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SUBMITTED BY: SYED HARIS ALI REG.

NO: 55038 SUBMITTED TO: FAISAL AWAN COURSE: CURRENT AFFAIRS

Energy Crisis in Pakistan

CONTENTS Preface 1. Pakistan: Power Crisis Feared by 2010 2. Major Energy Crisis Feared 3. Pakistans Quest for Energy e!urity ". #aste to Energy is $eeded in Pakistan %. &y'e of Energy (. &)er*a+ Energy ,. -yde+ Energy .. #ind Energy /. 0ising 1i+ Pri!es 10. Pakistan Coa+ 0eser2es be E3'+ored 11. Pakistan 4ran 5gree on 6as Pi'e+ine Proje!t 12. EC$EC 5''ro2es Energy Proje!ts 13. Energy Crisis in Pakistan 1". Energy Crisis in Pakistan 1%. Pakistan7s Energy Crisis to #orsen in $e3t &wo 8ear 1(. #ind Power: o+ution to Energy Crisis 1,. Energy Crisis *ay go fro* 9ad to #orse 1.. 5sian :e2e+o'*ent 9ank Considering ;oan for *a++ -ydro Proje!ts 1/. < 5d2ise Pakistan to Pur!)ase E+e!tri!ity fro* Centra+ 5sia 20. Energy trategy 21. Pakistan <rged to 4*'ort "=000M# fro* C50s 22. Fue+ )ortage *ay #orsen Power ituation 23. Energy Crisis: erious and #orsening 2". Energy Crisis in Pakistan is 6rowing 0a'id+y 2%. Effi!ient -ouse)o+d 5''+ian!es to Mitigate Energy Crisis 2(. Co'ing wit) t)e Energy Crisis 2,. 4ranian= Pakistani Presidents 0eso+2e Pi'e+ine 4ssues 2.. &ies wit) 4ran 2/. Power Crisis > 5+ternate Energy &e!)no+ogy 30. 6o2ern*ent Ca++s 4PPs Meeting to &a!k+e Power Crisis 31. Co*'eting Fir*s Co*'+ete Feasibi+ity 0e'orts 32. 6o2ern*ent to 4n2ite 9usiness*en to :is!uss Power Crisis

33. Entang+ed in Energy #eb 3". Meeting -e+d to :is!uss Pakistan7s Energy Crisis 3%. 6o2ern*ent &aking te's to 12er!o*e Energy Crisis 3(. Energy Conser2ation P+an to Co*bat )ortage 3,. :e*and? u''+y 6a' 4n!reases :ra*ati!a++y 3.. Pakistan Fa!ing 5!ute Power )ortage %. Energy Crisis in Pakistan 3/. 0enewab+e 0esour!es Must to Counter Energy Crisis "0. ;oad )edding: Part of Cons'ira!y "1. Coa+ Power P+ants to -e+' 12er!o*e Energy Crisis "2 6o2ern*ent to Ensure 4ndis!ri*inate ;oad )edding "3. Pakistan Puts C+o!ks Forward= -o'es to a2e E+e!tri!ity "". &)e 1'tion for o+ar Power "%. 5d2an!ing of C+o!ks Creates Confusion "(. 4ran !an -e+' Pakistan in Energy e!tor ",. 550C Me*bers 5sked to ign Energy &reaty ".. ubsidy on <se of <' to 200 Power <nits tays "/. ;oad )edding be!o*es a $ig)t*are for @ara!)iites %0. e2ere Fue+ Crisis -its Frontier %1. )ortage of Fue+ at Petro+ Pu*'s Causing Con!ern %2. )ortage of Petro+ Produ!ts &or*enting Consu*ers %3. $o End to E+e!tri!ity Meter )ortage %". Pes)awar &rans'orters &)reaten to 9esiege 1i+ :e'ots %%. :iese+ )ortage 5ffe!ting 1'eration of &ube?we++s= &ra!tors %(. ;oad )edding 4n!reases as @5$<PP &ri's 5gain %,. Fue+ tations 0un )ort of :iese+ %.. FreAuent Power )utdowns 9ringing 6rades :own %/. $ew Energy 1rder (0. Power P+ants &o' 6as u''+y Priority ;ist (1. 0eso+2ing Power Crisis a Priority (2. 5ut)ority et <' for &)ar Coa+ Mining

PREFACE
Pakistan is 'resent+y fa!ing a serious energy !risis. :es'ite strong e!ono*i! growt) during t)e 'ast de!ade and !onseAuent rising de*and for energy= no wort)w)i+e ste's )a2e been taken to insta++ new !a'a!ity for generation of t)e reAuired energy sour!es. $ow= t)e de*and e3!eeds su''+y and )en!e B+oad? s)eddingC is a !o**on ')eno*enon t)roug) freAuent 'ower s)utdowns. Pakistan needs about 1"000?1%000M# e+e!tri!ity 'er day= and t)e de*and is +ike+y to rise to a''ro3i*ate+y 20=000 M# 'er day by 2010. Present+y= it !an 'rodu!e about 11= %00 M# 'er day and t)us t)ere is a s)ortfa++ of about 3000? "000M# 'er day. &)is s)ortage is bad+y affe!ting industry= !o**er!e and dai+y +ife of 'eo'+e. 5++ 'ossib+e *easures need to be ado'ted= i.e.= to !onser2e energy at a++ +e2e+s= and use a++ a2ai+ab+e sour!es to en)an!e 'rodu!tion of energy. 4t see*s t)at t)e go2ern*ent is !onsidering i*'orting energy fro* 4ran and Centra+ 5sian 0e'ub+i!s and using indigenous sour!es= su!) as= )yde+= !oa+= waste= wind= and so+ar 'ower= as we++ as ot)er a+ternate and renewab+e energy sour!es= besides nu!+ear 'ower '+ants for 'rodu!tion of energy. $eed+ess to say t)at if t)e !ountry wis)es to !ontinue its e!ono*i! de2e+o'*ent and i*'ro2e t)e Aua+ity of +ife of its 'eo'+e= it )as to *ake serious efforts towards fra*ing a !o)erent energy 'o+i!y.

PAKISTAN: POWER CRISIS FEARED BY 2010


&)e !ountry *ay '+unge into energy !risis by t)e year 2010 due to rising e+e!tri!ity de*and w)i!) enters into doub+e digit figure fo++owing in!reasing sa+e of e+e!tri!a+ and e+e!troni! a''+ian!es on +ease finan!e= it is re+iab+y +earnt &)ursday. B&)e !ountry *ay fa!e energy !risis by t)e year 2010 fo++owing )ea+t)y growt) of 13 'er !ent in e+e!tri!ity de*and during t)e +ast Auarter= w)i!) wi++ erode sur'+us 'rodu!tion in absen!e of !o**issioning of any new 'ower generation 'roje!t during t)is finan!ia+ year=C infor*ed sour!es to+d &)e $ation. 5s 'er Pakistan E!ono*i! ur2ey 200.?0/= e+e!tri!ity !onsu*'tion )as in!reased by ..( 'er !ent during first t)ree?Auarter of +ast fis!a+ year. -owe2er= a to' +e2e+ #5P:5 offi!ia+ *aintained t)at e+e!tri!ity de*and surged u' to 13 'er !ent during +ast Auarter. &)e sur2ey said )ouse)o+d se!tor )as been t)e +argest !onsu*er of e+e!tri!ity a!!ounting for "".2 'er !ent of tota+ e+e!tri!ity !onsu*'tion fo++owed by industries 31.1 'er !ent= agri!u+ture 1".3 'er !ent= ot)er go2ern*ent se!tor ,." 'er !ent= !o**er!ia+ %.% 'er !ent and street +ig)t 0., 'er !ent. @ee'ing in 2iew t)e 'ast trend and t)e future de2e+o'*ent= #5P:5 )as a+so re2ised its +oad fore!ast to eig)t 'er !ent 'er annu* as against 're2ious esti*ates of fi2e 'er !ent on a2erage. E2en t)e re2ised +oad fore!ast )as a+so fai+ed a++ assess*ents due to w)i!) 5ut)ority )as +eft no ot)er o'tion but to start +oad *anage*ent t)is year= w)i!) *ay !on2ert into s!)edu+ed +oad s)edding o2er a 'eriod of two year= sour!es *aintained. &)e !ountry needs a Auantu* ju*' in e+e!tri!ity generation in *ediu*? ter* s!enario to re2ert t)e 'ossibi+ities of +oad s)edding in future due to s)rinking ga' between de*and and su''+y of e+e!tri!ity at 'eak )ours. 5!!ording to an offi!ia+ re'ort= t)e ga' between fir* su''+y and 'eak )ours de*and )as a+ready been s)runk to t)ree digit D""0 M#E during t)is fis!a+ and wi++ s+i' into negati2e !o+u*ns ne3t year D?""1 M#E and furt)er intensify to D?1="%, M#E during t)e finan!ia+ year 200(?0,. &)e re'ort *aintained t)at t)e differen!e between fir* su''+y and 'eak de*and is esti*ated at %=%2/ M# by t)e year 200/?10 w)en fir* e+e!tri!ity su''+y wi++ stand at 1%=0%% M# against 'eak de*and of 20=%." M#. C)air*an #5P:5 at a Press !onferen!e ear+y t)is year warned about t)e 'ossib+e energy !risis and stressed t)e need for FAuantu* ju*' in 'ower generation. &)e e3'erts say it !ou+d on+y be 'ossib+e t)roug) a *ega 'roje!t of )ydro'ower generationG ot)erwise t)e ga' between fir* su''+y and 'eak de*and wi++ re*ain on t)e rise.

&)ey said t)e 'ower generation 'roje!ts= w)i!) are due to !o**ission in !o*ing years are of +ow !a'a!ity and wi++ not be ab+e to e3!eed t)e surging de*and of t)e e+e!tri!ity. &)ey say no 'ower generation 'roje!t wi++ !o**ission during t)is fis!a+ year and t)e tota+ insta++ed !a'a!ity of e+e!tri!ity generation wi++ re*ain 1/=",. M# to *eet 1%=0.2 M# fir* su''+y and 1"=("2 M# 'eak de*and. 6i2ing detai+s of 'roje!ts= t)e sour!es said Ma+akand?+++ D.1M#E= Pe)ur D1.M#E and !o*bined !y!+e 'ower '+ant at Faisa+abad D"%0M#E are '+anned to be !o**issioned during t)e year 200,. Mang+a :a* raising 'roje!t wou+d a+so add 1%0 M# !a'a!ity to t)e nationa+ grid by Hune 200,. 9esides t)is= @)an @)war D,2M#E= 5++ai @)war D121M#E= :uber @)war D130M#E and @aya+ @)war D130M#E are e3'e!ted to be !o*'+eted in 200. a+ong wit) 6o+an 6o+ D10(M#E and Hinna) D/(M#E. Moreo2er= Mati+tan D."M#E= $ew 9ong Es!a'e D,/M#E and 0ajd)ani D132M#E are e3'e!ted by 200/ w)i+e &aunsa D120M#E is +ike+y to be !o*'+eted by 2010. our!es say #5P:5 )as a+so '+anned to insta++ a )ig) effi!ien!y !o*bined !y!+e 'ower '+ant at 9a+oki D"%0M#E= w)i!) is e3'e!ted to be !o*'+eted by 2010. 4n addition of t)ese= 'ower '+ant 1 > 2 of 300 M# ea!) at &)ar Coa+ wit) t)e assistan!e of C)ina are a+so '+anned for !o**issioning in 200/= sour!es said. Moreo2er= efforts are a+so under way wit) C)ina $ationa+ $u!+ear Cor'oration for t)e !onstru!tion of a t)ird nu!+ear 'ower '+ant wit) a gross !a'a!ity of 32% M# at C)as)*a= t)ey added. #)en !onta!ted= a #5P:5 offi!ia+ said t)ere is no 'ower s)ortage in t)e !ountry at 'resent as t)e 5ut)ority sti++ )as o2er 1=000 M# sur'+us e+e!tri!ity. -owe2er= )e ad*itted t)at t)e s)ortage *ay o!!ur in t)e year 200, and onward and said t)e 5ut)ority wi++ uti+ise a++ o'tions in!+uding running of 4PPs '+ant at fu++ !a'a!ity to a2ert any 'ossib+e !risis. 5bout t)e syste* aug*entation to bring down +ine +osses= t)e offi!ia+ said t)e 5ut)ority wou+d s'end 0s 3.% bi++ion on aug*entation of distribution +ines t)is fis!a+ w)i+e anot)er 0s % bi++ion wi++ be !onsu*ed on trans*ission +ines. B#e )a2e been negotiating 0s / bi++ion +oan wit) a !onsortiu* of +o!a+ banks to u'grade and aug*ent t)e 'ower trans*ission syste*=C )e dis!+osed. &)e offi!ia+ furt)er said t)at fi2e new trans*ission +ines of 220?@I wou+d be insta++ed by t)e end of 200"= t)at wou+d ensure s*oot) su''+y to t)e !onsu*ers. -e e3'ressed fu++ trust on 'resent trans*ission and distribution syste* and said it !ou+d easi+y sustain t)e +oad of tota+ insta++ed 'ower generation in t)e !ountry.

MAJOR ENERGY CRISIS FEARED


Pakistan is *ost +ike+y to fa!e a *ajor energy !risis in natura+ gas= 'ower and oi+ in t)e ne3t t)ree to four years t)at !ou+d !)oke t)e e!ono*i! growt) for *any years to !o*e= offi!ia+ esti*ates and energy e3'erts suggest. Pakistans tota+ energy reAuire*ent wou+d in!rease by about ". 'er !ent to .0 *i++ion tons of oi+ eAui2a+ent DM&1EE in 2010 fro* about %" M&1E !urrent+y= but *ajor initiati2es of *eeting t)is ga' are far fro* turning into rea+ity= said a for*er 'etro+eu* *inister on !ondition of anony*ity for t)e si*'+e reason t)at )e )ad a+so ser2ed t)e 'resent go2ern*ent . Major s)ortfa++ is e3'e!ted in t)e natura+ gas su''+ies= )e said. 5!!ording to offi!ia+ energy de*and fore!ast= )e added= t)e de*and for natura+ gas= )a2ing about %0 'er !ent s)are in t)e !ountrys energy !onsu*'tion= wou+d in!rease by "" 'er !ent to 3/ M&1E fro* 2, M&1E !urrent+y. Part+y !ontributed by gas s)ortfa++s= t)e 'ower s)ortage is e3'e!ted to be +itt+e o2er %=2%0M# by 2010= )e said= adding t)at t)e oi+ de*and wou+d a+so in!rease by o2er 23 'er !ent to about 21 *i++ion tons in 2010 fro* t)e !urrent de*and of 1(.. *i++ion tons. &)is wou+d +ea2e a tota+ defi!it of about nine *i++ion tons of diese+ and furna!e oi+ i*'orts= )e said. in!e t)e gas s)ortfa++s were e3'e!ted to be *u!) )ig)er= t)e !ountry wou+d need to en)an!e its de'enden!e on i*'orted oi+= t)us in!reasing 'ressure on foreign e3!)ange situation= )e added. ;ast years oi+ i*'ort bi++ a*ounted to about J(.% bi++ion !o*'ared wit) about J3.% bi++ion in 200"?0%= *ain+y be!ause of )ig)er internationa+ oi+ 'ri!es ? a burden e3'e!ted to be e2en )ig)er in future as a resu+t of growing Midd+e East !risis. Current years oi+ i*'ort bi++ )as again been 'roje!ted by t)e go2ern*ent at about J(.% bi++ion on +ast years a2erage 'ri!es= w)i!) )a2e started to rise in t)e re!ent days. 5!!ording to t)e for*er *inister= t)e go2ern*ent )ad '+anned fi2e *ajor initiati2es to *eet t)ese energy reAuire*ents. &)ey in!+uded t)ree gas i*'ort 'i'e+ines= 6wadar 'ort as energy )ub and ;$6 i*'ort. -owe2er= four of t)ese *easures= in!+uding t)e t)ree i*'ort 'i'e+ine 'roje!ts= s)ow no signs of 'rogress for 2arious reasons w)i+e !on!entration on energy fa!i+ities in 6wadar wou+d !)ief+y de'end on se!urity situation= besides oi+ and gas i*'ort 'i'e+ines. P+anning Co**ission sour!es said t)e go2ern*ent )ad '+anned to add an o2era++ 'ower generation !a'a!ity of about ,=..0M# by 2010. 1f t)is= about "=.(0M# is to be based on natura+ gas= a!!ounting for (1 'er !ent of !a'a!ity e3'ansion. &)oug) t)is ga' wou+d be *et by ;$6 i*'orts= it wou+d again in!rease to 20 'er !ent of t)e tota+ de*and. &)e bank said t)e indigenous gas su''+y wou+d fa++ fro* 32.( M&1E in 2010 to 20., M&1E in 202% w)i+e t)e Fgas su''+y?de*and ga' wou+d ra'id+y in!rease as de*and is e3'e!ted to grow !ontinuous+y= Auadru'+ing in 202%. 5s 'er t)e #or+d 9ank esti*ates= t)e gas i*'orts wi++ re'resent a+*ost (, 'er !ent of natura+ gas su''+y in 202%. 1ne !an= t)erefore= gauge t)e Auantu* of s)ortage in !ase i*'ort 'i'e+ines are not *ateria+ised.

Pakistans gas reser2es are 32.. &CF at 'resent= wit) reser2e?'rodu!tion ratio in t)e order of 2, years= !onsidering t)at do*esti! 'rodu!tion does not grow substantia++y. Power se!tor de*and re'resents "1 'er !ent of tota+ gas !onsu*'tion= genera+ industries 2" 'er !ent= ferti+iser ,.. 'er !ent -owe2er= t)e gas?based 'ower e3'ansion of about "=.(0M# wou+d re*ain in doubt sin!e t)ese esti*ates were based on gas i*'ort o'tions for !o*'+etion in 2010= 201% and 2020= said t)e sour!es. &)e fift) initiati2e of ;$6 i*'ort was on s!)edu+e and wou+d start de+i2ering about 0.3 bi++ion !ubi! feet of gas D9CF:E by 200/ and anot)er 0.% 9CF: by 201%= said t)e sour!es. Petro+eu* *inistry offi!ia+s are not ready to s'eak on re!ord about gas i*'ort o'tions and resu+tant o2era++ energy s)ortfa++s be!ause of re!ent 'o+iti!a+ de2e+o'*ents on 4ran?Pakistan?4ndia 'i'e+ine 'roje!t and se!urity situation in 5fg)anistan and non?!ertifi!ation of gas reser2es in &urk*enistan. 5!!ording to #or+d 9ank esti*ates= a de*and ga' Dsu''+y s)ortageE of about four 'er !ent of t)e tota+ de*and= is e3'e!ted in 2010. E2en and do*esti!? !o**er!ia+ 22.. 'er !ent= !e*ent 1.% 'er !ent and C$6 2.. 'er !ent. :e*and growt) )as been u' to ..% 'er !ent in re!ent years and is e3'e!ted to be se2en 'er !ent wit) 'ower industries and do*esti! !onsu*'tion a!!ounting for .2 'er !ent. 6as de*and a+ready dis'+ays seasona+ 'attern wit) nationa+ de*and growing in winter beyond trans*ission !a'a!ity. &)erefore= su''+ies to +arge users *ain+y industries and 'ower '+ants are !urtai+ed during winter *ont)s to ensure su''+ies to do*esti!= !o**er!ia+ and s*a++ industries. 5nnua+ 'rodu!tion at 'resent is about 1.1( &CF.

PAKISTANS QUEST FOR ENERGY SECURITY Energy !" #e$%&e !n '&(%r)!n) (rere*+'"')e ,%r ) e e$%n%&'$ -e.e/%(&en) %, ! $%+n)ry. On %ne !n- ') '" +"e- ,%r ) e 'n-+")r'!/ !n- !gr'$+/)+r!/ (+r(%"e" !n- %n ) e %) er !n- ') '" re*+'re- ,%r -%&e")'$ +"e %, ) e $')'0en". N!)+r!/ g!" '" ) e ,!")e") gr%1'ng (r'&!ry energy "%+r$e.

Consu*'tion of natura+ gas is 'roje!ted to in!rease by near+y ,0 'er!ent between 2002 and 202%= wit) t)e *ost 2igorous growt) in de*and e3'e!ted a*ong t)e e*erging e!ono*ies. Consu*'tion of natura+ gas wor+dwide in!reases in t)e fore!ast by an a2erage of 2.3 'er!ent annua++y fro* 2002 to 202%= !o*'ared wit) 'roje!ted annua+ growt) rates of 1./ 'er!ent for oi+ !onsu*'tion and 2.0 'er!ent for !oa+ !onsu*'tion. &)e e+e!tri! 'ower se!tor a!!ounts for a+*ost one?)a+f of t)e tota+ in!re*enta+ growt) in wor+dwide natura+ gas de*and o2er t)e fore!ast 'eriod. out) 5sia is i*'ortant to wor+d energy *arkets be!ause it !ontains 1.3 bi++ion 'eo'+e and is e3'erien!ing ra'id energy de*and growt). 5fter 4ndia= Pakistan and 9ang+ades) are t)e ne3t +argest out) 5sian !ountries in t)ese !ategories. E!ono*i! and 'o'u+ation growt) in out) 5sia )a2e resu+ted in ra'id in!reases in energy !onsu*'tion in re!ent years. &)e *ajor energy issues fa!ing out) 5sian nations today are kee'ing u' wit) ra'id+y rising energy de*and. 5gen!y for energy !onsu*'tion )as 'roje!ted t)at by t)e year 2010 out) 5sian !ountries s)a++ be !onsu*ing *ore t)an doub+e t)e !urrent +e2e+s of 'ri*ary !o**er!ia+ energy. Pakistans +argest energy sour!e is natura+ gas= wit) de*and and i*'orts growing ra'id+y. Current+y= natura+ gas su''+ies "/ 'er!ent of Pakistans energy needs. 5!!ording to t)e 1i+ and 6as Hourna+ D16HE= as of Hanuary 1= 200/= Pakistan )ad 2(..3 tri++ion !ubi! feet D&!fE of 'ro2en natura+ gas reser2es. Pakistan is +ooking to in!rease its gas 'rodu!tion to su''ort in!reasing !onsu*'tion t)roug) Pi'e+ines fro* 4ran and &urk*enistan. Current+y= Pakistan ranks t)ird in t)e wor+d for use of natura+ gas as a *otor fue+= be)ind 9raKi+ and 5rgentina. 4n addition= Pakistan )o'es to *ake gas t)e fue+ of !)oi!e for future e+e!tri! 'ower generation 'roje!ts. Pakistan a*bitious+y seeks to in!rease oi+ 'rodu!tion t)roug) new a++ian!es wit) foreign !o*'anies. Pakistans net oi+ i*'orts are 'roje!ted to rise substantia++y in !o*ing years as de*and growt) out'a!es in!reases in 'rodu!tion. Pakistan wi++ see 'ower s)ortages by 200, un+ess a!tions are taken to in!rease generation and redu!e trans*ission +osses. Pakistan )as 1. gigawatts D6#E of e+e!tri! generating !a'a!ity. &)er*a+ '+ants using oi+= natura+ gas= and !oa+ a!!ount for about ,0 'er!ent of t)is !a'a!ity= wit) )ydroe+e!tri!ity D)ydroE *aking u' 2. 'er!ent and nu!+ear 2.% 'er!ent. Pakistan7s tota+ 'ower generating !a'a!ity )as in!reased ra'id+y in re!ent years= +arge+y due to foreign in2est*ent= u+ti*ate+y +eading to a 'artia+ a++e2iation of t)e 'ower s)ortages. Pakistan often fa!es +oad s)edding in 'eak seasons. &rans*ission +osses are about 30 'er!ent= due to 'oor Aua+ity infrastru!ture and a signifi!ant a*ount of 'ower t)eft. Periodi! droug)ts affe!t t)e a2ai+abi+ity of )ydro'ower. &)e 6o2ern*ent is understandab+y engaged in a 2igorous effort to e3'and t)e nations 'ower generation !a'a!ity t)roug) bui+ding of da*s and in2iting foreign in2estors for estab+is)ing t)er*a+ units in t)e !ountry.

&)ese t)ings are )owe2er= see*ing+y getting out of its )and due to t)e yawning ga' between su''+y and de*and of e+e!tri!ity. Coa+ !urrent+y '+ays a *inor ro+e in Pakistans energy *i3. -owe2er= Pakistan !ontains an esti*ated 3=3(2 *i++ion tons= si3t) +argest in t)e wor+d. President Mus)arraf )as stated t)at !oa+ s)ou+d *ake u' *ore t)an t)e !urrent 1 'er!ent of e+e!tri! 'ower generation in Pakistan. &)e Pakistani Ministry of 4ndustries and Produ!tion )as granted a C)inese !o*'any to bui+d two !oa+?fired 'ower?generation '+ants to su''+y (00 M# of e+e!tri!ity. 5side fro* 'ower '+ants generated by !oa+= Pakistan is a+so working to e3'and t)e use of wind turbines. For instan!e= t)e Pakistan 5+ternati2e Energy :e2e+o'*ent 9oard D5E:9E re!ent+y a''ro2ed $ew Park Energy P)ase 4= a "00?M# wind 'roje!t near Port Qasi*. Energy !oo'eration is t)e key to regiona+ de2e+o'*ent. Pakistans go2ern*ent is working on '+ans to bui+d an 4ran?Pakistan?4ndia D4P4E 'i'e+ine t)at s'ans fro* 4rans *assi2e reser2es to 4ndian *arkets a!ross Pakistani territory. 0ussias biggest gas 'rodu!er= 6aK'ro*= )as re!ent+y s)own interest in t)e J,." bi++ion 'i'e+ine 'roje!t and )as indi!ated its desire to in2est in it. #)i+e 4ran and Pakistan )a2e *ade agree*ents to *o2e forward= 4ndia sti++ re*ains re+u!tant due to its re!ent nu!+ear dea+ wit) < 5. 4ran )as offered to !o2er (0 'er!ent of t)e !onstru!tion !osts of t)e 'i'e+ine and Pakistani offi!ia+s )a2e stressed t)eir abi+ity to safeguard t)e 'i'e+ine. 4ran wi++ +ay t)e 'i'e+ine fro* Pars to Pakistani border. 4s+a*abad wi++ bui+d t)e 'i'e+ine fro* t)e 4ranian border to its Centra+ Pakistani !ity of 9)ong in :istri!t 0a)ai* 8ar @)an. 9ot) !ountries )a2e dis!ussed t)e gas 'ri!ing for*u+a= 'roje!t stru!ture= its feasibi+ity= gas off?take 2o+u*es and t)e gas sa+es and 'ur!)ase agree*ent. 4n s'ite of < 'ressure for not bui+ding 4P4 'i'e+ine= Pakistan re*ains deter*ined for t)e 'i'e+ine. 4n fa!t= in t)e fa!e of t)e < 'ressure against 4P4= now two 'i'e+ines fro* 4ran are under La!ti2e !onsiderationL M one for Pakistan and t)e ot)er for 4ndia= t)roug) Pakistan. 4f 4ndia 'arti!i'ates in 4P4 'roje!t= Pakistan wi++ be entit+ed to transit fee. 9ut= if Pakistan bui+ds t)e 'i'e+ine fro* t)e 4ranian to t)e 4ndian border= t)en it wi++ a+so be entit+ed to trans'ortation !)arges. &)is is t)e great 2ision of President 5sif 5+i Nardari and Pri*e Minister 8ousuf 0aKa 6i+ani a!!ording to w)i!) Pakistan is going to be!o*e an energy !orridor for C)ina. 4s+a*abads negotiation for a se!ond transnationa+ gas 'i'e+ine fro* &urk*enistan to Pakistan 2ia 5fg)anistan D&5PE a+so entered a fina+ stage be!ause e3'erts are of t)e 2iew t)at Pakistan7s fast growing energy de*and reAuires +aying two gas 'i'e+ines. #as)ington su''orts t)e &5P 'roje!t and )as assured t)e 'i'e+ines se!urity t)roug) 5fg)anistan. 4t a+so )o+ds good 'ros'e!ts for ot)er out) 5sian users= de'ending on t)e siKe of su''+ies t)at &urk*enistan !an arrange. &)e '+ans to bui+d a t)ird transnationa+ gas 'i'e+ine fro* Qatar to Pakistan and 4ndiaM? 6u+f? out) 5sia Pi'e+ine D6< 5E?Msee* to )a2e s+owed down be!ause of Energy Crisis in Pakistan

t)e gas a2ai+abi+ity issues. L&)e '+an to i*'ort gas fro* Qatar is not= )owe2er= s)e+2ed=L *aintained by Ha)angir @)an= s'okes*an for Ministry of Petro+eu* > $atura+ 0esour!es. #it) t)e de2e+o'*ent of 6awadar Port= Pakistan !an 'ro2ide t)e trade and energy !orridor for t)e w)o+e region es'e!ia++y to C)ina. 4n t)is 'ers'e!ti2e 'resident )as rig)t+y re*arked so= B#)en @arakora* -ig)way was bui+t= t)e wor+d !a++ed it t)e eig)t) wonder= and we !an !reate t)e nint) and tent) wonders by estab+is)ing energy 'i'e+ines and rai+way +inkages between t)e two fast growing e!ono*ies.C C)ina and Pakistan agreed to widen @@- for +arger 2e)i!+es wit) )ea2ier freig)t. &)e rebui+ding of @@- wi++ enab+e C)ina to s)i' its energy su''+ies fro* t)e Midd+e East fro* 6wader Port in 9a+o!)istan t)roug) t)e +and route of @@- to western C)ina= w)i!) is its de2e+o'*ent )ub. &)is a+ternati2e energy su''+y route wi++ redu!e 9eijings de'enden!e on t)e Ma+a!!a traits. Pakistan a+so wants to set u' a B!rude transit routeC t)roug) 6wader Port for 9eijings energy s)i'*ents fro* 4ran and 5fri!a. For t)is reason= Pakistan is bui+ding oi+ refineries= natura+ gas ter*ina+s= oi+ and gas eAui'*ent= and transit fa!i+ities in 9a+o!)istan. C)ina )as agreed to )e+' Pakistan wit) its '+ans for t)e de2e+o'*ent of its oi+ and gas industry. #it) t)is '+anned e+aborate energy infrastru!ture= @@- )as assu*ed an added signifi!an!e as an a+ternati2e +and +ink between C)ina and its energy sour!es= of w)i!) 4ran is at t)e to'. &)e re!ent Pak?C)ina energy foru* in 4s+a*abad was a *ajor ste' in for*u+ating future strategy to ensure energy se!urity of bot) !ountries.

WASTE TO ENERGY IS NEEDED IN PAKISTAN


6rowing urbanisation and !)anges in t)e 'attern of +ife= gi2e rise to generation of in!reasing Auantities of wastes and its now be!o*ing anot)er t)reat to our a+ready degraded en2iron*ent. -owe2er= in re!ent years= waste?to?energy te!)no+ogies )a2e been de2e+o'ed to 'rodu!e !+ean energy t)roug) t)e !o*bustion of *uni!i'a+ so+id waste in s'e!ia++y designed 'ower '+ants eAui''ed wit) t)e *ost *odern 'o++ution !ontro+ eAui'*ent to !+ean e*issions. 8et= so+id waste *anage*ent 'ra!ti!es differ for de2e+o'ed and de2e+o'ing nations. 4n de2e+o'ing !ountries +ike Pakistan= institutions !)arged wit) t)e res'onsibi+ity to *ake de!isions on so+id waste *anage*ent= o'erate in t)e enor*ous infor*ation= 'o+i!y and strategy 2a!uu* and +a!k t)erefore t)e abi+ity to address t)is +oo*ing en2iron*enta+ disaster. &)e 'erfe!t F!ase study of infor*ation ga' in se+e!tion of a''ro'riate *et)odo+ogy to dis'ose *uni!i'a+ waste e3)ibited by t)e a'e3 !i2i! aut)ority of Pakistan is w)en t)e !a'ita+ de2e+o'*ent aut)ority )as fina++y de!ided to so+2e t)e e2er?in!reasing 2o+u*e of *uni!i'a+ waste by +andfi++ in groundwater

re!)arge area. #)i+e in de2e+o'ed !ountries= +andfi++s are now bra!keted as Fobso+ete and F*ines of t)e future after obser2ing se2era+ 'rob+e*s +ike 'o++ution and !onta*ination of groundwater by +ea!)ate and residua+ soi+ !onta*ination after +andfi++ !+osure and si*'+e nuisan!e 'rob+e*s. &)is is t)e 2ery reason w)y in t)e <nited tates sanitary +andfi++ te!)niAues )a2e steadi+y de!reased fro* .=000 in 1/.. to 1=,(, in 2002. E3tensi2e+y fo!using on turning waste to energy= *uni!i'a+ aut)orities in < 5 )a2e rea+ised t)e !ontribution of waste to an in!reasing e+e!tri!ity s)ortage. &oday in 5*eri!a= 2%00 M# are so+e+y generated by t)e waste?to?energy '+ants. Many ot)er !ountries in t)e wor+d= weden= Ha'an in!+uded= )a2e a''+ied t)is te!)no+ogy sin!e t)e +ast 20 years. 4n t)e sub !ontinent= 4ndia insta++ed t)ree 'roje!ts to 'rodu!e e+e!tri!ity fro* waste wit) a tota+ !a'a!ity of 1,.( M#. 5+t)oug) t)ese F*ade in 4ndia 'ower '+ants are generating e+e!tri!ity by dire!t in!ineration= !ausing 'o++ution and *ust be u'graded by so')isti!ated *onitoring syste*s to !)e!k 'o++ution. &)ese e3a*'+es are enoug) to estab+is) t)at C:5s ignoran!e of *odern te!)no+ogies is sure+y not si*'+y a +a!k of Fa!!ess to infor*ation= but Auestions t)e 'rofessiona+ !a'abi+ities of t)e '+anners wit)in its !orridors. &)e site se+e!ted for t)e +andfi++ 'roje!t is at @uri= an an!ient !ity of Potwar and its aeria+ distan!e is )ard+y fi2e ki+o*etres fro* se!tor 6?%= known as t)e nu!+eus of 4s+a*abad. &)oug)= in Hu+y 2003= t)e sa*e site was !onsidered for a +andfi++ 'roje!t but <$:P out rig)t+y reje!ted and warned t)at en2iron*enta+ !ost wou+d be !onsiderab+e= besides air 'o++ution= !onta*ination of groundwater if @uri was se+e!ted as a +andfi++ 'roje!t. H4C5 in 1/.. a+so !o*'i+ed a detai+ in2estigation re'ort= w)i!) estab+is)ed t)at t)e area is t)e re!)arge Kone of t)e aAuifer !atering for *ore t)an %0 'er !ent of t)e twin !ities drinking de*and. 9ased on t)ese serious en2iron*enta+ !onstraints= as its +o!ation is u' a s+o'e and wit)in t)e f+ood '+ain of 6u*ra) 0i2er= t)e re!)arge?basin of t)e twin !ities aAuifer= t)e site was reje!ted. 0e!ent f+oods substantiated t)e finding of a++ t)e re'orts= as t)e site is definite+y wit)in t)e f+ood '+ains of t)e 6u*ra) 0i2er and wou+d need to be 'rote!ted on a 'riority basis= es'e!ia++y as water s)ortages is now a 'er*anent 'rob+e* of t)e twin !ities. #)oe2er se+e!ted and a''ro2ed t)e site for t)e Fdisaster of t)e future= s)owed ignoran!e of t)e abo2e re'orts and abso+ute ignoran!e of t)e ad2erse en2iron*enta+ i*'a!ts t)is 'roje!t wou+d !reate. 4s t)is ignoran!e si*'+y unawareness of t)e '+anners or is it !o*'+ete a'at)y towards anyt)ing o+d= w)i!) reje!ts t)at @uri is re!orded as an an!ient !ity of t)e Potowar 0egion. 5s C:5 is !onstant+y fo!using on de2e+o'ing tourist attra!tions= w)y not 'reser2e t)is )istori!a+ areaO 5ware of t)e un'rofessiona+ *anage*ent at C:5s 2aried dire!torates one anti!i'ates +ea!)ates fro* t)e +andfi++s= 'o++uting t)e a*aKing+y sti++ !+ean groundwater tab+e= w)i+e t)e wind wi++ !arry Energy Crisis in Pakistan

wa2es of +eaking gases towards t)e 6?% e!tor= fart)er adding to t)e 're2a+ent )ea+t) )aKards of t)e !a'ita+. F5!!ess to !+ean water )as been gi2en t)e Fto' 'riority f+ag by t)e 'resident. e+e!ting a site a+ong t)e 6u*ra) 0i2er= known to re!)arge t)e groundwater a+ong its winding !ourse t)roug) C)ak )e)Kad and @anna s)ows t)e war'ed 'riorities of t)e '+anning !o**ission t)at a''ro2es 'roje!ts= t)e *inistry of interior res'onsib+e for C:5 affairs and t)e C:5 itse+f. -ad C:5 on+y fo++owed t)e *inutest detai+s 'ro2ided in t)e Federa+ Ca'ita+ Co**ission 0e'orts of 1/(0 by t)e ear+ier '+anners of t)e !a'ita+ !ity= 4s+a*abad today wou+d )a2e been a *ode+ for t)e rest of Pakistan. &)e C:5 ignored t)e *ost re!ent seis*i! Koning re'ort of t)e region too. 5!!ording to EP5 < regu+ations= du+y ado'ted by Pakistans EP5= t)ere s)ou+d be no signifi!ant seis*i! risk wit)in identified +andfi++ sites. @uri is wit)in a )ig)+y sensiti2e eart)Auake Kone= a!!ording to new seis*i! Koning *a's 're'ared after t)e eart)Auake 200%. 5n eart)Auake )a2ing a *agnitude of ".2 was re!orded on Hu+y ,= 1/./ and its e'i!entre was at a distan!e of 10 ki+o*etres fro* @uri. -ad t)e s'read of t)is infe!tious disease t)e F2a!uu* of infor*ation been !ontained in ti*e= C:5 wou+d sure+y )a2e been ab+e to diagnose t)at t)e esti*ated !ost of two bi++ion ru'ees for t)e +andfi++ site= wou+d )a2e suffi!ed for setting u' an Fenergy?to?waste '+ant in t)e !ity. #it) +oad?s)edding a 'er*anent !risis in Pakistan= adding so*e e3tra *egawatts t)roug) waste?to?energy !ou+d )a2e so+2ed *any i++s in t)e ra'id+y growing energy needs. 5 2a!uu* of infor*ation )as not a++owed t)e C:5 to !o**uni!ate eit)er wit) t)e a+ternate energy de2e+o'*ent board= estab+is)ed by t)e federa+ go2ern*ent in 2003. &)is board was gi2en t)e *andate to so+2e t)e energy !risis t)at is fa!ing t)is !ountry t)roug) renewab+e te!)no+ogies. 5+t)oug) ad2ertise*ents in t)e 'rinted *edia asked for feasibi+ity studies of Fwaste?to? energy units for ten !ities of t)e !ountry= t)e twin !ities were ignored. -ad *utua+ intera!tions been 'art of t)e go2ern*ent syste*s= t)e funds a2ai+ab+e to t)e C:5 for t)e i++?fated sanitary +andfi++= and t)e te!)ni!a+ know?)ow of a+ternate energy de2e+o'*ent board D5E:9E= 4s+a*abad !ou+d )a2e 'rided itse+f of being t)e first e2er waste?to?energy unit in t)e !ountry today. &)e de!ision to !onstru!t a +andfi++ 'roje!t at e3tre*e+y sensiti2e areas need not on+y to be re2iewed but a+so need to e*'ower t)e 5E:9 to generate e+e!tri!ity fro* waste to !o'e wit) t)e energy de*and in t)e +ines of internationa+ en2iron*enta+ !o**it*ents a2oiding 2io+ation of t)e @yoto Proto!o+ and to!k)o+* Con2ention. $ow de!ision?*akers )a2e to !)oose w)et)er to a++ow t)e C:5 to go a)ead wit) t)e +andfi++ 'roje!t= to du*' waste for adding *ore 'o++ution and !onta*ination of groundwater or to a++ow 'rodu!tion of en2iron*ent friend+y energy.

TYPES OF ENERGY
Energy !an be differentiated as 1. @ineti! energy 2. Potentia+ energy

Kinetic Energy
1. ound 2. #ind 3. Me!)ani!a+ for e3a*'+e *o2ing 'iston in a !y+inder ". E+e!tri!a+ energy. E+e!tri!ity= +ig)tning %. &)er*a+ Energy= -eat= )ot water= stea* (. ;ig)t = *i!rowa2es= 3?rays = so+ar= u+tra 2io+et rays Potential energy 1. 6ra2itationa+ energy. -ydro 'ower= ba++ abo2e ground 2. 'ring . stret!)ed rubber band 3. Magneti! '+anetary 'o+es ". $u!+ear = fission= fusion= )ea2y water uraniu* %. C)e*i!a+ = gaso+ine= batteries= oi+ natura+ gas= gun 'owder= !oa+= wood

THERMAL ENERGY
&)er*a+ Energy is t)e o+dest ty'e of energy. #it) a++ known )istory a2ai+ab+e= #ood was a+ways used for )eating and !ooking. 4n 2nd wor+d war fossi+ fue+s entered in t)e for* of !oa+ to get t)e energy= unti+ +iAuid fue+s were dis!o2ered and be!ause of t)eir !on2enien!e of trans'ortation t)ey took o2er as *ajor !ontributors of t)e energy sour!e. 1n!e t)e stea* engines were in2ented t)en t)e !oa+ or +iAuid fue+ was burnt in t)e boi+ers and t)e )eat 'rodu!es stea* w)i!) is used to dri2e e+e!tri!a+ generators= or any ot)er *e!)ani!a+ de2i!e. 0udo+') diese+s in2ention of diese+ engine re2o+utionaries t)e energy !on!e't and today we see sine t)e *ajority of *a!)ines *o2ing on diese+ engines. :iese+ engines !an be 2 stroke or " stroke ty'e. &)ey !an be in +ine or arranged in I or e2en # s)a'e. &)ey !an be sing+e a!ting or doub+e a!ting. 5not)er *et)od of !on2erting t)er*a+ energy to *e!)ani!a+ energy is by t)e gas turbines. &urbines are a+so used to run by stea* or )ot gases w)i!) are 'rodu!ed by igniting fue+. Energy Crisis in Pakistan

For !on2erting t)er*a+ energy to e+e!tri!a+ energy a+ternators are used to dri2e on !onstant 0PM. &)e !)oi!e of gensets stri!t+y de'ends on t)e reAuire*ent of t)e !+ient= before ordering a 'ower '+ant fo++owing 'oints to be !onsidered 1. E3'e!ted de*and of t)e 'ower. 2. &y'e of fue+ reAuired 3. 'a!e a2ai+ab+e for t)e 'ower '+ant ". 52i+abi+ity of genset %. 52i+abi+ity of +o!a+ ser2i!e ba!k u' and sto!k of 'arts (. Pri!e is 'ara*ount i*'ortan!e and )idden e3'enses s)ou+d be +ooked !arefu++y &)e *ajor *anufa!turers and su''+iers of 6ensets based on interna+ !o*bustion engines are gi2en be+ow 1. M5$ 2. #artsi+a 3. Cater'i++ar ". Hen 9a!)er %. #aukes)a (. Mitsubis)i ,. :etroit :iese+ .. 0o++s 0oy!e 4nterna+ !o*bustion engine !an obtain 30?%0P t)er*a+ effi!ien!y. 4t *eans t)at around %0P energy is wasted in t)e for* of e3)aust gases = !oo+ing syste*s and radiation. &)erefore for +arger '+ants )eat re!o2ery syste*s are uti+iKed. 4n Pakistan due to attra!ti2e gas 'ri!es t)is is a genera+ trend t)at gas o'erated 'ower '+ants are 'referred if gas !onne!tions are a2ai+ab+e. &)e gas gensets are a2ai+ab+e fro* +ess t)an 1 M# siKes to ( M# !onfiguration. $or*a++y t)ey are I ty'e and 12=1( 1. and 20 !y+inder !onfiguration. 4n addition so*e *ode+s are a2ai+ab+e on due+ fue+ te!)no+ogy w)i!) !an be o'erated si*u+taneous+y on gas and furna!e oi+. &)e 'ri!e of a 3 M# gas genset !an be e3'e!ted around 1 Mi++ion J. -owe2er +ow 0PM engines wi++ be *ore !ost+y <nit !ost of fue+ on gas genset !an be e2a+uated as fo++ows Fue+ Cost 0s 2., Dde'ends u'on t)e genset E Maintenan!e 0s 0.20 ;ubri!ating 1i+ 0s.0.10 C)e*i!a+ 0 0s. 0.02 6enera+ stores 0s. 0.01 ;abor 0s.0.10 12er)ead Q4nsuran!e 0s.0.0, Finan!ing 0.20 4P04 Fa!tfi+e 12

&ota+ 0s. 3."0 &)e engines w)i!) are running t)e fue+ !ost is on+y 2ariab+e and !an be !a+!u+ated by *u+ti'+ying fue+ !ost by a fa!tor of 22%. D22% gra*s R @#-0 is an a2erage net fue+ !onsu*'tion e3'e!ted.E

HYDEL ENERGY
#ater f+owing in t)e ri2ers )as kineti! energy. 1n!e t)ey are used to dri2e t)e turbine and 'rodu!e e+e!tri!ity t)e 'ower generated as -yde+ Energy. Power 'rodu!ed by t)e turbines de'ends on Auantity of water f+owingR*inute and t)e )ead of water a2ai+ab+e. Most+y ri2er f+ows by *e+ting g+a!iers on )ig) *ountains. 1n!e t)e water start f+owing in t)e 2a++eys it !)anges its )ead 2ery ra'id+y. &)is energy !an be !on2erted into e+e!tri!a+ energy. &wo *et)od are nor*a++y used:? 1. :a*s 2. 0un of 0i2er 'roje!ts. 4n !ase of :a*s t)e water f+ow is restri!ted by *aking a )uge storage de2i!e and t)e )ead of water is in!reased= t)e water t)en is a++owed to f+ow by *eans of gates and 'ass t)roug) t)e turbines= t)e )ead of reser2oir +e2e+ is *aintained to 'ro2ide unifor* 'ower= and t)e water stored in 'eak season additiona++y is used for irrigation 'ur'oses in dry seasons. 4n run of ri2er 'roje!ts t)e water is di2erted t)roug) t)e tunne+s and on!e it gains t)e )ead a++owed to fa++ and 'ass t)roug) t)e turbines and ba!k to ri2er. t)e water in t)ese 'roje!ts is !ontinuous+y f+owing and not being stored. 6eogra')i!a+ situation is 'ara*ount i*'ortan!e in !)oosing a suitab+e site for t)e )ydro 'roje!t and it e2o+2es a 2ery serious ti*e and *oney !onsu*ing study. 1n!e a site is +o!ated furt)er detai+ed feasibi+ity study is reAuired before 'ro!eeding any serious effort to start t)e work. &)e feasibi+ity study s)ou+d in!+ude fo++owing fie+d work. 1. :etai+ed Ma''ing of t)e area 2. &o'ogra')i! study of t)e area 3. eis*i! refra!tion study ". 0i2er f+ow data %. #eat)er data !ontaining= &e*'eratures= 'ressures= rain )u*idity (. #ater sa*'+ing and testing ,. En2iron*enta+ study .. o!ia+ i*'a!t

/. #i+d +ife and fis) study 10. 4dentifi!ation of stake )o+ders of t)e area 11. Coring and getting sa*'+es of t)e soi+ at %0?200 *eters de't) 12. ;aboratory testing of t)e !ores sa*'+es 13. &e!toni! study to e2a+uate eart) Auake dangers WIND ENERGY Pakistan is fa!ing a!ute s)ortage of energy. wit) ,P in!rease of its e!ono*y t)is s)ort fa++ soon to s+ow down its e!ono*i! growt) and wi++ s)atter its drea* to be!o*e one day a de2e+o'ed !ountry. Most of its energy de*and is being *et wit) eit)er -ydro 'ower or t)er*a+ units. Pakistan is s'ending a 2ery +arge a*ount of foreign e3!)ange to 'ur!)ase t)e furna!e. &)e gas reser2es a+ready start de'+eting and oi+ *arkets are sky ro!keting. &o o2er!o*e t)is s)ortage 6o2ern*ent take a initiati2e to in2estigate 5+ternate energy resour!es in Pakistan de2e+o'ed 5+ternate Energy 9oard 5E:9. &)e 9oard is )eaded by 0etd 5ir Mars)a+ )a)id -a*id. identified %0=000 M# energy 'otentia+ fro* wind resour!e Pakistan is b+essed wit) a +arge resour!e of wind !orridor. 5+t)oug) Pakistan *eteoro+ogi!a+ :e'art*ent was gat)ering wind data for Auite +ong ti*e 9ut re!ent+y <nited tates 'ro2ided wind energy *a' for Pakistan w)i!) !onfir*s a strong wind !orridor in ind !oasta+ area. 5E:9 issued about .0 ;14 to t)e in2estors ;ist of ;14 )o+ders Eto de2e+o' %0 M# wind far*s. 1ut of w)i!) 1% are a+ready issued t)e +and and feasibi+ity re'orts and finan!ia+ !+osings are in 'rogress. &)e fo++owing is a brief road *a' for de2e+o'ing a wind for* 1. sub*ission of 'ro'osa+ by s'onsor 2. 0e2iew of 'ro'osa+ by 5E:9 3. Posting of 9ank 6uarantee ". issuan!e of +etter of intent D ;14 E %. Feasibi+ity study (. 6eneration ;i!ense ,. &ariff :eter*ination .. ub*ission of Perfor*an!e 6uarantee /. &ariff deter*ination by $EP05 10. ub*ission of 'erfor*an!e guarantee 11. 4ssuan!e of ;etter of su''ort