energy is retained in the room for some time. This process of Sound energy retention is called Reverberation. Reverberation Time(R.T.) It is the time required for a sound of 60dB level to become inaudible i.e. to come down to zero dB level. According to Sabine it is time for sound intensity to come down to 10-6 of its original intensity. Factors affecting R.T. : 1. loudness of original sound 2. Absorption by bounding surfaces, people, furnishings etc. 3. Volume of the room

Sabines equation
RT= 0.16V/S Here RT = Time in sec V = Volume of the room in M3 S = Total absorption in the room in M2 i.e. S = (1S1 + 2S2 + .) + a1, a2. Where 1= absorption coefficient of a surface area S1 etc. and a1 = absorption by empty chairs etc. RT= 0.05 V/S when V is in Cu. ft. and S in Sq. ft.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Speech Studios Cinema Theatre Chamber Music School Auditorium Music Hall Church Music

Assumptions in R.T. calculation:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Uniform distribution of sound energy in the room. Decay be smooth, without fluctuations. The absorptive treatment not to be considered at a few places in the room i.e. diffusion and random scattering of sound in the room. No domes and curved surfaces. Temperature and humidity to remain constant. If the total absorption in the room is much greater than the volume of the room; as in the recording studio etc., the Sabine's formula need correction. With angle reflectors on dias and parabolic shape of the room, the RT will be low. given, is usually for random, diffused incidence of sound on the absorptive material of about 6m2 panel. How ever this specification is not realised in actual rooms. The audience member members are expected to be seated, one behind the other. In the half filled room, this condition may not be realized.


Proper RT
1. Every member of the audience should receive direct sound from the source and that should be followed by the sound from the first reflection only. 2. 3. Smooth parallel walls be avoided to avoid resonance effects. Few items in the room should be for sound reflections and remaining items for sound absorption and diffusion.

Dead and Live Room

1. For live room to get fullness and warmth of music, RT should be in the range of 1.5 sec to 1.8 sec. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. For low frequency sound, RT be little higher and higher frequencies RT be shorter. If the RT is larger at high frequencies then music will be harsh or Rasping. If the RT is larger at low frequencies then it will be :Boomy. Similarly if RT is too low it will be Shrill. Live room have large volume and longer RT at mid and high frequencies. Large number of absorbents makes the room dead. 7. Sound reflection from concave surfaces having un-naturally high intensity are termed Hot-Spots. This situation is at the cost of Dead-Spots where hearing conditions are poor. (Ex. Balcony)

Partha Sarathi Mishra Asst. Professor School of Architecture GITAM University