Excel Design Sheet for Design of Overhead Water Tank

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Excel Design Sheet for Design of Overhead Water Tank

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Design Data:

Capacity of Tank Grade of Concrete Grade of Steel S.B.C. Basic Wind Speed No. of Supporting Columns Height of Staging Above G.L. Diameter of Column Seismic Zone Nominal Cover( on water face) Nominal Cover in Foundn = = = = = = = = = = =

Revise OK

2500 m3

30 415 400 47 16 18 700 Zone II 45 N / mm2 N / mm2 kN /m 2 m/sec2 Nos. m mm mm ( In General Except Foundation)

50 mm

Permissible Stresses :

m

= = = = = = = =

(Face near to water) (Face away from water) ( For Strength Calculation) ( For Strength Calculation) (Perm. Stress in direct tension) (not in contact with water) (Perm. Stress in bending tension)

Diameter of Cylindrical Portion Diameter of bottom Ring Beam Height of Conical Dome Rise of Top Dome Rise of Bottom dome Radius of Top Dome Radius of Bottom Dome (Top ring beam) (Bottom ring beam) (Conical Dome) D dr hc ht hb = = = = = = = 21 14.6 3.2 3.2 2.1 m m m m m

18.827 m 13.738 m = ASIN(10.5 / 18.83) x(180/PI) = =ASIN (7.3 / 13.738 ) x (180/PI) = = ATAN (13.7 / 3.2 ) x 180/PI = 33.90 32.10 45.00

0 0 0

f1 f2 fo

Height of Water Column Required Capacity of Tank Break up of Capacity Calculation Content in Cylindrical Portion = 3.14 / 4 x 21 ^2 x 5.55 Content in Conical shell ( Deducting Bottom dome) = 3.14 x 3.2 / 12 x ( 21 ^ 2 + 14.6 ^ 2 + ( 21 x 14.6 ) - ( 3.14 x ( 2.1 ^ 2 ) ) / 3 ) x (3 x 13.738 - 2.1 ) Invert level of outlet pipe above top of ring beam Dead Storage Freeboard Total Height of Cylindrical Portion = 3.14 x 14.6 x 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.6

= =

5.55 m

3 2546.55 m Provided Height OK

3 1922.30 m

= = = = =

3 624.25 m

0.30 m

3 4.13 m

0.45 m 6 m

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Trignometric Ratios sinf1 cosf1 sinf2 cosf2 sinf0 cosf0 = = = = = = 0.56 0.83 0.53 0.85 0.71 0.71

Thickness of Dome Self weight of Dome Live Load Total Load Meridional Thrust at Edges = Meridional Stress = = = (150 / 1000 ) x25) 150 mm = = = = =

2 3.75 kN/m 2 1.00 kN/m 2 4.75 kN/m

48.87 kN/m

2 0.326 N/mm Safe

2 0.298 N/mm Safe

Since the stresses are within the limits , provide nominal Reinforcement @ 0.3% Both in Meridional & Hoop Direction Area of Steel Required : As Hence provide = = ( 0.3 / 100 ) x 150x 1000 10 =

2 450 mm

Horizotal component of Meridional Thrust P1 Tension tending to rupture the = (40560.14x10.5 ) beam (due to meridional thrust) Thrust due to Water = 9800 x 21 x 0.55 x 0.5 = 40560.14 N/m = 425881.50 N

56595 N

Total tension tending to rupture the beam = ( 425881.498 + 56595 ) Area of steel required Provide And 20 12 = = 482476.5 / 150 mm f bars mm f bars 3769.91

= = 12 0

482476.50 N

2 3216.51 mm

Nos Nos provided steel ok Final Design done after continuity analysis

Cross sectional area of the ring beam is given by Width of ring beam Depth of ring beam Provide ring beam of size B D Stress Developed in The Section = = = =

= 550 mm 529.98 mm

291491.71

550 mm 550 mm

Provided dimensions OK

sdt developed

1.28

<

1.5

OK

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Shear Reinforcement: Provide 10 mm dia 2 Legged Stirrups Minimum Spacing Required = ( 3.14 x 0.25 x10 ^ 2 x 2 ) x 0.87 x415 ) / (0.4 x 550 ) = 257.79 Spacing of shear reinforcement = 370 or 257.79 So provide shear reinforcement at = 250mm C/c

mm whichever is less

In the Membrane analysis ,the tank wall is assumed to be free at top and and bottom. Maximum hoop tension occurs at the base of the wall , its magnitude being given by P = = Area of hoop steel required Ash = 9800 x 6 x 21 x 0.5 617400 N/m height

2 4116.00 mm

2 2058.00 mm

Providing ring on both faces , so steel on each face Spacing of So provide 16 16 mm dia ring required mm dia ring at

= 98 95 mm

mm C/c

OK

The wall is designed for the total hoop g w H D/ 2 and checked for the methodology given in IS 3370 : 1967 ( Part IV) So Ash provided = 2116.44 mm2 ( on Each face) =

2 1.5 N/mm

Permissible tensile stress For the composite section thickness of wall required. t Provide thckness of wall at top Provide thickness of wall at bottom Average thickness Vertical Reinf. % of Distribution Steel required (Considering Average thickness) Area of distribution steel required Area of steel on each face Spacing of On water face provide Away from water face Area of steel provided 10 10 10 = =

= = = =

0.24 %

2 728.57 mm 2 364.29 mm

Chart showing requirement of hoop reinf. at different levels along the wall height

Distance from the top Hoop Tension Area of hoop steel Bar dia

Steel on faces

Both / One

mm 16 16 16 16 16 16

Reinforcement Scheme Distance from top m 0 1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6 Spacing of Hoop Steel Provided 250 250 200 150 115 95 Area of hoop steel provided mm2 1608.50 1608.50 2010.62 2680.83 3496.73 4232.88

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Checking The Section for Crack Resistance Permissible Stress in the Composite Section Stresses in the composite section at the base = 1.5 N/mm2

ss

N/mm2

Checking of Stresses at Various Levels of Tank Wall Distance from Top %h m 0 0 0.2 1.2 0.4 2.4 0.6 3.6 0.8 4.8 1 6 Hoop Tension 0 123480 246960 370440 493920 617400 Thickness 200 240 280 320 360 400 Reinf. Provided 1608.50 1608.50 2010.62 2680.83 3496.73 4232.88 Stress Developed 0 0.49 0.83 1.08 1.27 1.42

Calculation of Bending moments and Hoop Tension in Cylindrical Wall as per IS 3370 : 1967 (Part IV) The wall is considered to be fixed at base and free at top. Depth from top of wall %H 0.0H 0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H 1.0H Actual level (m) 0.000 0.600 1.200 1.800 2.400 3.000 3.600 4.200 4.800 5.400 6.000 Coeff. for hoop tension 0.019 0.121 0.236 0.344 0.439 0.500 0.507 0.439 0.294 0.110 0.000 H2 / (D x t) = 5.714 150

Hoop Tension Coeff. for B.M (N) 11970.00 76230.00 148680.00 216720.00 276570.00 315000.00 319410.00 276570.00 185220.00 69300.00 0.00

150 0.0000 150.00 0.0001 150.00 0.0004 150.00 0.0009 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150.0000 150.00 150 150 150 From the above table it is found that hoop 150 tension is maximum at a level 0.6H from top,150 whereas earlier it was found to be maximum at base of wall 150 Reinf. has been provided considering the critical value among the above . 150 150 Design of section for Bending Moment 150 150 Design B.M. = -150.00 N-m 150 Depth of section reqd. from no-crack criteria = #NUM! mm Thickness provided = 400.00 mm 2 sbt-developed = -0.01 N/mm O.K. Clear cover Effective depth Area of steel reqd. = = = 45.00 mm 350.00 mm 2 -3.27 mm

2 392.70 mm 2 -395.96 mm

sbt-Permissible

= 2.00 N/sq mm

Earlier Area of steel provided as distribution steel = Additional Area of steel required = Spacing of 12 mm dia bars required =

-285.63 mm

Hence provide additional 12 mm dia bars at 200 mm c/c for a height of 1.0 m above base on inner face ( these bars will be additional to the earlier bars)

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The ring beam connecting cylindrical portion and conical dome. The load W transmitted through the tank wall, at the top of conical dome consists of Assuming size of beam B D1 D2 Dav = = = = 1500 650 550 600 mm ( Depth at Junction ) (Depth at Edge) mm

=48.87 x 0.56

27.25 kN/m

= = = =

4. Self weight of ring beam =( 1.5 - 0.4 ) x ( 0.6 )x 25 x1 + 3.0 x 1.1 kN/m2) (Considering a Live load = 3 Total vertical load Thrust from the Conical Dome Inclination of conical dome with vertical

fo

= = = = = =

= W x tanf0 = w x h x d3

1418.41 kN/m

This is to be resisted by hoop reinforcement Area of hoop steel is given as Ash Number of So provide 25 25 = (1418.41 x 1000) / 150 mm dia bars required mm dia bars =

2 9817.48 mm

2 9456.03 mm

seq. section

2 1.450 N/mm

As seq.

<

1.5

The projecting portion of this beam will act as balconey so the moment coming due to load on balconey Projecting width

= 1500 - 400

1100

mm

= 3 x 1.1 ^2 / 2

= =

1.82 600 =

kN m mm 24.92 mm 2

As very small amout of steel is required, the shear reinforcement provided in the beam will cater the need. Shear Reinforcement Provide

10 mm

300 mm C/c

2 523.60 mm 2 261.80 mm

Area of shear reinforcement provided Area of steel available to cater for Cantilver Moment

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Meridional Thrust Weight of water acting as a load on the conical dome. Ww ( 3.14 / 4 x (21 ^2 - 14.6 ^ 2 ) x6 x 9800 ) + ( ( 0.5 x 3.2 x (21 - 14.6 ) / 2 ) x ( 3.14 x ( 21 + 14.6 ) x 0.5 ) ) x 9800 = 13327832.36 N = 660 mm

Ww

=PI x ( 21 + 14.6 ) / 2 ) x ( 3.2 / 0.71 ) x (660 / 1000) x 25000 4175599.10 N = 96866.19 N/m

Hence vertical load W 2 per meter run is given by. W2 = = ( PI x 21 x 96866.19 ) + 13327832.36 + 4175599.1 ) / ( PI x 14.6) 520938.72 N/m

Meridional thrust in the Conical Dome T0 Meridional Stress = ( 520938.72 ) / 0.707 = 736718.6 / ( 1000 x 660 ) 736718.60 N/m

2 1.12 N/mm OK

Calculation of Hoop Tension in Conical Dome W B3 p D' h0 q B2 D' = 14.6 + 2 x h' x 1 p q = (6 + 3.2 - h' ) x 9800 = 0.66 x 1 x 1 x 25 16.50 kN/m h' D' = diameter of conical dome at any height h' above base

Values of P0 for h' = 0 to h' = hc h' 0 1.6 3.2 p 90160 74480 58800 p/cosf0 127505.49 105330.63 83155.76 q 16500 16500 16500 q*tanf0 16500 16500 16500 D'/2 7.3 8.9 10.5

Hoop Tension

( The table showing stresses for 20 sections throughout the depth is appended )

1084292.57 N

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2 1.12 N/mm

1084292.57

This hoop tension will be resisted by the Hoop steel Area of hoop Steel As = = 1084292.57 / 150 = mm dia bars

mm dia bars at

= =

2 7228.62 mm 2 3614.31 mm

O.K.

st-compostie sect.

Thus

st-compostie sect.

<

sdt permissible

0.20% = =

In Meridional Direction Provide distribution steel Area of Distribution Steel Area of Steel required on each face Considering So provide Astprovided = 12

2 1320 mm

Diameter of bottom Ring Do = Rise of bottom Dome h2 = Radius of bottom Dome R2 = Total depth of water above the edges of dome Ho Trigonometric Ratios sinf2 = cosf2 = 14.60 m 2.10 m 13.74 m = 6 + 3.2 = 9.20 m

0.531 0.847

Weight of water on the dome is given by Wo Wo = = = {pi/4 x Do2 x Ho - pi x h22/3 x ( 3 x R2 - h2)} x g ( PI / 4 x 213.16 x 9.2) - ( PI x 4.41/3 x (3 x 13.738 - 2.1) ) x 9800 13323953.12 N = 13323.95 kN t2 = 250 mm

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Self weight of bottom Dome Self weight of Bottom dome = 2 x PI() x R2 x h2 x t2 x 25 = 1132.94 kN Total weight W T Meridional Thrust T2 T2 Meridional Stress = = = = 1132.94 + 13323.95 = W T / PI x sinf2 593165.40 N/m = 593165.4 / ( 250 x 1000 )

2 2.373 N/mm Less than permissible so OK

14456.89 kN

Intensity of Load per unit area p 2 =WT / ( 2 x PI x R2 x h2) =14456.89 / ( 2 x PI x 13.74 x 2.1 ) Maximum Hoop Stress at the centre of Dome = p2 x R2 / 2 x t2 = = Minimum reinforcement required As per IS 3370 (Part II)-1965 Area of steel Provide Area of steel provided As 12 = =

2 2191319.524 N/m 2 2.191 N/mm

79.75 kN/m

2 650 mm

mm dia bars

2 753.98 mm

at O.K.

150

mm c/c

Inward thrust from conical dome Outward thrust from bottom dome = = To x sinf0 = T2 x cosf2 = 520938.72 N/m 502494.36 N/m

Net inward thrust Hoop compression in the Beam Size of the beam assumed

= = B D =

700 mm 1600 mm

2 0.12 N/mm

Hoop stress

836128.51 N/m

= =

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Number of Columns Supporting the Ring Beam Mean Diameter of ring beam: D Mean radius of the ring beam R Analysis of ring Beam 2q = q = = =

= 14.6 m 7.3 m

16

Nos.

22.5 11.25

o o

= =

0.393 0.196

c c

Moment and Torsion Coefficients C1 = 0.033 (coeff. for suppt. BM) C2 = 0.016 (coeff. for span BM) C3 = 0.0012 (coeff. for torsion ) Fm = 4.76 o Maximum B.M. at Support Mo Maximum B.M. at Centre Mc Maximum Torsion Loaction of Max. Torsion B.M. at the location of Max Torsion Shear at location of max. Torsion Maximum Shear at Support = = = T = = = =

Moment and Torsion coefficients are calculated from equations for curved circular beam supported on columns from standard text book on Reinforced Concrete- calculations appended 593309.74 N-m 297227.88 N-m 22448.55 N-m 4.76

o

0.033 x 864128.51 x 7.3^2 x 0.39 = 0.016 x 864128.51 x 7.3^2 x 0.39 = 0.0012 x 864128.51 x 7.3^2 x 0.39 =

0 N-m 864128.51 x 7.3 x (0.196-(4.76 x PI /180 )) =714799.48 N 864128.51 x 7.3 x 0.196 = 1238600.03 N

Depth of the Section Required from strength criteria dreq = = = (593309.74 x 1000 / 1.64 x 700)^0.5 718.77 mm

Depth of Section required from No-Crack Consideration Dreq = = So, keep total depth = Nominal Cover = Considering Bar Diameter = Effective Depth = Width of the beam = 1820 45 20 1765 700 ( 593309.743 x 6 x 1000 ) / ( 700 x 2 )) ^0.5 1594.60 mm mm mm mm mm mm O.K.

Type of Beam As per IS 456 : 2000 clause 29.1. The beam shall be deemed to be a deep beam when the ratio of effective span to overall depth, l / D is less than 2.5 for a continuous beam l/D = = ( 3.142 x 14.6 ) / ( 16 / 1.82 ) 1.58

Design of the Section ( Longitudional and Main Reinforcement) a. Section at the Point of Maximum Torsion Max. Torsion B.M. at the Location of Max Torsion. M Equivalent Moment Me1 = M + Mt Mt Me1 = = = 22448.55 x ( 1 + ( 1820 / 700 ) /1.7) 47538.11 N-m 47538.11 N-m T = = 22448.55 N-m 0 N-m

Lever arm of deep beam is given by the relation ( As per IS 456 : 2000 clause 29.2 b , for Continuous Beam ) z = 0.20 ( l + 1.5 D ) where l = effective span when 1 <= l/D <= 2.5

= =

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1.04 m

Ast as per lever arm = j * d consideration Ast1 = = 47538108.728 / ( 150 x 0.88 x 1765 )

2 205.21 mm

2 303.46 mm

No of bars calculated for maximum of two cases No. of 20 mm dia bars req

0.97 No

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Lever arm from deep beam consideration Ast as per lever arm = j * d consideration Ast =

2 2561.16 mm

Ast as per lever arm of deep beam Ast = 593309.74 x 1000 / 150x 1044.342 =

2 3787.46 mm

No of bars calculated for maximum of above both steels No. of 20 mm dia bars req 12.06 No Provide 20 mm dia bars 14 Nos 2 Area of Steel Provided = 4398.23 mm ( This steel is again checked in redesign after Contunity Analysis ) c. Section at Maximum Sagging B.M. Mc Mt = = 297227.88 N-m 0 N-m

O.K.

Ast as per lever arm = j * d consideration Ast = 297227.88 x 1000 / 190x 0.88 x 1765 =

2 1012.94 mm

Ast as per lever arm of deep beam Ast = 297227.88 x 1000 / 190x 1044.342 =

2 1497.94 mm

No. of 20 mm dia bars req Provide 20 mm dia bars Area of Steel Provided =

O.K.

2 2199.12 mm

Area of Steel reqd. at support bottom from ductility criteria Reinforcement Scheme Reinforcement Scheme at Top At Top 20 mm dia bars Placing of top steel : shall be placed in two zones 1). Zone one of depth 0.2 D, adjucent to the tension face Proportion of tension steel = 0.5 ( l / D -0.5 ) = = 5 = = 5 5 15

14

No of bars required in this zone Provide 20 mm dia bars 2). Zone two of depth 0.3 D, on either side of mid depth No of bars required in this zone Provide And Provided steel 20 mm dia bars 20 mm dia bars 20 mm dia bars

OK

Nos within depth Nos within depth

Nos

Placing of tensile reinforcement to resist positive bending moment This steel shall be placed within a zone of depth equal to 0.25 D - 0.05l adjucent to tension face = 0.35 m

Transverse Reinforcement

a. At the Point of Max. Torsional Moment Shear Torsion V T = = 714799.48 N 22448.55 N-m

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Equivalent Shear

Ve

2 0.620 N/mm

766110.45 N

Nominal Shear Stress Produced Maximum Shear Stress tcmax % Steel Provided at The Section

OK

2 2.2 N/mm

0.36 %

2 0.26 N/mm as per IS 456:2000 Table 23

As Nominal Shear Stress is greater than permissible shear stress ,shear reinforcement is necessary The C/s area of shear reinforcement Asv of the stirrups is given by. Asv = (T . Sv / b1 .d1 . ssv )+( V.Sv / 2.5 . d1. ssv) b1 d1 So Asv/ Sv =

= =

1.25 mm

600 mm 1730 mm

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement is governed by Asv / Sv >= (tve -tc / ssv) * b Asv / Sv = Using 1.68 mm 12 mm dia 4 legged stirrups, Asv =

2 452.39 mm

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However the spacing of the stirrups should not exceed the least of 1. x1 = 600 +20 + 12 = ( 632 + 1762 ) / 4 632 mm 590 mm y1 = = 1730 + 20 + 12 1762 mm

2. x1 + y1 / 4 3. 300 mm So provide

12 mm dia

legged stirrups at

260 mm C/c

b. At the Point of Maximum Shear Shear at Support Nominal Shear Stress % Steel at Support Permissible shear sterss in concrete = Shear to be resisted by Stirrups Spacing of Provide c. At Mid Span At mid span provide nominal shear reinforcement given by Asv/Sv = 0.4.b / 0.87.fy Asv/Sv = Spacing of = 0.4 x 700 / 0.87 x415 12 mm dia 0.776 583 mm 12 mm dia 12 mm dia = 4 4 = = = 1238600.03 N

2 1.00 N/mm

0.36 %

2 0.260 N/mm

OK

4 legged stirrups at =

4 legged stirrups at

Side Face Reinforcement As beam is deeper than 450 mm and subjected to torsion provide side face reinforcement @ 0.1 % of gross area. So Area of Side face Reinfor. So, provide 12 mm dia = 0.1 / 100 x 700 x 1820 Bars 12 Nos. So Al

2 1274 mm

= OK

2 1357.17 mm

Design of Columns :

Numbers Columns Supporting the Tank. 'n Mean Circular Diameter of C.L. of Columns D 0 Staging Height ( upto bottom of ring beam) Ht. Below G.L .( upto top of fdn. ring beam) Height of panels above G.L h' Height of Bottom Pannel Diameter of Column Nos of bracing levels Vertical Load on Columns 1. Weight of water 2. Weight of Tank. a. Weight of top Dome b. Weight of Cylindrical wall b. Weight of Conical Dome = = = 1419489.37 N 2968805.06 N 4175599.101 N = 24981659.38 N = = = = = = = = 16 14.6 16.18 0.6 2.80 2.80 700 5 Nos. m m m m m mm

OK

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c. Weight of Bottom Dome d. Weight of Bottom Ring Beam Total Weight of Tank Total Superimposed Load Or Total Load

= = = =

= load on bottom beam per meter x PI x Dia of Ring Beam = 39635200.86 N = = = = 400 mm 600 mm 2477200.05 N 9621.13 N

Load per Column Weight of Column per m height Assume size of brace B D

Length of Each Brace = L = R x( SIN 2p / n)/(COS p/n) L = =14.6/2 x (SIN 2.PI/16) / (COS PI /16) = = 2.85 - 0.7 = 0.4 x 0.6 x 2.15 x 25 = = = 2.85 m 2.15 m 12.89 kN 33.88 kN

Clear Length of Each Brace Weight of Each Brace Weight due to one flight of stair

The Total Weight of Column Above Each Brace Above Brace No. (from top) 1 2 3 4 5 At fdn. Level Description = 2477200.05 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 33875.16 =2537982.3 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 12889.91 + 33875.16 = 2611654.45 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 12889.91 + 33875.16 = 2685326.6 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 12889.91 + 33875.16 = 2758998.76 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 12889.91 + 33875.16 =2832670.91 + 2.8 x 9621.13 + 12889.91 + 33875.16 Weight (N) 2537982.30 2611654.45 2685326.60 2758998.76 2832670.91 2906343.07

Basic Wind Speed (as per Appendix A) Design wind speed where k1 (Probability factor) k2 (Terrain factor) k3 (Topography factor) Vz Design Wind Pressure = Shape Factor = = 55.319 0.6 x Vz2 0.7 = m/s 1836.115 N/m2 ( for circular sections) Vb Vz 1.07 1.1 1.0 = = 47 m/s k1 x k2 x k3 (Table 1 of code) (Table 2 - for Category 2, Class B) (Clause 5.3.3 of code)

Wind Load on Tank ,Domes and Ring Beam So, wind load on tank , domes and ring beam = 328813.32 N

It may be assumed that this force acts at the Mid-height of Cylindrical Portion of the Tank So, the point of Application of Wind Pressure above bottom of ring beam. Wind Load on Columns Wind load on panels = (2.8 x 16 x 0.7) x 1836.12 x 0.7 + 0.6 x 15.3 x 1836.12 = 0.5 x 2.8 x 16 x 0.7 x 1836.12 x 0.7 = = 57113.95 N 20129.21 N = 8.02 m

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The point of Contraflexure O1 , O2 , O3 , etc are assumed to be at mid-height of each pannel. Shear forces and Moments at these panels due to wind is given by, Mid Ht. Level Above G.L. 14.78 m 11.99 m 9.19 m 6.39 m 3.60 m 0.80 m Qw N 348942.53 406056.48 463170.43 520284.38 577398.33 634512.28 Mw N-M 3125020.80 4180761.07 5396230.03 6771427.66 8306353.98 10001008.98

Axial Thrust , Shear Force and Bending in the Columns Axial Thrust Vmax = 4 x Mw / n x D0 Shear Force Smax = 2 x Qw / n Bending Moment M = Smax x h/2 Level Above G.L. m 14.78 m 11.99 m 9.19 m 6.39 m 3.60 m 0.80 m Vmax N 53510.63 71588.37 92401.20 115949.10 142232.09 171250.15 Smax N 43617.82 50757.06 57896.30 65035.55 72174.79 79314.03 M N-m 60992.25 70975.29 80958.33 90941.37 100924.42 110907.46 (In the farthest Leeward Column)

The farthest leeward column will be subjected to the superimposed axial load plus V max. The column on the bending axis, on the other hand, will be subjected to superimposed axial load plus a bending moment M The critical combination for the Panels given as Panel at Level Above G.L m 14.78 m 11.99 m 9.19 m 6.39 m 3.60 m 0.80 m Farthest Leeward Column Vmax Axial Load N N 2537982.30 53510.63 2611654.45 71588.37 2685326.60 92401.20 2758998.76 115949.10 2832670.91 142232.09 2906343.07 171250.15 Column on bending axis Axial Load B.M. N N-m 2537982.30 60992.25 2611654.45 70975.29 2685326.60 80958.33 2758998.76 90941.37 2832670.91 100924.42 2906343.07 110907.46

Design values

Design of Column on bending axis for combined axial load and bending moment Axial Load Bending Moment Diameter of Column = = = = = = = 2906343.07 N 110907.46 N-m 700 190 10 8 45 mm N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm

Effective Cover

As wind effect is taken into consideration the permissible stresses may be increased by 25 % Considering Asc required Provide Asc provided = = 25 = 1.70 % Steel

2 6542.37 mm

mm dia bars

2 7853.98 mm

16

Nos OK

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2 447676.95 mm

4 1.47E+10 mm

scc1

2906343.07 / 447676.95

2 6.49 N/mm

scbc1

2 2.64 N/mm

scc1 / scc

= ( 6.49 / 10 ) + (2.64/ 12.5 ) (Increase in permissible stresses 25 % ) Axial Load Carrying Capacity of Column

P = 4508185.458 N OK Thus axial load capacity is greater than the maximum axial load on leeward column. Tie Bars Considering Diameter of link bars Spacing of Link Bars Least of a. 16 times dia of main bar b. 300 mm = 10 mm

400 mm 300 mm

Spacing of Ties as per IS 13920 : 1993 (Code for Ductile Detailing of structures) As per Clause 7.4 of the code special confining reinf. shall be provided at junctions of columns and braces and also over a length L0 above and below the junctions. Length L0 shall be the greatest of the following :a) b) c) larger lateral dimension of the member = 1/6 of the clear span of the member = 700 mm 366.67 mm 450 mm Thus L0 = 700 mm

Considering a spacing of 90mm, area of bar to be used as circular hoops is given by Ash = 0.09 x S x Dk x fck/fy x [(Ag/Ak) - 1] Ash S Dk Ag Ak = = = = = area of the bar c/s spacing of hoops dia. of the core measured to the outside of hoop reinf. = gross area of column c/s p/4 x Dk x Dk area of the concrete core = mm2 mm mm which is lesser than area of 10mm dia bar dia bar at dia bar at 90 300 OK

where

640 mm

73.56 10 10

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Design of Braces

Maximum moment in the brace is governed by tan(q + p / n ) = = = = (1 / 2)* cot( q) 29.83 deg. 0.87 0.87

Brace Level ht above G.L.

Maximum Shear force in the Brace Shear force in the beam is calculated at the section q = p/n Brace No from top 1 2 3 4 5 Brace Level Ht, above G.L. 13.38 m 10.59 m 7.79 m 4.99 m 2.20 m Qw2 (N) 348942.53 406056.48 463170.43 520284.38 577398.33 Qw1 (N) 406056.48 463170.43 520284.38 577398.33 634512.28

3.14 / 16 h2 (m) 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 S.F. (N) 89136.67 102622.64 116108.61 129594.58 143080.55

Maximum Twisting Moment in the Brace Twisting Moment considered as 5 % of the B.M. Brace No from top 1 2 3 4 5 Brace Level Ht,above G.L. 13.38 m 10.59 m 7.79 m 4.99 m 2.20 m Qw2 (N) 348942.53 406056.48 463170.43 520284.38 577398.33 Qw1 (N) 406056.48 463170.43 520284.38 577398.33 634512.28 h1 (m) 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 h2 (m) 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 B.M. at p/n Twisting M. (N-m) (N-m) 170534.02 8526.70 196335.04 9816.75 222136.06 11106.80 247937.08 12396.85 273738.10 13686.90

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All dimensions are in N & m

Slope at left edge Hor. Deflection at edges Parameter Lambda Parameter Kappa Moment Stiffness Corr. Radial thrust Thrust stiffness Corr. Moment 2*q*R*sin(a) / Et q*R*R*sin(a)/Et*(1/(1+cos(a)-cos(a)) (3*(R/t)^2)^0.25 1-cot(a)/(2*Lambda) R*Et/(4*Lambda^3)*(k+1/k) E t/(2*Lambda^2*k*sin(a)) E t/(Lambda*R*k*sin(a)^2) E t/(2*Lambda^2*k*sin(a)) 665000.00/E radians clockwise -1775209.98/E m (inward) 14.74 0.95 0.0004 E N-m / m per radian 0.0007 E N/m per radian 0.0018 E N/m 0.0007 E N-m / m

Thrust stiffness Moment Stiffness E* b*d/(R*R) E*b*d^3/(12*R^2) 0.0027 E N/m 0.0001 E N-m / m

Cylindrical wall

Parameter Mu Parameter Z Moment Stiffness Corr. Thrust Thrust stiffness Corr. Moment (3/(R*R*t*t))^0.25 E * t^3/12 2*Mu*Z 2*Mu^2*Z 4*Mu^3*Z 2*Mu^2*Z 0.7415 0.0023 E 0.0033 E N-m / m 0.0025 E N/m 0.0037 E N/m 0.0025 E 21609000.00 /E m 3601500.00/E radians

Thrust stiffness Moment stiffness E*b*d/R^2 E*b*d^3/(12*R^2) 0.0088 E N/m 0.0003 E N-m / m

Conical Dome

Hoop tension at top of dome Hoop tension at bottom of dome Outward defl. At top Outward defl. At bottom Slope at top 0.5*D*T1/E*t 0.5*dr*T2/E*t tan(a)*(2*T1-T0)/E*t T1 = T2 = 1046385.45 1051240.11 N N

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Slope at bottom

tan(a)*(2*T2-T0)/E*t

-4301816.40/E radians

Parameters for Calculating Moment and Thrust Stiffness Delta l l' epsilon epsilon' (12*cot(a)^2/t^2)^0.25 0.5*D/sin(a) l - (hc/cos(a)) 2*DELTA*l^0.5 2*DELTA*l'^0.5 2.29 14.85 10.32 17.66 14.72

From Appendix D Table D2 of Jain / Jaikrishna we get the following parameters K1 K2=K3 K4 K1' K2'=K3' K4' Calculation of moment and thrust stiffness for conical dome At Top Edge Moment stiffness Corr. Thrust Thrust stiffness Corresponding moment At Bottom Edge Moment Stiffness Corr. Thrust Thrust stiffness Corr. Moment E*t*K4'*l'/((K1'K4'-K2'K3')*tan(a)^2) E*t*K2'/((K1'K4'-K2'K3')*tan(a)*sin(a)) E*t*K1'/((K1'K4'-K2'K3')*l*sin(a)^2) E*t*K3'/((K1'K4-K2'K3')*tan(a)*sin(a)) 0.0235 E 0.0165 E 0.0236 E 0.0165 E E*t*K4*l/((K1K4-K2K3)*tan(a)^2) E*t*K2/((K1K4-K2K3)*tan(a)*sin(a)) E*t*K1/((K1K4-K2K3)*l*sin(a)^2) E*t*K3/((K1K4-K2K3)*tan(a)*sin(a)) 0.0203 E 0.0119 E 0.0144 E 0.0119 E 936.42 73.82 11.99 566.55 54.23 10.62

Moment stiffness Corr. Thrust Thrust stiffness Corr. Moment E*b*d^3/(3*R^2) E*b*d^2/(2*R^2) E*b*d/(R^2) E*b*d^2/(2*R^2) 0.0179 E 0.0168 E 0.0210 E 0.0168 E

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Bottom Dome

Slope at left edge 2*q*R*sin(a)/E*t-w*R^2*sin(a)/E*t q*R*R*sin(a)/E*t*(1/(1+cos(a)cos(a))p*R^2*sin(a)/(2*E*t)+w*R^3*sin(a)(2 *cos(2a)+cos(a)-3)/((6E*t(1+cos(a)) (3*(R/t)^2)^0.25 1-cot(a)/(2*Lambda) R*E*t/(4*Lambda^3)*(k+1/k) E*t/(2*Lambda^2*k*sin(a)) E*t/(Lambda*R*k*sin(a)^2) E*t/(2*Lambda^2*k*sin(a)) -3661123.81/E

Displ. Of edges Lambda Kappa Moment stiffness Corr. Thrust Thrust stiffness Corr. Moment

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a) Junction Between Top Dome Top Ring Beam and Wall

Let the net rotation of joint be "s" clockwise and net displacement be "x" inward. Then the changes in slope and displacement from the membrane state are as follows Component Top dome Top ring beam Tank wall Clockwise slope s - 665000/ E s s - 3601500/ E Inward Displacement x -1775209.98 / E x x

Multiplying the above changes of slope and deflections with the corr. stiffnesses, we can get the reactions imposed by the joint on each member The top dome also imposes an outward horizontal thrust on the joint equal to 40560.14 N/m The total reactions from the joint must balance among themselves. Taking clock-wise moment as +ve the following table gives the reactions from the joint. Component Top Dome Clockwise Moment (M) 0.0004 *s*E - 293.343 + 0.0007 *x*E -1156.49 0.0001*s*E 0.0033 *s*E - 12017.69 0.0025 *x*E Inward Thrust (H) 0.0007 *s*E - 433.227 + 0.0018 *x*E -3247.91 0.0027*x*E -0.0025 *s*E + 8911.4 + 0.0037 *x*E 40560.14

Following table gives the final joint reactions for the members meeting there Element Clockwise Inward Thrust Net hoop tension (-x*E*A/0.5*D) Moment -4501.10 67.10 4433.99 -12820.16 -14653.23 -13086.74 76293.70 N/m 153858.96 N/m 101724.93 N/m

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Let the net rotation of joint be "s" clockwise and net displacement be "x" inward. Then the changes in slope and displacement from the membrane state are as follows Component Wall Ring beam Conical shell Clockwise slope s - 3601500/ E s s+ 3378424.83/ E Inward Displacement x + 21609000 / E x x + 16647041.3 / E

Reactions at the junction are given by Component Wall Clockwise Moment (M) 0.0033 *s*E - 12017.69 + 0.0025 *x*E + 53468.41 Inward Thrust (H) 0.0025 *s*E - 8911.401 + 0.0037 *x*E +79296.18 0.0088*x*E -0.0119 *s*E -40262.213 + 0.0144 *x*E +239689.29 36000.00 96866.19

Middle ring 0.0003*s*E beam Conical shell 0.0203 *s*E+ 68683.3 0.0119 *x*E - 198390.3 Balcony moment Water pressure on beam Thrust from conical shell Total 1815.00 -

Following table gives the final joint reactions for the members meeting there Element Clockwise Inward Thrust Net hoop tension Moment (-x*E*A/0.5*D) -6649.89 -819.70 6133.43 5563.28 -140518.352 2020.56 605309.82 N/m 1361947.10 N/m 998761.21 N/m

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c) Junction Between Conical Shell, Bottom dome and Bottom ring beam

Let the net rotation of joint be "s" clockwise and net displacement be "x" inward. Then the changes in slope and displacement from the membrane state are as follows Component Conical shell Ring beam Bottom dome Clockwise slope s + 4301816.4/ E s s + 3661123.81/ E Inward Displacement x + 11627352.75 / E x x -21348015.06 / E

Reactions at the junction are given by Component Clockwise Moment (M) Inward Thrust (H)

Conical Shell 0.0235 *s*E + 101228.32 + 0.0165 *s*E + 70829.02 + 0.0165 *x*E + 191443.31 0.0236 *x*E + 273977.55 Bottom Ring 0.0179*s*E - 0.0168*x*E -0.0168*s*E + 0.021*x*E Beam 0.0027 *s*E + 9853.7 + 0.0072 Bottom dome 0.0019 *s*E + 6795.26 + 0.0027 *x*E -57456.93 *x*E -153575.92 Net Thrust from domes Total -18444.35

Element

Clockwise Inward Thrust Moment 111494.57 -41912.86 -69513.84 178593.81 22083.87 -181838.88

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Top Dome

As found out from membrane analysis compressive stresses in the dome are within safe limits. The continuity effect imposes a hogging moment of = 4501.10 Nm/m at the edges Also causes a hoop tension of = 76293.70 N/m near edges 2 Steel needed for hoop tension = 508.62 mm Steel provided from Membrane Analysis = 10 mm dia bars at 150 mm C/c 2 So Astmembrane = 523.60 mm Steel Provided according to Membrane analysis OK Provide Provide Bending stress at edges 10 mm 10 mm dia bars at dia bars at 150 mm C/C as hoop reinf. 150 mm C/C as meridional reinf.

Hence extend vertical reinf. in wall on outer face ie., 10 mm bars at into top dome for a length of 1.50m to take care of the bending moment

180.00 mm C/c

The Radial force in the ring beam is reduced from 40560.14 N/m to 14653.23 N/m 2 So actual reinforcement required Ast= 1025.73 mm 2 Steel provided from membrane analysis = 3769.91 mm Provide 16 Ast = mm

f bars

12

Nos

2 2412.74 mm

Edge Moment = 67.10 N-m produces sagging moment = 704.56 2 Bending stress developed = 0.0254 N/mm This stress is too small, and the hoop steel provided will take care of bending moment.

Tank Wall

Hoop tension at top edge Moment at top edge Hoop tension at bottom edge Moment at bottom edge Hoop steel needed at top Hoop steel needed at bottom = = = = = = 101724.93 4433.99 605309.82 -6649.89 N Nm/m N Nm/m

2 678.17 mm 2 4035.40 mm

2 1608.50 mm 2 4232.88 mm

O.K. O.K.

2 1.40 N/mm

Area of Steel Required for Bending Moment at bottom edge ( Away from water face) 2 Ast = 142.72 mm However , minimum steel required according to IS 3370 Part II Clause 7.1 = Astrequired =

2 642.86 mm

0.21 %

2 392.70 mm

O.K.

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Hoop Tension = 1361947.10 N

2 9079.65 mm 2 9817.48 mm

Astrequired =

Area of steel provided as per membrane analysis = Steel provided 25 mm dia bars

2 1.39 N/mm

O.K.

20

seq. section

Edge Moment = -819.70 N-m produces sagging moment = -8606.85 2 Bending stress developed = 0.0956 N/mm This stress is too small, and the hoop steel provided will take care of bending moment.

Conical Dome

Hoop tension Thrust B.M. at top edge B.M. at bottom edge Area of hoop steel near top = = = = = 998761.2 136989.48 6133.43 111494.57 N N/m Nm Nm

2 6658.41 mm 2 8181.23 mm

Hoop steel provided according to Membrane analysis = consisting 25 mm dia bars at 120 mm C/c Stresses Developed in the section N/mm2 st-compostie sect. = 1.38 Provide 25 mm dia bars at 120

Provided Steel OK

Design of Section for Bending at top Ast required for B.M. at top Steel provided on outer face at top Design of Section for Bending at bottom Depth required for No-crack criteria

= =

O.K.

578.35 mm =

2 1394.88 mm

O.K. 660 mm

Depth of the section povided in membrane analysis Ast required for B.M. at bottom Steel provided on inner face at bottom Additional steel required for B.M. = = =

The additional steel provided Provide 12 mm bars at 150 mm c/c on inner face so Ast = (this steel is to be provided additionally for a length of 1.50m from junction face) So the steel available at the junction is 12 mm dia bars at 75 mm C/c

2 753.98 mm

OK

Bottom Dome

Meridonial thrust B.M. = = 593165.40 N 69513.84 Nm

Since effects of continuity are local so thickness of dome required at bottom junction is checked so that allowable stress should not exceed the combined bending and direct stresses Equating allowable stress in bending tension to combined bending and direct stress.

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= ( 69513837.669 x 6 / ( t^2 x 1000 )) - (593165.399 / 1000 * t ) t= 331.85 mm However from conservative side ignoring meridional stress = 456.66 So, increase the thickness of bottom dome to 460 mm at edge This thickness 460 mm at edge shall be gradually reduced to 250 mm over a length of 1.50 m. Area of Steel required for B.M. on water face Provide 16 mm f bars 150 =

2 1294.94 mm 2 1340.41 mm

scbt scbt

Radial inward thrust Moment Moment due to radial force So net B.M. Hoop Compression = = = = = 22083.87 41912.86 20096.32 21816.53 161212.27 N/m Nm/m N-m N-m induces hogging moment of N O.K.

159260.7 N-m

Compressive stresses produced in the section = Design for Hogging Bending Moment at Support Net Hogging Moment at support =

2 0.13 N/mm

Depth of section required for No-Crack Consideration Hence Provide Total depth Astrequired = = 1820.00 mm

3248.65 mm2

Longitudinal reinf. provided in span at bottom and shear reinf. as provided in membrane analysis is OK.

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Grade of Concrete fck Grade of steel Fy = = 30 415 N/mm2 N/mm2

scbc sst

m mc k j Q cover

= = = = = = = =

10

N/mm2

The brace will be subjected to critical combination of maximum shear force and twisting moment when wind blows parallel to it. The brace will be doubly reinforced due to reversal of moments under wind load Equating the Moment of Compression area about N.A. to moment of Tensile area about N.A. Steel Depth Factor

2 2

0.05

b/2. k .d + (mc -1).Asc (k - e)d = m. Ast (1 - k) d Substituting Asc and Ast = p.b.d b/2. k2.d2 + (mc -1).p.b.d (k - e)d = m. p.b.d (1 - k) d b/2(0.28d)^2 + (14- 1) p.b.d (0.28-0.05)d =9.p.b.d ( 1 -0.28) d p = 0.0111

As the brace is subjected to Bending Moment and Torsion Equivalent Moment Me1 = M + MT Design of Brace at lowest level: B.M. T. = = 273738.10 N-m 13686.90 N-m B D = = 400 mm 600 mm

MT MT Me1

= T ( (1+D/b) / 1.7) =

= 273738.1 + 20127.8

Equating moment of resistance to this moment b.n. c/2 ( d - n/3) + (mc - 1) . Asc . c' .( d - dc ) = Me1 c c' Asc n = = = = 1.33 x 10 c x( k - e)/ k 0.0111 x 400 x d kxd = = =

2 13.3 N/mm 2 10.94 N/mm

0.28 x d

= 293865900.8 484.45 mm

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Adopt D = 600 mm Dia of bar to be used = 25 mm Clear Cover = 25 mm deff. = 550 mm Available depth greater than req. hence O.K. Asc = Ast = 25 mm dia

2 2652.84 mm

Required

bars bars = =

Provide 25 mm dia Ast provided in the Section % Steel provided in the section Design of Shear Reinforcement Max. Shear Torsion Ve = = =

2 0.82 N/mm

197828.2 N

tcmax tc

= =

Shear Reinforcement is Required Area of transverse reinforcement is given as Asv b1 d1 Using Avs / Sv = = (T . Sv / b1 .d1 . ssv )+( V.Sv / 2.5 . d1. ssv) = 400 - 25 - 50 = = 600 - 25 - 50 = 10 mm dia 0.823 2 legged 325 mm 525 mm stirrups, Asv =

2 157.08 mm

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Req. Asv / Sv >= (tve -tc / ssv) * b Asv / Sv = Sv req. = 0.66 190.92 mm

Spacing should not exceed x1 , (x1 + y1)/4 , 300 mm x1 y1 x1 + y1 / 4 = = = 360 mm 560 mm 230 mm d/4 = 137.5 mm

Spacing of stirrups as per ductile detailing code IS 13920 : 1993 = Provide 10 mm dia 2 legged stirrups at

Side Face Reinforcement As depth is greater than 450 mm and the beam is subjected to torsion provide side face reinforcement @ 0.1 % of C/s area Al Provide As prov. = = 3 nos.

2 471.24 mm 2 240 mm

Provide 300mm x 300mm haunches at the junction of braces with columns and reinforce it with 10 mm dia bars.

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DESIGN OF ANNULAR RAFT FOUNDATION Material Grade of Reinf. Grade of Concrete fy fck 415 N/mm2 30 N/mm2

sst scbc

2 2

k = j = Q = 50 mm 400 kN/m2 = = = = =

Vertical Load from filled Tank and Columns Weight of Water only Vertical Load of Empty Tank and Columns Vmax due to wind load Self Weight of Foundn ( Assuming 10 % of the Super Imposed Load) Total Load on Footing Area of The Foundation required Radius of column circle

= = =

51151638 N

2 127.879 m

7.30 m

Let the inner radius of the annular raft be "b" and the outer radius of the raft be "a". The raft shall be so proportioned that the resultant of the upward pressure lies on the centerline of the column circle. Assuming that area of raft provided shall be 7.5% more than area reqd. Area of raft to be provided = Equating area of raft inside the column circle to half the area to be provided Inner radius of annular raft required, "b" = Equating area of raft outside the column circle to half the area to be provided Outer radius of annular raft required, "a" = Provide inner radius of raft "b" Provide outer radius of raft "a" Foundation width provided Inner Diameter of annular raft Outer Diameter of annular raft Area of Annular Raft provided = = = = = =

2 137.47 m

5.60 m

2 210.99 m

Moment of Inertia of Slab about Diametrical Axis M.I. about diametrical axis = 6179.88 m4

Total Load of Empty Tank (Empty tank + Columns + Self wt of Footing) Total Load of Empty Tank = Stabilising Moment Stabilising Moment = 251231794.4 N-m 26169978.59 N

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Moment of Wind Forces About Base Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wind Force N 328813.32 20129.21 57113.95 57113.95 57113.95 57113.95 57113.95 Acting at level Tank Ring Beam Brace1 level Brace2 level Brace3 level Brace4 level Brace5 level 13.38 10.59 7.79 4.99 2.20 Lever Arm m 25.80 17.78 14.98 12.19 9.39 6.59 3.80 = Moment N -m 8483383.668 357897.30 855757.3529 696028.6723 536299.9918 376571.3112 216842.6307 11522780.9 N-m

Total Moment About Base Calculation of Gross Bearing Pressure A) Super Imposed Load + Wind Load a. Tank full Condition

smax

260336.86 N/m

= = =

2 224537.23 N/m

2 141934.41 N/m

2 106134.77 N/m

2 500000 N/m

Hence Stresses are Within Limits B) Only Super Imposed Load a. Tank full Condition

sbase

= =

The raft slab shall be designed for a net upward pressure p1+0.5p2 where p1 is the upward pressure due to dead loads, and p2 is the pressure due to bending effects.

2 Net upward pressure = 229347.22 N/m The design of raft as per IS 11089 is designed and appended

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Design of Circular Beam of Raft The Design of Raft Ring beam is practically similar to the circular ring beam B2 provided at the top of column Design load = 1054997.2 N/m = 14.6 m 7.3 m 16 Nos.

Number of Columns Supporting the Ring Beam Mean Diameter of ring beam: D Mean radius of the ring beam R Analysis of ring Beam 2q = = =

22.5 11.25

o o

= =

Moment and Torsion Coefficients C1 = 0.033 (coeff. for suppt. BM) C2 = 0.016 (coeff. for span BM) C3 = 0.0012 (coeff. for torsion )

Fm

4.76

Moment and Torsion coefficients are taken from equations for curved circular beams supported on columns as given in standard text book on Reinforced Concrete 724360.01 N-m 362879.58 N-m 27406.99 N-m 4.76

o

Maximum B.M. at Support Mo Maximum B.M. at Centre Maximum Torsion Loaction of Max. Torsion B.M. at the location of Max Torsion Shear at location of max. Torsion Maximum Shear at Support Depth of the Beam Required Width of the Beam Depth reqd. Keep total depth = Nominal Cover = Considering Bar Diameter = Effective Depth = Width of the beam = Mc T

= = = = = = =

0.033 x 1054997.23 x 7.3^2 x 0.39 0.016 x 1054997.23 x 7.3^2 x 0.39 0.0012 x 1054997.23 x 7.3^2 x 0.39

0 N-m 1054997.23 x 7.3 x (0.2-(4.76 x PI /180 )) 1054997.23 x 7.3 x 0.2 872684.40 N 1512182.02 N

Type of Beam As per IS 456 : 2000 clause 29.1. The beam shall be deemed to be a deep beam when the ratio of effective span to overall depth, l/D is less than 2.5 for continuous beam. l = effective span l/D = = = 2.49 ( 2.49 / 1 ) 2.49

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Design of the Section ( Longitudional and Main Reinforcement) a. Section at the Point of Maximum Torsion Max. Torsion T = = 27406.99 N-m 0 N-m

35088.53 N-m

Lever arm of deep beam as per IS 456 : 2000, clause 29.2 b, for continuous beam, is given by the relation z = 0.20 ( l + 1.5 D ) z = 0.7983 m when 1 < = l/D < = 2.5

2 179.09 mm

Steel calculation for lever arm of deep beam Ast1 = 35088530.969 / ( 230 x 798.34 ) =

2 191.09 mm

No. of

0.61 No 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 = 150 150 150 150 = 150 150 150 150 150 O.K. 150 150 150

150 150 Ast hogging = 724360.01 x 1000 / 230x 0.91 x 940 150 150 Steel calculation for lever arm of deep beam 150 150 Ast hogging = 724360.01 x 1000 / 230x 798.34 150 150.0 150 150 No. of 20 mm dia bars req 12.56 Provide 20 mm dia bars 14 Area of Steel Provided = 4398.23 c. Section at Maximum Sagging B.M. Mc Mt = = 362879.58 N-m 0 N-m

2 3697.01 mm

2 3944.92 mm

Steel calculation for lever arm = j * d Ast sagging = 362879.58 x 1000 / 230x 0.91 x 940 =

2 1852.08 mm

Steel calculation for lever arm of deep beam Ast sagging = 362879.58 x 1000 / 230x 798.34 6.29 No 8 Nos 2 2513.27 mm =

2 1976.27 mm

No. of 20 mm dia bars req Provide 20 mm dia bars Area of Steel Provided = Reinforcement Scheme

O.K.

Reinforcemet scheme of steel provided for hogging moment At Support 20 mm dia bars 14 Nos

Placing of steel provided for negative moment : shall be placed in two zones

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a). Zone one of depth 0.2 D , adjucent to tension face Porportion of tension steel = 0.5 ( ( l / D) - 0.5 ) = = Nos , all through = 1.00 13.94 Nos

14

b). Zone two of depth 0.3 D , on either side of mid depth Number of bars required in this zone Provide 20 mm dia bars

300 mm

Reinforcemet scheme of steel provided for sagging moment At Mid Span 20 mm dia bars 8 Nos at top. 0.13 m

This steel shall be placed within a zone of depth equal to 0.25 D - 0.05 l adjucent to tension face =

Transverse Reinforcement

a. At the Point of Max. Torsional Moment Shear Torsion Equivalent Shear Nominal Shear Stress Produced Maximum Shear Stress % Steel Provided at The Section V T Ve = 872684.40 N = 27406.99 N-m = 872684.4 + (1.6 x (27406.99 / 850) / 1000 ) =

2 1.157 N/mm

924274.02 N

tcmax

2 2.2 N/mm

As Nominal Shear Stress is greater than allowable shear stress ,shear reinforcement is necessary The C/s area of shear reinforcement Asv of the stirrups is given by. Asv = (T . Sv / b1 .d1 . ssv )+( V.Sv / 2.5 . d1. ssv) b1 d1 Asv / Sv =

= =

2.93 mm

730 mm 880 mm

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement is governed by Asv / Sv >= (tve -tc / ssv) * b Asv / Sv = Using 3.09 mm 12 mm dia 6 legged stirrups, Asv =

2 678.58 mm

However the spacing of the stirrups should not exceed the least of 1 x1 = 730 +20 + 12 = ( 762 + 912 ) / 4 762 mm 419 mm y1 = 880 + 20 + 12 912 mm

12 mm dia

legged stirrups at

210 mm C/c

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Nominal Shear Stress % Steel at Support Allow. shear stress in conc. Shear to be resisted by Stirrups Spacing of Provide c. At Mid Span 12 mm dia 12 mm dia =

= = =

2 1.893 N/mm

2

6 6

= =

At mid span provide nominal shear reinforcement given by Asv/Sv >= 0.4.b / 0.87.fy Asv/Sv Spacing of = 0.4 x 850 / 0.87 x 415 12 mm dia 0.942 721 mm

6 legged stirrups at

300 mm C/c

Side Face Reinforcement As beam is deeper than 450 mm and it is subjected to torsion provide side face reinforcement @ 0.1 % of gross area. So Area of Side face Reinf. So, provide 12 mm dia = (0.1 / 100) x 850 x 1000 bars

2 850 mm

8 Nos. So Asideface =

904.78

mm2

34 of 48

Calculation of net horizontal force due to seismic effects Design Data Capacity of Tank Conc. Grade Reinf. Grade Tank Wall Dia. Water Col. Ht. No. of columns Dia of column No. of bracing levels Seismic Zone Foundation Type Importance factor Soil fdn. Factor Seismic zone factor = = = = = = = = = = = = = 2500 m 2 30 N/mm 2 415 N/mm 21 m 7.1 m 16 700 mm 5 II Raft resting on hard rock 1.5 1 0.1

3

Calculation of Lateral stiffness as per IS 1893 : 1984 The staging is assumed to be composed of springs in series connected at the horizontal brace level. The stiffness of the springs in one bay = stiffness of all columns Stiffness of one column in a bay is given by E I L Hence Hence = = = kc stiffness of = 16 = Since there are 5 kc =

2 27386.13 N/mm 4 0.01179 m 2.80 m

12EI / L^3

177072785.1 N/m columns acting in parallel 2833164562 N/m 6 kc/6 = 29512130.85 N/m (stiffness of one bay)

As per IS 1893 equiv. weight acting at the c.g. of the tank = weight of tank + 1/3 weight of staging Weight of empty tank Weight of water in the tank Weight of staging Case 1. Equiv. Weight W Time Period T Tank Empty = = = Avg. acc. Coeff. (Sa/g) as per IS 1893, Fig. 2 ah = 15858299.24 N 2 x PI x Sqrt.(d/g) 1.471 secs. = 0.06 (for 5% damping) 0.009 = 142724.69 N where d = W/K is the static defl. at top due to W g is the acc. due to gravity We = Ww = Ws = 14653541.48 N 24981659.38 N 3614273.288 N

b x I x F0 x Sa/g =

35 of 48

Tank Full = = = 40839958.62 2 x PI x Sqrt.(d/g) 2.360 secs. = 0.04 (for 5% damping) 0.006 = 245039.7517 N where d = W/K is the static defl. at top due to W g is the acc. due to gravity

b x I x F0 x Sa/g =

Hence the lateral force due to wind calculated earlier 328813.32 N is greater than the maximum lateral force due to seismic load 245039.7517 N under tank full condition Calculation of Hydrodynamic Pressure on tank walls The tank wall will be subjected to an acc. of with a natural period of 2.360 alpha - h x g = secs. 0.0589 m/s2

As per IS 1893:1984 convective pressures are very less and hence negligible Impulsive pressure on wall is given by Pw = where alpha - h x w x h x Sqrt.(3) x cos phi' x [y/h - 0.5 x y2/h2] x tanh Sqrt.(3) x R/h w h R y = = = = density of water water column ht. radius of cylindrical wall height measured from top of wall

2 2 737.80 [y/h - 0.5 x y /h ]

The following table shows the variation of impulsive pressure and consequent hoop force along the ht. Level y as % of h 0.2h 0.4h 0.6h 0.8h 1.0h Pw (N/m2) 132.80 236.10 309.88 354.14 368.90 Hoop force (N/m) 1394.44 2479.01 3253.70 3718.52 3873.46

This hoop force is to be added to the hoop force obtained from membrane analysis under static loading and the section shall be checked for strength and crack resistance under the combined loads. Dist. From Top Impulsive hoop force Static hoop force Total hoop force Area of steel Area on Spacing reqd. each face reqd. of 16 mm dia bars 832.50 416.25 482.885 1662.93 831.46 241.7425 2491.29 1245.65 161.3621 3317.59 1658.80 121.1723 4141.82 2070.91 97.05871

Hence reinforcement scheme as provided earlier is OK Checking the composite section for crack resistance Maximum hoop tension = Tensile stress = = 621273.46 N 621273.46/ (1000 x 400 + 8 x 4232.88) 1.43 N/mm2 OK

36 of 48

The annular raft with ring beam shall be designed according to IS : 11089 - 1984

Design Data

Total vertical load from superstructure Self weight of Foundation Total vertical load at foundation base level Safe bearing capacity of soil Total Bending Moment at base due to wind Approx. area of footing required Eccentricity Density of soil Depth of Foundation below G.L. Overburden pressure due to depth of foundn. Net safe bearing capacity of soil Radius of column centerline "c" = = = = = = = = = = = = 46501489.07 N 4650148.91 N 51151637.97 N

2 400 KN/m

11522780.9 N-m

2 127.88 m

0.2253 m

3 18 KN/m

Under dead loads the soil pressure under the raft is uniform over the whole area whereas under lateral loads the soil pressure is linearly varying. As per IS : 11089 - 1984 Clause 5.1.2 the raft may be designed for an upward pressure p = p1 + 0.5 p2 where p1 = uniform pressure due to dead loads, and p2 = pressure due to bending effects. Calculation of footing dimensions The raft shall be so proportioned that the resultant of the upward pressure lies on the centerline of the column circle. Let "b" be the inner radius and "a" be the outer radius of the raft. Assuming that area of raft provided shall be 7.5% more than area reqd. Area of raft to be provided Equating area of raft inside the column circle to half the area to be provided Inner radius of annular raft required, "b" Equating area of raft outside the column circle to half the area to be provided Outer radius of annular raft required, "a"

2 137.47 m

5.60 m

8.67 m

37 of 48

Provide inner radius of raft "b" Provide outer radius of raft "a" Width of raft provided Diameter of annular portion Outer diameter of annular raft Moment of Inertia of raft Area of footing provided Calculation of modified pressure for designing raft Uniform pressure due to dead loads p1 Linearly varying pressure due to lateral loads p2 Design pressure at base = p1 + 0.5 p2

= = = = = = =

4 6179.88 m 2 210.99 m

= = =

38 of 48

Moments in Raft as per IS 11089 - 1984 Practice for Design and Constructrion of Ring Foundation

Distance From centre 5.00 5.23 5.46 5.69 5.92 6.15 6.38 6.61 6.84 7.07 7.30 7.53 7.76 7.99 8.22 8.45 8.68 8.91 9.14 9.37 9.60

Moments Tangential Radial Mt( N-m) Mr (N - m) -220047.81 0.00 -241519.63 27053.52 -259862.17 62610.75 -275119.78 106256.54 -287344.81 157638.35 -296593.96 216454.33 -302925.88 282444.07 -306399.51 355381.38 -307072.96 435068.48 -305002.82 521331.50 -300243.70 614016.70 -296843.62 477346.70 -297396.87 360590.94 -301010.45 262278.32 -306929.78 181125.39 -314515.16 116007.36 -323222.65 65934.30 -332588.50 30031.48 -342216.39 7523.00 -351766.87 -2281.84 -360948.67 0.00

Design Constants and Permissible Stresses sst k j Q Section Requirements Bar dia to be used in tangential direction Bar dia to be used in radial direction Distance

from centre

= = = =

= 25 mm = 20 mm Depth drad 0.00 145.70 221.65 288.75 351.70 412.12 470.77 528.07 584.28 639.59 694.12 612.01 531.93 453.66 376.99 301.71 227.46 153.51 76.83 42.31 0.00 Steel Spacing Asttang Astradial Tangential Radial 1759.50 278.84 #VALUE! 1892.52 211.99 259.24 1481.21 1996.25 480.97 245.77 652.84 2072.73 800.53 236.70 392.24 2123.94 1165.20 231.00 269.48 2151.63 1570.26 228.02 199.97 2158.50 2012.56 227.30 156.02 2143.89 2486.62 228.85 126.28 2110.23 2989.82 232.50 105.02 1330.26 2273.76 368.82 138.10 1309.50 2678.01 374.67 117.25 1294.67 2081.93 378.96 150.82 2043.73 2478.01 240.06 126.71 2106.19 1835.18 232.94 171.10 2186.06 1290.03 224.43 243.40 2281.64 841.57 215.03 373.11 2389.14 487.36 205.36 644.29 2505.70 226.25 195.80 1387.82 2628.89 57.79 186.63 5433.35 2756.41 17.88 177.99 17561.30 2886.15 0.00 169.99 -

5.00 5.23 5.46 5.69 5.92 6.15 6.38 6.61 6.84 7.07 7.30 7.53 7.76 7.99 8.22 8.45 8.68 8.91 9.14 9.37 9.60

Moments Mt Mr -220047.81 0.00 -241519.63 27053.52 -259862.17 62610.75 -275119.78 106256.54 -287344.81 157638.35 -296593.96 216454.33 -302925.88 282444.07 -306399.51 355381.38 -307072.96 435068.48 -305002.82 521331.50 -300243.70 614016.70 -296843.62 477346.70 -297396.87 360590.94 -301010.45 262278.32 -306929.78 181125.39 -314515.16 116007.36 -323222.65 65934.30 -332588.50 30031.48 -342216.39 7523.00 -351766.87 -2281.84 -360948.67 0.00

dtang 415.53 435.33 451.56 464.63 474.84 482.42 487.54 490.33 490.87 489.21 485.38 482.62 483.07 486.00 490.75 496.78 503.61 510.86 518.20 525.38 532.19

dprovided 600.00 612.26 624.53 636.80 649.06 661.33 673.30 685.66 698.13 1100.00 1100.00 1100.00 698.13 685.66 673.60 661.33 649.06 636.80 624.53 612.26 600.00

Provided Section of Raft Radial steel is composed of two different set of bar diameters Running near to ring beam alon the pherifery S1 Bar dia Running total length of raft along the pherifery S2 Bar dia

20 mm 16 mm

39 of 48

from centre

Contract Package No KOT/WS/06 Tangential Steel Ast Spacing 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 200 2454.369 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 150 3272.492 Radial Steel S1 S2 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

5.00 5.23 5.46 5.69 5.92 6.15 6.38 6.61 6.84 7.07 7.30 7.53 7.76 7.99 8.22 8.45 8.68 8.91 9.14 9.37 9.60

Provided Total Depth 600.00 612.26 624.53 636.80 649.06 661.33 673.30 685.66 698.13 1100.00 1100.00 1100.00 698.13 685.66 673.60 661.33 649.06 636.80 624.53 612.26 600.00

40 of 48

Stair supporting arrangement The staircase is provided along the periphery of the staging. Landings are provided as slabs cantilevering from the columns and the staircase waist slab spans between the landings as a continuous one way slab Design of Flight Design Data Maximum span of the staircase Average width of landing Width of staircase Rise of steps Tread of steps Imposed load considered Concrete Grade Reinforcement Grade = = = = = = = = = = = = 3.15 1000 750 150 250 300 30 415 m mm mm mm mm kg/m2 N/mm2 N/mm2

sst scbc

modular ratio , m Clear cover to reinf. Design Constants k j Q Load calculation Let us assume thickness of stair slab Selfweight of stair slab Selfweight on horizontal plane Selfweight of steps Load due to railing, etc. Imposed load on stair Total load intensity

= = =

= = = = = = =

Design Udl. On 1.0 m width of waist slab Maximum negative B.M. at support = Maximum positive B.M. at span = Effective depth reqd. from strength criteria Total depth provided Effective depth provided Reinforcement reqd. for negative B.M Reinforcement reqd. for positive B.M Provide Provide 10 mm dia bars at 10 mm dia bars at = = = = = = = = 150 mm c/c at top 150 mm c/c at bottom 13.15 kN/m 13046.32 N-m 10871.93 N-m 101.18 mm 150.00 mm 124.00 mm

2 504.77 mm 2 mm 420.64 2 523.60 mm 2 523.60 mm

OK

= =

Distribution reinf. Providing Provide 0.12% as distribution steel 8 mm dia bars at As reqd. =

2 180.00 mm 2 251.33 mm

200 mm c/c

Ast prov.

41 of 48

Design of OHSR at Basant Vihar Design of Landing Load calculation Reaction from adjacent flights Assuming landing slab to be Selfweight of landing slab Total load intensity Design Cantilever span Moment at face of column Effective depth reqd. from strength criteria Total depth provided Effective depth provided Ast reqd. at top = = = = = = 750 12703.18 99.84 150 124 mm N-m mm mm mm = 150 mm thick = = 3.75 kN/m 45.17 kN/m 41.42 kN/m

OK

2 491.49 mm 2 523.60 mm

Provide 10 mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c at top Ast prov. These bars are to be anchored into columns for a length Ld (development length) Distribution reinf. Providing Provide 0.12% as distribution steel 8 mm dia bars at As reqd. =

2 180.00 mm

Ast prov.

2 251.33 mm

Check for shear in landing slab Shear at face of column Shear stress developed For the reinf. provided at top, Corresponding permissible shear stress Axial force on column from landing slab Force = 33.88 kN = = 33.88 kN 2 0.273 N/mm 0.42 %

2 0.284 N/mm

pt Tc

= =

42 of 48

43 of 48

150 150

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

44 of 48

Design of OHSR at Basant Vihar 150 150 150 150 150 150

45 of 48

46 of 48

120

47 of 48

Permissible Shear Stress In Concrete 100 As/bd 0.15 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 Grade of Concrete M20 M25 M30 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.51 0.56 0.58 0.51 0.57 0.60

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