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UNIT 3 ELECTRO-ACOUSTICS Introduction of Electro-acoustical systems, Unidirectional and Stereophonic sound system, Digital and Surround-sound systems, Design

criteria for Theatres, Motion picture halls, Multiplexes, Home Theatre System, Conference Room. OPEN AIR ACOUSTICS Free field propagation of sound, absorption from air and natural elements, effect of barriers, effect of landscape elements, thermal and wind gradient. Design of open-air theatre and planning of building. Reduction of noise by screening.

Microphone Types

Podium & Desktop

For human voice, not music Low sensitivity and/or directional so as to prevent feedback

Lavalier Mics
Body worn or clipon Originally meant neck lanyard Often refers to most miniature mics

Pressure Zone Mics

Aka PLATE, BARRIER, MOUSE mics Consists of sensitive lav mounted above hard reflecting plate or surface Hemispherical pattern May also be pie wedged

Pressure Zone Mics

Usable film dialog at 3 to 4 feet Theatre pickup from floor level (mouse mic) Conference table & teleconferencing Lavs can be made into giant PZMs

Handheld Performance Mics

Live vocals Feedback suppression Risky to use for live recording since talent may not use mic all the time to talk to audience

Studio Music Mics

High quality, large diaphragm, condenser mic Very mellow, rich sound for recording Too sensitive for onstage performance

Narration Mics
For narration & voiceover EQd for voice rather than music May be studio mic or dynamic

TV/Film Production (boom)

For dialog, not music Very directional, lots of reach Usually deployed overhead

ENG Mics
Electret Condenser ENG = Electronic News Gathering Medium grade shotgun mics, better than dynamic but not as good as condenser Also includes most lavs.

Surveillance Mics
REACH, not dialog quality Super-shotgun, parabolics, subminiature Voice quality not important Not what is depicted in the movies

Sound Reinforcement System 1.1 Basic Elements 1.1.1 Microphones Electro dynamic-microphones In this type sound energy striking a diaphram, moves the coil attached to it in a permanent magnet. This motion of coil in magnetic field produces current in the coil (Lenzs Law). This type is responsive to sounds impinging from all sides and covers 300-4000 Hz range. Ribbon Microphones Sound impinging upon a light, aluminum ribbon (on both front and back sides), kept in strong magnetic field, produces motion in the ribbon and in turn current in it, This type has high directional response. It is used in broad casting studios for discriminating different sounds. Capacitor Microphones High DC Voltage is applied between the diaphram (which is earthed) and a fixed plate. This makes up a charged condenser (q= c x v). Sound waves on diaphram change the capacity of this condenser, Hence resultant current changes. This type has limited use in laboratories as changes in DC voltage current distribution. Carbon Microphones Carbon granules are packed in non metallic box, called Carbon Button. Two leads from the button are connected to a battery, through a resistor. Diaphram motion changes the resistance and hence the current. This type has the advantages of high electrical out put. It is durable and has low cost. It is used in telephone and radio communications Crystal Microphones Peizo electric crystals (like quartz, Barium titanate etc.) when subjected to pressure along one principal axis, develop voltage along other principle axis. Sound on diaphram presses the pin on the crystal. This develops voltage along the electric axis of the crystal. This type is compact and light. This is used with portable instruments. It is tiny. Also called Tie Microphone. Bimorphs has many slices of the crystal, giving large output. It covers wide frequency range. It is used for public address, hearing aid, in sound level meter etc. It is low cost and small size.

To increase the sound level when a sound source is too weak to be heard. To provide additional sound to audiences beyond the intended range of the source. To project sound back to the stage for the benefit of the performers. To alter the Reverberation Time or other impression of an auditoria. To reduce the relative effects of background noise. To provide paging, information or warning facilities. To reproduce electronic or recorded material.

Speaker Placement

1. A centrally located system.

Also known as a high level system, this is essentially a single cluster of loudspeakers located near the source. Such a system gives maximum realism as the amplified sound, whilst increasing loudness and clarity, is still associated with the original source.

A centrally located system.

2. A distributed system.
Basically a number of loudspeakers spaced throughout the auditorium. This is also known as a low level system as each individual speaker operates at a low amplification level to service only a small part of the whole audience

Whilst it is preferable to use a centrally located system, there are many situations in which it must be used, for example; Where the ceiling height is too low for the installation of a central system. Where not all of the audience have a direct sightline with the central loudspeaker. When the amplified sound is used to overcome high background noise levels. Where the serviced space may be divided into several smaller spaces. In large halls where the source position may vary significantly. Whilst realism cannot be expected from a distributed loudspeaker system, it does provide high intelligibility where the room is not too reverberant.

3. A stereophonic system

1. Two or more loudspeaker clusters at strategic positions within the auditorium. 2. Such systems are used when there are a number of different sources to be amplified or the source is quite mobile. 3. By using two or more microphones, each connected to their own cluster of speakers, the spatial relationship between the sources is preserved in the amplified sound. 4. This is achieved because the sound is amplified at intensities proportional to the distance between the source and the microphone and the ear perceives the resultant directional cues.

A stereophonic system

Partha Sarathi Mishra Asst. Professor School of Architecture GITAM University