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A GUIDE TO PEDAGOGY AND TECHNIQUE IN ALFREDO PIATTI'S TWELVE CAPRICES, OP. 25 (1865) by Matthew A.

Ryan-Kelzenberg

A Research Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Musical Arts

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY December 2009

UMI Number: 3385203

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A GUIDE TO PEDAGOGY AND TECHNIQUE IN ALFREDO PIATTI'S TWELVE CAPRICES, OP. 25 (1865) by Matthew A. Ryan-Kelzenberg

has been approved October 2009

Graduate Supervisory Committee: Thomas Landschoot, Chair Amy Holbrook Catalin Rotaru Catherine Saucier

ACCEPTED BY THE GRADUATE COLLEGE

ABSTRACT The legacy of the great virtuoso cellist Alfredo Piatti ( 1 8 2 2 1901) includes a wealth of glowing reviews of his performances, colorful accounts of his life, important students, and a large body of compositions for the cello. This study focuses on Piatti's Twelve Caprices for solo cello, Op. 25, composed in 1865, and it accompanies a CD recording of this work performed by the author. The Twelve Caprices were intended not only as technical etudes but also as concert pieces, which Piatti himself performed, and they are still widely used for the development of techniques necessary for virtuosic celloplaying. A summary of Piatti's biography establishes the context in which the Twelve Caprices arose and brings to light some of the compositional and pedagogical influences that affected them. This summary is followed by examination of each Caprice individually as a guide for both students and pedagogues. Piatti's method for teaching virtuosity might be repetitive in its approach to left-hand technique, but it is highly varied in its approach to bow technique, and the challenges the Caprices offer appear in abundance in the solo cello literature. To promote and define their value for the development of

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technique, the discussion of the Caprices offers performance suggestions, practice exercises, and excerpts from related repertoire.

For Shelley

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thank you Tom for sharing your encouragement and insight, Dr. Holbrook for sharing your meticulous eye and humor, Dr. Saucier for sharing your enthusiasm and knowledge, and Catalin for sharing your respect and passion. Special thanks to Living Head recording studio and Michael Hissong, recording engineer. And an extra measure of gratitude for the teachers who have inspired and molded me into the musician and performer I am today: Thomas Landschoot, Caroline Paetsche, and Cordelia Wikarski-Miedel.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF EXAMPLES CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Introduction Alfredo Piatti: Cellist, Pedagogue, Composer Piatti and his 12 Caprices, Op. 25 2 1 1 1 12 ix x xi

A PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TWELVE CAPRICES .. 22 Introduction Caprice No. 1 : Allegro quasi Presto Caprice No. 2: Andante religioso Caprice No. 3: Moderato Caprice No. 4: Allegretto-Poco menoAllegretto come prima Caprice No. 5: Allegro comodo.. Caprice No. 6: Adagio, largamente Caprice No. 7: Maestoso Caprice No. 8: Moderato ma energico 39 43 54 58 62 22 22 27 32

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CHAPTER 2 ANALYSIS Caprice No. 9: Allegro Caprice No. 10: Allegro deciso Caprice No. 1 1 : Adagio-Allegro-Adagio Caprice No. 12: Allegretto Capriccioso Summary and Conclusions

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68 72 76 81 84

REFERENCES

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Publication History of Piatti's 12 Caprices, Op. 25 Page 13

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Rocking Motion of the Thumb Rolling Pressure of the Hand on the Fingerboard Elbow Anticipation in Caprice 5 Slurred Staccato Bowing Path of the Elbow Motion of the Down-bow Rocking Motion of the Fingers and Wrist Page 37 41 48 51 61 70 80

LIST OF MUSIC EXAMPLES Example 1. Servais and Piatti: Similar Melodic Material A. Piatti Caprice 1 , mm. 1-4 B. Servais Caprice 6, mm. 1-5 2. Cossmann and Piatti: Similarities in Technique A. Cossmann Trill Studies Excerpt B. Piatti Caprice 4, mm. 53-56 C. Piatti Caprice 6, mm. 56-57 D. Piatti Caprice 1 1 , mm. 28-31 3. 4. Double-stop Intonation Exercise Double-stop Excerpts A. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104,1. Allegro, mm. 259-61 B. Shostakovich, Cello Concerto, Op. 107, I. Allegretto, mm. 23-26 C. Ligeti, Solo Sonata, I I . Capriccio, mm. 42-47 D. Francoeur, Sonata in E Major, I I . Allegro vivo, mm. 17-19 5. Slurred Exercise 26 27 26 26 26 19 19 19 19 25 18 18 Page

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Example 6. Excerpts Requiring Upper-arm Strength A. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125,1. Andante

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mm. 1-12
B. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 8 2 1 , I I . Adagio mm. 4-8 7. Double-stop Excerpts A. Stravinsky, Suite Italienne, I I . Serenata, mm. 15-16 B. Schumann, Cello Concerto, Op. 129, I I . Langsam,

28

28

30

mm. 17-22
C. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I I I . Allegro moderato,

30

mm. 425-29
D. Schumann, Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, I I I . Nicht schnell, mm. 17-27 8. 9. Left Hand Exercises for Caprice 2 (A., B.) String-crossing Exercise: Gradual Lengthening of Melodic Note(A.-C)

30

30 31

33

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Example 10. String-crossing Excerpts A. Brahms, Cello Sonata in E minor, Op. 38, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 114-19 B. Hindemith, Sonata for Unaccompanied Cello, Op. 25 no. 3, m m . 15-16 C. Schumann, Concerto for Cello, Op. 129, I I I . Sehrlebhaft, mm. 342-52 11. 12. 13. Octave Exercise Without Thirds Octaves and Thirds Exercise Excerpts with Octaves and Thirds A. Barber, Cello Concerto, Op. 22, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 104-109 B. Beethoven, Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 5 No. 1, I I . Rondo, mm. 236-45 C. Haydn, Concerto in D Major, Hob. VIIb:2, I I I . Rondo, mm. 111-23 D. Schumann, Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, V. Stark und markiert, mm. 101-4 E. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, V I I . Allegro vivo, mm. 61-64

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33

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34 36 36

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Example 14. 15. 16. Crescendo into Each New Downbeat Left-hand Exercises (A., B.) Multiple-stop and Finger Independence Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, VI. Gigue, mm. 1-4 B. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I. Andante, mm. 139-43 17. Excerpts that Combine Staccato and Legato Bowings A. Bach, Suite 2 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1008, V. Menuet I, mm. 1-5 B. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, V. Gavotte I, mm. 1-5 C. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I I I . Allegro vivace, mm. 15-26 D. Schumann, Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, I. Mit Humor, mm. 1-4 18. Arpeggio Exercise...

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Example 19. Arpeggiated Chord Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, IV. Sarabande, mm 25-32 B. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, V I I I . Allegro vivo, mm. 47-52 C. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 8-9 20. Multiple String-crossing Excerpts A. Haydn, Concerto in C Major, Hob. V I I b : l , I. Moderato, mm. 72-75 B. Schumann, Cello Concerto, Op. 129, I I I . Sehr lebhaft, mm. 368-71 C. Brahms, Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 1-9 D. Tchaikovsky, Piano Trio, Op. 50, I. Moderato assai, mm. 20-23 21. Slurred Staccato Exercise

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49 51

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Example 22. Slurred Staccato Excerpts A. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 821, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 56-59 B. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 30, III. Tempo des Themas, mm. 1-3 23. 24. Ricochet Exercises. Begin Each at J>= 60 (A.-D.) Ricochet Excerpts A. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104,1. Allegro, mm. 157-158 B. Prokofiev, Sonata for Cello and Piano, Op. 119, I I . Moderato, mm. 29-32 25. 26. 27. Intonation Exercise for mm. 6-7 Exercises for Developing Thumb Strength (A., B.) Thumb Strength and Finger Independence Excerpts A. Boccherini, Concerto in B-flat Major, G482, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 31-34 B. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I I I . Allegro moderato, mm. 52-56 C. Poulenc, Sonata for Cello and Piano, IV. Finale, mm. 34-44 xv

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51 53

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54 55 56

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Example 28. String-crossing Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, I. Prelude, m. 85 B. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I. Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 114-120 29. 30. Flexibility/Vibrato Exercise Left-hand Extension Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, I. Prelude, mm. 21-26 B. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 39-41 31. String-crossing Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 3 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1009, I. Prelude, mm. 44-51 B. Elgar, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85, IV. Allegro, mm. 52-58 32. 33. 34. Trill Motive Trill Progression Exercise Incremental Chord Exercise

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58 60

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62 63 64 65

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Example 35. Trill Excerpts A. Bach, Sonata in G Major, BWV 1027, I I . Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 1-9 B. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I. Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 69-73 C. Schumann, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129, III. Sehrruhig, mm. 21-25 D. Stravinsky, Suite Italienne, I I I . Tarantella, mm. 1-10 36. 37. Bow Distribution in the Theme Bow Distribution Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 1 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1007, III. Courante, mm. 1-7 B. Bach, Suite 5 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1011, I. Prelude, mm. 25-36 38. 39. Multiple-stop Exercise Double-stop Excerpts A. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 225-31 B. Saint-Saens, Concerto No. 1 in A minor, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 96-105 xvii

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Example 40. 41. Bow Control Exercise Spiccato Excerpts A. Elgar, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85, I I . Lento, Allegro molto, mm. 16-20 B. Barber, Sonata for Cello and Piano, Op. 6, I I . Adagio-Presto, mm. 11-17 42. 43. Double-stop Exercise Excerpts that Apply Extensive Thumb Position Work A. Haydn, Cello Concerto in D Major, Hob. VIIb:2, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 107-10 B. Ligeti, Sonata for Violoncello Solo, I I . Capriccio, mm. 174-85 C. Saint-Saens, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 33, I I . Allegretto con moto, m. 297 44. 45. Less Arm Weight and Bow Speed on Bracketed Notes Practice Exercises A. Using rests B. Lengthening exercise

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Example 46. Excerpts With Slurred Legato and Staccato Bowings A. Haydn, Cello Concerto in C Major, Hob. V I I b : l ,

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III. Allegro molto, mm. 197-99


B. Debussy, Sonata for Cello and Piano, I. Prologue,

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mm. 21-23
C. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 8 2 1 ,

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III. Allegretto, mm. 77-83


D. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, I I . Tempo desThemas, mm. 1-3 47. 48. Double-stop Exercises (A., B.) Excerpt for Strength and Finger Independence, Shostakovich, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 107, I I I . Cadenza,

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mm. 51-58
49. 50. String-crossing Exercises (A., B.) String-crossing Excerpts A. Brahms, Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 99, I. Allegro vivace, mm. 58-64 B. Dvorak, Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104,

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mm. 313-24

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Example 51. False-harmonic Excerpts A. Saint-Saens, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 33,

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III., mm. 521-26


B. Shostakovich, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 107, I I . Moderate, mm. 166-70 52. 53. 54. False-harmonic Exercise Slurred Staccato Exercise Slurred Staccato Excerpts A. Pietro Locatelli, Sonata in D Major, I. Allegro, mm. 1-6 B. Nicola Porpora, Sonata in F Major, I I . Allegro, mm. 1-6

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Chapter 1 Historical Perspective Introduction The rich history of cello pedagogy is filled with the names of virtuoso cellists and composers, many of whom published their techniques and ideas in pedagogical treatises or compilations of etudes. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the great cellist Alfredo Piatti composed his 12 Caprices, Op. 25, as an exhaustive approach to cello technique and a demonstration of the heights of virtuosity, akin to Nicolo Paganini's 24 Caprices for the violin. Though now nearly 150 years old, the Caprices are still valuable to cellists because they focus on developing the most virtuosic and difficult techniques for the left and right hands within a simple and beautiful melodic framework. This study combines a short historical investigation of Piatti and his Caprices with a discussion of the musical content and technical demands of each Caprice, including suggestions for execution and practice and excerpts from the solo cello literature that require similar techniques. Alfredo Piatti: Cellist, Pedagogue, Composer Carlo Alfredo Piatti (1822-1901) was born in Bergamo, Italy, in January of 1822, the first son of Antonio, a musician, and Marianna, a seamstress. Antonio Piatti was a prominent violinist in Bergamo; he

2 earned a modest living for his family playing music for the theater in the Teatro Sociale and the Teatro Riccardi. Young Alfredo soon followed in his father's footsteps, and at the age of five began to play the cello under his father's tutelage. As the boy's proficiency on the cello progressed rapidly and easily, it became clear to Antonio that Alfredo would need proper instruction on the instrument. During his first year, Alfredo studied with his great-uncle, Gaetano Zanetti, a fine cellist, who likewise played alongside Alfredo's father in the theater orchestras of the Basilica di S. Maria Maggiore. The young Piatti learned quickly and soon found regular employment in his father's orchestra where he earned money for his family and began to gain recognition as a local prodigy. 1 In 1832, after five years with his Uncle Zanetti, further formal study seemed the natural choice for Piatti's growing talent, and as the cost of Conservatory was far beyond the means of his family, he was fortunately accepted as a free student at the Conservatorio di Milan. Piatti's new teacher was Vincenzo Merighi (1795-1849), from whom he received "a considerable amount of personal attention," as he was one

Morton Latham, Alfredo Piatti: A Sketch (London: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1901), 1-12.

of only two cellists at the Conservatory at the time. 2 Piatti's study was both intense and fruitful, and after just five years the young cellist was ready to receive his diploma. Marking the occasion on September 2 1 , 1837, at the ripe old age of fifteen, Piatti gave his first public concert as a soloist and received as a prize the cello that he had played during his Conservatory years. 3 Following the success of this concert, a glowing review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung found Piatti to be a musician who "...possesses a talent all of his own when it comes to playing the violoncello and who will one day be the Paganini of the violoncello." 4 Piatti's success in Milan was a substantial step towards a career as a cellist for the young musician, but it did not quickly translate into fame and fortune. Upon returning to Bergamo, Piatti resumed his post in the civic orchestra, and with his father's help he began to pursue a career as a soloist. Though Alfredo was becoming known throughout much of Italy, many of his concerts in the provinces were poorly planned and attended, perhaps providing the cellist with a good sense

Ibid., 16. Ibid., 2 1 . 4 From Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 3.14.1838, as quoted in Annalisa Lodetti Barzano and Christian Bellisario, Signor Piatti: Cellist, Composer, Avant-Gardist, trans. Clarice Zdanski (Kronberg, Germany: Kronberg Academy Verlag, 2001), 181.
3

of humility (and many great stories told at parties, no doubt), but no lasting fame and certainly not much fortune. When an early trip to Vienna (1838) again proved to be both expensive and unsuccessful, Piatti focused his attention on orchestral playing in Bergamo, Turin, and Milan during the next four years. 5 In 1843, Piatti resumed extensive touring and was fortunate enough to be engaged to play in Munich at a concert with Franz Liszt. Liszt was quite pleased with Piatti's playing and encouraged him to go on to Paris, where, when the two met again at one of Piatti's concerts, Liszt brought a fantastic Amati cello as a gift of encouragement for the young cellist. After such success, Piatti embarked on his lifelong dream to make his career in England; in the spring of 1844, Camplani writes that Piatti arrived in London "completely unknown, without a friend and without any money," and began to carve out a niche for himself in what was one of the most important musical cities in ail of Europe. 6 After two years, Piatti had become an indispensable part of

the artistic life of London, and apart from some minor European tours, London is where he made his home and career for the next fifty years.

5 6

Latham, 23-30. Vittorio Camplani, as quoted and translated in Barzano and Bellisario, 194.

The air in London was virtually polluted with music during the concert season, and Piatti worked as much as any fine musician could want. As in Bergamo, Piatti provided a fair amount of music for the theaters and the opera performances in London, but it was in playing chamber music in private homes and in the exclusive clubs of the Musical Union and the Quartet Association that Alfredo made his mark. He forged longstanding friendships and partnerships with the likes of Anton Rubinstein, Edvard Grieg, Camillo Sivori, Giovanni Bottesini, and Joseph Joachim.7 In order to share his love of great music with those of lesser means, Piatti worked with these colleagues to found the Popular Concerts. Held at the newly constructed St. James's Hall for the first time in December of 1858, the Popular Concerts offered inexpensive tickets, and paired the great compositions of the past with new music of the day, including the premieres of most of Piatti's Cello Sonatas (Opp. 28-32).8 During his long and productive career, Piatti not only premiered many new sonatas and concertos, including Felix Mendelssohn's Op. 58 sonata and Bernard Molique's Op. 45 concerto, but he was also a great champion of the Baroque: Piatti was the first to edit, transcribe, and perform chamber music by such composers as

7 8

Barzano and Bellisario, 208 Ibid., 207.

6 Boccherini, Corelli, Locatelli, Marcello, Porpora, and Tartini, who were at the time "unknown to English audiences."9 Amidst this great quantity of music-making, Piatti's virtuosity and generosity as a musician did not go unnoticed; he constantly received the highest praise from the press, and from his admirers he received many gifts, the greatest of which was a Stradivarius cello given to him by General Oliver in July of 1866.10 As a cellist, Piatti had the deep respect of his peers: Bernard Cossman dedicated his Op. 10 Concert Studies and David Popper his Op. 72 concerto to him, and Adrien Francois Servais, perhaps the greatest cellist to precede Piatti, gave the young Alfredo his "blessing" of sorts as the two played Romberg duets together for ecstatic listeners during a tour of Russia in the summer of 1845. u During his time in London, Piatti also cultivated an important teaching studio, both privately and at the Royal Academy of Music. Piatti's students included Robert Haussman, the German pedagogue who premiered the Op. 99 Sonata and the Double Concerto, Op. 102, of Johannes Brahms; Hugo Becker, another German pedagogue to whom many modern-day cellists (including this one) can trace their lineage; Leopold Stern, the cellist who premiered
9

Ibid. Ibid., 230. 11 Ibid., 197.


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7 Dvorak's great Cello Concerto, Op. 104; and William Whitehouse, whose many students included Felix Salmond, who became a central figure in twentieth-century American cello pedagogy, teaching both Leonard Rose and Bernard Greenhouse.12 To recover from the taxing schedule of the London concert seasons, Piatti would return to Italy for the summers, spending time with family in Bergamo and, after 1868, retiring to his villa in Cadenabbia, a small lakeside village in northern Italy. Here Piatti found the solitude and rest that were absent from his busy career in London; his villa also served as a place of hospice as he was nursed to health after an unfortunate coach accident in 1858 in which he broke his bow arm. Although Cadenabbia was also the natural choice for his final retirement from the London concert scene in 1898, his health declined shortly after returning there, and he was subsequently taken into the care of his daughter, Rosa, who lived near Bergamo in Crocette di Mozzo, where he stayed until his death on the eighteenth of July 1901. A testimony to the richness of Piatti's life and musical career can be found in the many rare books, manuscripts, concert programs, and correspondences collected in his personal library, which

12

Ibid., 252-253.

8 was generously donated after his death to the Instituto Musicale in Bergamo.13 Closely following his death, two important biographies of Piatti were written. The first, by Morton Latham (Alfredo Piatti, 1901), an Englishman and personal friend of Piatti's, sets out "to depict the man to those who only knew the artist."14 Latham's account is mostly anecdotal and offers many stories "heard from the lips of Signor Piatti himself;" these stories record not just the herculean greatness of Piatti as a cellist, but also his humility and trials, his joyful friendships, and his humorous personality.15 Although Latham's biographical account is often circuitous and difficult to follow, he offers a wealth of information regarding Piatti's early family life, education, personal relationships, and important accomplishments. The second biography is by Vittorio Camplani (Alfredo Piatti, 1902), who was Piatti's family doctor from Bergamo, and who was with him until his last days at Crocette di Mozzo.16 Camplani's account of Piatti's life is similar to Latham's: his story is filled with many personal anecdotes, and his writing is full of admiration for the man he considered to be "the greatest cellist that
13

Ibid., 214-217. Latham, i. 15 Ibid. 16 Vittorio Camplani, Alfredo Piatti: Ceni Biografici (Bergamo: Tipo Litografia Mariani, 1902).
14

9 our age or any other past age might boast of. Despite the many

similarities, Camplani's text is set apart by his thorough and meticulous collection and transcription of what was written about Piatti in the newspapers of his day. As Camplani explains early on in his biography: I transcribed them word for word in order to plot the artistic events and triumphs of the cellist as precisely as possible, thus avoiding the jumble of anecdotes that would have made the work more boring. On the other hand, in the printed version, I presented impartial, faithful documents, which were aimed at making Piatti's artistic individuality known to the public, which is something Piatti never would have done on his own.18 Camplani's work and research have significant value, as many of the periodicals he drew from are no longer available. The biographies by Latham and Camplani are the most important twentieth-century works solely dedicated to the life and career of Alfredo Piatti. Other accounts of Piatti's life and work appear in J. W. von Wasielewski's Das Violoncell und seine Geschichte (1889), in Edmund van der Straeten's History of the Violoncello, the Viol da Gamba, their Precursors and Collateral Instruments (1915), and also in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians beginning in 1922. Annalisa Barzano and Christian Bellisario offer the most recent

Camplani, as quoted and translated in Barzano and Bellisario, 179.

research into Piatti's life and career in Signor PiattiCellist, Composer, Avant-Gardist (2001).19 This comprehensive text is divided into two parts, "A Biographical Profile" by Barzano, and "Notes for an Investigation" by Bellisario, and aims to bring together all existing research on Alfredo Piatti. In addition, Barzano and Bellisario provide many correspondences not included in the first biographies, translations of news clippings and reviews from Piatti's concerts, and wider research into Piatti's family life and friendships, ail while blending the stories of Latham and Camplani into a cohesive whole. A section of photographs and illustrations, a much-needed catalogue of Piatti's compositions, and an extensive bibliography complete the picture of Alfredo Piatti as a performer, a father, an intellectual, and a friend. Piatti began composing almost as early as he began playing the cello, and is remembered as one of the great composer-virtuosi of his generation. Early compositions were often used as a way to showcase both his talent and his Italian musical heritage; Introduction and Variations on a Theme from Lucia di Lammermoor, Op. 2, was Piatti's first highly successful composition, and it was performed often during Annalisa Lodetti Barzano and Christian Bellisario, Signor Piatti: Cellist, Composer, Avant-Gardist, trans. Clarice Zdanski (Kronberg, Germany: Kronberg Academy Verlag, 2001).
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11 his early tours of Europe.20 Piatti composed many other similar orchestral concertinos and fantasies with cello soloist, including Souvenir de la Sonnambula, Op. 5, and Souvenir de Puritani, Op. 9, and midway through his career he composed a pair of concerti, Opp. 24 and 26, that were quite successful during his lifetime. Piatti's repertoire also included many short chamber works, mostly for cello and piano, which he played often on many of London's concert stages and in many private homes. While a good number of these earlier chamber works, such as Un priere, Op. 3, and Airs Baskyrs, Op. 8, can be categorized as virtuosic showpieces, many of the later works, such as Notturno, Op. 20, and Danza moresca, focus instead on the cello's unique ability to sing and convey deep emotion. During the last ten years of his London career (1885-1896) Piatti composed six sonatas for cello and piano, Opp. 28-33, which, similar to his many earlier works, include passages of double- and triplestopped melodies and many difficult bowing techniques. Despite many technical challenges, these sonatas highlight Piatti's affinity for cantabile playing, and are focused more on the development of melodic ideas than on any display of virtuosity. Piatti's sonatas also reflect the influence of Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Brahms, whose
20

Ibid., 192-195.

12 sonatas he often performed; the Sonata II, Op. 29, and Sonata IV, "Idillica", Op. 33, are especially beautiful examples of the composer's ability to combine virtuosic elements within a highly lyrical setting. As a composer and performer, Piatti had a fondness for melody and singing: outside of his compositions for cello, Piatti also composed over fifty songs for voice and piano (some of which include an obbligato line for cello).21 Piatti published most of his works during his lifetime, but many of these have since fallen out of publication. Fortunately, Christian Bellisario recently edited and published through Pizzicato Verlag, Switzerland, most of Piatti's compositions for cello and piano, including all of his sonatas, the last two of which had never been published. Piatti and his 12 Caprices, Op. 25 In contrast to most of Piatti's compositions, the Twelve Caprices have enjoyed constant and wide publication ever since the first edition was published in 1874 (Table 1, below).22 The popularity of the Caprices among performers and pedagogues has also grown steadily throughout the twentieth century, and their place of prominence in the

21 22

Ibid., 247. Alfredo Piatti, 12 Caprices, Op. 25 (Leipzig: Simrock, 1874).

13 Table 1. Publication History of Piatti's 12 Caprices, Op. 25 Publisher Sim rock C. F. Peters International Music Co. United Music (Ricordi) G. Henle Verlag Copyright Date
1874 1932 1974 1988 2003

Editor
Piatti/Whitehouse Stutschewsky Fournier Filippini Bellisario

cello repertoire needs almost no mentionthey are a central part of the teaching curriculum in music schools all over the world from New York to Vienna, and are also an entrance requirement for many of the leading music schools and conservatories. To trace the musical and pedagogical history of Piatti's 12 Caprices, Op. 25, it is necessary to explore some of the history of the cello in Italy along with the influences Piatti encountered during his musical training in Milan and his tours throughout Europe. Italian musical history includes many cellists like Piatti who were both virtuosi and composers. In the late seventeenth century, Antonio Caldera (ca. 1670-1736) was one of the first great Italian cellists. Caldera toured throughout Italy and brought his talent and pedagogical ideas as far as Vienna in the early eighteenth century; his compositions include 16

cello sonatas, and there is an early pedagogical treatise. In the eighteenth century Francisco Alborea (1691-1739) and Salvatore Lanzetti (ca. 1710-1780) continued in Caldera's tradition, writing inventive solo works for the cello and traveling as far as Paris, London, and Germany as performers and pedagogues. Following Lanzetti, Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805) brought cello technique and string repertoire to new heights, touring and teaching throughout Europe, and composing over 25 cello sonatas, more than 10 cello concerti, and countless orchestral and chamber works.23 The influence these Italian cellists brought to the rest of Europe was great, but by the nineteenth century, the focus of cello pedagogy and virtuosity shifted from Italy to France and Germany. The French cellist Martin Berteau (1708-71), originally a viol player, switched to the cello after attending a brilliant concert that featured Francisco Alborea. 24 Berteau subsequently founded the French school of cello playing, going on to teach some of the most influential cellists in history/ among them J. L. Duport (1749-1819), whose 21 Exercises

23

Stephen Bontha, et al. "Violoncello," Grove Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/44 041 (accessed August 6, 2009).

were an integral part of Piatti's Conservatory training in Milan. Bernard Romberg (1767-1841) was inspired early in his career by his relationships with both Boccherini and Duport, and the influence of his teaching and of his Methode de violoncelle (1839) establishes him as one of the fathers of the German school of cello playing.26 Romberg's legacy also had a profound impact on Piatti's early training; when Piatti later compiled his own Violoncello Method, he included the exercises and etudes of Romberg and others from the German school: Friedrich Dotzauer (1783-1860), Friedrich Kummer (1797-1879), and Sebastian Lee (1805-1887). Although much of Piatti's musical education has roots in the French and German schools of cello playing, the Italian school of violin playing was also quite important to Piatti as a cellist and a composer. Piatti's facility and inventive approach to bow technique highlight the influence of the great Bergamasque violinist Pietro Locatelli (16951764), who was known for his virtuosic talent and technique.27 As Piatti was composing the 12 Caprices, he rigorously studied the compositions and pedagogy of Locatelli and his contemporaries, an
25

26

Barzano and Bellisario, 128. Valerie Walden, "Bernard Heinrich Romberg," Grove Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/43 995pg2 (accessed August 25, 2009) 27 Barzano and Bellisario, 248.

16 endeavor that eventually led him to transcribe for cello some of the violin sonatas of Locatelli, Valentini, Tartini, and other Italian violin virtuosi.28 In addition, the influence of Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840) on Piatti's technique and virtuosity as a cellist and composer cannot be overlooked; although there is no documentation that the two ever met, in 1837 when Piatti received his diploma, Paganini was the "idol of the young talents that were being trained at the Conservatory in Milan." And during Piatti's professional career, Camillo Sivori (18151894), Paganini's only pupil, was a close friend and colleague with whom Piatti no doubt shared many pedagogical and technical thoughts and ideas.29 While Piatti's Caprices are certainly the most famous of the genre (for the cello) from the nineteenth century, there are many similar works that pre-date Piatti's. The concert etudes of Duport (within the 21 Exercises) are similar in melodic style to many of Piatti's, and Friedrich Gruetzmacher's (1832-1903) Op. 38 etudes, while lengthier and often more in fantasia style, offer technical challenges on a par with any of Piatti's Caprices. A. F. Servais (18071866), who preceded Piatti's reign as "King" of the cello during the

Latham, 116. Barzano and Bellisario, 248.

first half of the nineteenth century, wrote Six Caprices, Op. 11 (1854), published shortly before Piatti's Op. 25. Despite their close proximity, there are not many similarities between the two sets; Servais' Caprices were written for solo cello with a second cello ad libitum, and while the caprices may easily be played as solo pieces, much of their melodic integrity and beauty are lost without the second cello. Servais finds greatest pedagogical success and beauty in Caprice 2, a moto perpetuo study focused on finger dexterity in the left hand and quick staccato bowings, and in Caprice 5, Larghetto cantabile, which develops the player's ability to execute trills (both single-note and double-stopped) and double-stopped passage work. Most pertinent to this study is Servais' Caprice 6, which has a similar melodic contour to Piatti's Caprice 1 and poses many of the same technical challenges in the left hand (Example 1). Both caprices focus on repeated string changes for the bow and a broken double-stop in the left hand, and both often combine a melodic lower voice with an accompanying upper voice. The similarities in melody between the two caprices strongly suggest that Piatti was familiar with Servais' works as he was composing his own.

18 Example 1. Servais and Piatti: Similar melodic material A. Piatti Caprice 1, mm. 1-4
V o

B. Servais Caprice 6, mm. 1-5


Allegro.

6. $\ j J j J j J j
*?

Pipl

Piatti was also well acquainted with the Studiesa set of exercises for developing agility, strength of fingers, and purity of intonationcomposed by his friend and colleague Bernard Cossmann (1822-1910), the German cellist and pedagogue to whom Piatti dedicated his Op. 25. Although the focus of Cossmann's Studies is on left hand agility, strength, and intonation, their influence on Piatti's composition is readily apparent in that many of the Caprices focus on developing similar techniques (Example 2). A comparison of Cossmann's Trill Studies with three of Piatti's Caprices (4, 6, and 11) shows similarity in left hand techniques, particularly in those doublestopped passages that develop the player's capability for finger

19 independence. As a reciprocal sign of his admiration and gratitude, Cossmann dedicated his own later Concert Studies, Op. 10, to Piatti. Example 2. Cossmann and Piatti: Similarities in Technique A. Cossmann Trill Studies Excerpt
(y *QM

rtptpfptftpfrfft1 -ii-

*J

1 rtttrfttftrrrtrt

B. Piatti Caprice 4, mm. 53-56

i jyrfi """ jf nfrViD IT


C. Piatti Caprice 6, mm. 56-57
56

jWrfrfrfrfrfpftftfrf
D. Piatti Caprice i 11, mm. 28-31 :i caprice i , mm. ZO-JI

:*' w r rrr i"riLr r rrr i^rjr cxij" i^f dir


dim.

JT]lIT}l

JT]7JT37 JT]7jT]7 JT]7jT]7


-

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, David Popper (1843-1913) was the greatest cellist after Alfredo Piatti.

20 Popper spent his early career as an orchestral cellist in Berlin and Vienna, and though most of his later years were dedicated to teaching at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music, he toured often as a soloist and began replacing Piatti in the London Popular Concerts starting as early as the 1891/92 season. 30 Similar to Cossmann's Concert Studies, Popper's High School of Cello Playing, Op. 73, is written in a highly chromatic, almost Wagnerian language; these 40 etudes are highly influential in cello technique and pedagogy today, and serve as a great companion to the study of Piatti's Caprices. An investigation of the entire set of Piatti's Caprices is useful for identifying pedagogical themes that tie the work together. Piatti has given equal emphasis to left-hand and right-hand challenges (if not slightly greater challenges for the bow-arm), with special attention paid to double-stopping (especially thirds and octaves), up-bow staccato, arpeggios, both slurred and staccato string-crossings, trills, left-hand strength (especially for the pinky finger), and stamina. Alongside the many technical issues, Piatti always includes a distinct melodic line and formal structure, making the caprices both "sing-able" and well suited for public performance. This melodic trait reflects Piatti's spirit and musical development, which were cultivated in close
30

Ibid., 208.

proximity to the Italian opera stage; for Piatti, a strong emphasis on song and melody (cantabile playing) was far more important than mere technical precision. Reviews of Piatti's performances point not only to a cellist of "consummate skill and precision," but more significantly to an artist who has transformed his instrument "into a human voice/' one that can "sing sweetly, [and] miraculously," perhaps "the best [voice] that one might ever hear from this instrument with its special singing qualities," and the kind of playing that reproduces "precisely that singing which we hear in our souls."31 Because mastery of the Caprices requires both technical precision and cantabile playing, it is safe to assume that Piatti intended the Caprices for both pedagogical purposes and for performance; in fact, he performed them often himself. The study at hand is accompanied by the author's own recording of the Twelve Caprices to illustrate their beauty in performance as well as to provide aural examples for the discussions that are to come. It is hoped that this in-depth study and recording of Piatti's Caprices will unveil the many possibilities for their use not only in teaching the virtuosic techniques, but also for their performance on the concert stage, as was clearly the intention and the practice of Alfredo Piatti.
31

Ibid., 238, 239, 242.

Chapter 2 A Pedagogical Analysis of the Twelve Caprices "My feeling about technique in art is that it has about the same value as technique in lovemaking. Heartfelt ineptitude has its appeal and so does heartless skill; but what you want is passionate virtuosity." John Barth

Introduction
Because mastery of Piatti's 12 Caprices requires the highest level of cello technique and virtuosity, the information presented here will be most useful to advanced cellists who have already attained the ease of technique that is the goal of David Popper's High School of Violoncello Playing, Op. 73. The discussion of each caprice begins with an overview of the musical substance, then proceeds to performance suggestions and analyses of the technical challenges for the left hand and for the right hand. Tempo suggestions made here are implemented in the accompanying recording. Excerpts from the repertoire are not meant to be exhaustive, but rather provide an important link between the technique of virtuosity and the practice of virtuosity. Caprice No. 1: Allegro quasi Presto This perpetual-motion Caprice in G-minor combines broken double-stops in the left hand with Sulla punta d'arco (only at the tip) string-crossings in the right hand. As Whitehouse suggests,

the tone of the Caprice should be "lightalmost ponticello in character," and "played with a freedom of timevirtually rubato." 1 A counterstatement of the eight-measure theme changes direction with a modulatory sequence leading to a variant of the opening motive in B-flat Major (m. 19). After a gradual build to a forte climax in measure 29, a dominant pedal in G minor signals the imminent return of the theme in measure 39. The second half continues similarly to the first and concludes with a dramatic coda (beginning in m. 62). Although practice should begin with a soft dynamic level, the Caprice is most exciting when Piatti's dynamic markings are followed, especially the diminuendo to pianissimo that occurs when the main theme returns (m. 39), and the many shifts in dynamic level that occur towards the end of the coda (mm. 70-77). Left Hand: The Caprice begins with a simple pattern that oscillates between a fingered melody on the G-string and the open D-string. However, in measure 13 the open D-string is replaced by a fingered note, producing the fingered broken double-stops that fill much of the Caprice and pose challenges in both intonation and left-hand strength and flexibility. This type of oscillation is an effective way to practice

Alfredo Piatti, 12 Caprices, Op. 25, ed. William Edward Whitehouse (1874; repr., London: Boosey & Hawkes, 2000), 2.

and teach double-stopping because it can encourage flexibility and release of tension in the left hand. Slow practice (i* = 48) will aid in the establishment of good lefthand technique, and will also quickly reveal any intonation issues. Finger pressure must be released from the string after each note has been played, and transferred to the note that follows. While constant tension and release at a slow tempo may seem tedious, it is necessary for training the movements of the fingers, and as the tempo gradually quickens, it will allow the cellist to play through the entirety of the Caprice without excess strain. Once this technique has been mastered, vibrato should be added to each note. The performance tempo will not allow for a great amount of vibrato to be heard, but practice with vibrato increases flexibility and decreases tension in the hand. An exercise that brings the broken double-stops together is useful for perfecting intonation (Example 3). For this exercise, each bow stroke should be as short as possible, followed by adequate rest, which will allow the player's ear to discern whether or not there are any intonation issues, and also for a release of tension in the hand. Vibrato should be used with this exercise.

25 Example 3. Double-stop Intonation Exercise


n V n V n V

W i h J'> h I < N J1* J1* I h h i'y I # #


The type of left-hand practice needed to master Piatti's first Caprice is useful in preparation for passages in the cello repertoire that feature extended use of double-stops (Example 4). Excerpts from the Dvorak Concerto, Op. 104, and the Shostakovich Concerto, Op. 107, contain conventional double-stopping and may be practiced by breaking the double stops as Piatti does in Caprice 1. Examples from the Ligeti Sonata (1948/53) and Francios Francoeur's (1698-1787) Sonata feature broken double-stops similar to those in this Caprice and benefit from the same type of practice outlined in Example 3. Right Hand: Each note must be played exclusively at the tip of the bow. This type of bowing paired with constant string-crossings, while not often used in the cello repertoire, develops strength and flexibility in the upper arm and the shoulder. However, cellists must approach the punta d'arco bowing carefully, as excessive practice at the tip of the bow can be tiring for the shoulder muscles, causing excess tension in the bow hold and throughout the body.

26 Example 4. Double-stop Excerpts A. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I. Allegro, mm. 259-61
ores . - cen -do poco 0 poeo

B. Shostakovich, Cello Concerto, Op. 107, I. Allegretto, mm. 23-26

C. Ligeti, Solo Sonata, I I . Capriccio, mm. 42-47

D. Francoeur, Sonata in E Major, I I . Allegro vivo, mm. 17-19

1% Jfltfo^frtafomroJrPiJff mimPfli
tJ > ^ > > = > > >- > 21

To practice, play the Caprice with two-note slurs set in the middle of the bow, using small circular movements with the wrist and fingers to execute the string-crossings (Example 5). For this exercise to be effective the shoulder must remain relaxed, and the stick of the bow must remain in a fixed position relative to the strings. To slowly strengthen the muscles of the upper-arm and shoulder, set the bow closer and closer to the tip with each repetition of the exercise. As the

27 player gains strength and begins to master the wrist and finger motion of the slurred string-crossings, the exercise should be repeated without the slurs (as the Caprice is written), again starting in the middle of the bow and gradually moving toward the tip with each repetition. Example 5. Slurred Exercise n V

+j

~J

J J J IJi IJ
~j *j
-> ~J *!>

tf a> m ~J j +j

\mJ0 j
\J

Mastery of the punta d'arco bowing will give the cellist greater upper-arm strength and the ability to maintain dynamic level and tone at the tip of the bow, a skill that is especially useful in the excerpts shown in Example 6 from Prokofiev's Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, and Schubert's Arpeggione Sonata, D. 821. Both excerpts feature either a slow crescendo to the tip of the bow or slurred notes on a down-bow that must be sustained (J= 48-60). Caprice No. 2: Andante religioso This Caprice, in E-flat Major, develops overall left-hand strength (especially in the pinky finger) and focuses on extensive stringcrossings in the right hand. The hymn-like opening section (A, mm. 126), almost completely in double-stops, modulates from E-flat Major

28 Example 6. Excerpts Requiring Upper-arm Strength A. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I. Andante mm. 1-12

B. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 821, I I . Adagio, mm. 4-8

to C minor and from E-flat Major to G minor before ending on the dominant of B-flat minor. The beginning of section B (mm. 27-49) is marked by a shift to B-flat Major and a new, arpeggiated figuration. In this espressivo section, Piatti avoids a strong cadence in B-flat Major until measure 38, which adds to the restless character created by the accompanying thirty-second notes. The return of the primary key (m. 51) is marked by a return to the rhythm of section A (A', mm. 50-67), after which a shortened form of the espressivo section is presented in E-flat Major (B', mm. 68-79), followed by an arduous double-stopped coda (mm. 80-92) that tests the limits of the player's thumb-position technique and requires the utmost finesse from the bow in order to execute the pianississimo ending. For this Caprice to

be effective in performance the voice of the melodic line must always be prominent and the tempo should be reverent, but not too slow (J = 66-68), remaining the same throughout. Left Hand: Piatti's concentration on broken double-stopping in Caprice 1 can be immediately applied to Section A of Caprice 2, and this shared technique strongly suggests a pedagogical progression between the two. Applying a variant of the practice technique in Example 1 will again help with intonation and flexibility, and will also prepare the cellist for excerpts that focus on extensive use of double-stops, such as Stravinsky's Suite Italienne and Schumann's Cello Concerto, Op. 129 (Example 7). Mastery of these excerpts and the Caprice requires the same type of slow practice and release of tension between fingers described in the discussion of Caprice 1, although the technique becomes especially challenging in Caprice 2 as the double-stopping rises to the thumb position (e.g., mm. 17-24). Such double-stopping is necessary in executing the passages from the Dvorak Concerto and Schumann's Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, shown in Example 7. For section B of the Caprice, begin practice by simplifying the note values into straight sixteenth notes, being careful to release the tension in each finger before moving to the next note. This type of exercise can be played both with separate bows and by slurring two,

30 Example 7. Double-stop excerpts A. Stravinsky, Suite Italienne, I I . Serenata, mm. 15-16

B. Schumann, Cello Concerto, Op. 129, I I . Langsam, mm. 17-22

C. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I I I . Allegro moderato, mm. 425-29

j i) J51 fvj i *W i

D. Schumann, Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, I I I . Nicht schnell, mm. 17-27

four, or eight notes in one bow (Example 8A). In addition, an exercise that combines the notes from each quarter note into one chord will slowly train the fingers of the left hand to navigate the complex chord

31 patterns in this section (Example 8B). Although agility and strength are developed in all fingers, Piatti assigns the highest level of difficulty to the fourth finger (pinky), requiring the small, weak finger to play the most espressivo portions of the melody. Practice must be patient and slow (especially in mm. 33-34), allowing the muscles in the fourth finger to gain strength without excess strain, and enabling the flexibility and beauty of vibrato in the melodic line. Example 8. Left hand exercises for Caprice 2 A. Start practice at }= 44

LtfcOTLk
v I v \\, v ^
i*

mft-

.te

B. Start practice at J>= 60

te

')\\l^ i ^ f

Right Hand: The shoulder and upper-arm strength developed by Caprice 1 finds instant application in Caprice 2, especially in its sustained double-stops and phrases with crescendos that climax at the tip of the bow. While mastery of the bow technique in Caprice 1 is not necessary before the study of Caprice 2, this link in technique is

further evidence of a pedagogical progression between the two. The string-crossings in the espressivo section pose the greatest technical challenge for the bow arm. Proper execution of this technique will develop both the anticipatory motion of the elbow and the flexibility of the fingers in the bow hold.2 Practice can begin with the four- or eight-note slurred version shown in Example 8A, adding the necessary focus on the motion of the right arm during each string-crossing. As right-hand facility increases, gradually lengthen the first note of each quarter beat, and consequently, shorten the others, until Piatti's written rhythm is reached (Example 9). This type of string-crossing practice will also develop the technique necessary to execute passages found in Brahms' Cello Sonata, Op. 38, Hindemith's Solo Sonata, Op. 25 No.3, and Schumann's Cello Concerto, Op. 129 (Example 10). Caprice No. 3: Moderato This boisterous Caprice is primarily a study in left-hand doublestop techniques, most often oscillating between octaves and thirds in the thumb position. Caprice 3 can be divided into two similar sections in B-flat Major (A: mm. 1-100, A': mm. 101-169); both sections exploit a simple rhythmic motive, and both conclude in cadenza-like

Gerhard Mantel, Cello Technique, trans. Barbara Haimberger Thiem (1975; repr., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 191-98.

33 Example 9. String-crossing Exercise: Gradual Lengthening of Melodic Note A. Start practice at J = 4 0

3'

'3

>3-

B. Start practice at J = 4 0

C. As written

Example 10. String-crossing Excerpts A. Brahms, Cello Sonata in E minor, Op. 38, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 114-19
\

f Wf?g|ffTpir r/Tfr, f>, f?frA


jsr

ff

34 Example 10. (cont.) B. Hindemith, Sonata for Unaccompanied Cello, Op. 25 No. 3, mm. 15-16

ff

i>

C. Schumann, Concerto for Cello, Op. 129, I I I . Sehr lebhaft, mm. 342-52
w\ \\{
4

^ I m Tempo

passages, the first tonicizing G minor (mm. 65-100) and the second remaining in the primary key (mm. 137-169). While the constant double-stopping poses a demanding challenge for the left hand in both strength and intonation, the repetitiveness of Piatti's motive is an equal test as it requires not only careful melodic shaping of each eightbar phrase, but also inventive dynamics since the score neglects to provide much direction in this arena. The "moderato" marking indicates a tempo that can easily be counted in three (J>= 188-192). This tempo should be observed until the piu presto/prestissimo

35 indications in mm. 161-169, because the virtuosity of Caprice 3 lies not only in speed and accuracy of intonation, but also in the beauty of the melodic line. Left Hand: As the placement of the fingers is constantly shifting in this Caprice, the primary goal for the left hand is fluidity of positions, where "the entire left arm is continually in motion in order to support the changing action of the fingers."3 Practice begins with octaves first, followed by the addition of the thirds. This approach allows adequate focus on the intonation of each type of double-stop and slowly builds strength and stamina in the left hand. For octave practice, a slurred exercise is best for developing intonation and phrasing of the melody (Example 11). When thirds are added, it is best to remove the chromatic embellishments (Example 12). During the back-and-forth motion between octave and third, the thumb's pressure on the fingerboard gently rocks between the D-string (for the octave) and the A-string (for the third) while the circular motions of the hand and arm move counter-clockwise (Figure 1). The counter-clockwise motion of the hand and arm is essential to obtain fluidity in the left hand and will

Mantel, 85.

36 continue to aid in the execution of the Caprice when the sixteenth-note thirds are played as written. Example 11. Octave Exercise Without Thirds

m
Example 12. Octaves and Thirds Exercise A. Adding thirds without chromatic embellishment

#i

mm
Thirds Octaves

Figure 1. Rocking Motion of the Thumb4

Popper's Etudes nos. 9 and 38 (for thirds and octaves, respectively) are excellent preparatory studies for the left-hand techniques in Caprice 3. Practice and mastery of Caprice 3 will help with the preparation of excerpts from a variety of musical periods,

Ibid., 82.

37 including Barber's Cello Concerto, Beethoven's Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 5 No. 1, Haydn's Concerto in D Major, Schumann's Five Pieces in Folk Style, and Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations (Example 13). All excerpts can be practiced in steps similar to those outlined in Examples 11 and 12.

Example 13. Excerpts with octaves and thirds A. Barber, Cello Concerto, Op. 22, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 104-109

B. Beethoven, Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 5 No. 1, I I . Rondo, mm. 236-45

':;, mm
2

rrr

nrrr.rf i CT3 rrr n rrr-frf


ff

I I I I I I *s
, i

LI I I ' ' t=t=

-**r ' P

~Pr-*" 2_t

38 Example 13. (cont.) C. Haydn, Concerto in D Major, Hob VIIb:2, I I I . Rondo, mm. 111-23
Minore

rn

* Q. -HP J J>,fflj

hJT)ff%J

l^ipii?7]
f
&

&

#=

3S

dtrr

Hii 4 i w w
3fi

D. Schumann, F/Ve Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102, V. Stark und markiert, mm. 101-4
snl D.
SU ] D . 8

IBS^^S
I
L
9

E. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, VII. Allegro vivo, mm. 61-64

t
jf

m ^i|J> j7J>Jyj; [Jj v.


r. *. c
rit

j ^ *

Iff ffl, iff ffl rff

1
t

TO>MP

lll tfl

Right Hand: It is essential to differentiate among legato, slurred, and detache bowings. The bow also plays an important part in voicing each double-stop: octaves require more volume and bow pressure on the lower note, while each of the thirds may be voiced differently depending on the position and string. A subtle crescendo on each slur

39 leading to the downbeat of each measure can guard against monotony in the melody and propel the forward motion of each phrase, but care must be taken to give full value to the eighth note at the end of each measure (Example 14). Example 14. Crescendo into Each New Downbeat

Caprice No. 4: Allegretto-Poco meno-Allegretto come prima The D-minor Caprice evokes a scherzo and trio in that it begins with a rounded-binary form in the tonic (mm. 1-30) that is followed by another in F Major. This "trio" dissolves in preparation for a return of the opening, which is reduced to only ten measures (mm. 62-71) and followed by a coda. The first Allegretto section (mm. 1-30) should be played with a quick tempo (J>= 116-120). A leggiero approach to the multiple-stopped chords keeps the tempo from slackening and brings shape to the four-measure phrases. After a short pause, the Poco meno (mm. 31-61) shifts directly into F Major and highlights legato bowings and double-stops with the occasional staccato for punctuation. The interplay between detache and legato bowings (both slurred and separate) develops control and agility in the right hand. A relaxed

tempo (J* = 88-92) avoids frantic string changes and draws out the beauty of the melody. The greatly abbreviated da capo of the Allegretto (mm. 62-71) returns to the original key and tempo and is followed by a coda that blends the character and articulation of both sections. Left Hand: Caprice 4 develops the independence of the fingers, building upon the left-hand techniques in Caprices 1 and 2 by adding extensive use of triple- and quadruple-stopped chords and contrapuntal double-stopped melodies often in contrary motion. Each multiple-stop must be fully released before moving on to the next, rolling the pressure of the hand on the fingerboard from the lowest to the highest note (in conjunction with the motion of the bow) and vibrating to the top of the chord in order to avoid excess strain (Figure 2). To efficiently practice the successive multiple-stops, separate the chords from the rest of the notes, creating a simple exercise that also provides a clear outline of the harmonic motion, melodic contour, and phrasing (Example 15A). As the degree of finger independence increases in the F-Major section of Caprice 4 (e.g., mm. 52-56), practice by placing a short rest after each eighth note. This exercise makes the use of vibrato more possible, isolates each finger motion, and gives the hand a chance to rest between double-stops (Example

15B). Caprice 4 develops the kind of finger independence and lefthand strength needed for excerpts from Bach's Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello and Prokofiev's Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125 (Example 16).

Figure 2. Rolling Pressure of the Hand on the Fingerboard Example 15. Left-hand Exercises A. Multiple-stop Exercise (J>= 68) from mm. 1-5

v
^ ^

s
n

Y r ffi^

B. Finger Independence Exercise from mm. 52-56


_
v \

42 Example 16. Multiple-stop and Finger Independence Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, VI. Gigue, mm. 1-4
V

wm
#

i t

m
S

i*
o*A
fc=fc

B. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125,1. Andante, mm. 139-43

>r

IJ

Right Hand: Piatti explores staccato bowings in all parts of the bow, from the frog to the tip, and with all types of stopping, from double to quadruple, oftentimes within one measure. Proper execution of each staccato bowing must begin on the string, and after the note has been played, the bow is both released from the string (in an upward motion) and returned to the string before the next note is played. Bowings that begin off the string do not provide the clarity, agility, or control needed for Caprice 4. Special attention must be given to the legato

bowings in the Allegretto in order to add interest and beauty to the melodic line. Conversely, the staccato bowings play a similar role in the Poco meno. Popper's Etude no. 11 and Duport's Exercise no. 5 are excellent for developing right-hand technique in preparation for Caprice 4. In addition, much of the cello repertoire includes music that employs a similar combination of staccato and legato bowings, including excerpts from Bach's Suites 2 and 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, Beethoven's Sonata in A major, Op. 69, and Schumann's Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102 (Example 17). Caprice No. 5: Allegro comodo The F-Major Caprice introduces and develops some challenging right-hand techniques, including both scalar and arpeggiated slurred staccato and ricochet bowings, and it employs many of the left-hand techniques developed in earlier caprices. Written in three-part form (ABA1), the first section (mm. 1-23) begins in F Major and at m. 17 goes to a D-minor transition that sets up the middle section in a new figuration. Because Section A lacks a clear melodic component, it is important to focus on the bass line for structure and phrasing. After a surprise common-tone modulation to the subdominant key of B-flat Major, Section B (mm. 24-49) showcases a lilting melody accompanied

44 Example 17. Excerpts that Combine Staccato and Legato Bowings A. Bach, Suite 2 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1008, V. Menuet I, mm. 1-5

HJ
2 4

irf
1 4

B. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, V. Gavotte I, mm. 1-5 n

mm

f 'r,f ' ftfW f i f s q y a r *


M r

C. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I I I . Allegro vivace, mm. 15-26

r n r LT inrrrVrhr' -s
D. Schumann, F/Ve P/'eces //? Fo//c Sty/e, Op. 102, I. Mit Humor, mm. 1-4

_!_

-T~\ I '

,-.

.!_

by frolicking sixteenth-note figures in the bass. Tasteful use of rubato brings out the sentimentality of the melody and eases the difficulty of the ricochet accompaniment. The final section (A', mm. 50-68) briefly

recapitulates the key and arpeggiated melody of section A and then quickly departs into a series of dramatic sequences rising to the heights of the fingerboard before a final flourish of staccato arpeggios. Piatti's Allegro comodo marking, which applies to all sections of the Caprice, suggests that a comfortable tempo (J= 72-78) be chosen in order to bring clarity to the staccato and ricochet bowings, and "to enable the pace of the arpeggios in the second part of the Caprice to be twice as fast as those in the first part, as written." 5 Left Hand: Every measure of Caprice 5 contains at least one arpeggiated chord aimed at developing the strength and versatility of the left hand. Each arpeggio should apply the same rolling pressure that is outlined in Figure 2 above (p. 41). Practice can include multistop exercises for strength and intonation (Example 18). Special attention and care should be given to arpeggios that either require significant fourth-finger strength (e.g., m. 1 beats 3 and 4, mm. 2425) or contain awkward stretches and finger placements (mm. 31-33, mm. 64-65). The left-hand technique and strength developed in Caprice 5 can be applied to excerpts from Bach's Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations, and Prokofiev's Symphonie Concertante (Example 19).
5

Piatti, ed. Whitehouse, 2.

46 Example 18. Arpeggio Exercise (from mm. 24-25), J*= 64


n

as

^sa J r"? j*rrirrEWE P


9

#r f

n v

Example 19. Arpeggiated Chord Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, IV. Sarabande, mm 25-32
25

P J= *

1
29
.

II III

M~r r-r ^ i>


s
I

E
2 9 1

feM

1
?

in*

114

m fmtffJMu
a.

J, , ^
^ ^

j,d
P o

T=^

B. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, VIII. Allegro vivo, mm. 47-52

C. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 8-9

47 Right Hand: Challenges in right-hand technique are both numerous and extreme, testing the player's ability to perform a variety of strokes rarely used in even the most virtuosic cello repertoire. The Caprice begins with a succession of legato and staccato multiple stringcrossings that build upon the techniques in Caprice 2 and continue to develop the motion of the elbow. String-crossings require flexibility of the arm and careful elbow placements that must be anticipated. Caprice 5 stresses the importance of the elbow anticipation both during a slurred stroke, as seen in the first and third beats of measure 1, and in preparation for a change in bow direction that also includes a string-crossing, as found between beats two and three of measure 1 (Figure 3). Elbow anticipation serves two main purposes: it produces a smooth and unnoticeable transition between adjacent strings, and it quickly propels the bow to the position of a distant string. Good practice of the string-crossings in section A begins with slurred legato bowings on all notes. The staccato string-crossings can be re-inserted when the anticipatory motion of the elbow becomes smooth and fluid. This type of practice can be used also in excerpts from the cello repertoire, such as Haydn's Cello Concerto in C Major, Hob. V I I b : l , and Schumann's Cello Concerto, Op. 129. Extensive string-crossings (both legato and staccato) are found throughout the

48

Before Beat One, m.l Figure 3. Elbow Anticipation in Caprice 5

of Beat Three, m. 1

orchestral and chamber music literature, and the excerpts from Brahms' Symphony No. 4, Op. 98, and Tchaikovsky's Piano Trio, Op. 50, employ techniques analogous to those developed in Piatti's Caprice 5 (Example 20). Mastery of slurred staccato (i.e., up-bow staccato) is an extremely demanding task, and a challenge that many cellists choose never to undertake. There are no ideal practice techniques for up-bow staccato; as Mantel writes, "it is not possible to recommend any one way to execute it because different players achieve it in basically different ways."6 The practice methods suggested here require utmost

Mantel, 215.

49

Example 20. Multiple String-crossing Excerpts A. Haydn, Concerto in C Major, Hob. V I I b : l , I. Moderato, mm. 72-75

B. Schumann, Cello Concerto, Op. 129, I I I . Sehr lebhaft, mm. 368-71

C. Brahms, Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 1-9
Allegro> non non troppo trop

' * M [J V r i
^

D. Tchaikovsky, Piano Trio, Op. 50, I. Moderato assai, mm. 20-23

Qrfo &f
aj^aj

IS LLr'flJLLT

%#&

fw-fr\ ( m

ureuLLf

i-rr

aJ LLfeLl UrtQ LLrffl LJ>'fcD lirHJ L

50 patience and perseverance, as they will not likely produce immediate results. For a true slurred staccato, the weight of the arm moves horizontally to the string and must not manufacture any vertical (bouncing) motion of the bow (Figure 4). Each note of the slur must include both the starting and the stopping of the bow created by the horizontal motion of the arm, and not by any type of vertical motion in an attempt to manufacture a bounce in the bow. Practice begins with an open-string exercise that can be gradually adapted to incorporate the notes and bowings of Caprice 5 (Example 21). Similar to the exercise, Piatti prepares each extended slurred staccato with a slurred legato arpeggio on a down-bow (e.g., m. 2), ensuring that the full weight of the arm is in the string and allowing the bow to travel well past its balance point in order to execute the descending up-bow staccato scale. These practice techniques can also be applied to the few examples of slurred staccato in the cello repertoire, such as the excerpts from Schubert's Sonata for Arpeggione and Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations, Op. 30 (Example 22).

51
Direction of arm weight

Bow String

Figure 4. Slurred Staccato Bowing Example 21. Slurred Staccato Exercise

rp rp

? Tft-7ft7ff7

1 ^

tsrtsr
^

S
S

msrv
^
3 3

1 K1

1 ; <i

tr

0111; c u i ; ^ ^

Example 22. Slurred Staccato Excerpts A. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 821,1. Allegro moderato, mm. 56-59

"tintin ^ J
B. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 30, I I I . Tempo des Themas, mm. 1-3
-i* 3

ni

52 The delicate ricochet bowings in section B are harder to describe and teach than slurred staccato bowings because they rely on both the natural buoyancy of the stick and the perfect combination of tension and relaxation in the right arm, variables that are unique to each bow and cellist. Excepting the portions of the accompaniment_that reach down to the C-string (e.g., mm 31-35), elbow position should not proceed below the level of the D-string. Higher elbow placement provides the tension needed to help the bow "spring" out of the Gstring at the beginning of each ricochet, and also brings clarity and focus of sound to the melody on the A-string. Less motion in the elbow during string-crossings is compensated for by an increased flexibility in the wrist and fingers. A triplet practice exercise outlines a slow progression towards the mastery of the ricochet bowings (Example 23). This type of exercise can also be applied when practicing excerpts that exploit a similar ricochet technique, as in the Dvorak Concerto, Op. 104, and the Prokofiev Sonata, Op. 119 (Example 24).

Example 23. Ricochet Exercises (Begin Each at J>= 60) A. Legato Triplets (Can Also Be Used as a Left-hand Exercise).

m^

/Jffis /fff>^
3 3

m*im.
"-3-"-3-

-3-"3"-3-113ll-3-ll-3-1

B. Bow Will Bounce on Staccato. Use Rest to Place Bow on A-string.

V..fis. s
I3I ' - 3 - ' 1 - 3 1

>-s-"-s-"-S

3-1

s
3113I

^ r. 7f>s r ; ^ *
CJ

5>S fr ,foC,
3 3

u_r^

i3i 13''3''3''3''3'

3"3-

D.
4V ^

E-JTE-jJE-a

*> .^rf> /?fr> .<Tff> /rf, f>


\
3 3 L

f*

L-3- 11 3"-3- 11 3 ll -3- ll -3- 1

-3-"-3

Example 24. Ricochet Excerpts A. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I. Allegro, mm. 157-158

54 Example 24. (cont.) B. Prokofiev, Sonata for Cello and Piano, Op. 119, I I . Moderate, mm. 29-32

Caprice No. 6: Adagio, largamente The uncommon keys of A-flat Major and A-flat minor bring both great beauty and challenge to this Caprice. While the right-hand challenges are mainly a reprise of the legato and staccato stringcrossings of the previous caprices, the left hand finds even greater challenges in intonation, independence of parts (finger independence), and endurance. Much like an introduction, the Caprice opens with a gentle fanfare of arpeggios that outline basic triads in A-flat Major and close on the dominant (A, mm. 1-15). The undulating melody of section B (mm. 16-43) begins unexpectedly in A-flat minor and wanders back and forth between major and minor modes before returning to the gentle arpeggios of the opening (A1, mm. 44-54). Despite the small divisions of the beat, the Adagio must move quickly

55 enough to be counted in three (J = 48-52), with ample forward motion in section B (especially mm. 28-32) and tasteful use of rubato to shape phrases and cadences. Although not marked, a slight calando in measure 54 provides a beautiful transition into the coda ( m m . 55-66). Left Hand: The unique challenge of intonation in A-flat Major/minor is of immediate importance and requires persistent engagement from the ears and fingers. Practice intonation by transforming the arpeggios into a sequence of double-stops in order to train the ear and build stamina in the left hand (Example 25). Section B develops the strength and endurance of the thumb muscles and must be approached with careful practice to avoid excess strain (Example 26). Popper's Etude no. 13 also develops thumb strength and finger independence, and excerpts from Boccherini's Concerto in B-flat, G482, Dvorak's Cello Concerto, and Poulenc's Sonata utilize similar techniques (Example 27).

Example 25. Intonation Exercise for mm. 6-7 (J>= 60) Begin with separate bows, add slurs as marked for an extra challenge.

56

Example 26. Exercises for Developing Thumb Strength (from m. 23) A. Release Pressure on Fingerboard During Each Rest. (J1 = 70)

i^w^\^-'^r ^S'^-'^Q

Right Hand: The arpeggio work in the left hand is accompanied by string-crossings, both legato and staccato, similar in many ways (with a lesser degree of difficulty) to the techniques discussed in Caprice 5. Legato slurs may be separated for practice to ensure that the anticipatory movement of the elbow and hand becomes flexible and smooth. Staccato slur practice involves exercises comparable to those discussed in Figure 4 above (p. 51). Popper's Etude no. 33 is a good preparatory exercise for the string-crossings in Caprice 6, and the excerpts from Bach's Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello and Beethoven's Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, benefit from the right-hand techniques developed in this Caprice (Example 28).

57 Example 27. Thumb Strength and Finger Independence Excerpts A. Boccherini, Concerto in B-flat Major, G482,1. Allegro moderato, mm. 31-34

B. Dvorak, Cello Concerto, Op. 104, I I I . Allegro moderato, mm. 52-56

C. Poulenc, Sonata for Cello and Piano, IV. Finale, mm. 34-44

Example 28. String-crossing Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012,1. Prelude, m. 85

58 Example 28. (cont.) B. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I. Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 114-120

m n^mimpimmfri^pirnimfTw t+ ^ ^ *'
117

Caprice No. 7: Maestoso In this Caprice, Piatti stresses the importance of string-crossings and left-hand strength through a series of slurred arpeggios over a marcato melody in the bass. Melodic accents on the third beat of each measure (e.g., mm. 1, 2, 5, 6) are best used as a means of expression within the larger phrase, and should not displace, but rather anticipate and emphasize, the stress on the first beat of each measure. Though lengthier, Caprice 7 is similar in moto perpetuo style and form to Caprice 1. The Maestoso can be played "somewhat in the character of a 'tempo rubato"' (J = 78-92), and careful attention must be given to both phrasing and changes in dynamics due to lack of variation in thematic material and articulation. 7 The basso theme is stated in the primary key of C Major (mm. 1-16), and after modulation (mm. 1723) is repeated in both A minor (mm. 24-35) and F Major (mm. 36-

Piatti, ed. Whitehouse, 2.

43). The bass melody then climbs chromatically from the low C-string to a G pedal before a "recapitulation" in the primary key area (m. 61). The coda (mm. 75-94), marked grandioso, broadens the tempo (J = 66-80) and extends the flexibility of the left hand to its limit through broken double-stops that eventually reach the interval of a thirteenth (mm. 89-90). Left Hand: As in the previous caprices that feature extensive arpeggiation (essentially broken multiple-stops), Caprice 7 continues to develop strength, endurance, and flexibility in the left hand. The fourth finger plays a prominent role, as in Caprices 2 and 5, and the techniques and exercises presented for these caprices provide ample ideas for arpeggio and double-stop practice (Examples 8 and 15A, above). To increase flexibility and improve vibrato in the left hand, lengthen one note of each sextuplet, allowing the hand ample time to vibrate and prepare for the following notes. Shift the lengthened note forward after each successful repetition (Example 29). The extreme extensions in thumb position towards the end of the grandioso (mm. 86-90) are not common in the cello literature and must be approached with care so that the hand does not linger in a stretched position. The extension techniques in Caprice 7 can also be used in Bach's Suite 6

60 for Unaccompanied Cello and in Prokofiev's Symphonie Concertante (Example 30). Example 29. Flexibility/Vibrato Exercise (J)= 82)
Shift lengthened note

- 3 - J I - 3 - , - T : 3-^^-3-

s-L^^Zft^?^^

3-L,_l'-3-

Example 30. Left-hand Extension Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 6 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1012, I. Prelude, mm. 21-26

si

j9 s p 9

91

19

[/]

B. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 39-41

5- ^
^ ^
4

h^
#

P0-

-0-

Jtfm in

hi ILTZ=
i 2

Right Hand: Although not as readily apparent as in the punta d'arco bowing of Caprice 1, the bowing in Caprice 7 has a similar effect on

61 the strength of the upper arm and shoulder. Each down-bow must include a slight crescendo to bring out the marcato melody in the bass; this technique slowly improves the player's ability to increase volume and intensity towards the tip of the bow. In addition, repetitive multiple string-crossings on each beat develop flexibility and elbow anticipation (as in Caprice 5). The specific motion of the elbow is described below in Figure 5. Similar elbow patterns can be found in excerpts from Bach's Suite 3 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1009, and Elgar's Cello Concerto, Op. 85. The Bach excerpt also incorporates extensions in thumb position as discussed above (Example 31).

Up-bow

Position of elbow on * * * A-string

Position of elbow on lower string (C or G)

Figure 5. Path of the Elbow

62 Example 31. String-crossing Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 3 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1009, I. Prelude, mm. 44-51
44

, f V , f , ,n, ft* ft* ^"fp./rfr^ffr^fr./ffr^fF/Tf,


i t

49 T

"n

48

ftr^rfr

ft r. *ff r /ff> /Tf /ff> ^ f r /ft>, ^


^ ^
'dJj eJJ^ U J 'g^y sLU eUJ

B. Elgar, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85, IV. Allegro, mm. 52-58

Caprice No. 8: Moderate ma energsco The "energy" in this Caprice comes from left-hand accuracy in the trill motive and clarity of articulation in the right hand (Example 32). The main theme (mm. 1-12) begins in A minor. It is cut short, and after a grand pause a hushed variant of the theme begins, marked by octaves in thumb position (mm. 13-20). A series of diminishedseventh chords outlined in octaves results in a modulation to C Major, which is affirmed by cadences that fall from piano to pianissimo to pianississimo (mm. 29-37). A subito fortissimo brings back the

63 opening theme (m. 39), which this time is completed and followed by a coda (mm. 48-57). The repetitive nature of the theme and accompanying trill motive require inventive phrasing and dynamics. A sober moderato (J = 68-72) ensures a lively melody and precise articulation, especially as the distance between notes on the fingerboard increases in the exciting coda (e.g., mm. 48-54). Example 32. Trill Motive

' U!titUii3
f
Left Hand: Piatti augments the complexity of multiple-stop chords and octaves with incessant and strenuous trills that often involve the use of the fourth finger. Separate practice of multi-stops and octaves can follow similar exercises as outlined in the discussion of Caprices 3 and 4. Trill practice begins by removing the ornament in order to focus the weight of the hand on the main note of the trill. Next, slowly introduce a measured trill, increasing the velocity of the trill over time in order to produce a quintuplet on each sixteenth note (Example 33).8 Combine the chords/octaves with the trill motive by using the same type of

Ibid.

64 Example 33. Trill Progression Exercise (J = 48, Accent Added)

ry &rc;^ *-> p-ggp tv6fr * " & w


incremental approach, making sure to release each chord in preparation for the accompanying figure (Example 34). Similar practice can be applied to excerpts from Bach's G-Major Sonata, Beethoven's Sonata in A Major, Schumann's Cello Concerto, and Stravinsky's Suite Italienne (Example 35). Right Hand: Caprice 8 develops the art of bow distribution (i.e., the bow's placement and amount used). Similar to Caprice 4, Piatti

v _

:J

juxtaposes multiple-stopped chords, staccato and legato articulation, and accented beats, necessitating careful examination of the placement and length of each bow stroke. During the main theme, the first beat of each measure must be played at the frog, after which a slight retake of the bow (in the direction of the frog) will enable proper execution of the staccato sixteenth notes. A longer staccato stroke on the second sixteenth note provides both a slight crescendo into the trill and a sufficient amount of bow for the subsequent slur (Example 36).

65 Example 34. Incremental Chord Exercise

f=r^

rrrf F r r r r r i r r r r r p f f r ^
,f

ia^iffifiiiiif^Tg
* r f i-= F r r i* ==*~p~ =*

^jsj y j fcjsj y j ' Lisa

"^m
Allegro ma non tanto

w
V , *

Example 35. Trill Excerpts A. Bach, Sonata in G Major, BWV 1027, I I . Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 1-9

' * & * " ^ [ / ^ q H L r c J ^ l ^ ^ ^ l ' ^p &

66 Example 35. (cont.) B. Beethoven, Sonata in A Major, Op. 69, I. Allegro ma non tanto, mm. 69-73
69 arco tr tr

C. Schumann, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129, I I I . Sehr ruhig, mm. 21-25

D. Stravinsky, Suite Italienne, I I I . Tarantella, mm. 1-10

fy I Jj J j j ] \}y jjj iJTJ iU iCXj ntf


Example 36. Bow Distribution in the Theme
Slight retake Longer stroke

' ^ ^

67 The octave variation does not require quite as much thought or discipline in the area of bow distribution: remain in the lower half of the bow to bring definition to the changing articulations. In the coda (mm. 48-53), the bow must travel to its upper half on the first and third beat of each measure. Stay towards the tip to play each staccato sixteenth note, and save the majority of the up-bow for the harmonics at the ends of the slurs. Careful planning and practice of bow distribution in Caprice 8 finds instant application in many of the Solo Suites of Bach, as seen in excerpts from Suites 1 and 5 (Example 37). Example 37. Bow Distribution Excerpts A. Bach, Suite 1 for Unaccompanied Cello, BWV 1007, I I I . Courante, mm. 1-7

Caprice No. 9: Allegro The D-Major Caprice features bene spiccatoa bowing most likely originated by Piatti, and one which combines the buoyancy of a spiccato stroke with the control and clarity of a slurred up-bow staccato.9 Caprice 9 has similarities with Caprices 1 and 7 in technical approach and formal structure. Both initial sections (A, mm. 1-34; A', mm. 35-53) develop Piatti's signature bowing in the right hand accompanied by double stops in the left hand, and the return to the primary key is likewise set over muted, pianissimo dynamics. Special attention must be given to the specific and detailed dynamic instructions throughout Caprice 9, which add spice to the uniformity of the articulation and direction to the phrases and melody. The light and quick tempo (J = 132-138) remains constant, leaving adequate room for acceleration in the exciting affretando of the concluding measures. Left Hand: Constant double-stopping continues to develop the rolling motion outlined in the discussion of Caprice 4 (Figure 2 above, p. 41). A multiple-stop exercise closely approximates the motion of the left hand without the added challenge of the written bowing (Example 38). Excerpts from Prokofiev's Symphonie Concertante and Saint-Saens' A9

Ibid.

69 minor Cello Concerto, Op. 33, contain a similar type of doublestopping and would benefit from the extensive left hand strength developed in Caprice 9 (Example 39). Example 38. Multiple-stop Exercise (J>= 66) nv

^hlililiMiW

\.\A.\
^

Right Hand: Bene spiccato is comprised of two separate techniques: an up-bow stroke beginning on the string much like a slurred staccato, and a down-bow stroke beginning off the string as in spiccato. The controlled motion of the up-bow stroke (similar to Figure 4 above) is good training for an extended slurred staccato and must be released at the end of each slur in order to allow the bow to bounce off the string in preparation for the down-bow. The motion of the down-bow stroke can help develop a good spiccato or sautille. Down-bows must be longer than the slurred up-bows, and, after bouncing out of the string, must return to the string in preparation for the slurred staccato (Figure 6). For practice, add an eighth note rest after each down-bow, providing ample time for the bow to return to the string before the slurred up-bow staccato stroke (Example 40). The right-hand

70 Example 39. Double-stop Excerpts A. Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op. 125, I I . Allegro giusto, mm. 225-31 JLJ' I X-Jt
^ ^
//

ff
3 2

*=*

*=m

in

FH

3 1 1
W|

^___

pd

s
Z
r
a '

i-

3 2

<?

3 2 ||

s
r 7

r-1

-hK
L

P" ~i; mv *

r+

r _

L_l
E. M

in J J *

J-J

B. Saint-Saens, Concerto No. 1 in A minor, I. Allegro non troppo, mm. 96-105


3

Y- E~ s r "M

bad

k L

AW E #E =ra

4 3 I

r-M=

L_J~ _ J

l_J B

I-J UJ^ ^
2

% # L J s U
3

i -

i
LJEJLJ
3 3

2 1.

I
^
3

2 =

2 2 2

= 3 p
1

3 , 2

2 2

_ erese.

6 _

*1

jj

C 5 c = = ^ I - KL _ _ _ _ _

ih

3 2

<f V ^ | ,_? _ |

teJAZ

.-itt-- cSSfefilfie * ^ * i

AAAA

String

Figure 6. Motion of the Down-bow

71

techniques developed in Caprice 9 can build towards the type of spiccato strokes used in Elgar's Cello Concerto and Barber's Sonata for Cello and Piano, Op. 6 (Example 41). Example 40. Bow Control Exercise
V V V

33

tfl}tfl*tf1*tfi}\tf,

Example 41. Spiccato Excerpts A. Elgar, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85, I I . Lento, Allegro molto, mm. 16-20
20 Allegro molio. J = iao Wind.

J'jJJJ^FTI^jijjjTjTI^Irrn^
B. Barber, Sonata for Cello and Piano, Op. 6, I I . Adagio, Presto, mm. 11-17

p spiccato

2>p$empre staccato

72 Caprice No. 10: Allegro deciso The B-minor Caprice explores virtually the entire range of thumb positions across all strings and, through repeptition, exploits an intricate bowing involving the constant oscillation of slurred legato and slurred staccato. Caprice 10 can be interpreted as a variant of sonata form. The primary key area (mm. 1-19) states the theme in two separate octaves and modulates to D Major for the secondary key area (mm. 20-27). A condensed development (mm. 28-35) full of stepwise chromatic motion is followed by a new melodic idea in F# minor, which begins the retransition (mm. 36-44) to the recapitulation (mm. 45-66) in the primary key. The new melodic idea from the retransition reappears in the recapitulation (m. 58), unexpectedly drawing the harmonic motion towards E minor for a lengthy and mysterious coda (mm. 67-84) that includes a short Adagio section (mm. 79-81) before a quick and decisive cadential flourish in B minor. A brisk tempo (J = 92-96) adds excitement to the repetitious articulation, and a gradual accelerando in mm. 75-78, while not notated, can have a dramatic effect just before the ritardando into the Adagio. Left Hand: The extensive thumb position work in Caprice 10 develops intonation through a constant series of arpeggios and frequent use of unison double-stops. Use an extra amount of vibrato on the lowest

73 tones of each sixteenth-note group in order to draw out the melody and add flexibility. Popper's Etude No. 18 is a good preparatory exercise, as it builds left-hand technique in both intonation and thumb position, and can be used in conjunction with a double-stop exercise in order to tune the arpeggios and build strength in the left hand (Example 42). Excerpts from Haydn's Cello Concerto in D Major, Ligeti's Sonata for Violoncello Solo, and Saint-Saens' Cello Concerto in A minor apply left-hand techniques similar to those studied and developed in Caprice 10 (Example 43). Example 42. Double-stop Exercise

xnf fr fliffiiflWftcrf fff All


Right Hand: The repetitious oscillation of legato and staccato slurred bowings calls for a steady and relaxed technique focusing on the fluid motion of the elbow in string-crossings and flexibility of the fingers, because the direction of the bow is constantly changing. Use less arm weight and bow speed for the accompaniment figures on the upper string of each sixteenth-note group in order to break up the monotony of the accompaniment and draw out the sparse melodic content (Example 44). Practice can involve an exercise that places rests

74 Example 43. Excerpts that Apply Extensive Thumb Position Work A. Haydn, Cello Concerto in D Major, Hob. VIIb:2, I. Allegro moderato, mm. 107-10
9
107

a 9 ?
3

a oj i

*)'$* p&.
/

f\

t n i >

1 9: -" -"

.U s !r- A/

lr y ^ i :

^U

3^B
^
TT I* J T *

&=^ ^

^ J

B. Ligeti, Sonata for Violoncello Solo, I I . Capriccio, mm. 174-85

sub.p

dim. poco a poco

C. Saint-Saens, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 33, I I . Allegretto con moto, m. 297

i-llif l-i I-T3 >" >'K ' : JfTV!-', J '

HJjjmljjjJHi;jj^t]j;j

Example 44. Less Arm Weight and Bow Speed on Bracketed Notes

75 between the legato and staccato slurs, and also the same type of lengthening exercise used in Caprice 7 (Example 45). Similar types of bowings involving the juxtaposition of legato and staccato articulations can be found in excerpts from Haydn's Cello Concerto in C Major, Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, Schubert's Sonata for Arpeggione, and Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations (Example 46). Example 45. Practice Exercises A. Using Rests (J= 60)

25

'^fcf* ft> sm
3S
B. Lengthening Exercise (J= 60)

=*
4Z

gjf^
f mm F 1 mm *

<m' m

.S^

-^

76 Example 46. Excerpts With Slurred Legato and Staccato Bowings A. Haydn, Cello Concerto in C Major, Hob. V I I b : l , I I I . Allegro molto, mm. 197-99

B. Debussy, Sonata for Cello and Piano, I. Prologue, mm. 21-23


sur la touche

C. Schubert, Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 821, I I I . Allegretto, mm. 77-83

D. Tchaikovsky, Rococo Variations, Op. 33, I I . Tempo des Themas, mm. 1-3

Caprice No. 1 1 : Adagio-Allegro-Adagio Piatti creates the illusion of a cello duet in this melodious and lilting Caprice with continuous double-stopping in the left hand and

77 legato string-crossings in the right hand. The stately Adagio introduces G Major and ends with a delicate arpeggio on the dominant, followed by an Allegro section in Piatti's binary form (A, mm. 8-61; A', mm. 62-95). The lilting theme gives way to a series of modulations leading to a dominant pedal (mm. 48-61) that signals the return of the theme (m. 62), now at pianissimo dynamic. Section A' concludes with an extended G pedal anchoring arpeggios that slowly rise to the heights of thumb position before gently falling into the closing Adagio. Special attention should be given to the diverse articulations indicated for each chord in the Adagio sections, and the Allegro should be played with a moving tempo (J = 76) and little use of rubato. Left Hand: Extensive double-stopping develops strength and finger independence in the left hand. The effectiveness of practice exercises provided here increases with focus on intonation and on vibrato for greater left-hand flexibility (Example 47). The excerpt from Shostakovich's Cello Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 107, also tests the limits of strength, intonation, and finger independence in the left hand (Example 48). Right Hand: The legato strokes throughout the Allegro are more difficult than they appear. Giving a prominent voice to the melody (indicated by the stems pointing upward) and executing smooth string

78 Example 47. Double-stop Exercises A. Use Vibrato and Release Tension After Each Double-stop (J = 60)

'ElfE $, ft ,$-,\$ it >$-,VJ\V it ,$,$ ,]$$*$*


B. Slowly Builds Strength and Finger Independence (J = 50) (from mm. 22-25)

j j i j

J j j j

A AAA

AJ A

wm
^

= ? zJ-

Example 48. Excerpt for Strength and Finger Independence Shostakovich, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 107, I I I . Cadenza, mm. 51-58

3.

K J= i wffr y 1 ? y r ^ ^ r r W^ngp *
S
M

rrrxa.

crossings and changes in bow direction require utmost finesse and control. Practice that develops upper-arm strength and string-crossing techniques (discussed in Caprices 1 and 2) will help in the preparation of Caprice 11. Begin practice with an open-string exercise in order to master the correct and fluid motion of the elbow without the added

79
challenge of the double-stops in the left hand (Example 49). A higher position of the elbow will facilitate the voicing of the melody and draw emphasis away from the incessant droning of the accompaniment. String-crossings must be made with a gentle rocking motion of the fingers and wrist (Figure 7). The right-hand technique developed in Caprice 11 is also found in excerpts from Brahms' Sonata in F Major, Op. 99, and Dvorak's Cello Concerto (Example 50).

Example 49. String-crossing Exercises A. Open strings (J = 76)

B. With melody

80

vite^'
iO

Figure 7. Rocking Motion of the Fingers and Wrist Example 50. String-crossing Excerpts A. Brahms, Cello Sonata in F Major, Op. 9 9 , 1 . Allegro vivace, mm. 58-64

B. Dvorak, Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104, mm. 313-24

m'"

Caprice No. 12: Allegretto capriccioso The E-minor Caprice poses a daunting challenge, because the most difficult techniques for both the left and right hands in the preceding caprices are combined in increasing complexity. Similar in

character and form to Caprice 4, Caprice 12 can be divided into three sections. The opening E-minor section (A, mm. 1-37) is small threepart (lira 1 :!! ba2), and after the return to the opening theme (a 2 , m. 24), it concludes with a dramatic slurred staccato arpeggio that travels to the heights of the fingerboard. At the heart of Section B (mm. 3873) are false-harmonic, slurred-staccato runs, certainly the most ostentatious showcase of virtuosity in all of Piatti's caprices. A lengthy dominant extension signals the recapitulation of the main section and primary key (A', mm. 74-95), followed by a short Coda (mm. 96-108) featuring a delicate arpeggio in false-harmonics and closing with a playful pizzicato cadence. A lively tempo (J = 66-72) ensures both clarity of articulation and effectiveness of style. To ease the execution of the false-harmonics (mm. 49-56), Whitehouse recalls that Piatti "somewhat slackened the pace of the movement..and [made] a good deal of the Rallentando at the end of the section."10 A slight calando

10

Ibid.

82 at the end of section B (mm. 66-67) provides an elegant preparation for the return of the main theme, and a gradual accelerando at the beginning of the Coda (mm. 96-99) makes for an exciting finale. Left Hand: The repeated occurrences of false-harmonic runs at the center of Caprice 12 are the greatest technical challenge for the left hand. Although the use of false-harmonics in the cello literature is not extraordinaryexamples can be found in excerpts from Saint-Saens' Cello Concerto in A minor and Shostakovich's Cello Concerto in E minor (Example 51)it is quite rare to find them employed so copiously and so quickly. Along with meticulous practice at a slow tempo, an exercise that outlines the motion of the left hand can be useful in developing accuracy and agility in the false-harmonics (Example 52). Right Hand: It is extremely challenging to combine the extensive slurred staccato passages with the multiple-stopped chords, and removing the chords is recommended for beginning practice of Caprice 12. The slurred staccatos include as few as four to as many as twenty-two notes on one bow stroke, a technical feat requiring slow, incremental practice exercises (Example 53). To slur the falseharmonic staccato notes, the bow must stay close to the string using a brushed articulation. Although most extended slurred-staccato

83 Example 51. False-harmonic Excerpts A. Saint-Saens, Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 33, I I I . , mm. 521-26

*):

\tig&? m

.. . .... '.' y'I i ' ' ' ntenuto poeo a poeo ad lib.

'^k^mmm

t i.i..8;

0'

^ 9 9 9 9 9 9 ' 9 9 9 9 9 9rx:fr~ ' 9 9 9 <TT 9 ' 9 9 9 9 9 9 . . a temp

B. Shostakovich, Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 107, I I . Moderato, mm. 166-70


mn ^llo o_o o o o.i. / ^ . ^ - . o ~ o

4 r f*rrr
Example 52. False-harmonic Exercise

Example 53. Slurred Staccato Exercise (from m. 34)

1 77 '>:i\\V{rrrW7 *ifrrrtf

teD" 'afl'^^OT

^TfrM^

"

passages are found in transcriptions from the violin literature, such as the excerpt from Pietro Locatelli's Sonata in D Major as transcribed by Piatti, the excerpt from the Sonata by Nicola Porpora is a fine example of this type of virtuosity composed specifically for the cello (Example 54).

84 Example 54. Slurred Staccato Excerpts A. Pietro Locatelli, Sonata in D Major, I. Allegro, m m . 1-6
Allegro (*!=io*)

^>

B. Nicola Porpora, Sonata in F Major, I I . Allegro, mm. 1-6


Allegro
ir

Eh-,r j^fofJTIl
Summary and Conclusions Overall, the Twelve Caprices offer a highly repetitious method. All of the left-hand techniques are introduced in the first four Caprices, and, with the exception of the bene spiccato in Caprice 9, Piatti exhausts the limits of right-hand technique by the end of Caprice 5. In this light, it is clear that Piatti did not intend for the Caprices to be studied in strict succession, and recommendations for a course of study can vary according to the needs of each cellist. Caprices 1, 7, 10, and 11 are an effective introduction because they contain approachable bow techniques, and a majority of the double-stops in these Caprices are either broken or non-sustained. Mastery of the

combined skills explored in Caprices 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9 will bring greater success in any approach to the highly virtuosic techniques required for Caprices 5 and 12. The left-hand techniques explored in Piatti's Twelve Caprices, while extremely useful for virtuoso playing, do not include a great deal of variety. Every Caprice contains extensive use of double-stops (conventional and broken), and while this is an integral part of most of the literature for solo violoncello, Piatti's interest in double-stopping has multiple layers. Double-stops are an important tool in the teaching of intonation, and although it is rare to find such extensive use of double-stopping in the standard repertoire, practice and performance of Piatti's Caprices can build the kind of left-hand endurance and strength that cellists need in order to play through a lengthy concerto, a concert of chamber works, or an operatic performance. In addition, a majority of the Caprices (Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12) use double-stops to develop independence of movement of the fingers of the left hand, with special emphasis on strength, agility, and expression in the fourth finger (pinky). The use of this type of double-stop technique is rarely found in even the most difficult cello literature, and Piatti's focus on it is further evidence that the study of the Caprices was intended for highly advanced cellists.

86 In contrast, Piatti's exploration of bow technique is highly varied. With the exception of Nos. 1, 7, and 9, each Caprice juxtaposes different bow techniques (e.g., the legato arpeggio paired with a slurred staccato descending scale in Caprice 5), which not only enhances the musical variety, but also develops control and agility. This diverse mixture of right-hand techniques, including legato, staccato, slurred staccato, string-crossings, spiccato, and ricochet, mirrors the abundant and varied use of bowing techniques in the solo, chamber, and symphonic repertoire, and may be Piatti's greatest gift to cello pedagogy. All of the excerpts that accompany the discussion of the Caprices were carefully chosen in relation to the specific technical and pedagogical challenges that arise. Through this relationship, the Caprices can be a useful pedagogical tool; akin to the etudes of Popper or the studies of Cossmann, they magnify the virtuosic challenges found throughout the solo repertoire. This "magnified" study requires the cellist to focus his energy on particular techniques (e.g., successive multiple-stop chords in Caprice 4), resulting in superior skill that can make even the most technically complex passages manageable and accessible.

Complete study of the Twelve Caprices is a long-term commitment that must be bathed in patience. Successful study and performance of Piatti's Caprices will yield not only virtuosic technique and a firm grasp of the challenges that arise in the highest levels of cello playing, but also a deep understanding of the pedagogical tools necessary to teach and master the cello repertoire.

Bibliography Bach, Johann Sebastian. Six Suites for Violoncello Solo, BWV 10071012. Edited by August Wenzinger. Kassel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 1950. . Three Sonatas for Violoncello and Clavier, BWV 10271029. Edited by Julius Klengel. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, n.d. Barber, Samuel. Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 22. Edited by Raya Garbousova. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1950. . Sonata for Violoncello and Piano, Op. 6. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1936. Barzano, Annalisa Lodetti, and Christian Bellisario. Signor Piatti: Cellist, Composer, Avant-Gardist. Translated by Clarice Zdanski. Kronberg, Germany: Kronberg Academy Verlag, 2001. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Sonatas for Violoncello and Piano. Edited by Jonathan Del Mar. Kassel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 2004. Boccherini, Luigi. Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra in B-flat Major, G. 482. Edited by Thomas Fritzsch. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1997. Bontha, Stephen, et al. "Violoncello," in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/ article/grove/music/44041 (accessed August 6, 2009). Brahms, Johannes. Sonata for Violoncello and Piano in E minor, Op. 38. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, n.d. . Sonata for Violoncello and Piano in F Major, Op. 99. Edited by Julius Klengel. Frankfurt: C. F. Peters, n.d. Camplani, Vittorio. Alfredo Piatti: Cenni Biografici. Bergamo: TipoLitografia Mariani, 1902.

89
Cossmann, Bernard. Concert Studies, Op. 10. New York: International Music Company, 1948. . Studies: for developing agility, strength of fingers and purity of intonation. New York: International Music Company, n.d. Debussy, Claude. Sonata For Violoncello and Piano. Paris: Durand S. A., 1915. Duport, Jean Louis. Twenty-One Etudes. Edited by Leo Schulz. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1902. Dvorak, Antonfn. Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra in B minor, Op. 104. Edited by Ewel Stegmann. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1984. Elgar, Edward. Violoncello Concerto, Op. 85. London: Novello & C o . , Ltd., 1919. Francceur, Francois. Sonata in E Major. Edited by Arnold Trowell. Mainz: B. Schott's Sonne, 1924. Gruetzmacher, Friedrich. Etudes, Op. 38. Edited by Julius Klengel. New York: International Music Company, n.d. Haydn, Franz Joseph. Concerto in C Major, Hob. V l l b : 1. Edited by Milos Sadlo and Mstislav Rostropovich. New York: International Music Company, 1967. . Concerto in D Major, Hob. V l l b : 2. Edited by Maurice Gendron. London: Schott & Co. Ltd., 1954. Hindemith, Paul. Sonata for Violoncello Solo, Op. 25 No. 3. Mainz: B. Schott's Sonne, 1923. Latham, Morton. Alfredo Piatti: A Sketch. London: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1901. Ligeti, Gyorgy. Sonata for Violoncello Solo. Mainz: Schott Musik International, 1990.

Locatelli, Pietro. Sonata in D Major. Edited and transcribed by Alfredo Piatti. London: Schott & Co. Ltd., 1949. MacGregor, Lynda. "Piatti, Alfredo," in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/ article/grove/music/21652 (accessed August 2 1 , 2009). Mantel, Gerhard. Cello Technique. 1975. Reprint, Translated by Barbara Haimberger Thiem. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Piatti, Alfredo. 12 Caprices, Op. 25. 1874. Reprint, Edited by William Edward Whitehouse. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 2000. . 12 Caprices, Op. 25. Urtext Edition. Edited by Christian Bellisario. Munich: G. Henle Verlag, 2003. . Violoncello Method. New Edition. Edited by William Edward Whitehouse and R. V. Tabb. London: Galliard Ltd., 1911. Popper, David. High School of Violoncello Playing, Op. 73. Edited by Martin Rummel. Kassel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 2004. Porpora, Nicola. Sonata in FMajor. Edited by Alfredo Piatti. London: Schott & Co. Ltd., 1950. Poulenc, Francis. Sonata for Violoncello and Piano. Edited by Pierre Fournier. Paris: Heugel & C o . , 1953. Prokofiev, Serge. Symphonie Concertante for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 125. Edited by Mstislav Rostropovich. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1951. . Sonata for Violoncello and Piano, Op. 119. Edited by Mstislav Rostropovich. Hamburg: Sikorski, 1949. Saint-Saens, Camille. Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 33. Edited by Leonard Rose. New York: International Music Company, 1952.

91
Schubert, Franz. Sonata for Arpeggione, D. 8 2 1 . Vienna: Doblinger, 1927. Schumann, Robert. Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 129. Edited by Rudolph Metzmacher. Frankfurt: C. F. Peters, n.d. . Five Pieces in Folk Style, Op. 102. Edited by Charles Davidoff. New York: International Music Company, 1954. Servais, Francois. Six Caprices, Op. 1 1 . Edited by Hugo Becker. New York: International Music Company, 1947. Shostakovich, Dmitri. Concerto No. 1 for Violoncello and Orchestra. Edited by Mstislav Rostropovich. New York: Sikorski, 1960. Stravinsky, Igor. Suite Italienne for Violoncello and Piano. Edition Russe de Musique. Edited by Gregor Piatigorsky. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1934. Tchaikovsky, Piotr Ilyich. Variations on a Rococo Theme, Op. 33. Edited by Paul Grummer. Frankfurt: C. F. Peters, n.d. . Trio for Piano, Violin and Cello, Op. 50. New York: International Music Company, 1947. Tortelier, Paul, in collaboration with Maud Tortelier and Rudolf C. Baumberger. How I Play, How I Teach. London: Chester Music, 1975. Walden, Valerie. "Bernard Heinrich Romberg," in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/ subscriber/article/grove/music/43995pg2 (accessed August 25, 2009). Wasielewski, Wilhelm Joseph von. The Violoncello and its History. 1894. Reprint, Translated by Isobella S. E. Stigand. New York: Da Capo Press, 1968.

92 Wojciechowski, Tomasz Jan. "The Essence of Instrumental Technique in David Popper's 'High School of Cello Playing, Op. 73,' In Comparison With Some Other Important Collections of the Era, With Emphasis on Alfredo Piatti's 12 Caprices, Op. 25." DMA diss., Indiana University, 2003.