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IPTC 12390

Temana Field Pilot Implementation: A Shift in Sand Control Philosophy to


Improve Well Performance
Wan Amni Bt Wan Mohamad, Maharon Jadid, and Mahmoud A. Wahba, SPE, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd
Copyright 2008, International Petroleum Technology Conference

This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Petroleum Technology Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 35 December 2008.

This paper was selected for presentation by an IPTC Programme Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
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Abstract
The Temana field consists of unconsolidated reservoirs which require active sand control. Conventional Internal Gravel
Packed (IGP) technique has been widely applied as it has provided a reliable means of abating sand production. These
completions however, have shown high skins (>15) which had increase with time due to fines migration into the packed area
especially with the advent of water production. In many cases, flow efficiencies were reduced by 70% and this had severely
affected well performances with aging.
Stand Alone Screens (SAS) and Expandable Sand Screens (ESS) had also been applied in some fields with mixed success
especially for high angle or horizontal wells. Experience gathered from these previous sand control measures coupled with
the emergence of improved design and production of SAS has enabled a shift in our sand control philosophy.
Critical Drawdown Sanding Pressure (CDP) consideration plays an important role in the new sand control strategy we
recently applied. To ensure that the CDP does not exceed during well production, we focus our attention to maximize well
productivity by implementing open hole completion at high angle of trajectories (70 deg or even horizontal). Furthermore,
the reservoir sections were drilled with non damaging drill-in fluid treated with enzyme breaker and screens were run in
conditioned, solids free mud to minimise plugging.
Proper sizing of the screen slot size is critical to ensure that screens are not plugged as commonly experienced in SAS
applications. Annular flow were minimised by running constrictors suitably placed with the screen assembly. Finally, strict
enforcement of slow bean-up policy during the initial production of the new wells has maintained the screens integrity in the
wells completed so far.
This paper describes our new sand control application and the excellent production performances achieved from the new
wells in the recent drilling campaign in Temana.
Introduction
Temana field was discovered in 1962 and brought into production in 1979. The field is located approximately 30 km West
of Bintulu in a water depth of approximately 96 ft. It consists of three hydrocarbon accumulations, namely Temana West,
Temana Central and Temana East (Fig. 1). The field has undergone a complex tectonic history and is highly faulted and
compartmentalized.
The latest development is from the existing structure Platform A, which penetrates the Temana Saddle, which is located in
the southeastern part of Temana Central. The main reservoir target is the I-65 sand. The sand has a fining upwards log
signature with a sharp base at the bottom of the sand. The sand contains light oil of about 41.1 deg API with reservoir
pressure of 1,553 psi, average porosity of 26% (oil) and effective permeability of more than 1 Darcy. The main drive
mechanism of this reservoir is depletion drive with weak to moderate aquifer support.
There are 7 existing platforms (Fig. 2) with two additional production processing facilities platforms. About 44 wells out
of 74 wells of the existing oil producer wells were completed with cased hole gravel packed (IGP) and only 2 wells were
installed with premium screens in horizontal open holes. Based on the well test data for these wells for a similar type of
reservoir, the average skin is 10-15 even after immediate production and increase up to 20-30 after longer years of
production. The average PIs of these wells typically ranged between 1-20 stb/d/psi. Investigation shows that the eminent
cause of increasing skin or pack impairment and deterioration in the production wells is due to fines movements packing into
the gravel-packed sand and this was aggravated when water breaks through.
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As part of production improvement initiatives, the primary I-65 sand was completed as open hole (OH) with stand alone
screens (SAS) to improve well productivities (PI). With the high PIs, the well can initially be produced at desired rate with
low drawdown so that with some inherent strength in the relatively unconsolidated formation, there would sill be no physical
movement of the sand. As the reservoir pressure depletes under the scenario of weak to medium aquifer support, the total
drawdown could exceed the CDP whence at this point there will be sand movement. At this stage, the SAS, properly
designed and sized would serve as the active down hole sand control device.
In order to ensure success in the new sand control strategy, changes in well operation was eminence. The wells were
drilled with high angles in the reservoir section using specially designed mud (DIF) and well bore clean-up were closely
scrutinized especially prior to running the screen assembly. In order to avoid shocking the well bore, the well bean-up during
initial production followed strict procedures and close monitoring.

Well Design Considerations
There is a need of selecting the best SAS available in the market for the new Temana wells, considering the costs,
economics and wells deliverability. Based on the performance of premium stand alone screens (which is considered as depth
filter), screen plugging is a common problem and some facts of expandable sand screens failure in the region during the well
design phase, the team came up with workable solution to be used to minimize various risks. The stand alone sand screen
proposed is the direct Wire Wrapped Screen (WWS), which is a surface filtered screen, where plugging tendency is
minimized.
This direct wire wrapped screens has higher mechanical strength compared to the WWS used in gravel packing
operations. It is robust and can be rotated downhole especially during running in tight holes or collapse boreholes. The screen
special features is the shrink fit wrap-on-pipe screen construction, allows all forces to be transferred to the base pipe. As such,
the screen and base pipe behave as one unit whereby both end connections and screen jacket will still be intact in tension and
compression conditions.
Four (4) other criteria which were also considered; well productivity, slot sizing, CDP and packing mechanism.

a) Well productivity
In order to maximize the wells productivities in the main reservoir target, I-65 sand, the wells were drilled highly deviated
using drill in fluid (DIF) along the I-65 sand. This will ensure that there will be maximum exposure and minimum formation
damage to the well bore. The cased IGP option was replaced with properly designed SAS in open hole completions to avoid
recurrence of plugging and impairment as seen in the previous IGP installations in Temana. As no GP solids and damaging
fluids were introduced, the SAS option should provide maximum productivity. Well cleaning, mud conditioning prior to
running screen assembly and use of enzyme breaker to dissolve mud cakes becomes critical.
As long as the CDP (Refer to section c) is not exceeded there will not be any physical movement of sand particles to the
screen and the well PIs should remain high. However, we should expect movement of the sand at later stage as the reservoir
pressure depletes and the SAS should provide an active control, retaining the coarse sand for natural packing. The high PIs is
expected to be reduced at this stage and therefore the onus is to delay this situation as long as possible, hopefully assisted by
the moderate aquifer support.
These changes in the completion philosophy resulted in total cost savings of USD 1.4 million/ well (estimated) which
includes the rig spread cost and well completion cost.

b) Slot sizing
Based on the dry sieve analysis and Laser Particle Size Distribution Analysis (LPSA), the sand is categorized from
moderately to very poorly sorted where the uniformity coefficient (UC) is ranged from 15-18 and the fine percentage is
around 35% (Fig. 3)
In order to achieve natural packing of sand particles on the screen surface a certain quantity of large particles in the
completed sand is required. All sidewall core samples analyzed contain in excess of 30% particles larger than 80 microns.
Coberly and Penberthy showed in their experimental work that for single wire wrap screens-with long slots and not square
mesh retention medium-a given slot opening would retain particles between and .5 of the slot opening. From the PSD for
the I-65 sand, the suitable range for the screen slot size is between 160 to 200 microns.
By following the Coberly & Penberthy, it was found that the optimum screen sizing is 175 microns where any fines or
sand particles below this size will be produced initially through the screen and particles larger than that will be retained prior
to stable bridge formation and provide natural packing.

c) Critical Drawdown Sanding Pressure (CDP)
Critical draw down pressure for sand production is a function of reservoir pressure depletion as well as other factors such
as initial rock stresses, stress changes, rock strength, well inclination and perforation orientation as well. Accordingly, to
avoid sand production, the largest effective tangential stress should be smaller than the effective strength of the formation
(UCS).
IPTC 12390 3
By utilizing an in-house software, the CDP was derived based on the bulk density, porosity, reservoir thickness,
compression and shear values, fractional shear volume , reservoir pressure and core strength data as well. The calculated CDP
of I-65 sand is about 250 psi at initial reservoir condition which is equivalent to bottom hole flowing pressure (FBHP) of
1,300 psi while the failure reservoir pressure is around 1,350 Psi.
In order to benefit from the software output, we also considered the calculation of CDP based on the following empirical
equations:

CDP + m(Pri Pr) = C (Ref. 7)

C is the critical drawdown pressure for the initial reservoir pressure
m is the ratio of change in critical drawdown pressure with reservoir pressure depletion
Pri is the initial reservoir pressure
Pr is the current reservoir pressure

From the software output, the maximum drawdown and failure reservoir pressure can be obtained. Then, utilizing the
above equation, we can calculate the m. Accordingly, we can get CDP at any value of reservoir pressure, so that we can
construct the sand production plot as a guide for sand management in I-65.
Currently, the average FBHP is about 1,420 psi which is equivalent to a total drawdown pressure of 130 psi (including the
depletion drawdown as well) which is still below the calculated CDP.


d) Packing Mechanism

A common design criterion, as per hydraulic propped fracturing guide, is that particles 1/6
th
of the pore throat opening
will bridge the pore throat and provide a diverter effect. The same criterion used for passing particles for the sharper slots
would indicate that a particle 1/5
th
(i.e < 30-35 microns) of the slot opening (175 microns) will be produced initially through
the screen.
For the I-65 sand, it was found that all the sand samples show less than 25% particles smaller than 35 microns.
Accordingly, the particle sizes greater than 30-35 microns will be expected to be retained behind the screen prior to stable
bridge formation and forming a sort of natural packing and providing a sort of sand filter on the screen surface. This can be
achieved by slow bean up while cleaning the well / production.

Actual Well Completion

The two new wells, TE-1A and TE-1B wells (Fig. 4) are highly deviated since Platform A location is at significant
distance (~2 km) from the Temana Saddle area and the depth of the I-65 sand is very shallow (about 3,600 ft TVD DF). The
angles are 76 deg and 86 deg respectively for the twin wells. With these high angles and long reach condition, the wells
measured depths are quite deep compared to its TVD. TE-1B well was equipped with a permanent downhole gauge (PDG).
The TE-1A well was completed as 6 open hole with 4-1/2 stand alone screens, 175 microns mesh size across the I-65
sand (126 ft completed interval). In order to isolate the shale sections at the top and bottom of the sand, two (2) 4-1/2
constrictors (swellable elastomers) were used respectively.
The I-65 sand in TE-1B well was completed as 4-3/4 open hole with 3-1/2 stand alone screens (134 ft completed
interval), 175 microns mesh size.

Operations/Implementation

The openhole sections were drilled using Drill-in Fluid (DIF) the sized salt system with 10.3 to 10.5 ppg mud weight.
This mud system is designed to flow back during production through screen without any clean-up job to be carried out once
the well was completed.
Prior to running the screen, the openhole section 500 ft inside the casing were displaced with drilled-solids free (fresh)
DIF followed by the completion fluid. In order to dissolve the filter cake, undersaturated brine treated with an enzyme
breaker was pumped through a washpipe inside the screens and returned into the annulus between the screen and borehole,
where the use of centralisers aid in mud displacement and reduce screen impairment.

An on-site Production Screen Tester (PST) test was carried out during mud conditioning with the use of actual screen
coupons of 2 diameter instead of a filter paper. The mud shaker size for mud conditioning is 250 mesh (60 microns) since
the downhole screen used was 175 microns (i.e. the downhole sand screen slots are 2.5 times larger than the surface shaker
screens (Ref.8)


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Well Clean Up & Bean Up

Initially, the wells were produced at a minimum drawdown pressure of 30-150 psi with small choke setting, e.g. 8-16/64
choke size for 12 hours duration to allow the initial clean up of brine or mud material. The subsequent choke setting was
designed in such a way that the incremental drawdown was less than 150 psi and subsequently up to the desired maximum
rate. The total drawdown may exceed 150 psi after the first choke setting but not exceeding the CDP.
Two aspects that can potentially affect the performance of the screen were considered. Firstly, the velocity of the fluid
across the screen need to be controlled to ensure that the erosional velocity is not exceeded especially when there is partial
plugging of the screen surface causing hot spots. If this happens, the screens could be eroded by sand causing screen failure.
It is therefore important to produce the well slowly until the well is sufficiently cleaned up of loose fines and any free coarse
sand is packed behind the screens. At this point, it is best to avoid intermixing of loose sands which could cause blinding of
the screens.

Production Performance

As of July 2008, the total average net oil production for the two new wells stands at 7,000-8,000 bopd. No sand
production was observed at the surface so far. This is to be expected as the producing drawdown was kept at a low level so as
possible. Down hole gauge (PDG) installed in well TE-1B provides good indicator for controlling well operations.
TE-1A well was opened for cleaning up with gas lift for initial kick-off. The initial choke size was 14/128
th
, producing
100% brine. The well cleaning up achieved 100% crude and natural flow in less than 24 hours and this is considered fast
considering that almost all previous IGP completions requires some one week to achieve total clean up. This is the first
indication that the well has shown a good productivity.
Well tests were conducted several times within year 2007. The results showed that the average FTHP recorded was 510-
520 psig at some steady GOR of 420 scf/bbl with the average production of 3,300 bopd. This production at the relatively
small choke is far better than those achieved by previous IGP wells in Temana even during the initial production years.
Furthermore, this rate was higher that the forecasted rate of 2,000 bopd.
Based on the initial nodal analysis simulation, the well PI was estimated at 120 stb/d/psi. This was validated against the
actual well test data and interpreted pressure build up survey (PBU). As of July 2008, the well production averages 3,000-
3,300 bopd (Fig. 5).
Similar to well TE-1A, the TE-1B well was cleaned up within 24 hours, 100% crude was produced by natural flow. The
initial choke setting was 16/128
th
and gradually bean up to 24/128
th
and recommended to be maintained to be maintained at
this choke size. Average initial oil production was 2,900 bopd (FTHP of 510 psig, GOR of 410 scf/bbl).
The TE-1B well was completed 11 ft tvdss below the GOC due to well trajectory issues. The well performance was
therefore sensitive to choke size changes where the GOR increases when the choke is bigger that 24/128
th
(Fig. 6). However,
the current average production is 3,900 4,000 bopd at GOR of 650-780 scf/bbl (18/128
th
choke) with well PI of 120
stb/d/psi as deduced from the PDG. We have recommended maintaining a low choke size so as not to induce gas coning
thereby ensuring sustain production in line with the development objective.


Conclusions and Recommendations

1. Open hole with stand alone screens completions (OH-SAS) has proven to deliver maximum productivity in the new
wells completed in the I-65 sand.
2. With the much improved PIs (of over 100 stb/d/psi), the two new wells have a faster clean up time (within 24 hours) in
comparison to previous IGP wells in Temana (1 week). Well production averaging 3,000 bopd per well is higher that
forecasted in the field development plan (FDP).
3. OH-SAS screen completion is most cost effective with savings over conventional IGP of more than USD 1.0 million per
well.
4. No sand production has been observed on the surface so far as the current total drawdown pressure has not exceeded the
estimated CDP and this is supported by the sustained excellent performance of the wells.
5. The two pilot completions suggested that the OH-SAS completion is possible for high permeability reservoir
(unconsolidated) sands with high UC.

6. Based on this pilot result, it is recommended to seriously consider applications of the new sand control philosophy in
other similar reservoirs in PCSB with emphasis on studies on rock properties (for CDP calculations), screen design, well
cleaning and initial bean up policies.




IPTC 12390 5
Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the management of PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd (PCSB) and Reslink, Schlumberger for their
continued support in performing these operations and for their permission and encouragement to write this paper.

Nomenclature

SAS = stand alone sand screens
ESS = expandable sand screens
CDP = critical drawdown sanding pressure
OH = open hole
WWS = wire wrapped sand screens
LPSA = laser particle size distribution analysis
PSD = particle size distribution
UCS = uniformity coefficient
DIF = drill in fluid
PST = production screen tester
FTHP = flowing tubing head pressure
GOR = gas oil ratio
PBU = pressure build up survey
PI = productivity index
GOC = gas oil contact
PDG = permanent downhole gauge


References

[1] Ali.K, Djoesen.H, CY.Ng: Temana Field Rejuvenation: Looking For Maximizing Asset Value, SPE 100298. Paper presented
in SPE Europe/EAGE Annual Conference on Opportunities in Mature Areas held in Vienna, Austria, 12-15 June 2006.
[2] PCSB, Temana Saddle Phase 1 Field Development Plan, Oct 2005
[3] Reslink (Schlumberger): Reslink Screen Design Methodology. Manual was taken from Reslink, Schlumberger.
[4] Reslink, Evaluation of Slot Opening, Technical Report to PCSB, 9
th
June 2006.
[5] PETRONAS Research, Grain Size Analysis of SWC Samples of TE-A Well, Service Report, July 2005.
[6] P. Markestad, O. Christie, Aa. Espedal: Selection of Screen Slot Width to Prevent Plugging and Sand Production, SPE 31087.
Paper prepared for SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium in LaFayette, USA, 14-15 Feb 1996
[7] M.H. Hettema, J.S. Andrews and M.Baasmo: The Relative Importance of Drawdown and Depletion in Sanding Wells, SPE
97794. Presented in SPE in Lafayette, Los Angelas, 15-17 Feb 2006.
[8] Reslink, Mud Conditioning, Hole Cleaning and Ramp Up Manual.
[9] PCSB, Helix RDS Sand Management Training Course Manual.






















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TEMANACENTRAL TEMANAWEST
TEMANAEAST
Temana Saddle



Figure 1 Temana Field Configuration





















Platform A











Figure 2 Temana Facilities Layout





IPTC 12390 7









Zones/Depth (ft) D50 (um) D40 D90 D10 Fine content<44um(%) UC(D40/D90) Definition Lithology
3578 125 150 10 200 35 15 Highly non uniform SS
3583 150 175 10 250 30 18 Highly non uniform SS



*Definition:
UC=d40/d90
UC<3 Uniform
3<UC<5 Non uniform
UC>5 Highly non uniform

Adapted from HELIX RDS Sand Management Training Course Manual




Figure 3 Dry Sieve and Uniformity Coefficient (UC)
















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Figure 4 TE-1A and TE-1B Actual Well Design






IPTC 12390 9
TE-1A Production Profile,Qoil,FTHP,GOR Plots
520 510 510 520 510 510 518 510 520
570
2796
3434
3053
3328
3167
3018.6
3622
3273.5
3588
3667
344
205
556
346
368
483.9
430.9
500
466.8
482
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4000
21/07/2006 03/08/2006 06/08/2006 10/08/2006 22/08/2006 20/09/2006 05/10/2006 08/11/2006 18/01/2007 01/10/2007
Well Test Date
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TE-1A Production Profile Plot
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Figure 5 TE-1A Actual Well Production (Well Test Data)


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TE-1B Production Profile Qoil,FTHP,GOR Plots
510 510 500
525 520
550 550 540
2920.8
2834.3
3000.6
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30/07/2007 31/07/2007 06/08/2007 09/07/2008 10/07/2008 16/07/2008 17/07/2008 18/07/2008
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Figure 6 TE-1B Actual Well Production (Well Test Data)