SOCIAL INNOVATIONS THROUGH NEW PARTNERSHIPS: UNDP experience in Lithuania 2006-2012

Analytical review 2013

© United Nations Development Programme www.undp.org The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of UNDP. This is a translation of the publication „Socialinės inovacijos per naujas partnerystes: JTVP patirtis Lietuvoje 2006-2012 m.”. Original text is in Lithuanian.

Author: Neda Nordin Design and layout: Arnoldas Puikis Translation: Neringa Kranauskienė Publisher: JSC “BALTO trader”

CONTENTS
Acronyms 4 Executive summary 5 Introduction 11 UNDP goals and activities 2006-2012 Exploring needs for continued presence Modus operandi Value added and lessons learned from the UNDP partnership approach Summary of projects implemented in 2006-2012 ESF projects (I) Strategic ESF projects implemented at national level (II) Regional projects and other UNDP initiatives (III) GEF funded projects (IV) Social innovations and multifaceted solutions Community involvement – “A DAY TOGETHER” Empowerment of social workers – “HOW” Mediation for employment – “FACE ROMA” Individual care planning and integration of the homeless – “HOME AND AWAY” Promotion of voluntarism and self-help initiatives in social service provision – “OUR CHOICE” Alternative childcare services in rural areas – “CHILDREN IN CARE“ Partnership as a capacity development tool NGO-business partnerships – “GATES“ International network for learning from practical experience – “PARTNERS 4 VALUE“ Policy advice Contribution to the development of National CSR policy and its implementation Results and sustainability Main conclusions and recommendations 13 13 15 16 17 18 18 20 21 27 30 35 40 46 52 56 61 62 68 77 78 85 93

Annexes 101 ESF projects partners list List of literature Interviewed people list 101 102 104

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AcronYms
BI CPD Budgetary Institution Country Programme Document RPD SADE SBAA UNDP Regional Programme document Service for Assessing Disability and Employability Standard Basic Assistance Agreement between UNDP and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania (1993) structural funds Small Grants Programme State Service for Protected Areas UN Global Compact CSR/OSR Corporate/Organizations Social Responsibility DVI EC Sustainable Development Initiatives European Commission SF SGP SSPA UN GC

EEA/NFM European Economic Area/Norwegian Financial Mechanism ENPI ESF ESFA EU FAO European Neighbourhood and Partnership Initiative European Social Fund European Social Fund Agency European Union Food and Agriculture Organisation

UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS UNDP UNEP UNFPA UNHCR UNICRI United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Population Fund United Nations Higher Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

FEANTSA European Federation of National Organisations working with the Homeless GEF IAEA IOM LLMTS LO ME MES MICs MSSL NATO NGO NISC NNRB NSC OSCE RBEC RL Global Environment Fund International Atomic Energy Agency International Organisation for Migration Lithuanian Labour Market Training Service Labour Office Ministry of Environment Ministry of Education and Science Middle income countries Ministry of Social Security and Labour North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Non-governmental organization Non-Governmental Organizations’ Information and Support Centre National Network of Responsible Businesses National Steering Committee Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the CIS ( Commonwealth of Independent States) Republic of Lithuania

UNIDROIT International Institute for the Unification of Private Law UNODC United Nations office on Drugs and Crime UNOPS UNSSC WBI WHO United Nations Office for Project Services United Nations System Staff College World Bank Institute World Health Organisation

UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organisation

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Executive summary
Since 1992, UNDP and the Government of Lithuania have been working together to tackle economic, social, environmental and governance challenges during the country’s transition, and its move towards European Union (EU) accession. After Lithuania joined the EU in 2004, it became a donor country as well as a beneficiary of EU structural financial assistance. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) completed its programme cycle, and at the request of the government, in 2005 was transformed into a UNDP Project Office, gradually embarking on a new business model based on partnerships in a fully non-core environment, i.e., without financial support from UNDP. By gathering together different national partners UNDP was able to initiate and implement innovative and significant approaches to social inclusion, learning from practical thematic experience and responsible business promotion initiatives, solutions and models, which could serve as examples of good practice within the country and the region. The aim of the publication “Social Innovations through New Partnerships: UNDP Experience in Lithuania 2006-2012” is to review UNDP’s engagement in a new EU member states with a view to informing and widely disseminating experience, lessons learned and recommendations that may be useful for other middle income countries, including those seeking further integration into Europe. The publication has been prepared as an analytical review, undertaken by an external consultant, of the initiatives that have been carried out by UNDP with its partners from 2006-2012 rather than a comprehensive evaluation.

Modus operandi
The Lithuanian Government, other national partners and UNDP considered that UNDP’s practical knowledge, international expertise and wide international network could help Lithuania to address new challenges in the initial stage of its EU membership and promote the dissemination of knowledge and experience in the areas of UNDP mandate with the countries undergoing transition. During comprehensive consultations with the Lithuanian Government and national partners, the new partnership goals were identified as follows: • to help to reduce social exclusion by introducing innovative methods and bringing relevant international experience; • to involve the private sector in ensuring the well-being of society by implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) principles; • to develop the capacity of local organizations, especially NGOs, while effectively managing funds of the European Social Fund (ESF); • to promote international partnerships among higher education, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs and business sectors with the aim of bringing employment and education closer together; • to advise on the improvement of social policy based on practically tested solutions and project implementation experience; • to share Lithuania’s experience and expertise with other countries undergoing transition. In this context, after 2006, UNDP in Lithuania embarked on the implementation of a partnership whereby innovative solutions were developed with financial support from sources

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other than UNDP (principally ESF). UNDP’s contributions in this upper middle income country context were based on its accumulated know-how and wide international network, supporting the remaining development challenges outlined by the government as well as facilitating experience sharing with other countries in transition. UNDP in Lithuania was able to be flexible in expanding or shrinking its thematic portfolio in a timely fashion depending on the emerging needs of the country. At the same time, the office paid substantive attention to the coordination of the UNDP and ESF rules and procedures. Despite these challenges, overall, the role and contributions of UNDP in Lithuania remained relevant and valuable in the upper middle income and EU member state context.

countries. The social innovations applied in UNDP projects were characterized by creativity in generating new ideas, services or activity models as well as new forms of cooperation that stimulated joint actions of representatives from different sectors of society. UNDP projects promoted cooperation between public and municipal institutions and NGOs in service provision, and clearly communicated the need for - and benefits of - interinstitutional cooperation. One of the key features of all UNDP’s social projects was the multifaceted approach employed towards addressing the social exclusion of risk groups through the design of project structure and activities; and through the way social services are provided. This fundamental principle was consistently applied in all UNDP social integration projects both while assessing the multidimensionality of problems faced by project participants and while looking for and applying complex social integration solutions that are specifically adapted to each risk group. The projects aimed at reducing social exclusion and increasing employability managed to successfully integrate complex (re)integration and employability promotion measures into social work and service provision, despite the economic crisis and reduced employment opportunities. They were also able to create an environment favourable to reducing social exclusion, leading towards the achievement of the planned employment results of target beneficiaries. All these projects also paid great attention to the development of methodological tools, training and the enhancement of qualifications of both – the target beneficiaries and social workers in order to increase project participants’ motivation, knowledge and skills to help them find, and get a job. As a result of the projects, the following social innovations were developed, or adapted and tested, in Lithuania: 1. Multigenerational Home. This is a multifunctional community centre in which, through the joint efforts of local education, social service specialists and volunteers, a wide variety of services is provided and activities promoting culture, education and entrepreneurship

Projects implemented
In 2006-2012, pipeline development and project implementation accounted for most of UNDP’s activities in Lithuania. In total, UNDP with partners implemented 9 ESF funded projects totalling 17.9 million Lt (6.9 million USD). Projects were implemented under the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources, including under the measures of: “Integration of people at social risk and social exclusion into the labour market” (9.5 million Lt, 3.6 million USD), “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Promoting the Internationalization of Higher Education” (8.4 million Lt, 3.2 million USD). UNDP also implemented CSR national and regional projects funded by the EU and other donors amounting to 955 thousand Lt (367 025 USD), completed GEF projects and ensured UNDP corporate activity.

Social innovations
UNDP in Lithuania was the main partner and organizer of its’ ESF-funded projects, thereby transferring UNDP global network experience, strengthening administrative capacities of local organizations and ensuring wider project impact. These projects promoted multifaceted actions that would help people at risk of social exclusion to integrate into society and the labour market using good practice shared by other

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are organised. Assistance in searching for a job has been closely integrated into the social services and activities provided. Community cooperation and self-help service networks assist the most vulnerable community members to integrate into society and the labour market. In addition, such cooperation helps to prevent social problems, especially in rural areas. To date, the Multigenerational Homes concept is considered to be one of the most progressive measures for the successful integration of vulnerable persons in Europe. The activities of Multigenerational Homes have not only reached their main goal of getting people into employment, but have also encouraged participating communities to become more active, enhanced their relationships with various institutions and strengthened their spirit of community. 2. Multifaceted response to social risk problems. This method, not often applied in Lithuania, helps specialists address the problems related to social exclusion and exclusion from the labour market through institutional networks. The method focuses on the assessment of multifaceted risks and on the training of social workers and inter-institutional cooperation. Moreover, the method underlines that in order to successfully employ a person at first it is necessary to help him/her cope with psychological barriers and only later to focus on developing competences and skills training. With UNDP support, the method was tested in four municipalities. Professional supervision of social workers not only contributed to increasing their competences, and thus to their effectiveness, but also improved their emotional health. The quality of social services and consultations was closely monitored, the aim being to help people in at-risk groups to find a job and keep it. 3. Promotion of multifaceted and individualized integration of Roma into the labour market, by motivating and helping them to find and keep jobs using a mediation method that is widely applied in Western Europe. When adapted to the situation in Lithuania, the method was successful not only within the context of this target group, but also with regard to the whole integrated social service package. The employment

mediation service, whereby Roma receive support and advice from a social worker who acts as his/her personal representative, played an important role in the success of this project. Another worthwhile innovation was the development of social and working skills necessary for employment on the job, when the employer’s risk of employing an unknown and inexperienced employee is reduced to a minimum, and the potential employee’s skills needed for a specific job are enhanced. This also increases tolerance in the workplace. 4. Advanced model for social integration of the homeless. The fundamental principle of this model is the effective planning of social care and assistance to individuals, helping them to integrate into society and the labour market. This method is based on the experience of European Federation of National Organisations working with the Homeless (FEANTSA). This model enables the client and assistance provider to monitor and assess the changes and results together. The implementation of the model included: a) analysis of the capacities and needs of two shelter homes; and b) training of employees to enable them to apply social integration measures in practice on the basis of the principle of individualized multifaceted work with the homeless. This principle was applied in Lithuania for the first time. “The Outcomes Star” is the system used to evaluate personal achievement and provides care givers with a step-bystep planning tool. The model also includes partnership building with potential employers and the development of on-the-job training. The homeless people with whom the specialists worked received long-term assistance tailored to their individual needs, which increased their motivation for getting a job and keeping it. 5. Multifaceted approach to social services oriented towards integration of voluntarism and self-help initiatives in social service provision. Adapted to the Lithuanian context, the method of self-help and social risk prevention in families, known as Home-Start, is a form of cooperation between a service provider and a socially vulnerable person or family, the aim of which is social integration. The Home-Start informal training programme provides socially vulnerable people with pro-

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fessional qualifications and is implemented in Lithuania with the help of NGOs. Voluntary work in social service institutions has also been developed through this project. 6. Alternative childcare in rural areas helping parents to integrate into the labour market. The innovative approach towards the planning of childcare services and the provision of social services to unemployed parents in rural areas was based on mentorship and self help. Alternative childcare services were organised in rural areas, and at the same time employing children’s parents to provide services. Following good practice in Scandinavian countries, this activity made it possible for unemployed mothers with children to reintegrate into the labour market and thereby develop the network of social and childcare services in rural areas. With UNDP support, various forms of childcare service were made available in service plans for 11 Lithuanian municipalities and may in future receive EU funding. In the municipalities that still do not have day care centres, social service plans developed by the project are being used as feasibility studies for preparing other projects. The service plans are part of a national programme for complex support to families raising children under preparation by the MSSL. It is also in the process of developing centres in rural areas. The self-help services provided to unemployed rural women in the form of individual social mentorship proved to be a very effective way of integration into the labour market. Social services need to work closely with parents in vulnerable groups, who lack self-confidence or motivation to apply for work through job centres.

role by consolidating partners from various levels and sectors for joint work. Although partnerships are not new in projects, UNDP in Lithuania created new partnership models that had not yet been tested within the country: 1. NGO-business partnerships. The aim underlying the promotion of NGO-business partnerships and implementing various CSR initiatives was to demonstrate the benefit of joint NGO-business cooperation by practical examples. NGO-business partnership is a voluntary alliance between different sectors that promotes mutual creativity and innovations and is useful for the development of society, NGOs and business. The NGO-business partnership model was based on UNDP management principles used in administering GEF SGP, the essence of which was flexible selection of project proposals and close cooperation with project implementers through providing assistance and mediation. Thanks to this partnership activity the function of partnership broker emerged in Lithuania. As an independent moderator and adviser, the broker was especially useful while forming partnerships, “developing ideas” and resolving conflicts. UNDP as an international organization and with considerable experience in the CSR area in Lithuania played an important role in ensuring the broker’s independence and partners’ trust. The most successful projects were implemented in the areas of environmental protection, business integration into society and human rights. As a result of the partnerships formed, new possibilities for cooperation were opened and tested. This formed the basis for trust and understanding between NGOs and businesses without which further cooperation would not have been possible. 2. International network for learning from practical experience “PARTNERS 4 VALUE”. This network reflects the innovative partnership between Lithuanian higher education institutions and numerous international partners, which contributes to enhancing the internationalization of Lithuania’s higher education and improving the study process. UNDP has effective access

Partnerships as a way of capacity development
Partnerships help to consolidate knowledge and skills and contribute to the development of competences and institutional capacities and the continuous learning process. Both UNDP and the EU draw a particular attention to the application of partnership and cooperation, emphasizing the synergetic-catalytic impact of the exchange of experience and competences. UNDP in Lithuania played an important

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to intergovernmental organizations and good knowledge about international organizations and businesses. It created and coordinated an international network of over 100 partners. This network helps to organise international internships/short educational trips for students and lecturers. It represents a good opportunity for students and lecturers to acquire practical experience in well-known organizations and companies. The selection of the best students and lecturers based on the “one channel” principle is attractive to foreign partners, as this ensures the best match between the needs of partners and the students and lecturers. This system has aroused a lot of interest in other countries. Positive feedback on the system has meant that more and more organizations are becoming involved in the network. The partnership network may be easily adapted in other study fields in Lithuania.

Policy advice
The UNDP projects have demonstrated the methods of applying social innovations in practice. Such use of public resources will not result in the expected mass effect while addressing social problems if the innovations tested in the projects (not only by UNDP, but also by other organizations) are not codified and transformed into social policy or legislative measures. Based on the analysis of results of UNDP projects executed in 2006-2012 for policy formulation, the most distinctive are UNDP regional projects and strategic ESF national level projects promoting CSR.

and Poland in the area of CSR and contributed not only to national CSR policy formulation and its multidimensional implementation, but also performed an important role as a CSR excellence centre in the region. UNDP was the first to initiate the dissemination of CSR ideas in Lithuania and already in 2004 launched the UN Global Compact and the creation of the National Network of Responsible Businesses. As a result of joint actions with MSSL and other stakeholders, the first National CSR Agenda as well as National CSR Promotion Programme for 2009-2013 and its implementation plan for 2009-2011 were prepared and approved by the government. It can be said that this programme was among those which were most actively discussed with various stakeholders prior to its approval, while the envisaged programme effectiveness evaluation criteria were based on substantive research. Particularly important for CSR promotion was also the first study on economic benefits of CSR activity and its long-term impact on business. It stated that CSR initiatives in Lithuanian enterprises on average produce a 45 percent return on investment. By offering active consultations to enterprises, UNDP promoted the application of various CSRrelated standards. The abundance of complex policy methodological and practical tools and activities helped create a solid basis for further development of CSR initiatives in the country.

Results and sustainability
UNDP-tested social innovations have had a positive impact on vulnerable people in project localities. The ratio of involved and planned beneficiaries of six social innovation projects amounts to 111 percent (1966 persons involved), and 29 percent of them were employed (565 persons). Thus, the projects closely reached the required employability indicator (30 percent), which demonstrates good matching of employment possibilities and demand as well as efficient achievement of planned results during an economic crisis. As a result of the projects, the institutional capacities of local actors to provide better quality services based on the principle of the multifaceted nature of work were enhanced, the vulnerable were trained and enabled to find jobs, while methodological tools could be continuously used by other organizations.

Contribution to national CSR policy formulation and its implementation
UNDP played an important role in the formulation and implementation of socially responsible and sustainable business policies in Lithuania; that is, in creating policy, administrative and capacity development mechanisms and conditions that promote an enabling environment for CSR. UNDP implemented and coordinated national and regional projects funded by ESF, EC, UNDP and the governments of Lithuania

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Social innovation projects focused on testing new methods and practical solutions, training and employability. Although ESF has not aimed at influencing social policy with these projects, UNDP projects were characterized by the fact that, based on the project experience, UNDP constantly provided proposals concerning the strengthening of EU funding mechanisms and policy instruments. It is hoped that this publication will also contribute to this policy improvement goal. Further scaling-up and ensuring sustainability of tested social initiatives depends on the possibilities and motivation of Lithuanian organizations to continue the innovations undertaken and on ESF funding opportunities. The national level projects had the biggest influence on the formulation and implementation of public policies, and especially on development of CSR practices not only in the country, but also in the region. Already at the programmatic level they set goals of national importance and had methods to achieve such an impact.

proven social innovations and methodological products, which can further be used independently by other organizations. • UNDP’s goal of promoting the use of social innovations via ESF and influence social policy through project implementation experience in social projects has so far been realized only partially, but impact on national policy has been already achieved in the CSR area. The sustainability and up-scaling of the international partnership network for higher education will depend on motivation of MES and higher education establishments and on the approach towards upholding coordinated actions. • The potential for using innovations in ESF-funded projects and increasing the efficiency of project activities and the quality of results would benefit from a broader range of eligible activities under national ESF rules. • Using UNDP as an appropriate mechanism for exchange of experience, proven social innovations and good practices in promoting international partnerships and CSR implementation at national level with other countries in the region, it would be useful to do that via crossborder, development and transnational cooperation programmes. One recommendation of this analysis and report is that Lithuania could become a regional CSR excellence centre, launching and testing the newest innovations. • For the government institutions seeking the accumulative effect of projects, it is recommended to implement results-based project management methodology (RBM), promote orientation towards project impact and replicability and more diversified impact indicators. This would be relevant for the scaling-up of proven social innovations, timely adaptation and improvement of social policy instruments and/or legislation. • To apply the most important and necessary methods as proven by practical experience, the allocation of continuous or additional funding should be foreseen from national budgetary resources or by using the example of the UNDP tested grants system, especially in cases where part of social service provision is planned to be entrusted to NGOs.

Main conclusions and recommendations
• Where upper middle income countries (including those seeking membership in the EU) are willing to further cooperate with UNDP, a way forward could increasingly be drawn from the Lithuania experience, i.e centred on innovative partnerships and engagement in substantive areas outlined by the government where UNDP has a distinct comparative advantage while drawing on nontraditional financial resources. • The implementation of new business model heavily re lies on continuous resource mobilisation. In Lithuania the financial basis was ensured by opportunities to implement EU projects. • The approach in Lithuania has a high level of subsidiarity, where UNDP contributes to the development of certain areas (e.g. CSR) with its competences and experience or coordinates cross-sectoral partners. • UNDP’s relevance in Lithuania is especially evident in several thematic areas: promoting CSR and international partnerships for higher education, where in many cases it resulted in good practice examples of significant and

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Introduction
When Lithuania joined the European Union (EU) in 2004, it committed to provide official development assistance (ODA) to other countries in transition, and at the same time it became a recipient of EU structural financial assistance. Therefore, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Lithuania completed its programme cycle, which was based on providing support to Lithuania, and was transformed into the UNDP Project Office in 2006. This decision was made aiming to best use UNDP’s broad international network, regional experience, partnerships and know-how while working in niche priority areas, where UNDP had accumulated expertise, as well as to develop new forms of cooperation between Lithuania and the UNDP which are based on the status of Lithuania as a new donor country. The publication looks into UNDP’s engagement in a new EU Member State and reviews tested innovative solutions in order to inform and disseminate experience, lessons and recommendations both in the country and the region. UNDP’s experience accumulated during the period 2006-2012, while assisting Lithuania in strengthening the socially effective economy, is worth sharing with other countries facing similar political, social and economic challenges and/or having EU membership aspirations. This experience can also be useful to other middle/upper middle income countries (MICs), which, like Lithuania, could make use of the UNDP global knowledge network and possibilities provided by donor and government funds with a view to contributing to a country’s sustainable and democratic development. The acquired experience can be successfully shared in the framework of transnational cooperation among the EU countries, and especially strengthening the social dimension that is prioritized by the European Social Fund (ESF). It is very important for Lithuania as well as for other Central and Eastern European countries and the Baltic States that are catching up with Western Europe and simultaneously solving rather deep and diversified social problems, to look for and have the courage to implement innovative socio-economic solutions. In this respect, UNDP Lithuania can be considered as a successful example, which demonstrates innovative partnership-based and long-term result-oriented models. This review analyses and describes the results of UNDP activities in Lithuania achieved after 2005 and provides experience-based recommendations. The main focus of the review is showcasing tried and tested project-based social integration and other solutions, which could be a source of ideas and inspiration to other organizations. The publication includes the review and structured analysis of UNDP projects implemented during the 2006-2012 period, with the focus on prospective elements for social solutions. The analysis is based on UNDP internal documents, project documentation, reports and products, as well as on interviews with project partners and leaders using a structured questionnaire, reflecting upon their opinion and advice. The project experience is codified according to three interrelated thematic sections: social innovations, partnerships and influence on social/public policy, showcasing social models and practices applied, including detailed project case studies. Each case study is followed by an analytical assessment of experience and recommendations for further development, improvement or replication of the models or activity initiated by the projects. In addition, the scale of project results and sustainability is partially analyzed. The review ends with the recommendations concerning

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further actions related to the use of UNDP project results and possible adaptation of the experiences from UNDP in Lithuania office modus operandi in other countries. It is worthwhile mentioning that the analytical review of the projects carried out for this publication is not to be viewed as a comprehensive evaluation of the projects. Therefore this review cannot be considered as a detailed analysis of effectiveness, efficiency, continuity and impact of UNDP activities. Such an analysis would require much more time and resources as well as more extensive information gathering and management methods. The review is addressed to a wide circle of specialists working in the fields of social security, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and education in Lithuania and the region, and allows each reader to find relevant information. The publication might be useful for: a) Organizations in Lithuania, which could disseminate the solutions tested in UNDP projects throughout the country and the region in the framework of development, cross-border and transnational cooperation of the new EU programming period; b) Lithuanian state institutions, aiming to improve national socio-economic policy and business environment in Lithuania using proven and tested solutions under UNDP projects; c) State institutions and other organizations in Central and Eastern Europe willing to learn about the Lithuanian social innovations and cooperate with the Lithuanian organizations in the framework of the above-mentioned mechanisms; d) UNDP Offices in Central and Eastern Europe and other upper MIC countries as well as UNDP Regional Service Centers willing to learn about the experiences of the UNDP Lithuania Office and its business model based on partnerships in a non-core environment.

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UNDP goals and activities 2006-2012
Exploring needs for continued presence
On the ground in 177 countries and territories, UNDP partners with people at all levels of society to help build nations that can withstand crisis, and drive and sustain the kind of growth that improves the quality of life for everyone. UNDP offers global perspective and local insight to help empower lives and build resilient nations. Lithuania joined the United Nations (UN) on 17 September 1991. Since then, the UN agencies, funds and programmes have worked as development partners of the Government of Lithuania and society towards helping the country to overcome the economic, social and political challenges of transition. Until now they have been collaborating in the social, development cooperation and international cooperation areas. Thanks to long-term UNDP activities in Lithuania, successful partnerships among the representatives of all sectors were formed and have led to tangible results in the fields of social inclusion, environmental protection, democratic governance, gender mainstreaming and knowledge economy. After 20 years of cooperation, UNDP partners in Lithuania emphasized that the organization’s added value lies in its global reputation and political neutrality, in its holistic approach while solving sectoral problems, as well as in its catalytic role in bringing together financial resources and partners for policy formulation and implementation.

After Lithuania joined the EU in 2004, the nature and objectives of UNDP activities within the country were revised and adapted to the new political realities to meet the changing needs of a new EU Member State. UNDP completed its financial assistance to Lithuania with Lithuania’s transition from aid recipient to a donor in its own right as a member of the EU. Thus, UNDP and the government sought new forms of cooperation, which would enable the country to further benefit from UNDP expertise and services, while at the same time making a decision on where cooperation with UNDP would be most effective in order to close specific development gaps. Obviously, the EU membership by itself does not guarantee adequate progress in attaining faster and more sustainable social development, if the capacities, social relations and administrative system of the country are not ready to effectively and efficiently absorb substantial EU assistance. The regional disparities were evident in the country, civil society was not sufficiently involved in the governance of the country, while the capacities of

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non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local institutions were not sufficient to effectively administer and implement EU projects. The UNDP Regional Programme for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) for 2011-2013 also indicated that despite the high growth rate, even mid-income EU countries should strengthen social inclusion efforts, as the social inequalities in the EU have increased (RPD, 2010). For these reasons, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, national partners and UNDP considered that the practical knowledge and international experience of UNDP could assist the country and help to solve remaining challenges in the initial period of the EU membership. On the one hand, UNDP could provide partners with the possibility to use the practically tested knowledge supplied via its global network. On the other, the UNDP network could also be useful in transferring experience gained in Lithuania to partner countries by providing support to them through development cooperation and other programmes. The position of the Lithuanian Government was favourable to continued cooperation with UNDP, as the ministries saw the value of UNDP activities in certain areas and expressed willingness to continue collaboration. During extensive discussions with all the national and inter-institutional partners, the goals and areas for cooperation were identified, whereby UNDP could contribute with its international experience and know-how in the early stages of Lithuania’s membership in the EU in the following ways: • reduction of social exclusion by introducing innovative methods and bringing relevant international experience; • private sector engagement in ensuring the well-be ing of society by implementing CSR principles; • capacity development of local organizations, espe cially NGOs, while effectively managing ESF funds; • promotion of international partnerships in higher education, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs

and business sectors aiming at a more competitive system of higher education; • policy advice to improve social policy based on practically tested solutions and project implementation experience; • transfer of Lithuanian experience and expertise to other countries undergoing transition. Undoubtedly, to continue cooperation with UNDP in the new EU Member State environment, it was necessary to find a new business model for implementing and financing its activities. Due to the changed status of Lithuania in the international community, UNDP could continue cooperation only in the role of an equal partner, and not as a donor. Thus, after 2005 UNDP started the development and implementation of a new business model based solely on partnership with the government in a non-core environment, rather than contributions and financial support from other traditional donors and UNDP itself. In consultation with the Government, ESF was found to be the most suitable source of funding for the continued partnership with UNDP at that time. The realization of UNDP and country cooperation goals was foreseen through the implementation of the following objectives, being specific for each area of joint activity: • In the area of social inclusion projects: to use experience from the UNDP’s thematic and long-term cooperation with local partners and its catalytic role in reducing social exclusion in the mostly economically disadvantaged regions of Lithuania, at the same time increasing social cohesion by strengthening the capacities of local organizations, and contributing to the transfer of successful practices both at local selfgovernment level and at national policy level, and in some cases, even at international level. • In the area of CSR promotion: considering that during recent years UNDP has brought together many social and economic partners and recognized

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international experts around the development of CSR in the country, CSR in the country, it was rational to make use of this experience and the UN Global Compact network, with the aim of engaging the business sector in the practical implementation of CSR principles and supporting the government in its formulation of the CSR promotion policy. • In the area of development and regional cooperation: using the UNDP thematic experience and the network of existing regional partners, where capacity strengthening investments had already been made for several years, to disseminate good practices from Lithuania to the countries in transition as well as to foster international cooperation through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) and other programmes.

tion of concrete projects were concluded with line ministries and other state institutions. In 2006-2012, project pipeline development and implementation of new projects accounted for the majority of UNDP Lithuania activities. In addition, during this period UNDP also implemented regional UNDP-EC projects and finalized the administration of the GEF Small Grants Programme and WETLANDS project (more information in Summary of projects implemented in 2006-2012), initiated projects in the areas of social integration, regional and development cooperation, coordinated the National Network of Responsible Business (NNRB) in Lithuania, and drafted a NGO Sector Strengthening Programme in Lithuania for the European Economic Area and Norwegian Financial Mechanism (EEA/NFM). On a constant basis, UNDP provided consultations and technical assistance to interested state institutions and NGOs on social policy issues and actively shared the Lithuanian experience in other countries by participating in corporate activities and the administrative structure of the UNDP network. Also, UNDP Lithuania administered the activities of UN system organizations, such as WHO, IAEA, IOM, FAO, UNODC, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNEP, IMO.

Modus operandi
In 2006, with the end of UNDP international representation in Lithuania and having agreed on further cooperation with the government and other partners, the basis of UNDP presence in the country continued to be the existing Standard Basic Assistance Agreement (SBAA) between the Lithuanian Government and UNDP. The SBAA, signed in 1993, defined the general aspects of UNDP status and its activities. As a rule, UNDP country activities are also regulated by a Country Programme Document (CPD) which includes areas of substantive engagement as well as financial commitments. However, as it was agreed with the government to build new relations based on partnership, no new CPD was drafted. On the corporate level, UNDP activities were carried out according to UNDP Regional Programme Documents (RPD, 2010). In addition, the agreement between the Ministry of Social Security and Labour (MSSL), ESF Agency and UNDP was reached concerning UNDP’s legal eligibility to participate in ESF projects, at the same time having discussed the safeguards for UNDP as a specific legal entity. On this basis, other cooperation agreements concerning implementa-

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Value added and lessons learned from the UNDP partnership approach in Lithuania
Based on this analysis, the UNDP partnership approach in Lithuania has proven to develop innovative solutions. The value added and lessons learned from this approach are as follows: 1. This approach can be adapted in upper MICs, including those seeking to integrate into Europe but which still face developmental challenges including acute social and economic disparities at regional level. 2. This approach involves engagement in activities together with partners and foresees UNDP responding quickly to changes and new needs. It is attractive to foreign and local partners willing to join efforts with UNDP, as is evidenced by a number of requests received from the partners to initiate new joint projects. 3. This approach has a high level of subsidiarity, that is, it responds only to the needs which cannot be met by other local organizations. It relies on the specific role of UNDP in the areas which are new in Lithuania, e.g. CSR, or in the areas where a neutral actor to coordinate cross-sectoral partners for achieving common country-level goals is needed. 4. This approach provides an opportunity for a country to make use of the UNDP’s international experience and expertise network with a view to addressing socio-economic and governance challenges, benefiting from good practice of UNDP partners and transferring its own best practices to other countries.

5. This approach can be a valuable instrument for contributing to improvements of policies and EU funding mechanisms based on real project implementation experience and practically tested solutions. This is possible due to UNDP’s approach of working with various partners on local, municipal and national levels, while at the same time promoting the integration of results-based management principles used by UNDP for many years in the EU funding administration process. 6. Social innovations and good practices have larger potential for replication and scaling-up in other countries, especially in the Baltic Sea Region. This could strengthen the integration of social dimension in ESF transnational cooperation under the new EU programming period, as foreseen in “Europe 2020: A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth” and the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, or using the opportunities of other development cooperation programmes.

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Summary of projects implemented in 2006-2012
UNDP projects implemented since 2006 could be grouped as follows according to their financing sources, thematic areas and scope: I. Social inclusion projects funded under the measure No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K “Integration of people at social risk and social exclusion into the labour market” of the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources, which were implemented in different Lithuanian municipalities. This is the largest group of projects: 1. HOW: Multifaceted response to problems (HOW); 2. CHILDREN IN CARE WHILE PARENTS AT WORK: Atrisk group integration into the labour market while creating conditions for childcare in rural neighbourhoods (CHILDREN IN CARE); 3. A DAY TOGETHER: Multi-generation homes as a model for self help (A DAY TOGETHER); 4. OUR CHOICE: Involvement of professionals or volunteers (Our Choice); 5. HOME AND AWAY: adaptation of an innovative model in Lithuania aimed at the mitigation of the consequences of homelessness through integration into society and the labour market (HOME AND AWAY); 6. FACE ROMA: Innovative ways of including Roma in the labour market (FACE ROMA). sibility” and No. VP1-2.2-SMM-08-V “Promoting the Internationalization of Higher Education” of the above-mentioned ESF programme, which included three projects: 1. Promoting CSR (Promoting CSR); 2. GATES: Social and environmental business innovations (GATES); 3. PARTNERS 4 VALUE: Development and implementation of international internships for students and lecturers for Lithuanian higher education establishments (PARTNERS 4 VALUE).

III. Regional projects and other UNDP initiatives funded by the EC and UNDP, coordinated by UNDP Lithuania:
1. Enhancing awareness of CSR/Global Compact and strengthening the Network of responsible business in Lithuania, funded by UNDP and the Ministry of Social Security and Labour (MSSL) (Enhancing awareness of CSR and strengthening the GC Network); 2. Promoting CSR in Lithuania, funded by UNDP and MSSL ; 3. Accelerating CSR practices in new EU Member States and Candidate Countries as a vehicle of harmonisation, competitiveness and social cohesion in EU, funded by EC and UNDP ( Accelerating CSR in new EU Member States and Candidate Countries); 4. Enhancing transparency and credibility of CSR practices through the establishment of CSR performance

II. Strategic projects implemented nationally under the
measures: No. VP1-1.1-SADM-03-V “Corporate Social Respon-

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measurement assessment and monitoring systems in new EU Member States, funded by the EC, UNDP and the Polish Government (Establishment of CSR performance measurement system).

IV. Global Environmental Facility (GEF) funded projects and programmes administered by UNDP Lithuania:
1. Conservation of Inland Wetland Biodiversity in Lithuania (WETLANDS Project); 2. Small Grants Programme (GEF SGP).

despite the economic crisis and reduced employment opportunities, the projects achieved the planned results for the employment of target beneficiaries and created conditions favourable to the further reduction of social exclusion. All of these projects also focused on preparing methodological tools, improving qualifications of both the target beneficiaries and social workers in order to increase project participants’ motivation, knowledge and skills to look for a job and keep it for longer. The main project data and main ESF product and result indicators of six ESF-funded projects implemented by UNDP are presented in Table 1. The funding amounted to 9.5 million Lt (3,6 million USD) and the projects were implemented in 2009-2012.

ESF projects (I)
UNDP was the main partner in ESF-funded projects implemented under the Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources, ensuring the transfer of UNDP global experience, strengthening administrative capacities of local organizations and ensuring sounder project impact. With the help of the programme, the ESF promoted multifaceted activities that would help to integrate people at risk of social exclusion into society and the labour market by prioritising the initiatives which would suggest new innovative solutions to social exclusion problems and which would integrate methods successfully employed in other countries, as well as tried and tested social models developed by the EQUAL programme and used earlier in Lithuania. UNDP projects were developed and implemented in close cooperation with local partners in most cases – NGOs and municipal budgetary institutions, which provide social services. The projects aimed to practically test, expand or adapt social innovations and successful models from elsewhere with the main focus being on the complexity of responses to social exclusion while proposing a variety of social services. The projects related to reducing social exclusion and increasing employability successfully integrated all the various measures into social work and social services, and

Strategic ESF projects implemented at national level (II)
UNDP was selected as a strategic partner to implement three national projects funded under the state planning mechanism under the ESF programme instruments “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Promoting the Internationalization of Higher Education”. These projects were entrusted to UNDP due to its extensive preparatory contribution and international experience, especially in the CSR area. For example, the first CSR promotion projects in Lithuania were initiated under the framework of UN Global Compact initiative (refer to Regional and other UNDP projects). The budget of these three projects was 8.4 million Lt (3,2 million USD). Although these projects had only a few formal partners, in practice they engaged a vast range of informal partners. In all project implementation areas the activities were coordinated and joined with the capacities of other organizations and companies. Such

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Table 1. Key indicators of projects implemented under the measure “Integration of people at risk of social exclusion into the labour market” under the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources Indicators HOW Children A Day in care Together Our Choice Home and Away Face Roma TOTAL:

Budget, thousandLt 1.220,3 1.662,9 1.963,1 1.827,1 892,7 1.893,4 9.459,5 Number of project partners (formal) 5 1 6 8 2 3 25 Number of municipalities where project activities were carried out 4 11 4 6 1 2 28 Number of project beneficiaries (persons): Participated in activities (planned/implemented): 346 / 494 575 / 604 380 / 389 249 / 202 120 / 151 80 / 126 1750 / 1966 Male 61 37 95 8 84 35 320 Female 275 538 285 194 36 60 1388 Experienced targeted changes (employed) 133 153 140 72 30 37 565 Target group: Persons released from imprisonment 50 50 Persons addicted to psychotropic substances 30 30 Single parents 50 163 50 10 273 Families with many children 34 73 50 20 177 Children at risk and from boarding- school 22 22 Roma 10 80 90 Elderly (>50m.) 110 47 90 40 20 307 Long-term unemployed (women) 15 299 80 74 468 Persons with a disability 40 2 60 20 122 Persons/families at risk 51 602 30 13 696 Social workers, volunteers 10 44 20 72 /61 20 15 109 Outcome and output indicators: Guidelines, models, descriptions of activity methods 1 11 1 1 1 1 Training modules and materials 1 1

project management resulted in an integrated and catalytic role for the UNDP and ensured the dissemination and transfer of knowledge and skills accumulated in the global UNDP network to a wide range of local organizations. This was probably one of the distinguishing elements of UNDP project implementation in comparison with other ESF project performers. Table 2 presents an overview of key project indicators, demonstrating projects’ scope, target groups and key output and outcome indicators. However, these indicators are not impact-oriented. For example, it is difficult to measure how many preparatory actions, communica-

tion skills, training events, methodical tools, good practice examples, conferences, meetings or simply consistent obstinacy were needed to convince 70 companies to opt for CSR practice, prepare their CSR reports and join the UN Global Compact initiative. The “Partners 4 Value” project also required dedicated organizational work and argumentation in order to convince over 100 international partners, including such high level organizations as NATO, OSCE, WBI, UNWTO, UNICRI, UNSSC, IOM, UNCHR, and international companies to receive Lithuanian students and lecturers for international internships/short-term non-academic visits.

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Table 2. Key indicators of national projects funded under the ESF programme instruments “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Promoting the Internationalization of Higher Education”. Indicators Partners 4 Value1 Promotion of CSR GATES TOTAL

Budget, thousand Lt 2.949,2 450,0 5.000,0 8.399,2 Years/months of implementation (from – to -) November 2010- August 2008- October 2010 May 2013 September 2009 April 2013 Number of project partners (formal) 5 3 8 No of municipalities where project activities were carried out all all all Number of project beneficiaries: participating in activities (persons): 487 127 3385 3999 Male 95 36 1954 2085 Female 392 91 1431 1917 Target group: Business representatives trained in CSR 100 2965 3065 Representatives of associations, trade unions, academia trained in CSR 27 420 447 Trained CSR consultants and advisers 25 264 289 Students sent on international internships 65 65 Lecturers sent on international internships 58 58 Trained staff of higher education establishments 240 240 Outcome and output indicators Documents which exerted influence on social policy 2 1 3 Guidelines, models, descriptions of methods of activities 5 3 14 22 Training modules and materials 4 4 24 31 Concluded agreements with international partners 102 102 Companies which joined UN GC 13 57 70 Companies prepared and published CSR reports 11 62 73 Implemented CSR- related quality or management standards 30 30 Implemented business-NGO initiatives 26 26

Regional projects and other UNDP initiatives (III)
UNDP Lithuania, has made a great contribution to the CSR field and has shown leadership in the region. It was therefore entrusted with the coordination and implementation of two regional projects in the area of CSR,
2

which involved more than five countries and were funded by UNDP and the EC, although usually in UNDP working practice such regional UNDP projects are coordinated by regional offices. UNDP was the first organization to promote CSR ideas in Lithuania. In 2004, together with the President of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus, UNDP organized the first national CSR conference in Lithuania, and in 2005, 40 Lithuanian enterprises joined the UN Global Compact (GC) and thus the National Network of Responsible Business in Lithu-

This project will come to an end in mid-2013, thus the data presented in the table is until the end of 2012.

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Table 3. Key indicators of regional and other UNDP projects No Projects Budget, thousand Lt Year Summary of key indicators 40 NNRB members and 40 social auditors trained; 4 discussion forums on CRS organised; website www.globalcompact.lt launched; a quarterly electronic newsletter; a publication on the sustainable development of the environment, society and business Scientific conference and agreement to integrate CSR into programmes of higher education studies; Comparative study of CSR awards in Europe and the world, establishment and organization of National Responsible Business Award; Analysis of legislation through the perspective of CSR and recommendations to improve governance; Two international CSR conferences (over 200 representatives from various sectors); Two CSR guidelines/ good practice publications; Experimental evaluation of CSR strategies and activities of three companies Baseline study on CSR situation in 9 countries; CSR initiative groups established in 9 countries; National and regional CSR conferences; European website with CRS tools launched; Trained journalists, study visits to Western Europe/GC networks National CSR activities measurement system with measurement indicators; Training of public servants and business representatives; Self-evaluation methodology for CSR activities and CSR measurement practices guide

EC Other sources Total 1. Enhancing awareness of 0 110,356 UNDP 110,356 2006 CSR and strengthening National CSR Network 2. CSR promotion in Lithuania 0 226,0 (MSSL), 252 281 2007- 2008 26,3 (UNDP) 3. CSR promotion in new 2141,4 536,7 (UNDP) 2 678,1 2006 -2008 EU member states and candidate countries 4. Establishment of 644,1 37,9 UNDP), 704,9 2009 -2010 CSR measurement 34,5 (MSSL)

ania was established. Prior to the ESF funded projects in this area, UNDP had implemented two CSR promotion projects funded by UNDP and MSSL.

in 2010 and 2009 respectively. UNDP coordinated the implementation of these projects at country level. The WETLANDS project is the so-called full size GEF project which required not only adequate preparation, but also a contribution from the government, large cofinancing and organizational coordination. From the point of view of funding allocation, it was the largest project administered by UNDP in Lithuania. The support provided by GEF amounted to 3.26 million USD, and the funds raised additionally from various EU programmes and bilateral donors totalled 10.42 million USD. GEF SGP is a corporate NGO and community support programme financially managed by the UNOPS and administered by UNDP. Currently, GEF SGP operates in 125 countries, where NGOs and community organizations

GEF funded projects (IV)
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the largest international financial mechanism providing financial support to countries in the areas of biodiversity, climate change, international waters, protection of the ozone layer and land degradation. Implementation of GEF projects started in Lithuania well before 2006, e.g. the WETLANDS project from 2003, GEF SGP from 2001, and they were completed

USD exchange rate for December, 2012 – 2.602 2 Reference: http://sgp.undp.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=98&Itemid=156#.UF8HtVFL1-w (2012.09.22)

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Table 4. Key indicators of GEF funded projects. No Projects Budget, thousand Lt 1. WETLANDS project Summary of key indicators

2. GEF SGP

GEF Co-financing Total 12 043,5 51 889, 218 63 932,718 Protection of 5 wetlands (38.336 ha, including 8510 ha of lakes) using nature management methods, local economic and social development measures and education programmes; 2480 ha wetlands area restored by applying nature management measures; 3,495 ha area with restored natural water regime; Over 800 specialists and participants trained; 14 legal acts and political documents prepared, 7 of them being nature management plans 7 405,2 19 748,9 27 154,1 104 NGO and community projects: biodiversity (51 project; protection of habitats – 128.011 ha ); climate change (22 projects; reduced CO2 emissions – 3.315 tones/year and produced from renewable sources or saved – 9,5GWh/year); water protection (11 projects; in 817 ha area reduced risk of pollution); land degradation (8 projects; in 6.032 ha area – 105 new organic farms established); integrated educational areas (12 projects; total number of persons trained: 35.727)3; Contributed to drafting of 101 legal and political documents on environment protection and rural area development at the national level

USD exchange rate for December, 2012 – 2.602

have received 450 million USD in support2. In Lithuania, in eight years of operation, GEF allocated 2.6 million USD, and additional resource mobilization for project activities totalled 19.75 million Lt (7.16 million USD), which amounted to one of the highest levels of co-financing (73%) in global GEF SGP practice. After Lithuania joined the EU and graduated under financial assistance criteria a new GEF funding was not allocated. The WETLANDS project and especially the GEF SGP have implemented activities that not only directly influenced the state and quality of the environment, but also improved socio-economic conditions of local communities and strengthened their capacities and role. Thus, a short overview of these projects is directly related to the aim of this publication – dissemination of social and environmental innovations.

WETLANDS project
The goal of the project was to ensure the viability of the unique ecosystems of the Lithuanian wetlands by coordinating modern nature management methods, economic and social development measures of local communities and educational programmes. The project was implemented in five nature reserves: Čepkeliai State Nature Reserve, Girutiškis Nature Reserve, Kamanos State Nature Reserve, Viešvilė State Nature Reserve and Žuvintas Biosfere Reserve. It was implemented by the NGO “Nature Heritage Fund” in partnership with the Ministry of the Environment (ME), the State Service for Protected Areas, the administrative offices of protected territories, municipalities, research institutions and communities. The project activities involved three interrelated fields: nature management, socio-economic development and public awareness and education. The nature man-

3 Reference: Leonavičiūtė, N. (2009). Poveikis, tvarumas, patirtis: Pasaulio aplinkos fondo Mažųjų projektų programos Lietuvoje galutinė analitinė apžvalga. JTVP PAF MPP

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agement work initiated in the project was based on foreign examples, experience from study visits and recommendations of foreign and Lithuanian experts. For example, according to the nature management plans prepared during the project and approved by the ME, mires were restored using a special technique which does not affect the wetlands flora, and in certain wetlands the water level was restored by blocking the canals or reconstructing water sluices. In addition, the areas near the wetland watersides were protected from the excessive growth of vegetation with the help of beef cattle purchased by the project and used for wetland grazing, contributing to the promotion of the entrepreneurship skills of local people. The project focused both on policy formulation measures (nature management plans, legal acts, strategies and preparation of other documents) and on implementation measures (carrying out environmental protection

When I take the cattle home from grazing, I see clearly how the coasts of Žuvintas are becoming like those I remember from my childhood. I breed the beef cattle bought to me by the project and I think that such grazing is worthwhile. The allowances I receive for grazing the cattle in the Žuvintas biosphere reserve and the income I get after selling the calves have already covered most of my expenses related to grazing. Aretas Paplauskas Farmer

and nature management). Most of these measures were created, tested and implemented for the first time not only in Lithuania, but in other area of Eastern Europe.

WETLANDS activities involved three interrelated fields: nature management, socio-economic development and public awareness and education. Photo from Project archives.

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The project paid a lot of attention to improving awareness of nature reserves. It contributed to the establishment of cognitive paths, the creation of innovative exhibitions in visitors’ centres and preparation of education and training programmes in Čepkeliai, Kamanos and Žuvintas. During the project, in cooperation with foreign and Lithuanian scientists, scientific publications, recommendations, guidelines on nature management measures and monitoring programmes, monographs and tourist guides were published. As such, the project was the first and probably the only one in Lithuania of such a diversified nature, scope and complexity devoted to the protection of this type of ecosystem. The project made a significant contribution to the overall protection of wetlands which are important to Lithuania and the world by integrating them into the activities of local municipalities and communities, ensuring long-term maintenance of these territories and even the growth of local tourism and the potential for entrepreneurship.

Support was granted for the protection of biodiversity, climate change mitigation, protection of international waters, land degradation reduction and to integrated projects which involved several areas or were devoted to capacity development and awareness-raising. Many projects promoted sustainable livelihoods, reducing poverty, increasing entrepreneurship and strengthening capacities. Approximately 64 % of projects focused on the improvement of conditions for communities, and 25 projects were responsible for production of various products (Leonavičiūtė, 2009). The greatest innovation and significance of GEF SGP was to strengthen local communities and coordinate socio-economic interests bringing benefit to the environment. The programme tested a vast range of innovative ideas, methods and technologies, which were used in Lithua-

GEF SGP
The programme operated in Lithuania for eight years and supported 104 multi-functional and results-oriented environmental and sustainable development projects conducted by NGOs and rural communities. It aimed to demonstrate the benefit of local projects for the protection of the environment by integrating the community’s socio-economic needs into environmental solutions and by strengthening organizations themselves. Along with the implementation of innovative and cost-efficient projects costing up to 50 000 USD, the programme fostered cooperation among state institutions, international funds, scientists, business, NGOs and communities, thereby ensuring the scaling-up, replication and broader impact of these initiatives.

As a representative of natural sciences, first I would like to highlight the SGP contribution to the protection of Lithuanian biodiversity. The relationship between man and nature has changed, and nature management should restore it. SGP is one of the pioneers in implementing nature management ideas in our country – it does not create theories, but practically carries out nature management work and shows society that not only grass in the garden, but also natural meadows have to be mowed. Also, I would like to stress that in today’s Lithuanian life based on project drafting, SGP is the project preparation school where project applicants with ideas from all Lithuanian regions are met with diligent and patient attitude. It would be good that those who later climbed the carrier ladder would not forget this school. Valerijus Rašomavičius, Director of Institute of Botany, Member of GEF SGP National Steering Committee

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nia for the first time, became examples for other projects and influenced the development of local areas and regions. The programme evaluation data of 2009 showed that the practice applied in 31 projects was replicated in other local areas, and applied methods and innovations were replicated 72 times. Many of these innovations were adapted and replicated in other communities utilizing the support of EU Life, Rural Areas Support, Heifer, Leader+ and of other programmes. Below are a few examples: • First solar battery herb stove in Panara; • First community windmill in Smalininkai; • First nature management works in Debesnai wetland; • Cooperatives based around community organic farms in Budraičiai and Juodėnai; • Frame straw-filled community building in Upytė; • Utilization of reeds cut from lake watersides for heating of public buildings in Simnas; • Planting of one of the first quickly growing osier willows to be used for biofuel in the RehabilitationReintegration Centre in Pikeliai; and many other initiatives. The programme in Lithuania had a reputation for flexible and sound project development and selection procedures by directly helping project applicants to ensure the high quality and long-term impact of their projects. GEF SGP staff also provided technical assistance in looking for ideas, experts, partners, contractors, co-financing or in addressing the implementation problems. The benefit of such an assistance mechanism was in positively evaluated by both communities and NGOs, which named the programme “a nursery for project preparation”. UNDP suggested using these practically tested methods of programme management also in the implementation of the EEA/NFM NGO Programme for Lithuania. GEF SGP strengthened the capacities of beneficiaries, strengthened environmental awareness, promoted ver-

satile cooperation and dissemination of ideas and also significantly contributed to the changes in society and the activation of local communities. The comprehensive survey and evaluation carried out proved that intervention by UNDP administered GEF SGP was an undoubtedly substantive contribution to environmental protection and strengthening of NGOs in the country.

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Social innovations and multifaceted solutions
Although the Lithuanian social security system is rather comprehensive, diversification of social services is still insufficient, and their quality and accessibility is low (Public Policy Institute, 2011). Social exclusion is a multifaceted phenomenon that prevents people from fullyfledged participation in economic and social. Social exclusion is closely related to deprivation and poverty that is often a result of unemployment. Thus one of the most effective responses to social exclusion is the integration into the labour market. The participation of people at social risk or exclusion in the labour market is often hampered by social, psychological and economic factors: place of residence (e.g., rural area), situation in the labour market, attitude of employers, low self-esteem, risk of losing social benefits, qualifications that do not meet the market needs, lack of experience and social skills, etc. A single institution or organization cannot and should not attempt to solve all these multifaceted problems alone. It is usual in Western European countries that the government, NGOs and the private sector cooperate closely in the area of social services. A great variety of cooperation models and social services oriented towards resolving multi-faceted problems exist with the aim of reducing unemployment and increasing social integration. Based on these experiences and the umbrella policy and requirements of the EU, Lithuania is still searching for its own way. Successful solutions in other countries do not yet guarantee that their application would be optimal under the present conditions in Lithuanian. Thus it is necessary to test, adapt or create successful methods, which could serve as a basis for formation and strengthening of the country’s welfare policy and promote the expansion of proven methods and innovations. One of UNDP’s goals in the period analyzed was to continue making available for Lithuania leading international practices, UNDP global experience and social innovations through its network. Using ESF as one of the funding sources, UNDP together with its partners sought to demonstrate social solutions, which are not yet widely applied and promote their wider application in the country. The knowledge and good practices gained through UNDP global network were applied in many ESF projects, where they were piloted and tested in Lithuania. Not all the suggested solutions could be called innovations at international level, but at the time they were applied they were new to Lithuania, and could help meet the social needs more effectively than traditional methods. In principle, this understanding of social innovation corresponds to the formulation suggested by the EC – social innovations are new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs more effectively than alternatives and create new social relationships or collaborations (Open Book of Social Innovation, 2010). In Western Europe, social innovations are particularly developed in the social service market promoting the diversification of suppliers and multifaceted nature of services. Social innovations are mostly developed by NGOs, charity and support organizations as well as by

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social enterprises or social business. In Lithuania, the suppliers of these services still occupy a small portion of the market concerned. Stationary social enterprises (137) in Lithuania employ only persons with disabilities (MSSL, 2012), and there are almost no other types of social enterprises. The supply of social services in the majority of Lithuanian municipalities relies only on the institutions established and funded by the municipalities themselves. Social services provided by the NGOs amount only to 3.4 percent of the budgetary expenditure meant for social services (Public Policy and Management Institute, 2011). These figures might explain why social innovations are not yet often applied. Projects implemented by UNDP promoted a wider use of those social innovations, which addressed persistent social problems in a multifaceted manner by using the existing mechanisms and resources. It is noteworthy to mention that prominent social and environmental innovations were also characteristic of earlier UNDP activities and projects. Although these projects have not been analysed in this report, they influenced the drafting and development of pipeline projects for the period 2006-2012. Social innovations applied in UNDP projects were distinguished by their creativity, services or activity models, and also by the search of new forms of cooperation in encouraging the representatives of various levels of society and sectors to act together. One of the key features of all UNDP social projects is a multifaceted approach to problems leading to unemployment and their multidimensional solutions. The multifaceted nature of the projects manifests itself in two ways: • The complex nature of project structure This is the project structuring and implementation manner whereby the project activities are planned around resolving a concrete social problem in a comprehensive way, i.e. taking into account not only one problematic issue in isolation, but tackling multiple deprivations pre-

venting re-integration. As a result of such planning, a lot of activities are combined, with the understanding that only an aggregate of various measures can lead to effective results. For example, individual training, group workshops, training at a workplace, study visits, inter-institutional cooperation, drafting of methodologies, and engagement of employers, communities, NGOs, etc. are combined together. Exclusion of some components of the project could result in the fragmentation of the solution, which could then lead to a lower impact than expected. • The multifaceted nature of social services provided This is an innovative way of providing social services whereby the team of specialists and employees of different professions work closely together with the aim of resolving the problems of a vulnerable individuals in a complex manner (for example, taking into account not only unemployment as an ultimate problem, but also the personal, family problems or housing issues that cause it). For example: training, consultations, and especially individual work with a vulnerable person involve a wide range of social assistance measures adapted primarily for this person. These measures could be related to increasing motivation, elimination of psychological barriers, development of professional skills and competences, improvement of communication skills, entrepreneurship training and even addressing family and other problems. Such a multifaceted approach by UNDP is based on the fact that often social exclusion is a result of the following: 1. Personality problems, such as lack of self-esteem, independence or motivation, psychological problems due to long-term unemployment, etc. 2. Lack of general competences, professional and social skills (Public Policy and Management Institute, 2011).

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The solution of issues related to poverty or unemployment is often focused only on economic aspects, without considering how it correlates with other factors, such as gender, ethnic origin, age, disability, education and lifestyle (e.g., long-term dependency on social benefits). Frequently, the fact that the risk of social exclusion increases when these factors interact is often neglected. It is evident that belonging to an ethnic, weakly integrated minority or having a disability further increases the risk. The roots of unemployment and obstacles to employment are completely different for a homeless person, a person with dependency or a woman with many children therefore the structure and duration of the necessary services should be adapted accordingly. Therefore, in order to aim at greater social inclusion, the problem should be assessed and more importantly, addressed in a complex manner so that it is adapted to every group at risk. This fundamental principle was coherently applied in all UNDP social integration projects. Using the experience of other countries and its global network, UNDP piloted the selected social innovation models based on which implementation provided policy advice. As the Lithuanian social assistance system relies exclusively on the services of state and municipal social institutions with low inclusion of other social partners, UNDP through its projects aimed to clearly communicate the need for and the benefits of inter-institutional cooperation. According to the MSSL representatives (interview with A. Bytautas), UNDP projects on integrating social groups at risk into the labour market were different from other ESF projects, as they sought to join the efforts of NGOs, communities, municipalities and other institutions with a view to providing multi-faceted and coordinated services to vulnerable people. This review presents the social innovations tested and adapted by UNDP according to their nature and applied methods by providing a case study from each project implemented with a focus on the main aspects of the social innovation in that particular project. The publica-

tion does not aim to present the content of all the projects or discuss all the activities carried out. Its aim is to present targeted analysis of proven ways and methods of providing social services and share experience and promote their wider application both in Lithuania and in other countries.

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Community involvement – “A DAY TOGETHER”
Goal
The main objective of the project – to provide flexible services that improve the living conditions for socially excluded groups and facilitate integration into the labour market under the concept of Multigenerational Homes through reviving and actively applying selfhelp methods of traditional communities. The aim was to turn the Multigenerational Homes into training and communication centres where representatives of all generations meet and which could offer a large variety of services for improving the social, working, entrepreneurship and mutual cooperation competences of all age groups of the community members. This case study aims to present the social innovation of this project – provision of multifaceted services to vulnerable persons through engagement of the local rural community. It

demonstrates the importance of the integral nature of social services and input of community volunteers. The description of this component shares the knowledge about the use of traditional communication methods for reducing social exclusion through the provision of social integration services in rural areas.

Problems addressed
The National Report on Social Security and Social Inclusion Strategies of Lithuania (2008-2010) indicates that it is necessary to develop progressive forms of social service supply in communities by engaging social and economic partners, NGOs and local community members, thus helping the vulnerable individuals integrate into society and the labour market. Rural communities in Lithuania emerge rapidly and become stronger as a result of support provided under the Rural Development Programme, EU Leader+ (20042006) and LEADER method (2007-2013) programmes, and recently – due to the Community Social Development Programme for 2011-2013 (MSSL). However, they rarely undertake the commitment to provide social services to their members. For example, EU Leader+ funded 320 community projects, only 8 of which were related to the integration of socially vulnerable persons (Ribašauskienė, E., Naujokienė, R., 2009). The Report on MSSL activities in 2011 indicates that the Ministry’s Communities Programme funded 61 community organization projects (MSSL, 2012), but the project analysis showed that only a small portion of project activities was related to the provision of social services (BGI Consulting, 2011). Meanwhile in Western European countries the community involvement action and cooperation with state social support institutions is widely developed. Community engagement in providing social integration services is particularly emphasized, thus fostering citizenship

Project study visit in Multigenerational Home in Germany. Photo from Project archives.

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and empowerment of the community (Facing the Challenge, 2004). Municipalities do not have the financial capabilities to establish and modernize an adequate number of social service institutions that would meet the demand. Aiming to reduce the regional disparities of social services provision, it is important to promote diversification of services and create a network of social community services operating in a multifaceted manner (Ministry of Interior, 2010).

Actions proposed and tested
The central axis of the project and the essence of the innovation tested is a Multigenerational Home – a mobile structure initiated by local community members for providing services and organizing activities at community level.

Multigenerational Homes are multifunctional community centres, where, joining the efforts of local education, social service specialists and volunteers, a wide variety of cultural, educational and entrepreneurship promotion services are organised and provided to the community. The Multigenerational Home as a mobile ativity model can operate in any public area – education, social, cultural and even at sport venues. The best model is the universal multifunctional centre established in rural areas. It is noteworthy to mention that this model substantially differs from Multigenerational Homes established within the framework of the EQUAL programme, operating in Kaunas and Marijampolė, where social services for the elderly (retirement homes) and assistance to mothers along with their infants are provided. To date, the concept of Multigenerational Homes is considered to be one of the most progressive meas-

Figure 1. The scheme for organizing Multigenerational Home activities

Formulation of Multigenerational Home vision: team building, community engagement, ap-proval, creation of Multigenerational Home space, identification of target groups for social support. SERVICE PROVIDERS: Community volunteers Community social workers Municipality social workers Labour exchange office employees Educationalists Psychologists Promotion of self-employment: drafting of self-employment plans, determining needs, organizing places for internships, providing accompanyment services,contacts with employers, supervision following employment. Supply of social services to target groups: identification of needs, planning of activities for various target groups, individual counselling, organizing childcare, elderly care services. Counselling and activation of target groups: self-help groups, adaptation and transfer of skills, workshops, cultural events, handicraft fairs, organizing free time. BENEFICIARIES: Large families Single parents Unemployed Receiving low income Persons with disabilities Elderly Informal education of adults and vocational training: entrepreneurship training, development of social skills, apprenticeships and craft lessons. Pensioners Youth

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ures worldwide for ensuring successful integration: Multigenerational Homes operate in France, the Netherlands, the USA and Canada. For example, up until now, in Germany there are more than 500 Multigenerational Homes that are partially funded by the ESF. Multigenerational Homes are established with a view to meeting the needs of the communities of small towns and villages, facilitating community members’ engagement in working activities, revitalising local economies and optimizing community service networks. Within the project, the model of Multigenerational Homes was implemented in rural locations in four municipalities: Aleksandrija (Skuodas district), Gedrimai (Telšiai district), Daugai (Alytus district) and Paneriai (Vilnius) community including rural settlements attached to Vilnius (Trakai Vokė, Liudvinavas, Aukštieji Paneriai). As a result of experience gained during the study visits in Germany and with the help of independent experts, unique visions of Multigenerational Homes were formulated and adapted in these communities. Overall, all Multigenerational Homes provided various types of low-cost services in attractive ways to different target groups and vulnerable people, such as information, counselling and training; developing working, social and entrepreneurship skills; mediation for employment services, health care, psychological, assistance at home, social care and others. These services benefited not only people and families at risk of social exclusion, the elderly and persons with disabilities, but also young people, low-income families and others, in fact the whole community. In the opinion of the communities that participated in the project, one of the most important areas of Multigenerational Home activities was the provision of social and care services to lonely elderly people and families bringing up children, for example, care of pre-school children in a common area, organizing after school activities for schoolchildren, occupation services (circles, studies) for teenagers and youth, at the same time involving them in voluntary activities. Help for taking care

of children is especially necessary for those community members who are willing to go back, stay or participate more actively in the labour market. Often the parents who receive such services are motivated to get involved in the voluntary activities by offering help in addressing the problems of other community members (giving a ride, helping prepare documents or handle finances, doing small repairs, etc.). Cultural, educational and training activities are organized in Multigenerational Homes as well. They have already become a standard for community activities, for example, cuisine/gastronomic projects, instructing in household jobs and handicrafts, computer literacy, language teaching, etc. As various festivities, competitions, gatherings are organised there on the basis of the self-help principle, they also contribute to bringing the community members closer as well as to developing their social skills. Nevertheless, the most significant activity of Multigenerational Homes from the perspective of ESF is support to socially vulnerable community members in getting employed. In this respect, the nature of Multigenerational Home activity differs from that of typical community homes. Job seeking assistance was closely integrated into other social services and activities of Multigenerational Homes. The typical distribution of functions in a Multigenerational home is as follows: 1. Community organiser: activity coordination, engaging target group, organizing volunteers, organizing information events and activities, organization of internships and training, purchase of services. 2. Social worker: diagnosing the area of personal/ integration problems, making up individual assistance plan, ensuring case management, organizing counselling groups, consultations; accompanying services (to jobcentre, social centre, management of social benefits, filling in documentation, childcare services). 3. Social work assistant: identifying potential project participants, offering information, providing social

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services (childcare, organizing self-help activities, etc.), coaching. 4. Employment mediator: promoting employment, mediation in employment, contacts with employers, accompanying services to employer, counselling regarding employment and choice of profession, determining needs, planning, contacts with educational establishments. 5. Purchased services: informal education, social and working skills training, entrepreneurship and management training, practical workshops. The final evaluation of the project “A Day Together: Multigenerational Homes as a Model for Self Help”, carried out by the Social Innovation Institute, notes that in general project participants and beneficiaries evaluated the project as a very successful one. Pictured are the data collected in the evaluation.

Figure 3. Evaluation of Multigenerational Home impact on employment: Did participation in the project facilitate job seeking? (in figures)

Yes; No; Other; n/a.

Lessons learned
A review of the project “A Day Together” experience shows that Mutigenerational Homes is a suitable and tested method in Lithuania to foster community cooperation and self-help service networks by helping the most vulnerable community members integrate into society and the labour market. It also serves as an effective prevention of social problems, especially in rural areas. The final evaluation of the project, which was based on detailed interviews of project participants and beneficiaries, states that the results and achievements of activity indicators of all the four Mutigenerational Homes have exceeded expectations and are very valuable. The evaluation conclusions note that: • Particularly well evaluated was the ability of the method to create benefits, as due to Mutigenerational Home activity not only the main goal – employment – was achieved, but

Figure 2. Evaluation of services provided by/at Multigenerational Homes: Multigenerational Homes services which were used by respondents, in percentage:

Soc. counselling; Mediation; Employment; Accompanyment; Childcare

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also community spirit and citizenship grew stronger, the participating communities became more active, relations both among local people and among various institutions improved. • High employment indicators (34-47 percent of target group members were employed) were achieved due to the effective implementation of the multifaceted social service package. Especially valuable was individual work of community activists and Multigenerational Home employees and their mediation between vulnerable persons and employers while working in partnership with municipality social workers and job centres. The activities of Multigenerational Homes complemented the functions performed by social workers from job centres, neighbourhoods and municipalities as they could offer more individual counselling and multifaceted services. • Multigenerational Homes of three communities received support from local government, and also succeeded in bringing local employers into the social networks, who not only offered vacant jobs, but also financially supported Multigenerational Homes. • The promotion of the Multigenerational Homes model was carried out both during the project and beyond, as interest in its success spread far and wide: Multigenerational Homes were visited by delegations from other districts or they were invited to share experiences. The adaptation of this social innovation to Lithuanian conditions also revealed some peculiarities and difficulties, which should be addressed with a view to extending Multigenerational Homes to other localities: • After the end of the project, some of the Multigenerational Homes actively continued their activities, especially in cultural, entrepreneurship promotion

People actively joined the project; there was no trouble in making up the groups as many were interested. Those who did not succeed to get training, now, after the end of the project, are being trained by those who received training. The people are very happy, they communicate – even those who did not participate in the project – everyone is interested, and they come and offer help. About 33 people were employed during the project, and many of them still work. Those who left the community are also happy, as the knowledge gained helped them. We still continue to work, look for support, generate our own income, share the platform for sales of handicraft goods, organize training and excursions, and promote people’s entrepreneurship and ideas, share e-experience with other communities. Also, a lot of people visit us, even on bus excursions. Monika Ražanauskienė Chairwoman of Kančėnai community

and training fields, but they focused less on social service provision to target groups. • During the project community leaders strengthened their managerial and leadership skills, the team of likeminded people and employees was built, and this is one of the key success factors of Multigenerational Homes. However, where leaders do not exist, the effectiveness of Multigenerational Homes may be lower and activities may be carried out rather formally. • Not all Multigenerational Homes received financial support from municipalities, thus their existence after the end of the project depended a lot on the fund raising capacities of the most active Multigenerational Homes employees and on their initiative in finding non-traditional methods of looking after these homes. However, there is a risk of community leaders becoming overwhelmed due to the large scope of voluntary activities (this was evidenced by

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UNDP administered GEF SGP programme) and this negatively effects their health and family welfare.

Recommendations
1. Based on project experience, it can be recommended to restructure the social service functions of Multigenerational Homes and implement this innovation at the national level making use of already existing strong community institutions and premises: local activity groups, social centres, culture homes, multifunctional centres, etc. 2. The Multigenerational Homes model can be easily replicated in other communities, especially in localities that have experienced community leaders, municipal support and any type of public facilities which can be used for gatherings and training. Moreover, it is advisable to use the experience of GEF SGP or Leader+ programmes, orienting the Multigenerational Homes development towards already consolidated communities and better equipped premises. 3. Communities are recommended to turn the Multigenerational Homes into facilities for informal and attractive communication, for example, establishing coffee bars on the premises, and developing as many diversified activities as possible, which are acceptable to the larger part of the community, including the socially vulnerable. Project and other resources would help train employees and finance activities. 4. As strong communities are capable of addressing many problems themselves, it would be cost effective and useful for the municipalities to support the establishment and development of Multigenerational Homes, first of all by allocating financial resources to maintain the premises and cover salaries for a few full-time employees. It should be mentioned that in other countries both the ESF and local governments additionally and continuously support Multigenerational Homes.

Empowerment of social workers – “HOW”
Goal
Within the project, the aim was to provide quality social services by enabling specialists to address problems of social exclusion and risk groups’ integration into the labour market in a multifaceted manner, at the same time involving the institutional network (communities, municipalities, NGOs and social service institutions) necessary to solve problems. The innovative element of the project focused on the professionalization of social workers and on inter-institutional cooperation to effectively address the complexity of the social exclusion phenomenon. The project tested and demonstrated the methods enabling social workers to provide services in an efficient and effective way.

Problems addressed
One of the reasons for social exclusion is the lack of attention to the correlation between economic, social, cultural and psychological aspects, and its multidimensional char-

Social workers receiving diplomas (HOW). Photo from Project archives.

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acter. (Centre for Equality Advancement, 2010). The problems experienced by the person are of a multifaceted nature, therefore they should be addressed in a complex manner. However, in practice it is difficult to ensure such inter-institutional cooperation not only due to incomplete bylaws on social policy, but also due to the lack of motivation and professional promotion of employees from related institutions. More attention should be paid not only to the quantitative development of social services, but also to the creation of a service providers’ optimal network for separate social groups (Public Policy and Management Institute, 2011). Work with families at social risk is complicated, and demands large personal emotional investment. The social workers face the syndrome of “over burning” due to the intensity of work and unavoidable emotional relations with people they are supporting (Centre for Equality Advancement, 2010). Thus they also need professional assistance, supervision and advice. On the other hand, social workers still lack clear guidelines and methodological tools based on practical examples of work with people at social risk. This would make the provided services more structured with the aim to prepare the person to participate in the labour market in a multifaceted manner (Ministry of the Interior, 2010).

Figure 4. Competences development scheme for social workers under HOW project

Competence development of social workers Preparation of methodology for multifaceted method of working Training for social workers and specialists

On development of multifaceted approach to social workroups

On team work skills enhancement

Group and individual social worker supervision to increase motivation and qualifications

Actions proposed and tested
Empowerment activities for social workers and specialists included several main components: 1. Training of specialists based on innovative methodology of multifaceted work with risk groups developed under the project. The methodology is meant to develop a multifaceted approach towards social exclusion, increase motivation and inter-institutional team building; group supervisions were organized to improve professional qualifications and satisfaction of social workers with the work they do and results

they achieve as an important part of the professional development of specialists. 2. Practical application of knowledge and competences acquired during the training while integrating risk groups into society and the labour market (training on increasing motivation, employability, developing professional skills, individual counselling and assistance in getting a job and staying longer periods in gainful employment) in four municipalities. 3. Interactive training introducing the methodology of multifaceted work in other regions of Lithuania ensuring the dissemination of good practice and practical application of the methodology in social work. The methodology prepared should be used in vocational training of social workers, as the preparation of the methodology involved the departments of higher education establishments. The value added of this project element was the investment into social workers’ understanding of the multifaceted nature of social work and effective ways of solving multiple

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risks with a view to successful integration of the client into the labour market. The specialists working with exclusion groups were empowered to: a) identify the multifaceted nature of problems and address it using a team-work and an inter-institutional approach and different measures directed towards reducing or eliminating social risks while integrating equal opportunity principles. b) monitor and assess the progress achieved while working with client, learn from peers under the supervision of a professional supervisor. The main innovative aspect of the project was the development and publication of a new methodology to work with groups at social risk to equip the social workers with handy guidance material. Commissioned by the project, it was drafted by the experts from the Centre for Equality Advancement (CEA). The methodology is based on qualitative results of complex research, comparative analysis, international good practice examples and practical work experience and is meant for multifaceted work with people facing social exclusion. The methodology presents specific phases of work with people at social risk, their description and process by providing the sample tables and practical examples for organizing the work. This methodological tool was published and disseminated to the social service providers and is accessible at www.esparama.lt On the basis of this methodology, the social workers and specialists were trained to develop practical skills on work with vulnerable people. For example, at the start of work with the client, the social worker discusses with him/her the problematic areas, individual possibilities in the labour market and related challenges, and looks for individual ways of integration into society. The individual consultation/assistance process includes three phases: needs assessment, planning and activity/ evaluation of changes. In the first stage, it is recommended to sign a service provision agreement with a person or a family,

The social worker was asking, offering opportunities that he has. It calmed me down. I understood that I could provide the social worker with the information that will later help me. I started to believe that social worker understands me and is sincerely willing to help me. The worker notices and appreciates my achievements, even the small ones. I could talk to him about all questions that I have. He even helped me to get health rehabilitation services in Palanga. Saulė, 29 years old. Quotation from project HOW publication “Complex Approach to Social Work”

which describes in detail the problems mutually identified during the individual consultation and to be solved, obligations and responsibilities of the service provider and of the beneficiary, specific tasks and time frames. The obligations of both parties shall be equal, as the individual counselling and assistance should be based on partnership and mutual accountability. The sanctions for violating the agreement should also be described, as they contribute to the sociali-

Eliminating psychological barriers and competence raising gave the biggest effect. Why? Because unemployment kills the person psychologically within a few years, thus these issues are the first ones to be addressed. More attention should be paid towards raising the motivation of persons to look for a job and assisting them to become generally more active, thereby building a basis for raising their self-esteem and social self-realization. Only then other employability initiatives and actions should be undertaken. Margarita Jankauskaitė Centre for Equality Advancement

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zation of the client’s, decision making and development of his/her sense of responsibility. For the social workers to perform the tasks given to them in a constantly motivated and qualitative way, professional supervision is necessary. Supervision is used as an additional instrument for the formulation of the process. Within the project, individual and group supervision services were provided to social workers, which helped to increase the effectiveness of the social services provided and improved their emotional health. In addition, supervisions helped to develop professional qualifications for addressing a specific problem of the client, as they provided a possibility to rely on the experience of other colleagues participating in the group discussion as well as on the advice of a visiting expert.

ing and consultations received as they inspired hope and increased their self-confidence. • The process of employment, the tools of fostering mutual responsibility between a social worker and a vulnerable person both by identifying the main socials risks and planning effective response with the ultimate goal being employment as well as assessing the progress achieved. • The provision of professional supervisions especially helped to increase the competences of social workers, made the social services provided more responsive to individual client’s needs and also improved the emotional health of social workers. Social workers requested more individual supervisions, however, due to the budgetary limits the focus was more on group supervisions. • 494 socially excluded people or people at risk participated in the project and 163 of them improved their employability-related competences. By the end of the project, 133 people were employed or were continuing their vocational training. • Upon the completion of the project, project partners independently initiated project pipelines to continue activities and some of them received funding; two out of four project partners continued to further provide social services. The implementation of the project also involved a number of challenges related both to social workers’ training and effectiveness of services provided: • In the opinion of project implementers, the rigidity of administrative requirements and financial rules required by the ESF Agency made it impossible to include innovative tools other than those allowed by the guidelines while planning and providing social services. In such a way the innovativeness was limited and the possibility to react to arising problems in a timely and flexible way was not provided (i.e., mediation for employment when the target group includes potential employers).

Lessons learned
The main advantages and benefits of the tested method: • Based on the methodology “Multifaceted Approach in Social Work” prepared under the project, 10 social workers and employees of social services were trained to use the multifaceted method in social work, who effectively used the knowledge acquired by providing quality services to vulnerable people and sharing knowledge and experience with colleagues from other regions. • The methodology and the training programme pre pared provided a methodological basis and promoted a still very new multifaceted approach towards employability issues. The methodology highlights the identification of a variety of risks that the client is exposed to and an assurance of a complex response to them through the team work of specialists from different fields. Moreover, it draws attention to the fact that aiming at successful employment of the person it is necessary to help him/her overcome psychological barriers and only then turn to competence, skill development and other training. • Direct beneficiaries, particularly from rural areas, appreciated the quality and personal benefits of train-

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• Difficulties were faced in engaging the target group members into the activities of the project, they often changed during the project, not all of them finished the training programmes.. The reasons for this are numerous: emigration, family problems, lack of motivation to search for a job and the fact that the social assistance system in itself does not increase work incentives. The UNDP Lithuania analytical review (UNDP, 2010), concluded that one of the reasons limiting the motivation of vulnerable people to look for a job is too small a difference between social benefit and minimum salary, the latter being very small and not ensuring a necessary standard of living. The project implementation coincided with the economic crisis and a large increase in unemployment, thus the possibilities for the target group with low qualifications to get a job were significantly reduced, especially in rural areas. Moreover, from project planning to its implementation substantial changes in the labour market occurred. On its own initiative, the project implementers started to work directly with employers clarifying the needs of employers in terms of qualifications required and adapting vocational training to vulnerable individuals. • Active cooperation among different institutions and specialists, NGOs and employers is common practice in other countries, but in Lithuania it is still making its way. The country lacks not only the understanding of budgetary social service providers, that NGOs can create significant value added and that they have other valuable experience and knowledge, but also that this experience is not institutionalised or systematically used. On the other hand, an important aspect is the quality of social services provided by NGOs, which has to be constantly assessed and improved.

point of view of gender and different cultures. In the future, with a view to ensuring the practical application and development of the multifaceted approach to social work, a package of relevant tools adapted to each socially vulnerable group should be prepared. 2. To strengthen inter-institutional cooperation in the field of social service provision, the format of such cooperation, procedures and accountability should be prepared and adopted at the policy formulation and national measure implementation levels. A social worker should be interested in cooperation and should know where and how to direct a client when necessary, as well as how to coordinate joint counselling work and the process of employment. 3. Considering that social workers’ profession is undervalued and psychologically this work is very intense, the provision of individual supervision to social workers and professional cooperation by learning from experience should be promoted, at least in ESF funded projects. 4. Training on working skills and competencies development should be adapted not only to the abstract market needs, but to the identified needs of potential employers as well. This is especially relevant during the periods of economic crisis. Thus, the employers should be considered as one of the target groups in ESF funded projects by actively involving them into the project preparation and activities and coordinating with them the content of training programmes and their implementation. 5. More attention should be paid to the motivation of people to look for a job involvement to provide the basis for increasing their self-esteem and socialisation, and only then start other initiatives for employment. It would be valuable in reforming the social policy to address the issue of dependency on social benefits and lack of work incentives, so that people would be encouraged to return to the labour market and earn a living.

Recommendations
1. The multifaceted response to social risk problems should be promoted at the national level and included in the policy instruments. It is noteworthy that the complexity should be understood also through the

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Mediation for employment – “FACE ROMA“
Goal
Lithuania still lacks effective Roma social integration mechanisms, thus the project aimed to adapt and implement the multifaceted way of Roma integration into the labour market by motivating them and helping to find a job and keep it. The aim of this case study is to demonstrate the advantages and weaknesses of the tested methodology of work with Roma focusing on the element of mediation for employment.

and social status gets even worse. Besides the mentioned reasons, the unemployment of Roma is determined by even more severe social problems: illiteracy, stigmatisation, lack of Lithuanian language skills, drug addiction, negative approach of family members towards searching for a job, etc. The employment of Roma is also complicated by the negative attitude of society and employers towards Roma (SOPA, 2010). Thus, up to 60 percent of the total Roma population in Lithuania is unemployed (MSSL, 2012), instead, they participate in the shadow economy and illegal activities. A typical approach and measures employed by the job centres to address the Roma employment problems lack effectiveness, as Roma often avoid the institutional services for a variety of reasons, including those of not having personal identity documents (SOPA, 2010). MSSL does not single out Roma as a separate social risk or socially excluded group, therefore no specific measures for them are foreseen in MSSL activity programme. Only a few NGOs decide to work with this national minority group due to Roma integration problems and their lifestyle. Therefore it was necessary to find and test the most appropriate methods of social assistance and employment services, which would be acceptable both to Roma, service providers and potential employers.

Problems addressed
Even during the period of economic growth people from socially excluded groups are rarely able to find a job independently or secure it. During the economic crisis the situation of unemployed facing integration difficulties due to the lack of qualifications and skills, health

Actions proposed and tested
The main objective of the social innovation method for Roma inclusion in the labour market was implementation of active and multifaceted measures related to increasing motivation, increasing employability through mentoring and on-the-job training, and assistance in finding a job and staying longer in gainful employment. To achieve the project goal and results, a model for individualized service provision to Roma was created and applied. Based on this model the specialists were trained and the provision of individualized ser-

Roma girl in KFC working with cashier (ROMA). Photo from Project archives.

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vices was tested in practice. Looking for the most appropriate methodology, the model for Roma employment created in the EU EQUAL project “Creation and Testing of Mechanisms of Roma Integration into the Labour Market” was chosen. This model, called “Diada”, allows the social worker and his/her assistant (who is Roma), working in a team, to motivate unemployed Roma to learn a craft and start working. In the UNDP project this model was supplemented by best practice elements collected during study visits to other countries. The experience of a successful Dutch private employment company FlexPay which provides social services to people at social risk was integrated into the project pilot model. The aim of the tailored model was to promote Roma motivation to work at the same time increasing his/her family members’ socialization. One of the project innovations was mediation for employment based on a supported employment method, which is widely used in Western Europe while integrating socially vulnerable people. The main principles of supported employment are on-the-job training, long-term (sometimes even permanent) support, individual assistance and individualized services. The supported employment services are provided simultaneously with social services, development of social skills, learning and supervision at a working place. However, the major focus is on mediation for employment and assisting people to stay in a job rather than organizing training for Roma. The tested solution was innovative at country level as the supported employment method had not yet been applied to this target group and testing included several different regions (Vilnius and Šalčininkai districts). First of all, teams of 28 specialists were organized, trained in Public Institution (PI) “Roma Society Centre”, PI SOPA and Social Support Centre in Naujoji Vilnia and Šnipiškės and did group work. One of the most impor-

While participating in the Roma project, I got acquainted with their lifestyle and traditions. As I had a really good apprentice, the approach towards target group members changed. Good contacts were made with “SOPA“employees. It was great that each apprentice was individually coached and, if needed, accompanied to the working place. This is in particular important at the beginning of the training, as usually Roma do not have any work experience. The weakness is in timing, as it takes much time to prepare the documents for such training at the workplace (service procurement, processing the documents, preparing contracts). Such a delay leads to instability in both the employer and the participant. Aurelija Gorelienė Regional Director. JSC “Fast Foods Group“

tant team members was an employment mediator, who was responsible for provision of individual support to Roma: development of social skills, competencies and entrepreneurship training, on-the-job training, and other necessary social support to Roma families. Another very important aspect was that Roma persons worked actively in the project team, and by performing the function of social worker’s assistant actually was the bridge between the project team and project participants – Roma, and who also ensured Roma’s trust and more open approach towards services offered by the project. The project team while practically applying the methodology of mediation based on created methodical tools provided the complex of employment services, the main components of which are described below: Needs assessment. During the first individual conversations with Roma, their needs, hobbies, capabilities, work experience, experience in searching for a job, educational background, unemployment reasons and

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barriers, family situation and problems were clarified. After assessment and having built up mutual confidence, Roma training needs were noted, an individual employment plan was drafted and individual consultations were provided with the aim of enabling Roma to implement it. Empowerment and job seeking. After assessing the needs, training programmes were tailored for Roma as a complicated social and ethnic group, and were implemented through the provision of individual and group consultations as well as at vocational schools, higher education establishments or at work places. Group consultations were also organized for introducing and discussing such themes as communication and cooperation at work, ways to resolve conflicts, employer‘s requirements, and the labour market situation. Job seeking was carried out by the specialists working in a team, individually taking into account the current situation and capacities of individuals, in addition, the work was carried out with the whole family of the participant aiming at finding and offering the best solutions. Cooperation with employers. While looking/brokering for potential jobs for Roma, the employment mediators communicated with more than 400 company

representatives. To that end, a UNDP-initiated and supported Network of Responsible Business was also used. The employers were provided with information about the ongoing project and Roma job seekers, and visits to enterprises, target group on-the-job training, and adapting the working environment were publicised. It also analysed what kind of employees the companies were searching for and decisions were made on how to adapt the Roma training and vocational education programme to make it useful for companies. Training at the workplace. During the project, many participants took part in on-the-job training. On-the-job training was suggested as an innovative not yet tested method in projects. This step-by-step inclusion into the labour market proved to be very successful. During the training, Roma had the possibility to acquire skills necessary for work, to familiarise themselves with working environments or develop general working skills, for example, to get up early in the morning, go to work on time, inform their employer about absence, communicate and cooperate with colleagues. 23 Roma participated in these trainings, 12 of them were successfully employed. Accompanying services. The employment mediators’ work did not finish by having found workplaces for onthe-job training – project participants also were helped with accompanying services: communication was carried out both with working Roma and employers in order to solve arising difficulties and help the project participant to successfully integrate in the workplace. Assistance was provided while addressing the challenges, the tasks not understood at work were explained, and additional skills necessary for work were developed. Three methodological tools meant for specialists working with Roma were prepared during the project: “Methodological Recommendations for Employment Specialists”, “Programme for Social Skills Development” and “Training Programme

Study visit in Veldhoven municipality, Netherlands. Roma housing built by the municipality of Veldhoven. Photo from Project archives.

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for Employment Specialists”. The tools were prepared on the basis of practical project work experience and experience of foreign partners (more information at: http:// sopa.lt/node/174).

Lessons learned
Adapted to Lithuania, this practically tested method for work with Roma aiming at their long-term employment was innovative not only within the context of this target group but also in respect of the whole package of integral social services. The main advantages and good practice of the applied method are as follows:

Figure 5. Project “FACE ROMA“- methodological scheme of mediation for employment.

Methodology of mediation for employment

Identification of client. Initial contact

Needs assessment • Situation evaluation • Analysis of needs • Vocational orientation, information • Tailoring of training

Principles of the method: • training at a workplace • long-term (sometimes even permanent) assistance • individual assistance and services

Training: • competencies • working skills • social skills

Job seeking • Preparation for job seeking: work with the client • Strategy for job seeking • Individual plan for job seeking(self-employment)

Employment • Empowerment to look for a job individually and make decisions • Cooperation with employers On-the-job-training: • competencies • working skills

Accompanying services after getting a job • Problem solving • Organisation of additional training

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• The tailored model of providing individualized services to Roma in Lithuania was created, the methodology of mediation for employment was developed and applied, and specialists who successfully provided multifaceted assistance to Roma looking for a job were trained. The activities contributed to building up the trust of Roma community members. • The virtual database and team management system developed, listing Roma looking for a job, executive personnel and employers is the most complete Roma personal data system in the country, which allows identifying Roma and providing assistance to them. • The scale of Roma social problems is much wider than anticipated, thus the model employed also requires more human resources. Strong teamwork between specialists from different fields including Roma representatives is necessary, and should be well organized, coordinated and include a wide spectrum of activities oriented towards the solution of complex personal problems. The relations within the team also have a direct impact on results. • One of the fundamental and most proven parts of the whole chain of activities was the service of mediation for employment and close engagement of potential employers, when the social worker in the capacity of his/her client’s representative supports him/her and gives advice, i.e. the social worker analyses the individual situation of every client, makes enough time for analysis of the client’s capacities and realistic employment opportunities, gives emotional support, discusses and helps choose the relevant advertisements for a job, provides accompanying services to government institutions and employers, helps secure a job, etc. (SOPA, 2010). The important aspect of these services is their complexity, i.e. both the mediation services and social assistance are provided simultaneously. • The project experience showed that supported employment is effective only when the work is carried out not only with the client looking for a job (particularly in cases involving Roma), but also when the same amount of time and effort is spent on analyzing the needs of the employer, and the requirements

for a potential employee. As the employer makes the final decision concerning selection and employment, he/she is considered to be the same client as the person looking for a job. Thus the employment mediators were a connecting link coordinating the needs of both client “types” with the aim to achieve the best employment result. • It is important to develop the social and working skills necessary for the work directly in the workplace. The person chooses a relevant job with the help of a mediator and performs the work tasks with the help of new colleagues. The employer is not obliged to employ the person immediately, as he is offered to “prepare” the employee first, to develop the working skills necessary for a specific job with the possibility to later employ a person with proven capabilities. In such a way the employer avoids the risk of employing an unknown or untested person, while the potential worker acquires the specific skills necessary for the relevant job, his/her motivation is increased and he/she decides whether the job suits him/her. • Within the three years of the project, due to well coordinated and innovative individual services 126 Roma were involved in the project activities, 37 of them were employed (80 and 24 respectively were planned), individual services and consultations were provided to 90 Roma (providing employment mediation services), 50 percent of project target group participants got professional qualifications, and 20 Roma received on-the-job training, which promoted a more tolerant environment in businesses. • Based on accumulated good practice of the project, the policy proposals were presented to the working group drafting the “Plan of Activities for 2012-2014 on Roma Integration into Lithuanian Society”. During the implementation of the project, the participants also faced challenges and learned some lessons they would like to share: • Due to long-term social exclusion many Roma are excluded from the choices and opportunities creat-

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ed in society and do not have skills. The Roma illiteracy rate is 10 times higher than the national average, and the majority of Roma do not have any profession. Their employment opportunities were highly challenged due to the negative attitude of employers and the whole of society towards Roma. Moreover, there were cases of direct and indirect discrimination of Roma in the labour market. In the context of the unfavourable economic situation, many enterprises closed down or reduced the number of employees, unemployment increased drastically, and the state made cuts on welfare spending. In these circumstances, many considered Roma employment as a hopeless task. Therefore, this proactive social service model, in particular on-the-job training, the accompanying services provided while searching for a job and assistance after getting a job helped cope with the situation. The models of individual work with persons having difficulties to integrate are not yet systematically developed in Lithuania. NGOs train the employment mediators and test the mediation implementing projects. Often after the end of the projects the initiatives fade away, the products created during the projects and services are not further developed, and trained people change their fields of activity. For these reasons, the provision of employment services for people having difficulties to integrate in Lithuania is unfortunately fragmented and does not have well-defined prospects (SOPA, 2010). The work with the Roma community is long-lasting, thus the project funding (even for three years) is not enough to achieve significant changes. The investment is expensive at the beginning, but the more the model created and tested in practice is applied, the better results are achieved from the investment. Due to restrictions of ESF financing conditions, it was not possible to include planned innovative actions into the project, which would have contributed to more significant results in solving Roma problems.

The project attracted more attention among Roma than expected – 126 Roma expressed their initial wish to learn skills and look for a job, 87 Roma came to employment mediators. These figures are the response to those asserting that Roma cannot be integrated as “they do not want to integrate”. We still believe that the situation can be changed, and only time, relevant measures and consistent work are needed. And what we need most is the will to understand and accept different members of our society. Jurgita Kuprytė, Director, PI “SOPA“

For example, purchasing mobile homes would have helped to solve the problem of Roma housing conditions, which is the most acute and fundamental issue of Roma integration into society, and it was not allowed to be addressed by the project.

Recommendations
1. The service of mediation for employment is not yet regulated by the Law on Social Services. Formally, the services of mediation for employment are provided by the Lithuanian Job centre, but surveys show that the services provided are not sufficiently flexible and individualized (Institute of Labour and Social Research, 2006). It is recommended to involve NGOs in the provision of this social service, particularly to such a vulnerable target group as Roma by developing relevant social programme actions and identifying Roma as a separate target group. In addition, it is recommended to include the proven measures in the National Programme of Roma integration in Lithuanian society. 2. Continued funding is an important issue for the systematic solution of Roma social problems. In order to ensure the quality and durability of this proven service of mediation for getting a job, it is necessary to guar-

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antee the budgetary funding for employment mediation services. The municipalities with larger Roma communities are recommended to develop a separate programme and multi-annual measures funded from the budget, which would supplement the short-term actions of ESF projects. This would ensure sustainability of the results, maintenance of teams, and the effective use of human resources and public finances. 3. ESF is recommended to take into consideration the larger and more complex problems and cultural aspects of this target group in Roma employment and integration projects, and accordingly realistically plan the expected employment indicators for the projects. 4. If Roma integration challenges are to be addressed in a multifaceted way, the cases of direct and indirect discrimination in the labour market should be eliminated more widely though development of positive attitudes towards Roma in society and by employers. Active mediation of NGOs, including the National Responsible Business Network, in the role of social service providers and assistants in getting a job, would definitely contribute to better knowledge of Roma and their adaptation. 5. The employment practice of socially complicated groups, such as Roma, shows that better and more stable employment results are achieved through direct work with employers by attracting and motivating them and coordinating the needs and requirements of both sides. Thus it is recommended for ESFA and MSSL to include the brokering work with employers into the list of supported activities. 6. Considering the specific nature of Roma as a social group, and in particular their low level of education and weak social skills, it is necessary to apply active labour market policy measures that would be tailored for this particular target group. This adapted approach is recommended also for public procurement of training and services. 7. The on-the-job training method of Roma proved to be particularly successful in the project, thus it is recommended to make it formally possible to include the onthe-job training for general and special working skills of unemployed Roma in other ESF projects.

Individual care planning and integration of the homeless – “HOME AND AWAY“
Goal
The extent of problems of homelessness has been increasing in Lithuania. The homeless do not receive any comprehensive assistance, thus the project aimed to create and test the model of individualized integration of homeless people into society and the labour market, based on effective planning of care, which would include both good practice of other countries and human resource capacities and work organization practices used in Lithuania. The essence of social innovation of the project is a model of social integration of the target group – the institutional homeless. The model is based on the fundamental principle of effective care planning5 and provision of individualized support oriented towards concrete personal needs and helping the homeless to integrate into society and the labour market. This model enables both the client and the service provider to evaluate changes and results achieved. The analysis below presents the advantages and shortcomings of the model applied.

Problems addressed
The precise number of people without permanent residence in Lithuania is unknown. At the end of 2012, 23 shelter homes were operating for them, but they admit only those having personal identification documents (IDs). According to practitioners working with the homeless, the majority of them are persons suffering from

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The story of each person who participates in the project is different, but all of the participants are united by one thing – they all have lost hope of living a normal life. One thing is to provide shelter and food, another thing is to provide them with the necessary knowledge to help them to get out of the situation they are in. Donatas Navickas, Head of the Caritas Shelter Home

dependence on psychotropic substances, ex-prisoners and people aged 50 + (data from interviews with practitioners, 2008). According to the management of Vilnius shelter home, people who lose their homes and those living on the streets lose their social skills very quickly: they lose motivation, self-confidence, they do not know how to communicate or plan their time, they lose their work related skills and have low or no capacities to look for a job themselves. In accordance with the current legislation in Lithuania, the main implementer of active labour market policy tools is the Lithuanian Job centre. Research shows that the services provided are not flexible and individualized enough, and often they do not reach the main objective – the employment of supported unemployed people (Institute of Labour and Social Research, 2006). Aiming at integration of this complicated target group into the labour market, individualized social services models should be explored and applied.

and in particular with their integration into the labour market. The UNDP project was thus very timely. First of all, using the knowledge of FEANTSA (the European Federation of National Organizations working with the Homeless) and of Sue Irving, a Scottish expert in the homelessness area, as well as the experience of the Scottish NGO Aberdeen Cyrenians, the planning of care for the homeless and an individualized assistance model for the institutional homeless, adapted to the Lithuanian institutional and NGO environment, was created. This model was applied in practice in shelter homes participating in the project. The model is based on the homeless care planning system “Must Assess Individual Needs – MAIN”, 2006, and is in two parts: 1. Structuring and optimization of shelter home activities; 2. Individualized and integrated services and tools for the homeless. Two shelter homes were targeted in the project: Vilnius City Shelter and the Caritas Shelter Home. After carrying out a detailed analysis of capacities and needs, the model of activity optimization was suggested to the assessed shelter homes, which included four components: 1) the expansion of organizational structure by forming a group of social workers, and other permanent or/and ad hoc working teams; 2) an internal documentation system; 3) determination of procedures, events and forums where important institutional decisions are made and substantial information is exchanged, its format defined/ set (periodicity, participants, authorization); 4) foreseeing concrete measures to pursue and control the improvements of activity at three levels: a) individual employee; b) working team or division c) overall organizational level. The suggested activity improvements have been successful in the practical work of many modern European organizations which are actively carrying out their activities in the area of homelessness prevention and care. In 2010, the round table discussion about the problems of homelessness and the structure of the method brought

Actions proposed and tested
The services of individual employment and mediation have been successfully provided for several decades in the Western European countries and the USA (European Union of Supported Employment, 2010). So far in Lithuania, only Caritas and Šv. Kryžius (St Cross) Home work with the homeless,

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Figure 6. “The Outcomes Star” within the “HOME AND AWAY” project

The Outcomes Star
Self-confidence 10. Independent 9. I like new life, but assistance is of specialists’ needed assistance, in case of necessity, friends, family help Learning 7. The way I live now, but help is needed to continue 8. I understand the relation between actions and results

Hope 5. I know I have to 6. I know what I want do something, if I and I will achieve want to change the that with the help of situation others Accepting help 3. I will accept help if you stop such way of living Stuck 1. I do not ask for Help 2. I ca not do anything I do not want changes with my life 4. I am tired of such life, I want changes!

together representatives from the Job centre, municipal social divisions, doctors and researchers working in the area of homelessness. Having prepared the model and the measures foreseen by it, the employees of both shelter homes were trained in how to apply the measures in their daily work with the homeless. The document “The Model of Improving Shelter Homes Work: Design of Effective Measures and the Methods of its Application” describing the model structure in detail, measures and the steps of its application is available at http://www.esparama.lt/.

The second part of the model was based on the principle of individual work while employing a variety of measures to address the multiple individualized needs of homeless people with the ultimate aim being employment, which was extensively tested in Lithuania for the first time. Based on the observations of FEANTSA experts, the application of this work method in European countries most often results in a strong positive impact on this target group. Following the individualized care planning principle, the provision of social and health services to the homeless is coordinated with the

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aim to individualize these services as much as possible according to the specific needs of the vulnerable. The measures of the model under development were oriented towards changing homeless people’s negative “life scenario” which determines his/ her economic, social passiveness, loss of self-esteem and self-destructive behaviour (dependency diseases, suicidal tendencies, criminality, etc.) to a positive one, or mitigating the existing scenario to achieve the main goal – effective reintegration into society and the labour market. It was an innovative way of analyzing the problems while working with 100 homeless people in Lithuania. Obviously, one of the necessary measures of implementing the model is professional psychological assistance to the homeless, which was unfortunately not available in this project. One of the main measures suggested by the methodology was to establish personal progress step by step using an evaluation system based on the methodological guidance of the “The Outcomes Star”. This tool helps tomonitor of social workers’ work with the homeless and assess the progress made by the client in different areas of socialisation. The client is stimulated to do the same thing independently as well, at the beginning with the help of a social worker. As in other projects, while implementing the solution homelessness was approached in a multifaceted way: to provide the homeless not only with necessary skills, but also increase motivation and self-confidence, help them to determine theircapabilities, teach them how to write a CV, plan for the future and use their income wisely, not to rely only on short-term jobs (such as gathering mushrooms or berries), when wages are received cash-in-hand. According to the experts, at the beginning of the re/integration of the homeless longer breaks between jobs are recorded, also frequently dropping out of the labour market occurs, thus continuous support from the specialists is necessary. How have the homeless benefited from the project? In the opinion of the head of Vilnius City Shelter Home, it It is not sufficient to help the homeless find a job. They can frequently find jobs, but it is important to help them to find secure jobs, sothat they can resolve their other problems, and be motivated to change their lifestyle. Aurelija Dzedzevičiūtė Head of Vilnius Archibishopric Caritas Shelter Home

was most useful to those who were homeless for relatively short periods of time. The majority of them were caught in time and got away from the grip of homelessness. The apprenticeship practice proved to be particularly worthwhile in the social and work re/integration process of the target group. Applying this practice, 10 target group representatives had a possibility to learn together with a mentor. During the apprenticeship the training participant was paid a scholarship, while the social worker, acting as an employment mediator, supervised the activity. As a result of apprenticeship practice the homeless acquired the skills such as repairing construction tools, working as a storehouse assistant, or as a cleaner, and some of them were employed in the companies which provided apprenticeship. The role of employment mediator is important, aiming at successful reintegration and securing a job for a homeless person. During the project it was noticed that social workers who had to provide counselling to the trained homeless or the ones who acquired qualifications did not have enough competences to work with the engagement and sensitization of potential employers, while employers either did not have experience to provide on-the-job training services or did not want to take the risk of doing so. Thus, the employment mediator in the social and work reintegration process had an important role to build and develop partnerships with potential employers regarding on-the-job training (apprenticeship) and/or employment as well as to train social workers working in the team on how to establish partnerships with employers.

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Partner organizations in particular had positive opinions about the use of educational trips for groups of homeless people. This innovative working method helped the people to experience other ways of living than their daily street life at least for a couple of days and understand that they are the same as others and that they can also successfully tackle the challenges. The trips involved various types of training and workshops where the homeless performed different tasks both individually and in groups. This notably increased the participants’ motivation to try to change their surroundings and make daily decisions in a different way, as many homeless have a tendency to underestimate themselves. Although the methodology created within the project was tested only in two shelter homes in Vilnius, it was introduced to all the shelter homes operating in Lithuania through the organization of training and presentation of training materials and a description of the model.

In addition, measures for making the work more effective were suggested. Second, 20 employees of shelter homes were trained to apply the homeless social integration measures suggested by the Scottish experts (151 homeless people were interviewed and 30 were employed). Below are other results and good practice examples: • The model adapted was implemented under the conditions of practical work: shelter home clients were interviewed individually, taking into consideration their multiple needs (increasing motivation, developing professional skills, mediation for employment, etc.) and recommendations prepared by the experts. • In applying the measures foreseen in the model, the increase of professional motivation and job satisfaction of social workers was noticeable. • The application of this method to the shelter homes specialists was also significant and was in particular useful while planning further care services. The methods and measures learned during the project were used by employees, whenever needed, in their daily work, for example, the method of “The Outcomes Star” or other service assessment or feedback measures. • The homeless with whom the specialists worked applying the principles of effective care (depending on the institutional possibilities) received continuous assistance and services to meet their individual needs (counselling, formal and informal training, mediation for employment and assisting them in staying for a longer period at the same workplace). As a result, 30 of them were employed and were assisted with securing a job. Effective care includes: 1) identification of client’s needs; 2) clarification of history of work with client; 3) protection of client; 4) ensuring continuous assistance and service provision to client; 5) ensuring continuous services to client in the absence of social worker assigned to him; 6) provision of information to social workers for self-assessment of their work; 7) provision of information to managers with the aim to ensure monitoring and assessment of quality of the ser-

Lessons learned
First, a significant result of adaptation of this method which has been successfully applied in other countries is the assessment of professional and organizational capacities of the staff of the two largest shelter homes and their needs.

The precise number of people without permanent residence in Lithuania is unknown. Photo by Edita Grėbliūnaitė.

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vices provided; 8) ensuring coordination of the services provided. • Lithuania lacks national level research on homelessness, so there is no thorough analysis of the target group, reasons for homelessness, dynamics, tendencies, or their institutional impact, nor is the relevant information codified. Regretfully, these activities were not allowed to be funded by ESF, thus the model developed can be evaluated only as a local experiment applied to two institutions, as only the latter were assessed according to the existing institutional capacities and needs. While implementing the project, some administrative and systematic weaknesses of organizations working with the homeless were revealed, which should be addressed. • The formal concept of work prevails in shelter homes, which is based on performing the direct functions of a social worker: providing information, counselling, mediation, representation, organization, etc., while not much attention is paid to solving the issues of integration and empowerment. • Considering that according to the statute shelter homes are not obliged to provide services related to the employment of the homeless, there is a risk that after the end of the project these institutions could stop providing these services. On the other hand, the implementation of internal reorganization and activity optimization measures also demands motivation and willingness of institution managers and employees, and probably the support from their founders. • Although a temporary shelter do not solve the homelessness problem in principle, nevertheless the important fact is that without meeting these needs, i. e. without providing the individual with housing, food and basic conditions to satisfy his/her physiological needs, it is not worth expecting that he/she will seek bigger goals in life. First of all the issue of social housing for the homeless should be addressed in order to successfully integrate them into society and the labour market.

Recommendations
1. EU recommends the Member States to include the strategies for addressing homelessness into their National Reform Programmes (European Economic and Social Committee’s opinion on the homelessness problem, 2012). Based on the project experience, it would be strategically useful to coordinate the actions of job centres, shelter homes and NGOs with a view not only to help the homeless to obtain housing and health care services, but also aim at their multifaceted integration into the labour market. 2. On the basis of EU Member States’ experience, which set concrete goals and objectives in the area of homelessness reduction, Lithuanian policy makers are recommended to: a) Review the reasons for homelessness in Lithuania and its dynamics; b) Assess existing legal basis for homelessness; c) Evaluate the existing capacities and experience in the field of homelessness; d) Prepare recommendations how to end homelessness in Lithuania by developing a concrete vision and national and local level strategies. 3. During the qualitative research several training needs and competence areas which are particularly relevant to social workers of shelter homes were identified, therefore it is recommended within other ESF projects to pay attention to: training employees in organization and modern management in advanced institutions providing social care services; effective work not only with an individual, but with the community as well; organization of community life in social service institutions. 4. The inclusion of shelter homes specialists both in developing the model and planning staff training as well as adapting new training programme paradigm principles would raise the activities of the shelter home, as an organization, to a qualitatively new level in a comparatively short time and provide it with the possibility to gradually become a and modern organization.

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Promotion of voluntarism and self-help initiatives in social service provision – “OUR CHOICE “
Figure 7. The process of implementation described in Home-Start method.

Goal
The project expanded the multifaceted approach to social services by integrating the promotion of voluntarism and self-help into the provision of social services. The review of this social element aims to introduce the Home-Start method of self-help and social risk prevention in families, adapted for Lithuania, and the implementation of inclusion of volunteers in social service provision as well as related challenges.

Method

Implementation

Activities

1. Conveying principles of future activity Implementation of Home-Start as an activity model promoting integration into the labour market of persons at social risk and socially excluded persons

Selection & training of people (5 weeks, 200 hours) according to informal managers/organizers programme

2. Empowerment to undertake activity

Social work manager, regularly assessing and strengthening target group motivation

3. Mediation among systems

Presentation of Home-Start international activity model in municipalities: mastering and applying work methodology

Employment of target group members in organizations which have applied Home-Start activity model 4. Output Choice of target group members to work independently as an au pair with business licence.

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Problems addressed
Based on the analysis carried out within the EQUAL project in 2007, the existing supply of home care service provision is assessed as not meeting demand (Klaipėda Social Support Centre, 2008). The providers of social services at home (childcare, housekeeping, care for the elderly, etc.) often do not have enough knowledge or competence, or they set the prices for their services too high. The provision of these services is of particular importance to socially vulnerable families bringing up small children due to their working skills and sustainability of their integration into society. With the aim to standardize the services at home, and ensure their safety and quality, the training programmes have to be prepared and officially approved. In addition, the diversity and accessibility of these services must be ensured by involving people at social risk (long-term unemployed, migrants, retired women, etc.) or volunteers into home care assistance. However, NGOs working in the social field still lack capacities and work organization knowledge that would help to attract volunteers assisting in social service provision to the vulnerable (Public Policy and Management Institute, 2011).

sharing experience. The aim of this activity is to prevent family crisis and promote the wellbeing of children with the belief that the most effective support can be provided by volunteers with experience as parents. Within the project, based on the Home-Start method, the informal education programme for Home-Start managerorganisers was prepared and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science as an informal adult education programme. Currently, after being licensed, social work and job centre training centres and education establishments which are engaged in the development of professional qualifications of social workers can use this programme. It is publicly available in the training programme data system at www.aikos.smm.lt. It is worth mentioning that under Lithuanian conditions, the Home-Start method aims at providing more possibilities to get a job for the unemployed with lower qualifications, thereby reducing their social exclusion and increasing their social and communication skills. In parallel, “Au pair and social worker’s assistant training programmes”, prepared within the EQUAL project, granting a professional qualification (level II formal education programme, state code 362076102) was improved during the project. After accomplishing this programme, 57 women, most of whom were long-term unemployed, acquired a right to work in any social service institution which has social workers’ assistants and au pair jobs. Project partners – NGOs and social service centres working on the basis of the Home-Start method trained 40 project participants – target group members with the aim of enabling them to carry out the management and organizational work of volunteers working according to this method. According to project partners, 18 persons joined the activities of the PI Klaipėda Region Women’s Information Centre. In addition, this centre established a separate subdivision in Plunge which plans to work on the basis of the same Home-Start methodology. Considering that in the strategic activity plans of social support divisions of municipalities major attention is focused on social assistance to risk groups, without pay-

Actions proposed and tested
Home-Start model The project utilized the social innovation created within the EQUAL project already in 2008 – it is a model of selfhelp and volunteerism, called the Home-Start model. Within the project framework it was sought to extend the application of this method to six municipalities. The NGO network Home-Start International includes more than 300 organizations from all over the world and has been operating for 30 years. It promotes free assistance to young families bringing up at least one pre-school child and facing various challenges. The Home-Start methodology is based on peer self-help by teaching volunteers how to carry out childcare and housekeeping tasks as well as offering advice or simply

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ing any attention to social prevention, the Home-Start method implemented in Lithuania with the help of NGOs would be useful for young families at risk. If implemented more widely, voluntary work, use of parental experience and awareness-raising activities would contribute to addressing the social problems of many families. Promotion of voluntarism The service model developed was actively promoted in six municipalities, at the same time promoting a self-help initiative, community activities and the active participation of volunteers in social exclusion mitigation. NGOs possess a huge unutilised potential to provide social services, involve communities and mobilize volunteers for integrated social service provision, in particular to the socially vulnerable and families in their community. Guidelines and procedural descriptions for carrying out voluntary activities in social institutions and NGOs were prepared in the project partners’ social service institutions based on the experience gathered through study visits organized by the project. The document highlights the management and quality of NGO work and recommends investing in: • quality, by utilising productivity, flexibility, sensibility and innovations while providing services; • competencies, by increasing professionalism, deepening knowledge and strengthening identity of an organization; • management, by increasing optimization, organization, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of internal activities and documentation. The Order on organizing and implementing voluntary activities prepared under the project describes in detail the value of voluntary activities, their formalisation, the processes of organization, implementation and reimbursement of costs as well as coaching of volunteers and other organizational aspects of internal activities. These guidelines, if used in social sector NGOs, could

promote the improvement of services at home and help to publicise them. While adapting the questionnaires recommended by the Rome Institute for Economic and Social Research (Istituto per gli Affari Sociali, Italy), a voluntary activity monitoring system adapted for Lithuanian institutions was created. Klaipėda Social Support Centre, after analysing its own voluntary activities, formalised the procedure for carrying out voluntary activities and transferred it to other project partners. These procedures regulate the conditions for carrying out voluntary activities in institutions, sending volunteers on business trips, reimbursement of costs and documentation of voluntary activity. The main values on which the voluntary work is based were also clarified. The project partners are using this procedure, and the information about possibilities of its implementation in other organizations was disseminated at round table events in other municipalities.

Lessons learned
Adapted to Lithuanian conditions, the method of selfhelp and social risk prevention in families, called HomeStart, is a form of innovative social interaction between a jobless or socially excluded person, a service provider and socially vulnerable family – the beneficiary, whereby social prevention work is strengthened. The implementation of this method results in the enhancement of motivation of the programme participant and families to work and integrate into society as well as to look for jobs. • Solutions related to vocational training, organization of voluntary activity and development of preventive social service networks were adapted and implemented in six municipalities. The informal training “Home-Start manager’s/organiser’s programme” was prepared, and 40 target group members were trained. • The “Au pair and social worker’s assistant training programme” prepared within the EQUAL project was improved during the project, and 57 target group members were trained.

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• Procedures for carrying out voluntary activities were regulated (documentation of voluntary activity, processes for activity organization and its implementation, financial management, activity coaching). Guidelines and an order on organizing and carrying out voluntary activities were prepared and approved in all project partner organizations. This order can be used by social service institutions and NGOs willing to make their work with volunteers more effective. The national round table discussion organised during the project disseminated this document to other interested parties. • Eight individual career planning workshops were organized, resulting in 158 people trained and 72 employed. The main difficulties and lessons learned by the project: • Although project partners effectively disseminated the information about the wider use of the HomeStart model in other municipalities and trained 40 people to become managers of the model, its application in practice depends a lot on the involvement of society in voluntary activities, which to date is rather low. • Although Home-Start self-help model promoted in the project is a good idea as it is based on voluntary work, it is challenging to apply it to the integration of people at social risk with low motivation who participated in the project (asking them to do volunteering activities). However, the model could be more successful if developed on the basis of a business model principle, which is well-thought out and where childcare services are provided by people at social risk who have been trained and have certificates (more motivated unemployed people with higher levels of education). In such a way, paid jobs would be created and families with children would be assisted. • The social work manager performing assessments and involved in enhancing the motivation of the target group provided counselling on the basis of

motivational interviews, but had limited possibilities to implement this counselling method in full, as the second part of the interview – support and falling out support were not funded as activities by ESF. When the project participant gets employed, his/her activity would be terminated and he/she would not have the possibility to get support from the social worker, and if they lost their job would have no right to return to the project. • In respect of the social innovation under analysis, the project was oriented more towards expansion of the model, approval of training programmes and training of relevant personnel. However, the trained persons proved to be not always capable of establishing their own organizations and to initiate activities independently, while no other functioning organizations which could provide this service developed during the project, as was the case in Plungė.

Recommendations
• NGOs are recommended to strengthen their managerial and organizational capacities and provide more social services, in particular using the Home-Start method and attracting more volunteers who also suffer from social exclusion (inviting long-term unemployed, retired people). • It is recommended to pilot adapting the Home-Start method in the SME sector by establishing a social service enterprise. This would provide opportunities not only for volunteering, but also earning from this activity, thereby enhancing the motivation of the target group (unemployed parents bringing up small children) to provide services according to this method. • Traditionally women have the housekeeping skills and knowledge gained in informal ways. Besides that, a structured training programme on assistance at home is needed. This would offer health care and hygiene training to unemployed women and develop their personal and communication competences. In

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addition, the training would help them to find stable employment and leave the “black market” system. • The approval of the Order for organizing and implementing voluntary activities should be sought by the MSSL (decree of the minister) as a recommendation. Existence of clear guidelines would promote organizations to work more effectively and responsibly.

increase flexibility and accessibility of family social services (MSSL, 2011). The project activity aimed at finding and suggesting other, mobile and more accessible alternative childcare services in rural areas, which would help young families and single mothers who are often at social risk to return sooner to the labour market.

Alternative childcare services in rural areas – “CHILDREN IN CARE“
Goal
The social innovation of the project lies in the innovative approach in both planning of childcare services and in providing mentorship and self-help based social services to unemployed parents in rural areas. This activity aimed at providing the possibility for unemployed women with children to reintegrate into the labour market and develop the network of social and childcare services in rural areas, which would help to solve childcare issues.

Actions proposed and tested
The key aspect of this social innovation is the organization of more accessible childcare services in rural areas, at the same time employing children’s parents for provision of services. The beginning of the project focused on finding an appropriate methodological basis, i.e.: 1) developing the methodology for analysis of preschool childcare resources, possibilities and needs; 2) drafting preschool childcare service plans for 11 neighbourhoods in Lithuania. It is important to analyse both the subjective aspects and the objective conditions of preschool childcare resources, possibilities and needs in order to assess the situation precisely in different areas. While designing the methodology, the use of foreign experts allowed those involved in the project to incorporate community planning instruments which are widely applied worldwide. The methodology is presented in a concise form (map and questionnaire) that could be effectively used in analyzing local resources, assessing the need for childcare and the possible nature of services as well as possibilities for parents’ employment. Specialists from the target neighbourhood’s local administration, the job centre, NGOs, and social work specialists familiarized themselves with the good practices of the Netherlands and Norway in providing social services to families and children and employing family members in social ser-

Problems addressed
The number of day care centres for pre-school children is increasing in Lithuania, and regular kindergartens exist. However, this model is often not applicable in rural localities, as the number of children is low there, while the inhabitants are dispersed over long distances, thus the establishment of traditional day centres or kindergartens is either not an option or very expensive. Support to families is one of the main social security priorities of the country. The Family Welfare and Child Rights Protection Programme promotes the development of family services and increases their accessibility: it aims to develop the activities of a community centre, and

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vice provision. Based on the experience gained during the visits and the methodology prepared, the representatives of the neighbourhoods involved, together with the experts, carried out the analysis of local resources, needs and possibilities in 11 Lithuanian neighbourhoods and prepared preschool childcare service plans. In the plans, the most appropriate tools and methods of establishing additional childcare services for a particular neighbourhood were selected, for example, mobile or stationary services provided at children’s day care centres, group or individual childcare, self-help models, community voluntary social work initiatives, etc. The financial sustainability of the services selected was evaluated and a business plan for service implementation prepared. According to the plans, the most acceptable options for providing childcare services were suggested in various neighbourhoods, pointing out who could provide the services and where. Childcare can be carried out both by specialists and nonspecialists. Households with at least three generations often organise childcare involving extended family members. In Lithuania it is usual to hire private individuals who may not be specialists for preschool childcare..Therefore, the plans foresaw various options, such as childcare by community members – retired women, neighbours’ older children, mothers of small children, tutors, teachers, social workers, etc. Training courses for social workers, volunteers and other employees working with people at social risk were carried out during the project, and 45 persons were trained. International expert Sylvia Reyes organized the evaluation of the methodology concerning the social skills development of social workers, thus the training met modern standards of European social skills development. Having fully prepared for social service provision, the families with children living in the target neighbourhoods were informed about the services available and social workers started individual work with the parents. Parents with chil-

Figure 8. Social work model within project “CHILDREN IN CARE“

Assessment of social problems

Addressing unemployment using mentorship method

Development of working skills

Individual vocational counselling

dren below 10 years of age and unemployed at that time could participate in the project. The members of the target group, rural women, usually do not have either professional knowledge or experience. They lack initiative, self-confidence and social contacts. Therefore, besides professional training, psychological and social support was provided to them. The mentorship and self-help programme for women at risk was initiated and coordinated by the neighbourhood’s social workers or trained volunteers. The social work model implemented during the project is presented in the chart below. Volunteers mentors were sought in the community organizations, other NGOs and business representatives. Mentors took part in the meetings with women at social risk, discussed childcare and family problems, motivated them for work, and assisted them in job seeking and the preparation of necessary documentation. Approximately 22 mentors worked in the project, each of them took care of at

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least four women (some of them even more). Children who came together with their mothers received professional care by the au pairs hired by the project. Women’s self-help groups were also initiated in every neighbourhood, i.e. “mothers’ clubs”, where social workers and target group women had the possibility to share their experience and discuss chronic unemployment, childcare and education issues in an informal environment. The aim was to ensure that women were not left alone with their problems many of which could be successfully solved with the help of like-minded people and local community members. Upon request of the parents, the individual consultations were provided by social workers who received special training. About seven women participated in project locality (11) project localities. The self-help groups used to meet four times a month. It was estimated that in each neighbourhood there were between 10 to 15 percent of cases of individual work with parents, where the project participants needed continuous assistance not only in job seeking, but also in solving other social problems, often due to the lack of social skills, weak skills in filling in social care documents (for social benefits), etc. Therefore, the social workers had to work closely and actively with those parents, who, due to the lack of trust, motivation or other reasons, were not ready to use the services provided by the

job centres or change their lifestyle. Ways of tackling the problems were established together with parents. Neighbourhood social workers played an important role by assisting families at social risk with children living in rural areas in job seeking. They actively cooperated with local job centres, as they could also provide additional possibilities for vocational training. Usually neighbourhoods and social workers have close relations with job centres, nevertheless, during the project even more active inter-institutional cooperation directed towards engagement of client groups developed. Having consulted with job centre representatives, the social workers could direct the clients towards training relevant for them or help them to search for a job more actively both through the job centre and by suggesting public works.

Lessons learned
The described methodology shows the advantages of multifaceted social services, which are inseparable from more intensive use of human and financial resources. The examples of good practice that could be disseminated are as follows: • Innovative social service models adapted to the needs of rural localities, their infrastructure and resources were developed. The models included maps of resources, possibilities and needs as well as descriptions of service plans. • In the neighbourhoods that do not yet have day centres, social service plans evaluated by foreign experts are used as feasibility studies while preparing other projects and pursuing the development of social services. The service plans help neighbourhoods to integrate into the National Programme of Multifaceted Assistance to Families Bringing Up Children, prepared by MSSL, and develop multifunctional centres in rural areas under the direction of educational institutions with EU support in 2007-2013. • The project off ered a mobile childcare service model in rural areas for persons at risk of social

The Family Welfare and Child Rights Protection Programme promotes the development of family services and increases their accessibility. Photo by Edita Grėbliūnaitė.

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exclusion with the aim to integrate them into the labour market, when parents and community members are involved in service provision. Such a model has many advantages if implemented in a flexible way and coordinated with other measures and employment services in rural areas. • The aim is to include the training programme for social workers in the list of programmes under informal education in the Department of Social Service Supervision at MSSL, and to award those completing the course a diploma. • The qualifications of social workers, volunteers and other employees working with groups at social risk were raised as a result of training and study visits in the Netherlands and Norway. In total, 67 persons were trained. • Social mentorship provided in the form of individual assistance is a particularly effective way of integrating persons at social risk into the labour market. The experience of practical work with these persons demonstrates that often job centres carry out inspection work rather than counselling for the unemployed. People at social risk do not have social skills, thus avoid communicating not only with people in general, but with various government services in particular. They are afraid to ask questions, and react badly to strict instructions. In this case the individual assistance of a social worker and consultant, as well as mentorship is perhaps the only suitable way to help such people. Joint planning of activities, visiting different offices together with the client (including the job centre), exchanges of views, and mediation between the client and employer should be the obligatory components of active social assistance with a view to employment of a vulnerable person. Application of active social mentorship methods resulted in 132 women and 21 men finding employment during the project. As in every activity, some lessons are learned or some unexpected difficulties are met. The latter are summarised below:

• A pilot model of mobile childcare services was only partially tested in in rural areas (not in all neighbourhoods) because during the long period between project planning and its implementation childcare needs were constantly changing. However, if well thought-out childcare services had been fully implemented, the project could have served as a new and tested service model that would have enriched rural development with new activity. • Public education institutions receive state financial support, thus the price for their services is rather low. Community childcare institutions have to cover activity costs, fund raise, and ask parents for a contribution. This means that in order to attract clients it has to organise its activities in a very effective manner and suggest other innovations which are acceptable to the client. Otherwise there is a risk that if the price for services is too high, parents will not use them. • Within the time frame of the project it was not possible to implement all the legal requirements related to the establishment of childcare institutions and their management (sanitation, food, educational requirements), which, particularly in rural areas, are redundant and difficult to implement. When organizing childcare services at community level, when the community is responsible for the maintenance of such a structure, it is often very difficult and expensive to implement all the detailed requirements related to these services. On the other hand, organizing such an activity requires not only premises and financing, but local people with entrepreneurship and organizational skills. For all these reasons, alternative or additional childcare services were not established within the time frame of the project. • Due to limited social skills and low motivation of the target group the challenge was to gather the participants together in training courses and self-help groups. People in rural areas are often passive and mistrustful, therefore the project staff had to rely on local neighbourhood workers and their social networks.

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Recommendations
• While adopting the best practice of foreign countries, it is recommended to create flexible childcare service models adapted to rural areas involving parents, community organizations and volunteers in service provision. Although opportunities to practically test the establishment of childcare service institutions in rural areas were not used to the full extent during the project, such models would not only address the childcare problems in an effective and financially sustainable way, but also create jobs for women who had not participated in the labour market for a long period. Eventually these services can be combined with other services, for example, with the provision of domestic, health care and other services, developing service infrastructure and creating new jobs in Lithuanian rural areas. Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands and other foreign countries organise services in a similar way, thereby successfully integrating risk groups into social and economic activities. • The preschool childcare problem in rural areas would benefit from the simplification of rules regulating the establishment and management of childcare centres. They are in particular related to strict requirements for sanitary safety measures, education and equipment. The requirements for alternative childcare care services leaving more responsibilities for parents should be dealt in a similar way, as the sanitary and other requirements were simplified for small enterprises processing and producing foodstuff in rural areas. This would foster an increase in employment and rural development. Although the changes regarding the simplification of hygiene norms made in 2010 can be evaluated as an important step in reducing requirements, they are not yet sufficient to solve the problem for all intents and purposes. • One of the main problems in organizing childcare and education services is transportation. Although this is the responsibility of parents, some families do not have a car or money for their children’s transportation, as often they are families at social risk. Municipalities should

provide support for transportation of these children, and also parents’ self-help groups could be organized. • The participation of volunteers (in particular parents themselves) in childcare is a common practice in Europe, as it also helps to reduce childcare costs. However, in such an activity the regulation of volunteers’ (parents’) work and following hygiene norms might be an issue. Parents participating in childcare should sign a voluntary work contract with the day care centre with regard to the amount and nature of work, behaviour norms, etc. Parents participating in childcare should have a health check and obtain a personal health certificate. • The problem of attracting more target group members into the training course organised within the project and in particular keeping them on the whole training cycle should be addressed in a complex manner, as there is no single “remedy” so far. In the opinion of social workers, the majority of people receiving social benefits are not interested in finding a job or learning, therefore the social financial assistance system should be reformed in such a way as to encourage and not demotivate people with regard to work. During similar projects it is advisable to clarify well in advance who from the target group members would be interested in participating in training, to adequately inform and prepare them, and later pay them training scholarships or create another system of additional motivation, for example, relating part of the social benefit to the requirement of completing the training course. Development of such a motivation system should be addressed at national level.

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Partnership as a capacity development tool
Social partnership is the only effective and universal way to promote economic and social progress, address new challenges and maintain social cohesion. Participation in the partnership process helps to bring together and develop partners’ knowledge and skills, contributes to competence and institutional capacity development as well as to life-long learning. Partners learn from past and current experience from other countries, from each other, from mistakes and good practices, thereby accelerating the creation of a more sustainable society. The research conducted demonstrates that partnerships contribute to the effectiveness of activity, its legitimacy, transparency as well as to the ownership of commitments and results (Public Policy and Management Institute, 2010). Moreover, addressing problems with the help of social partners results in the no less important feeling of social trust, openness and usefulness, which is still missing in post-Soviet countries trying to change the soviet mentality and relationships. Both UNDP strategic (2008-2013) and EU programming documents pay special attention to the application of the partnership principle and cooperation, emphasizing the catalytic-synergetic effect of sharing partners’ experience and exchanging competencies. UNDP global network activity aims at the dissemination of results created on the basis of cooperation and exchange of experience among countries, institutions and citizens with a view to strengthening their capacities to tackle sustainable development challenges. Multi-stakeholder partnerships were incorporated into the core of the United Nations modus operandi long ago, and are more and more focused towards engaging and bringing together different partners. UNDP Lithuania played a key role by consolidating partners from various levels and sectors for joint work in the fields of social inclusion, CSR, environmental protection and sustainable development, human rights and democracy, development cooperation, higher education and others. In these areas, and recently in particular in the CSR area, UNDP has brought together many social and economic partners, state institutions, private and non-governmental sectors, the academic community

Some time ago, UNDP used to address problems only with governments. Today we know that peace and welfare cannot be achieved without partnerships with governments, international organizations, the business community and civil society. Kofi Annan UN Secretary General

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and recognized international experts and organizations for the systematic development of knowledge, synergy and sharing institutional competences in the country. This long-term cooperation with national partners and the government enabled UNDP to transfer its experience and coordination skills into the planning and implementation of new partnership projects both at national and local levels. Although partnerships are not new in projects, UNDP succeeded in creating new partnership models not yet tested in Lithuania. This chapter describes two case studies reviewing UNDP project activities and results based on the innovative national level partnerships supported by ESF, which are significant not only for Lithuania but for the region as well. One of the projects is “GATES”, which tested NGO-business partnership for the first time in implementing CSR related sub-projects. Another – “PARTNERS 4 VALUE”, based on the experience of other EU countries, established an international partnership platform of higher education establishments, international organizations and businesses aiming at improving the quality of education through international cooperation and bringing education and employment closer. In addition, the analytical study presents the description of activities related to partnerships and analysis of experience by formulating concrete proposals for increasing the impact of these projects in the future. Each and every project of UNDP Lithuania aimed to engage as many relevant partners and institutions as possible, not only with a view to achieving more complex and sustainable results of the projects, but also due to the transfer of UNDP institutional memory and experience to local partners. It was expected that in this way their administrative and management capacities will be strengthened and knowledge accumulated enabling to further make use of UNDP experience-based activity within the country and elsewhere.

NGO-business partnerships – “GATES“
Goal
Probably the most interesting and innovative activity within the project “GATES”, which promoted CSR, was fostering NGO-business cooperation through various CSR initiatives. This chapter reviews the implementation practice of these initiatives. This activity model aims at promoting NGO interest and engagement in the area of CSR, strengthening the NGO sector and enhancing its capacities and role in CSR development by creating partnerships with enterprises. Thus, it was expected that enterprises will better understand the advantages of NGO activities and will appreciate the benefit of mutual cooperation.

Problems addressed
Globalisation, market liberalisation, increasing demands and raising the consciousness of society, rapid growth of the importance of communication and social networks, increasing expectations of consumers and investors – all these factors increasingly force businesses to turn to CSR commitments. The CSR Baseline Study carried out in 2007 confirmed that the Lithuanian NGO sector was a weak business partner in promoting CSR development. The National Programme for CSR Development (20092012) envisaged that one of the systemic and difficult CSR development obstacles in Lithuania is weak NGOs both in respect of their organizational capacities and their contribution to the development of various sectors. One of the reasons is the absence of stable basic funding, which is enjoyed by NGOs in other countries. The search for additional funding and for various projects takes away most of the time and efforts of NGO employees and volunteers. Nevertheless, often NGO representatives perceive businesses as funding sources

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only, not as partners. Partnership with business based on mutual benefit and trust would be one of the possibilities to fund NGO activities and create joint ones for the benefit of society and business. However, the traditions of such cooperation are still in their infancy.

Actions proposed and tested
“GATES” aimed to demonstrate the benefit of joint NGO and business activity through practical examples, summarise this experience and disseminate it among NGOs and enterprises. Partnerships The NGO-business partnership is a voluntary alliance between different sectors, which promotes mutual creativity and innovations and is useful for the development of society, NGOs and business. Such partnerships are based on the principles of equality, respect and parity, they create synergies between the strong sides of each partner and complement each other with resources, knowledge and capacities. In such a partnership, organizations commit themselves to share both the risks and the benefits, but the driving force of such cooperation is mutual trust and exchange of competences. Successful NGO business partnerships can create benefits to each partner. Society and clients have more trust in the CSR projects of companies if these are executed in partnership with NGOs. This shows more serious commitment and responsibility of the company and positively reflects on its reputation, strengthens the company brand, and increases trust in consumers and investors. Usually NGOs can offer innovative ideas, contact with the community and specialized knowledge in social, environmental, volunteering and other fields.

“We consider partnership with the SEB Bank as a meaningful project, which contributed to the development of our organizational capacities and had the potential to lead to environmental changes in the Lithuanian business culture. We had an opportunity to work with motivated partners who understood the dependence of business on natural resources and the huge problems related to the sustainability of current business practices. Within the partnership, we analyzed not only ways of reducing the consumption of resources, but also possible changes in banking activities in order to promote the development of sustainable business in Lithuania. By the end of the project, SEB Bank committed to draft its strategy on environmental protection. If the strategy maintains the main ideas of this initiative, this will be a step ahead in the Lithuanian business culture.” Žymantas Morkvėnas Director, NGO BEF

Together with the NGO Baltic Environment Forum (BEF), we implemented the project which aimed at promoting sustainable business development at the SEB Bank and reducing our environmental impact. We aim to reduce the consumption of natural resources and the environmental impact of our business activity. In addition, we encourage our partners and clients to act in a responsible way. Attention to the environment is included in the bank crediting policy, which requires assessing environmental risks when taking decisions on the crediting documents of new or long-term clients. Bank credit contracts include an obligation of the client to observe these requirements. Jonas Iržikevičius Vice President, SEB Bank

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The benefit that NGOs receive from partnership with business not only lies in attracting additional funding, but also in wider possibilities to use their expertise, strengthen the organization and increase the impact of their activities. While working with companies, NGOs can gain experience on effective management of activities and finances, on how to seek concrete results in a strategic way or learn in areas of public relations and marketing. They can more effectively contribute to the implementation of sustainable development ideas and achieve more significant results. Operational side The NGO-business partnership model planned in the project was implemented through purchasing “the idea” and its implementation services from NGOs, as this was the only feasible way to organize NGO-business projects’ grant mechanism. It was based on UNDP experience in successfully administering GEF SGP and its principles. This mechanism was based on flexible and democratic selection of project proposals and close cooperation with project performers throughout the whole period of project implementation (providing them with necessary advice, assistance and mediation – for more information, refer to “GEF projects”). Advice, assistance and mediation to project leaders were provided by an adviser – a partnership broker, whose position was created following good practice in other projects. The main role was to serve as a mediator between business and NGO representatives and assist them to initiate partnerships, motivate potential partners to cooperate, and moderate negotiations by managing partners’ expectations and addressing problems. As an international organization and having a rich experience in the CSR area in Lithuania, UNDP played an important role in ensuring broker’s independence and partners’ trust. It enabled

the partnership broker to serve as an effective and respective mediator and discussion moderator between the parties. The broker was especially useful in the early stages of partnerships while bringing together potential partners, helping them to understand each other’s needs, and providing advice on the implementation of the principle of equality with the aim of not limiting the initiatives to “procurement of services” only. Implementation The competition for NGO-business partnership ideas was implemented through targeted thematic procurement tenders for project ideas and their implementa-

Employees learn about various forms of disability, while interactive tasks and case studies help cope with psychological barriers related to a client’s disability. In such a way, partnership contributes to the improvement of the quality of customer services. As an organization, we learned how to evaluate the integration problems of people with disabilities not only from their point of view, but also from the point of view of a telecommunication service company. We understood that cooperation and open dialogue, listening to mutual needs, expectations, possibilities, limitations both on the part of the consumer and the service provider is the best way to seek optimal solutions for improvement of the quality of services for people with disabilities. Antanas Zabulis President, “Omnitel“ Our partnership with ‘Omnitel’ helped us to understand that we were capable of working together with the business sector and that we could learn from each other. Gaila Muceniekas, Lithuanian Union of People with Disabilities

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tion. In total, 26 project proposals were selected for funding for 974 934 Lt (374 686 USD) in six CSR areas: environment (37 percent), labour relations (23 percent), human rights (9 percent), business transparency and/or anticorruption (8 percent), business integration into society (12 percent), corporate citizenship and/or promotion of volunteering (11 percent). While evaluating the project proposals, much attention was paid to measures which induce companies to change from the inside and which foresee long-term results and have serious potential for further development of joint activity. Considering that successful long-term and trust-based partnerships develop gradually, it was very timely to test small pilot initiatives at the beginning, which later could serve as tested practical experience in more multi-faceted projects, if partnership is maintained. The projects were implemented within the time frame of 12 months. At the initial stage, with active broker’s assistance, the contacts between businesses and NGOs were established, and partnership goals and visions identified. NGOs and businesses clarified their expectations, estimated necessary resources, potential impact and societal benefits, and discussed issues related to sharing the risk. Eventually, having agreed on drafting the project, the main partnership conditions and requirements were set. This phase lasted perhaps the longest, as business had to understand what an NGO was, and NGOs had to understand how businesses operated. While initiating partnerships, it was more difficult to motivate NGOs, not businesses, to participate in them. NGOs have very little experience of closer interactions with business and do not always understand the specific nature of business. Some of them were afraid of accountability and did not trust their own competencies. On the other hand, not all the companies were open to cooperation – not all of them wanted to allow unknown NGOs into

their “kitchens”. Thus there is no surprise that the most successful partnerships were established between leading NGOs and foreign companies. The most successful projects were implemented in the fields of the environment, business integration into society and human rights. In the brokers’ opinion, environmental initiatives went most smoothly mostly because the companies clearly understood the benefit of environmental projects for business. Anticorruption initiatives demand a very serious commitment and openness of the partners, and are not achievable in a short time span. Labour relations are frequently also a sensitive subject, and companies are not comfortable allowing independent NGOs to become involved. Companies

Telecommunications company “Omnitel” in partnership with the NGO “Lithuanian Union of People with Disabilities” increased its competencies and abilities addressing disabled clients needs. Photo from Project archives.

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that are not new to strategic CSR activity gained the momentum with NGO partnership projects due to their commitment to seek more significant results, and not only public relations. Also strong and competent NGOs, which proactively pursued their goals had easier working relations with their partners. As a result of the initiatives new cooperation possibilities were tested and opened up, which formed the basis for trust and understanding between NGOs and business. Below is a summary of the examples of partnership results achieved in each field: • Environment: network of restaurants and cafés promoting the culture of responsible water consumption; methodologies, systems and plans on saving natural resources; sustainable development strategy; measures to reduce environmental impact; methodology for calculating CO2 emissions related to transport; “responsible events”; recommendations on applying green procurement requirements, etc.; • Labour relations: employee satisfaction and effectiveness measuring tool; measures to improve communications; recommendations on forms of flexible working; employee motivation system; training programme on how to strengthen relations with your children, etc.; • Human rights: recommendations on adapting shopping centres for the needs of people with disabilities and relevant training programmes; mainstreaming human rights in the field of labour relations; recommendations on facilitating the enrolment into universities of students with disabilities and adapting the environment for them, etc.; • Volunteering: adapted programme on developing parental skills and training schoolchildren; mentors for HIV/AIDS prevention; platform for closer business and school cooperation www.kamtoreikia.lt; internship system at companies for schoolchildren, etc.; • Business integration into society: improved quality of client service; model of cooperation between businesses and education establishments; feasibility study on responsible activity in Western Sahara, etc.;

• Business transparency and anticorruption: improved Code of Ethics for Employees and implementation action plan; recommendations on anti-corruption prevention measures; guidelines for improving processes in transparency and anti-corruption fields, etc.

Lessons learned
The implementation of NGO-business partnership models led to a learning experience. Good practice is as follows: • Thanks to this project, the position of a partnership broker was established in Lithuania. As an independent moderator and adviser, the broker was especially useful while forming partnerships, “seeding ideas” and resolving conflicts. Such trilateral cooperation helped better understand expectations and find compromises for communication, management and decision-making. Independence and competence are the main characteristics necessary for a broker. • According to NGOs, partnerships gave them an opportunity to better familiarise themselves with the company. In partnering with companies, NGOs acquired experience and established contacts, which opened new horizons for further activities and even potential funding possibilities. Business partnerships with NGOs demonstrate deeper business commitment to CSR and are more effective in gaining consumers’ loyalty and improving the business’s reputation and competitiveness. • NGOs are attractive partners in such types of partnerships namely due to their differences from business organizations, therefore it is important to maintain these differences, in particular NGOs’ capacity to provide independent expertise and act independently. • After around 5-7 months of cooperation, the partners started trusting each other and creating new initiatives. • Successful partnerships should take the following factors into acount:

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- First, business expects a clearly defined proposal from NGO, which would be related to company area of activity and which is based on concrete issue in the CSR field. - The partnership agreement which foresees responsibilities, conditions of confidentiality, visibility and funding should be signed by the high level managers of the company. It is even better if the initiative is introduced to the company board and receives its approval. - The initiative has to be based on a well-defined strategy, which includes projected results indicators, a timetable of activity and responsible staff. - Both parties need to ensure balanced engagement, transparency, timely and accurate fulfilment of responsibilities and good communication. This is very important if there are plans to expand the initiative and involve more companies. - Maximum interactive implementation of joint activities with employees of the company increases their motivation, satisfaction and success. Lessons learned and obstacles: • Considering that it was feasible to organize the tender for project proposals as NGO service procurement only, NGOs became service providers and were unilaterally responsible for management of project budgets and ensuring the implementation of initiatives. This sometimes resulted in lack of commitment from companies to aim for good results. The situation improved when signing partnership agreements was introduced instead of just a cooperation declaration. It clearly defined obligations, persons responsible, intended results, conditions of confidentiality, and was signed by high-level management representatives. It should be noted that at the beginning of the project UNDP suggested to establish a grant system to support NGO sub-projects on the basis of successfully tested GEF SGP. However, due to Lithuanian institutions’ lack of experience with global grants systems, there was no endorsement for its establishment, and

then other solutions were found, even if they were not the most attractive and effective. At the same time, they ensured that ESF requirements for funding the ideas of NGO business partnerships were met and this entire activity became feasible. Business lacks understanding about NGOs, their activities and role in addressing societal problems. The unclear legal status of these organizations makes it more difficult to distinguish NGOs from public institutions and reduces trust in the NGO sector. Due to low competence and/or lack of human and financial resources there are not enough NGOs in Lithuania which could offer quality cooperation to business. In addition, NGOs often focus only on activity and process and not enough on results, which creates misunderstandings while working with business. The perception of business as a sponsor only is still prevalent in the NGO sector in Lithuania. This results in NGOs being unwilling to offer their services or competencies to business, because cooperation in this case demands much more work and mutual accountability if compared with sponsorship agreements. The obstacles also relate to the fact that a client/consumer in Lithuania does not yet pay sufficient attention to company CSR activity in the same way as in the West. Thus not many companies see the need to engage in activities other than public relations. The main obstacles observed while implementing the module of NGO-business partnerships were: - Too short time frame for implementation of initiatives. - Staff changes in the middle of the project damaged the partnership. - In cases of non-observance of terms and fulfilment of obligations by NGOs, a company quickly loses trust in its partner. - Problems related to partners’ influence and real or imaginary inequality. - Insufficient support by company management. NGOs’ contribution may not be worthwhile due to excessive confidentiality of company activity.

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Recommendations
• An ex-ante survey carried out by UNDP demonstrated that NGO understanding of CSR is rather low, thus awareness-raising and competence-building for NGOS in the CSR field is needed through training and continuation of the NGO business partnerships’ funding mechanism. Such partnerships contribute to the welfare of society. • As businesses were not required to contribute financially, more favourable conditions to initiate partnerships were created, and that was an appropriate solution for the initial testing of innovation. However, based on foreign experience, while planning support to such partnerships in the future, it would be most appropriate to create a trilateral support for the initiatives: EU fund or state and/or municipal budget, business and NGO (possibly in-kind contributions). This would help to ensure that partnerships are not unilateral and NGOs are not just service providers. • The most suitable way to organize the funding for NGO business partnerships would be through an annual global grant system rather than procurement. This would ensure sustainability and enable both partners to be equally responsible for the budget and results of the initiative. It would also provide necessary flexibility both time and activity-wise. Moreover, it is important to fund only new initiatives and not just continue funding current ones. • For NGOs expanding cooperation with business, it is recommended to cooperate by consolidating thematic areas (for example, social, environmental and human rights fields), as it might be more attractive for companies to work with one team of NGOs, which having consulted with each other could offer competent advice and quality services in several CSR fields at once. At the same time, it is worthwhile for NGOs to work with the National Responsible Business Network. • Experience demonstrated that the role of a partnership broker was important in initiating partnerships and ensuring partners’ trust in each other. A very important factor is the independence of brokers, as

they work for UNDP. In the future, it is recommended that the public sector take over this role by establishing brokers’ positions in CSR related institutions, who would further provide independent mediation and consulting services. More partnership brokers should be trained at the UNDP Istanbul International Centre for Private Sector in Development.

International network for learning from practical experience – “PARTNERS 4 VALUE”
Goal
The project component described below illustrates an innovative partnership created among national higher education institutions and international partners (companies and organizations), which contributes to the promotion of the internationalization of Lithuanian higher education, improves the study process and brings education and employment closer, especially in terms of youth employment. This review aims to present the best practice, challenges and recommendations of the established National System of International Internships and International Partners Network, which are at the core of this partnership.

Problems addressed
For Europe to develop as a knowledge society and be competitive in the context of economic globalization, education and training have to be of high quality and create employment opportunities for young people. Discussions are under way at the European level about the gap that exists between the education system and labour market demands, which affects jobs, the development of human capital, and promotion of employ-

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ability of young people, etc. (COM(2012) 727 final). For this reason, it is very important to promote cooperation among inter-governmental institutions, public sector, businesses, universities and other research institutions (COM( 2010) 682 final). Lack of career orientation services, opportunities for training and for quality industrial internships for young people are still prevalent in Europe (Annual Growth Survey, COM (2011) 11 final). There is no unified system for organization of internships at the national level, and separate systems operate at various institutions. Effective organization and management of this process does not exist at Lithuanian higher education institutions. Although universities have internationalization strategies, the systems for international internships, and in particular short visits to companies/ organizations for academic staff are not well developed. Among the reasons for this are: low priority given to this area by universities, low financing, insufficient competences of career centres and other reasons. Therefore, Lithuanian students are not well prepared to compete on the global labour market, pass international competitions/competitive examinations and make maximum use of international practice experience managing their early careers, while lecturers do not have enough opportunities for international mobility and professional development.

Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius and Kaunas Colleges. All the partners participated in the project on the basis of equal and well balanced functions, as that was emphasized by the project partners themselves. The project was still ongoing while this publication was in preparation (it will be completed by 30 May 2013), thus only a few objectives are presented, although many activities could be considered as good practice or lessons learned. Using its status as an international organization and having more effective access and good understanding of the priorities and needs of intergovernmental organizations in terms of talent engagement and management as well as good contacts with companies throughout the global CSR network, UNDP established and coordinated an International Partners’ Network in the field of international internships for students and lecturers. This network and its national managing system, offer greater opportunities for sending Lithuanian students and lecturers on international internships/short visits abroad based on harmonized process organization and management, including quality assurance. The EC in its package of measures for youth employment, launched in December 2012, particularly empha-

Actions proposed and tested
The Government of Lithuania, looking for a most suitable way to promote the internationalization of higher education funded two national priority ESF projects. One of these has been implemented by UNDP since November 2010 (Development and Implementation of National System of International Internships for Students and Lecturers of Lithuanian Higher Education Institutions (budget 2 949 000 Lt, 1 133 359 USD). The project has been implemented together with the following partners: Vilnius University,

Internship at the Global Initiative on Psychiatry (GIP), Sofia, Bulgaria. Photo from Project archives.

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sizes the quality system for internships (COM ( 2010) 682 final). This international network directly ensures quality internships at inter-governmental organizations, international and foreign companies as well as international NGOs and think tanks. It represents a rare opportunity for students and lecturers to gain practical experience in well-known organizations and companies, and transform it to better quality of higher education. On the other hand, of the best students and lecturers based on the “one channel” principle is attractive to foreign partners, as it best matches partners’ needs. A two-stage selection process ensures that through counselling and assessing the objectives of studies and future career perspectives of every student, the interests of both the receiving organization and the student are best met. With the growing number of students applying for internships and the spread of positive feedback about the system, more and more global and Europeanlevel organizations are becoming involved in the network’s activities. The value added of this multilateral cooperation in increasing opportunities for students and lecturers from higher education institutions to participate in quality in-

ternships/short visits is evident to all stakeholders (Figure 9). The system of International internships for students and lecturers includes: 1) Models for organizing international internships/ short-term practical visits for students and lecturers – they ensure the implementation of quality requirements; optimization of processes; development of competencies of specialists; students’ career orientation and lecturers’ professional development; unified management of information; 2) Creating the network of international organizations and companies and its expansion – motivating and committing them to receive Lithuanian students and lecturers for internships/short-term visits; making arrangements for organizational and other internship-related aspects; ensuring the demand for quality internships and feedback. 3) Practical testing of models created by sending students and lecturers for internships abroad, thereby creating conditions for students and lecturers to gain experience of applying knowledge in practice and adapting it to their academic activities. Passive and active measures to increase the practical learning opportunities for students and lecturers were offered in the process of organizing international internships. First, it is recommended to implement the passive measures for increasing demand, which stimulate the interest of organizations (companies) in the services provided by higher education institutions, create preconditions for long-term relations and prepare all the necessary information and methodological-procedural cooperation models. Within the time frame of the project, the following measures were prepared: • Model guidelines (how the system should operate and which quality requirements should be applied, how it should ensure its sustainability);

Distinctive features of the National System for International Internships model for Lithuanian higher education institutions: ✓ Oriented towards systematic organization of international internships; ✓ Integrates multilateral cooperation; ✓ Ensures individualized work with international partners, which guarantees maximum matching of receiving organization’s and student’s/lecturer’s interests, resulting in increased sustainability of relations with partners and the model itself; ✓ Ensures attractiveness of the system for international partners and students (brand “Partners 4 Value“)

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Figure 9. The benefits of international internships to programme participants and society.

For students: • Get acquainted with working environment • Gain real-life work experience • Enhance general and special skills • Build professional network for facilitating their early career For higher education institutions: • Implement study programmes • Improve the quality of studies and increase the satisfaction of students • Strengthen institutional image • Increase internationalization • Brings studies closer to the market For organisations and enterprises: • Explore foreign markets • Explore supply of employees • Promote their activities, enhance their image • Use additional human resources, meet demand for seasonal jobs • Higher education institutions become more attractive, as they can offer practical study methods as internships and in such way contributes to facilitation of their graduates career

For society and the economy: • Human resources ready to work in international environment are being prepared • Close relations with foreign organizations (companies) are created and developed • Positively impacts on local work environment • Graduates are better prepared to integrate into the labor market • Strain on social system is reduced

• A set of measures prepared in accordance with standardised requirements: - Students’ guide on preparation for internships; - Lecturers’ guide on preparation for internships; - Specialists’ guide on organization of students internships; • Guidelines on organization, modernization, administration and management processes of international internships; • Guidelines and descriptions of internships in study programmes; • Software for management of international internship processes; • Guidelines for the quality of the international internship system and requirements for higher education establishments;

• Measures for cooperation between higher education institutions and receiving organizations; • Training programmes for specialists, students and lecturers. While preparing the models, three project visits were carried out to Spain, Italy and Scotland with the aim of learning from the best European models of organizing international internships for students and lectures and integrating these good practices and lessons learned into the Lithuanian models. The models were submitted to the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) for approval. There is no analogue for the systematic model of organizing short-term practical learning visits for lecturers in Europe. Therefore, it created a lot of interest among foreign partners. The centralised and decentralized alternatives were proposed for the coordination of

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Lecturers can assist companies with their insights. During their internship they can conduct surveys, and once completed, return to the university and help the company in identifying the problems and resolving them. Often companies cannot afford to spend time and resources to analyze processes, while lecturers as researchers can identify non-utilized resources and analyze them with their students during the study process. In the long run, such cooperation would prove to be worthwhile for all the parties. It is important that lecturers, unlike interns, by returning to the study process accumulate institutional knowledge, thereby serving as the main link in the improvement of the study process. Such an internship model for lecturers is a new one, and we could not find anything similar anywhere else in Europe. This is a distinguishing feature and a strength of the model. Asta Radzevičienė Vice Rector for International Relations, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

• Guidelines on international partner network prepared and presented to Lithuanian higher education institutions as partners in the project; • Guidelines on how to motivate international partners; • Image and brand “Partners 4 Value“ created for international internships – with a logo and guidelines on how to use the brand:

international partners’ networks, with recommendations to have one joint national coordinator, which could ensure effective working relations with international partners and manage international partners’ network This network would be accessible to most of the Lithuanian higher education institutions willing to join. As a result of active measures to increase the demand for international internships, direct communication with organizations (companies)was established, cooperation objectives and possibilities to receive interns were introduced, and costs in relation to internships as well as applicable measures for risk management were described. In addition, cooperation agreements were signed or informal cooperation agreements made, as some organizations could not undertake contractual obligations for a number of reasons. The main results are as follows:

• Cooperation initiated and agreements reached with more than 100 international partners, including inter-governmental organizations (UNWTO, UNICRI, IOM, UNIDROIT, UNSSC, UNHCR, NATO, OSCE, WBI, etc.), state institutions, independent research centres, international NGOs, international corporations and foreign companies. By the end of 2012, 65 students were sent for international internships, and so far only positive feedback has been received from them and in most cases also from the receiving organizations. Moreover, students express their satisfaction and are happy with the practical learning opportunities provided, which frequently exceed their expectations. Student opinions are available on the blog: http://partners4value.blogspot.com/ • Within the project, a network of Lithuanian higher education institutions sending students for internships and receiving organizations was created. It is planned that the network will have at least 150 international partners by the end of the project, which meets the requirements of higher education institutions for international internships in the fields of social sciences and the humanities. Around 150 students and 70 lecturers will benefit from this network and will go for internships. Students and lecturers selected for internships received individual counselling and were provided with a modest internship allowance. With a view to ensuring that only

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the most motivated students are sent for internships, their selection was carried out by higher education institutions, while national selections (from students selected by various higher education establishments) were performed by UNDP. It used adapted “quick interview” methodology prepared by the partners from the Saltire Foundation (Scotland). The system provides better opportunities to promote the internationalization of Lithuanian higher education and better representation of Lithuania in international organizations and companies via established and individually coordinated long-term partnerships for sending the best Lithuanian applicants for international internships. The system created by the project, which according to ESF requirements captured social sciences and the humanities only, may be easily adapted to other study fields in Lithuania, also engaging many other higher education institutions in its implementation.

Baltic States would be even more attractive to them), motivates partners to receive Lithuanian students and lecturers for internships/short visits. As a result they are more open and serious about long-term cooperation possibilities because they are interested in receiving the best students selected from several higher education institutions. They do not need to carry out additional selection procedures (other than to briefly assess whether a candidate meets the requirements of an internship place) and they trust that candidates sent for internships are motivated and best meet their requirements, including knowledge of languages. In addition, they know how to provide feedback or recommendations for the future. • The alternative of centralised or coordinated management of the international partner network has many advantages, as mentioned above. An additional one is the leverage effect, when higher education institutions can achieve better results by joining their efforts/capacities, while the organization coordinating the partners network acquires more power in its negotiations with potential partners. As with a “snowball” effect, more and more possibilities to attract well-known international partners and other Lithuanian higher education institutions emerge in the process. • The project partners particularly emphasized the innovativeness and value of short-term practical visits for lecturers, as this until now this has not been possible. Internships for lecturers result in a balanced partnership between higher education institutions and companies. Not long ago, companies were perceived as sponsors only. In addition, lecturers’ internships substantially enrich curriculum content and move it closer to practical business and labour market realities. • Expansion of the international partners network re quires ca quality selection process for students with a view to protecting the “Partners4value” brand created by the project. The number of internship places

Lessons learned
By the end of 2012, the project had already achieved significant results, and the main aspects of good practices are listed below: • The national system contributing to the increase of competitiveness and quality of Lithuanian higher education through international partnerships was created, its functioning was practically tested through cooperation among five Lithuanian higher education institutions, and over 100 international organizations and companies. • In the partners’ opinion, UNDP, as a well known, respected and neutral international organization, played a key role in creating the international network and particularly in engaging well known UN, pan-European and regional organizations. • The project experience demonstrated that offering international partners not only bilateral cooperation channels with higher education institutions, but rather proposing “one channel” (the channel of three

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offered by the partners depends directly on the success of former interns in this organization. During project implementation, the following challenges were faced: • EU SMEs with interests in local market receive the majority of interns. Lithuanian students face difficulties in getting internships with international companies and organizations, because most of them have global competitions and well-established internships’ or graduates’ programmes, which last from 1218 months, and they themselves carry out selections of most talented students. Therefore, it is difficult to motivate them to create special conditions for Lithuanian students or coordinate the duration and content of internships with the requirements of the study programmes.

• The international internships organization process is regulated by internal procedures at higher education institutions, usually based on the requirements of the ERASMUS programme. Despite many positive changes within this regulation, it is worth mentioning that excess and rigid regulation results in many obstacles for mobility and reduces students’ interest in going for international internships. There have been cases when students were not provided with an opportunity to go for internships at the time which was most suitable and when the organization could receive him/her. • Insuffi cient awareness on the value of international internships at higher education establishments results in relatively low attention being paid to qualification raising, active search for international partners and student preparation for international internships through training and individual consultations. • The project partners though satisfi ed with project activity and newly created opportunities for cooperation with foreign partners in organizing internships, are still not sure about the sustainability and maintenance of project results (the system and the network). To maintain such a system, the internal procedures of higher education establishments should be amended de jure and they need to cooperate with other higher education institutions by paying more attention and allocating more of their limited resources. Due to relatively larger expenses, needed for organizing internships abroad, so far the higher education institutions give priority to cooperation within Lithuania. • In addition, the approach of MES towards the use of the project results, the consolidation with results of other projects (implemented in parallel within the same ESF measure), as well as towards continuation of the activities is not yet clear. Several alternative ways for ensuring sustainability and maintaining the coordinated management of the system were discussed with MES, but the decision will only be taken at the end of the project.

Intership at the Council of the Baltic Sea States. Sweden, Stockholm. Photo from Project archives.

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During the internship, I observed how the NGO works, how partners are found, what problems arise and what results can be achieved. Internship contributes to personality development, knowledge and English language skills. Although there are some weaknesses, international internships have more advantages: you can improve yourself, apply knowledge gained at university and see a lot of new things. Compared to the the ERASMUS programme, Partners 4 Value offers more opportunities for lawyers, thus you can choose the country you want. It is always worthwhile to familiarize yourself with the local culture and traditions. And do not waste your time sitting at home, make use of all opportunities and take the best this programme can offer. Simona Leonavičiūtė Intern, ACEEEO, Hungary

ity opportunities for their students and lecturers to go abroad to acquire practical experience. In addition, there are discussions underway about the possibilities to consolidate the “Partners 4 Value” programme within mobility programmes executed by the Education Exchanges Support Foundation, or to appoint a coordinating higher education institution for maintaining relations with international partners and network members, or even transfer the management of the network and its development to the umbrella of a particular Lithuanian association, interested in business-education partnerships. Taking into account the experience of foreign countries, the activity of such a coordinator could be covered by association members, from funds collected for internship administration from companies (organizations) receiving students and lecturers as well as from the state budget and other resources. • Although during the preparation of this review, the final decision on the design of the national system for international internships after the end of the project has not yet been taken, the experience gained in the project will be useful to higher education institutions in assessing the advantages of one international cooperation channel and deciding on how they could organize international internships. Whatever is the final decision, the most essential is to maintain one trustworthy channel for cooperation with international partners. It should be noted though that such a centralised system will in no way replace, but rather complement bilateral cooperation and other possibilities used by higher education institutions, thus the latter should continue carrying out decentralized activities for establishing cooperation with partners. • It is recommended to seek the approval of MES to continue maintaining the network and system created and financial support for extension of the system to other higher education institutions, as this would correspond to the Lithuanian actions implementing

Recommendations
• The continuation of the international partners network and its sustainability could be ensured by the establishment of an entity managing the national system of international internships. This entity could also provide methodical assistance for higher education institutions, which just started or seek to improve the organization of international internships, thereby increasing the quality of these services and developing the quality standard in this field. During the project, the possibilities of establishing an association of Lithuanian higher education institutions, international partners and other entities were considered. This association could be joined by other high education institutions of Lithuania and partners. A consortium is worthwhile among those high education institutions for the following reasons: a) they are well aware of the value of internships for the process of studies and for their schools when competing for students; b) they seek to create more qual-

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the latest EC policy guidelines, where quality internships are particularly emphasized by the EC Youth Employment Package launched in December 2012. The project designers are convinced that by creating a more effective system for international internships, first it is necessary to: 1) integrate international practice into the study process not only de jure, but also de facto, 2) implement the principles of prepared models of international internships for students and lecturers at every higher education institution, 3) enhance the competencies of career specialists who are responsible for organizing international internships, 4) work actively in developing both at national and Baltic States levels the network of long-term international partners offering quality internship places. The system created may be used also while establishing the network of cooperating higher education institutions, companies and organizations in Lithuania and the national or local internship system. Although the project was focused on social sciences and the humanities, the Lithuanian prototype of such a network would also be useful to technical studies, because it would be easier to implement an equal partnership between universities and companies, whereby the industrial process improvements made and technologies created during the internships would create real value for the companies. When sending lecturers for short-term visits for technological process optimization in companies, confidentiality should be respected, as well as company and business secrets. It is recommended to prepare standard guidelines which define each party’s obligations, responsibilities and the code of conduct. Maintenance and the brand of the network and the image created requires selecting only the best students and constantly keeping in touch with foreign partners who have already participated in the project activities, as potentially they could offer more

places for internships or recommend their partners to cooperate with the “Partners 4 Value”. • The lecturers who could establish sustainable contacts with foreign partners should be also sent to large international organizations. They should be adequately acknowledged for the establishment of such contacts both financially and during academic assessments. • The need for cooperation within internal divisions of higher education institutions is obvious while implementing international internships. Better coordination among university career centres, foreign relations divisions and departments as well information management is recommended. The software created by the project for the management of international internships could also serve this purpose. • Based on the practice of foreign universities, higher education institutions are recommended to work more actively with graduates helping them plan their early career through cooperation with partners of the international partnership network and others.

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Policy advice
Despite the economic growth, social problems in Lithuania are increasing, as the economic achievements do not immediately translate into reduced inequality. On the contrary, it is growing constantly. One of the most serious problems of the Lithuanian social development is a stable increase in social polarisation and inequality (Kovaliov, 2011). In order to reduce social polarization and ensure social stability, a special attention should be paid to increasing employment and wages and promoting the social dialogue (Vaidelytė, 2007). The ESF funded projects demonstrated the ways and methods to implement social innovations in practice with a view to better integration of socially excluded people and people at social risk into the labour market, thereby reducing social polarization. However, such use of public resources will not provide the desirable leverage effect for addressing social problems if the innovations tested in the projects are not codified and transformed into social policy or legislative measures. At strategic level, it is necessary to improve social policy on the basis of tested innovations and bring the good practices to national level, thereby promoting replication and development. The methodologies, descriptions of models, analyses of good practices, training materials and other written information prepared during the projects, including conclusions on evaluation of models can serve both for the improvement of social policy and for independent development of analogous policy in other Lithuanian localities and outside the country. Although the publications and model descriptions prepared during UNDP projects implemented under the measure Integration of people at social risk and at social exclusion into labour market of the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources did not directly contribute towards changes in the social policy until 2012, they were used by other institutions to improve their social actions (refer to “Results and sustainability”). On the other hand, the project experience indirectly contributed to changed policies and the increased effectiveness of ESF administration at national level, as UNDP and the projects partners on a constant basis were communicating to the ESF administration and MSSL, the limitations of ESF rules, unjustified project hindrances, as well as project good practices. This contributed to improvement of rules and ESF calls for proposals or social reforms under implementation (e.g., social work reform). For example, the application of the multidimensionality approach in providing social services, promoting onthe-job training were in particular emphasised in other calls for proposals under the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources. Besides policy advice, UNDP, using its institutional experience and its status as an international organization, cooperated actively with the Lithuanian Government and other partners in formulating the social integration policy. In 2009, UNDP, together with MSSL, EC Representation in Lithuania, initiated and implemented a joint project “Inclusive Lithuania: through analysis-based policy dialogue towards effective decision making”. This project is not analysed as a case study in this publication, but it significantly contributed to the awareness-raising of social partners about proposed short-term and long-term policy measures to mitigate the long-term consequences of social exclusion as a result of the economic downturn that would go in line with the government’s long-term strategies. A detailed assessment of the socio-economic situation was carried out and recommendations on the preparation of short-term and long-term measures and their cost-benefit

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ratio under fiscal deficit situation were proposed. During the assessment process, consultations with various stakeholders were carried out, and the final recommendations were launched in Seimas on 29 October 2009. In 2010, a followup analysis was carried out and proposed solutions on how to encourage work incentives versus welfare dependency in Lithuania. The analysis of the effect of UNDP projects (implemented in 2006-2012) on policy advice, shows that without any doubt the most distinctive are UNDP regional projects and ESF strategic national level projects promoting CSR. UNDP Lithuania’s activity on CSR promotion since 2004 has been exceptional, as these were the first national level initiatives not only within the country, but in the region as well. Thus it is no surprise that the most significant policy documents on CSR were drafted in consultation and cooperation with UNDP, and UNDP was also entrusted to coordinate 16 out of 28 measures while implementing the National CSR Programme Action Plan. In addition, it should be mentioned that due to dynamic activities and significant results UNDP also performed an important role as a CSR excellence centre in Central and Eastern Europe, providing methodological assistance and sharing experience with other countries of the region. Some of the products created, for example, the national level CSR Monitoring and Evaluation System, were innovative not only in the region but in Western European countries as well. On 15 November 2012, at the European Enterprise Promotion Awards (EEPA) in Cyprus, the Project “GATES” was awarded a special prize under the nomination “Responsible Business” for the most creative and most inspiring entrepreneurship initiatives, and excellent project results. This chapter describes UNDP policy advice, and a case study of CSR strategic national level and regional projects highlighting results achieved, lessons learned and providing recommendations according to CSR principles and users.

Contribution to the development of National CSR policy and its implementation
Goal
One of the areas where UNDP played an important role in the period 2006–2012 was formulation and implementation of responsible and sustainable business policies in Lithuania through the creation of an enabling environment for CSR development: political, administrative and capacity development mechanisms and conditions. The aim of this case study is to review not only UNDP actions that contributed to the national CSR policy formulation and its multidimensional implementation in the country, but also the role of UNDP as a CSR excellence centre in the region.

Problems addressed
In the European Union, CSR is related to economic, social and environmental goals of the Lisbon Strategy as enterprises implementing CSR contribute to the creation of jobs and improvement of labour conditions. The Baseline Study on Lithuania of 2007 proved that CSR ideas were only starting out at that time in Lithuania: CSR promotion measures were fragmented, the guidelines for CSR implementation and evaluation were lacking, the state divisions responsible for coordination of CSR management were missing, interinstitutional cooperation was lacking. The opinion that CSR is a costly and low value investment was often prevailing. Enterprises rarely used to integrate CSR into business strategies and implement it.

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Action proposed and tested
UNDP was the first one to initiate the dissemination of CSR ideas in Lithuania and already in 2004 organised the first international conference on CSR and launched the UN Global Compact. Also, it initiated the creation of National Network of Responsible Businesses and ensured its activity and development. Having joined the actions with the MSSL and other stakeholders, and before the start of ESF projects, UNDP implemented several CSR promotion projects. In 2007-2008 it carried out the first ESF strategic national project “Promoting CSR in Lithuania”. As part of these interventions, UNDP organised a large number of training, round table discussions and other events, which introduced and analysed the subject of CSR. In addition, the first publications introducing good CSR practice in business were published, and training for CSR consultants and advisers organized. For more than five years UNDP in partnership with the MSSL and other state institutions successfully ran the National Responsible Business Award. It is a unique initiative and the only one of this type in the country (the selection of the most advanced companies in the area of CSR). Among the products developed the following could be mentioned: training and methodological tools on CSR for companies, exemplary form and guidelines for company CSR reporting, guidelines for voluntary assessment of company’s activities, the analysis of legislation through the perspective of CSR, the methodology and training on the implementation of the Gender Equality Index. Also, UNDP implemented two regional CSR promotion projects.

baseline analysis of the CSR situation was carried out and it became a starting point in defining the current situation and later measuring the progress in the country. As a result of wide multistakeholder discussions involving other Lithuanian entities and foreign experts, the first National CSR Agenda was drafted. All these multidimensional and pro-active measures, created products and partnerships, many of which would not have been achieved without political will and cooperation with the MSSL, resulted in growing CSR significance, awareness and CSR policy formulation in Lithuania. As a result of joint efforts, the National Programme for CSR Promotion for 2009-2013 and its Action Plan for 2009-2011 (approved by the Lithuanian Government on 12 January 2010) were drafted. The implementation of the programme was funded by the EU structural support programme for 2007–2013.

Contribution to national CSR policy formulation
Prior to 2010, the national provisions on CSR development were approved by the order of the Minister of Social Security and Labour. Already in 2007-2008, during the first UNDP regional project, it initiated cross-sectoral working groups in nine countries. These groups were tasked with the creation of National CSR Agendas. In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, the

The National Responsible Business Award, introduced by UNDP, became the only alike state supported responsible business recognition initiative. Photo from Project archives.

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The programme reflected the results of UNDP and MSSL initiatives, i.e., the CSR promotion measures, which proved successful in Lithuania or other countries and which were endorsed by stakeholders, and were included. Overall, it can be concluded that this programme was among those that were most actively discussed with various stakeholders prior to its approval. The main objectives of the programme were related to formulation and implementation of responsible and sustainable business policies in Lithuania, through the creation of an enabling environment for CSR development: political, administrative and capacity development mechanisms and conditions. The criteria for evaluation of the programme’s effectiveness were based on substantive research conducted by UNDP on indicators for measurement of country level results and progress in this field.

I think that CSR principles meet our expectations. Employees, colleagues, suppliers and partners have trust in us. It should be noted that at the beginning we could not imagine how wide the CSR area was and how much you could do. We saw the benefits of responsible activity even in several areas: the positive atmosphere, trust of clients and suppliers, reduced turnover of employees, a lot of attention from potential youth. To tell the truth, our profit was slightly lower, but actually the real value of the company lies not only in high profit at the end of the year. Andrius Mačiulis Director, JSC „Tvirta“

Implementation of CSR Programme
Due to broad experience and partnership with the MSSL in promoting CSR, UNDP was entrusted to coordinate the major part of the National Programme on CSR Promotion for 2009-2013 and its Action Plan for 2009-2011. The national ESF project “Gates: Social and Environmental Business Innovations” (October 2010-February 2013) aimed at enhancing understanding and awareness on CSR among businesses and society, creating conditions for CSR development in Lithuania, promoting companies to implement CSR principles with a view to enhancing competitiveness, safe environment, social inclusion and transparent business activities. The project partners were the Lithuanian Business Employers’ Confederation, the Lithuanian Trade Union “Solidarumas” and the NGO Information and Support Centre. The innovativeness of the project lies in the fact that it implements the whole National Programme on CSR Promotion and addresses multiple issues that hinder CSR development in Lithuania. These issues were addressed at various levels at the same time: state, business, civil society and consumer levels. The main activities of the project depending on the interest groups were the following:

• State level: country level CSR progress monitoring methodology; indicators and assessment of current CSR situation; improvement of legislation; creation of state level mechanism for effective consideration of CSR issues; methodologies for implementation of CSR principles at state and municipal institutions; guidelines for state owned companies; National Responsible Business Award and conferences on CSR; • Business level: methodological tools and guidelines for practical application of CSR in certain business sectors (transport, healthcare, food industry, furniture and wood processing industry, and construction sectors); training and awareness-raising for companies; implementation of CSR-related standards; dissemination of good practices; practical application of various CSR tools in business; support in preparing CSR reports and applying CSR principles; study on economic benefits of CSR activity of selected companies; • Education: basis for teaching CSR at higher education institutions by preparing a pilot CSR study programme and supporting qualification-raising abroad for researchers and CSR-trained advisors; • Consumers: initiatives promoting responsible consumption implemented;

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• NGOs: measures for promotion of NGO-business partnerships (26 initiatives implemented). The main innovations of “GATES” (in addition to those described above under the model of “NGO-Business partnerships”): • Study on economic benefits and long-term impact of CSR activity on selected companies. Considering that Lithuania lacked concrete examples of the economic benefits of CSR that would ease companies’ understanding through the business angle, UNDP commissioned “Ernst & Young Baltic“ to carry out the first study in Lithuania on the economic benefits of CSR activity and its long-term impact on business at selected companies. The study reviewed 43 companies carrying out their activities in Lithuania and analysed 10 companies in detail. The study revealed that CSR initiatives in Lithuanian companies produce a 45 percent return on investment on average. According to one of the researchers, “this study was the first that evaluated not only the general CSR development situation or the maturity of CSR practice in separate companies in Lithuania, but was oriented towards detailed analysis of economic benefits resulting from CSR activities. It should be noted that this assessment is unique both from the point of view of methodological approach and the number of participating enterprises, as well as in respect of particularly detailed information provided about companies. The study demonstrated that investments in CSR are beneficial and the biggest return on investment is achieved in those companies where CSR is closely linked to the overall strategy and business model of the company”. • Application of CSR-related standards in companies. The objective of application of CSR-conducive standards is to ensure the implementation of CSR principles in companies through practical workshops and consultations. Currently, a unified CSR standard does not exist (there are ISO 26000 guidelines, but companies are not certified under them). However, related standards exist, e.g., on social accountability, environmental management Tangible economic benefit is usually seen only after some time. We believe that it is important not to stop the work if you do not get results quickly. For example, while establishing the production division we consciously selected technologies that did not use solvants in the printing process. After a while we found out that we did not need to invest in expensive air cleaning equipment, and this resulted in a direct economic benefit. However, no less important is the indirect effect: when people work in a clean environment, when they see that managers take care of them, they work in a more responsible manner. It is not easy to evaluate the extent of additional benefits when people work better in better conditions. Virginijus Gumbaragis Director General, Company “PakMark“

and labour safety systems (SA8000, ISO 14001, EMAS, OHSAS). Approximately 30 enterprises participated in training and were offered consultations, which enabled them to apply the standards. By the end of 2012, 15 companies, which participated in the project were certified according to the requirements of the standards. CSR progress monitoring at a country level. For the first time, regular monitoring of progress of public measures applied was carried out in this field. It will enable planning and justifying further CSR promotion measures and monitor general CSR situation in the country. CSR progress monitoring at state level is a unique phenomenon in the EU, which is a result of the regional UNDP project having developed the first of this type of methodology.

Regional CSR development
Having achieved significant results in the CSR area, Lithuania showcased and shared its experience with other countries. Since 2007, being a regional leader in the field, Lithuania initiated and managed several regional CSR initiatives. In 2007-2008, the first

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regional project “Accelerating CSR in new EU Member States and Candidate Countries”, funded by EC and UNDP, was implemented in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, Lithuania, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovak Republic, Turkey and Hungary. Networks of Responsible Business in Spain, United Kingdom and Germany also participated in the project and contributed with their experience and good CSR practices. UNDP Lithuania managed the project. The following main results of the project could be mentioned: • For the first time the baseline CSR analysis in the project countries was carried out on the basis of methodology created specifically for Central and Eastern European Countries. The European Synthesis Report presented a comparative analysis of CSR situation in the countries and offered recommendations regarding specific actions that would promote CSR developments. • National strategies for CSR promotion were drafted and approved in some countries. In addition, funding for their implementation was ensured. • Cooperation networks and discussion forums on CSR were created, which enabled to coordinate actions, exchange opinions, select the most suitable CSR implementation tools and agree on CSR promotion directions in the countries. • The regional conference held in Brussels for the first time brought together representatives of the new EU Member States, candidate countries and EU 15 for discussions on CSR issues. In addition, the first regional conference on CSR public policy was organized in Lithuania, which gathered together the representatives of 15 countries. From December 2009 to February 2011, UNDP Lithuania managed the second regional project “Establishment of the CSR Performance Measurement System”, funded by the EC, UNDP and the Polish Government, in which Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Slovak Republic participated. The project developed the system for assessing CSR activities at company and state levels and created an enabling environment for socially responsible business. The main results are as follows:

Education of engaged employees is one of the priorities for “Lietuvos draudimas”. Participating employees are satisfied with the workplace, tasks and responsibilities, they knows what is expected from them, have opportunities to develop and are appreciated for the work done. Survey data shows that if an organization increases its staff engagement by 4 percent, its return on investment is higher: profit increases by 15 percent, productivity by 11 percent. On the other hand, increased engagement results in reduction of staff turnover by 15 percent. Virginija Mikutaitė Human Resources Director, JSC “Lietuvos draudimas“

• Country level CSR progress monitoring and assessment system was created and countries’ representatives were trained how to use it. • Company level CSR self-evaluation tool enabling to assess CSR progress was created. • Regional conference was held in Vilnius, which discussed the issue of CSR progress monitoring at national level for the first time in Europe. The representatives from six countries and the EC attended the event.

Lessons learned
• During the implementation of CSR projects, diverse experience was acquired, however only good practices, lessons learned and the main results are presented below, illustrating UNDP’s contribution into CSR promotion and policy formulation in the country as per indicators of CSR development in the country (“Study on CSR Progress at National Level in 2008– 2011”, 2012): - Lithuania was the first among the new EU countries to approve and implement a multifaceted CSR promotion programme;

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- Since 2005, the Network of Responsible Business expanded several times and currently includes more than 110 members; - The percentage of active Global Compact network members from ~60 % in 2008-2010 increased to 80 % in 2011 – a significant indicator improvement in recent years; - The percentage of largest companies, which are active Global Compact participants, in 2008-2011 remained stable and amounted to 11 percent. The part of companies publishing CSR reports also remained stable in 2008–2010 and totalled ~ 14 percent of the 100 largest Lithuanian companies; - The number of applications for the National Responsible Business Award increased from 50 in 2008 to 91 in 2011; the number of participating companies grew from 22 to 51. Annual growth of more than 20 percent has been observed in 2008-2011. - The network of CSR professionals was established in Lithuania, which involves specialists and activists from various fields and which will probably ensure further CSR promotion in Lithuania. • In partnership with MSSL and stakeholders, the National CSR Promotion Programme for 2009-2013 was drafted and approved by the Lithuanian Government on 12 January 2010. UNDP mobilized the EC funds for regional projects, which, under coordination of UNDP Lithuania, consolidated Lithuania’s leadership in the CSR area among the new EU Member States and served as a centre for joint initiatives and training for other countries of the region. Cooperation with the academic community resulted in the pilot model of lecturing on CSR, which is used in Lithuanian higher education institutions and promotes better CSR understanding among graduates. • The products developed by the project (methodologies, training materials, guidelines, etc.) are available at www. CSRBaltic.lt and www.socmin.lt. During the implementation of the project, the following challenges were faced:

• CSR promotion is unlikely to lead to quick results, as quick return on investment at the company is also unlikely to be expected. CSR promotion in Lithuania is also hindered by lack of understanding of CSR benefits not only in companies, but in state institutions as well. The latter, having a low awareness on relationship between CSR and sustainable economy and its importance for various country development indicators, as well as lacking inter-institutional cooperation, are not inclined to act as examples to businesses by publishing their sustainability reports and by integrating CSR into public procurement. • The CSR concept itself and its titles constantly change (recently the concepts of business sustainability and shared value creation have been emphasized by stating that the CSR concept is outdated), it has followers of various “schools of thought” in Lithuania, thus rather often it is difficult to bring them together for joint work under the umbrella of the CSR. However UNDP used the CSR title because it is already known and understood in Lithuania, rather than introducing new concepts all the time, which would not be very helpful for better understanding. • The CSR area is still lacking in competent and neutral organizations, which could engage in coordination of CSR promotion activities, be capable of working at government, business, NGO and academic levels, and have a vision of a sustainable Lithuania and would actively seek to implement it.

Recommendations
To the government:
• Considering rich Lithuanian experience and expertise in promoting and applying CSR, Lithuania could become a CSR excellence centre, which would engage in initiating and testing the newest innovations in the region, share experience and knowledge and bring countries and partners together for joint practice, research and projects. Hence it is reasonable to consider a possibility to establish an independent centre or subdivision under

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MSSL or ME, which would be responsible for promoting CSR in Lithuania, organizing training, monitoring progress, drafting legislation, organizing national awards and promoting international cooperation in this field (including initiation and coordination of regional projects with a view to transferring Lithuanian experience to other countries). The government should take the initiative to more actively motivate and promote the application of CSR (even more so, OSR) principles at state and municipality institutions and offices, thus using ESF project results at the state level and showing example to the private sector. Hence it is expected that having understood OSR benefits in these institutions, the inter-institutional CSR coordination problems would be solved as well. The CSR progress monitoring system should be practically implemented by creating company motivation mechanism to provide data, and initiate the creation of such monitoring systems in other countries which are willing to share experience and compare their achievements. The activity oriented towards CSR promotion outside Lithuania would help the country maintain the leadership position, and would also motivate companies. Considering CSR/OSR significance for sustainable development, sustainable economy and good governance of the country, it is suggested to consider a possibility to appoint a CSR Advisory Council acting under the government on a voluntary basis, which could provide advice to the government on different issues within the CSR/OSR context. Such a council could be formed on the basis of members delegated by the Network of CSR professionals established at the end of 2012, which includes specialists from different areas. The National Responsible Business Award as a unique initiative acknowledging responsible business at state level should be continued. The independence of evaluation under the award and its transparent administration are prerequisites for business trust in this award, thus should be safeguarded with the departure of UNDP from this process. That would help to maintain the integrity of the initiative and its recognition among businesses, and would allow continuing methodological consultations,

which help companies improve their accountability about CSR activity. Global grant mechanisms for administration of sub-projects on the basis of successful UNDP experience should be used, because using procurement for purchasing ideas and their implementation from NGOs and similar type of organizations is particularly restrictive and not acceptable to NGOs, while the administrative costs exceed the cost and the benefits of the initiative itself. Also, it limits the creativity, innovativeness and feasibility of ideas.

To business:
• The innovations related to business sustainability should be promoted – CSR activity should be viewed as having potential and also an obligation to bring economic benefits to companies in short-term, mid-term and longterm perspectives. While developing new CSR initiatives which create real benefits, relevant management staff time resources should be allocated in the same manner as it is done for other company investment projects or strategies. That means that development of CSR initiatives should be treated as strategic initiatives related to general improvements of the business model. • As the survey on economic benefits of CSR showed, it is necessary to evaluate CSR activity which is being or will be implemented through the perspective of its biggest impact. For example, it is good when a bank is engaged in saving paper and electricity, but providing cheaper loans for energy-efficient and innovative environmental projects is more effective. • It is recommended to activate the National Network of Responsible Business, which involves companies applying CSR principles, with a view to making it an attractive forum for sharing experience, developing cooperation and providing training. It should engage not only business enterprises, but also NGOs which are active in the CSR area and which could be delegated the function of preparing new joint projects promoting CSR development in the country and at the international level. The informal community of CSR professionals could become a part of the network as well.

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Results and sustainability
While preparing this publication not all UNDP projects were completed, thus this chapter presents only a partial view of UNDP’s Lithuania programme assessment and sustainability of the results achieved, distinguishing between the social innovations project group (6 projects) and the strategic national project group (3 projects). As mentioned before, this publication shall not be viewed as a comprehensive evaluation exercise or expost project sustainability analysis, as that would require carrying out structural and statistical analysis based on targeted questionnaires and qualitative and quantitative indicators and more time should have passed after finalization of the projects. The main results of UNDP projects are presented in the chapter “Summary of Projects Implemented in 20062012”. The results achieved are proved by showcasing the indicators used by the ESF national agency. The results are not of the same level, as some of them relate to project activities (activity result is measured by product indicators, e.g., number of trained people or published materials), and others to project objectives (outputs, which are measured by result indicators, e.g., number of employed persons or number of enterprises that joined the Global Compact (GC)). It should be noted that the ESF national agency’s indicators are not project impact-oriented and do not show qualitative changes. Thus, there is a strong need to further improve the results management system by including additional effectiveness indicators, which would not be related only to project participants’ vocational training/ employment figures. More diversified impact indicators (reduced demand for social services after 3 years (in percentage), established inter-institutional networks to provide multifaceted social services (number), effect on municipal social policy (budget in Lt or a number of local legal acts), etc. would also provide more information about long-term and broader impact of projects, not only about direct outcomes (number of employed persons during the project). Thus, this assessment carried out including the sustainability of the results is based on project documentation analysis, ESF project pipeline documents, project final reports and interviews with project managers and partners.

Social innovation projects
Results
The ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources aimed at promoting multifaceted actions to help persons at social risk integrate in society and the labour market. Priority was given to those initiatives that could offer innovative solutions for addressing social exclusion problems and integrate good practices of other countries as well as build upon the results of projects funded by EQUAL Programme in Lithuania (Programme for the Development of Human Resources of 2007–2013, 2007).

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Responding to ESF requirements, six UNDP projects focused on increasing employability of socially vulnerable persons. The ratio of planned and actually involved beneficiaries was 111 percent (1966 persons involved). Within the time frame of these projects, 29 percent (565 persons) of project participants were employed. Hence, the projects almost reached the set employability target (30 percent) and that shows good planning of employment possibilities and demand for it as well as good achievement of employment indicators during the economic crisis that was not identified and considered even in the risks matrix during the project planning phase. The relative effectiveness of the projects demonstrates that the cost per project participant fluctuated from 2470 Lt (949 USD) to 15027 Lt (5775 USD) (on the average 4812 Lt or 1849 USD). It should be noted that not all participants completed the training courses and acquired qualification, which makes the project cost per one participant actually much higher (16742 Lt or 6434 USD per person). Naturally, the social integration of more challenging social groups, such as Roma and the homeless, was most expensive – even up to 51172 Lt (or 19666 USD) per person, and that corresponds to average effectiveness indicators of ESF social integration projects (Public Administration and Management Institute, 2011). Nevertheless, it should be noted that UNDP projects were developing models of work with persons facing the biggest integration difficulties, thus the investments were higher than carrying out only employ-

ability activities. In such cases the investment is usually expensive at the beginning, but the more the proven model is used, the higher is the return on investment. While implementing new partnership objectives agreed upon with the government in 2006, UNDP pursued testing of such innovative ways and methods of work with socially excluded persons that could be further applied and scaled up in Lithuania and other countries, and in particular on the basis of which the social policy could be improved. Below, the results of six social innovation projects are reviewed on the basis of the use of multidimensionality principle while tackling social exclusion, the use of developed methodological tools and training as well as projects’ relevance for policy advice.

Principle of multidimensionality and its application
The new approaches and working methods have been applied in all UNDP social innovation projects: some projects were oriented more towards promotion of providing individualized multi-services for addressing multifaceted phenomena of social exclusion in a coherent manner throughout training and methodological guidance development (“HOW”, “CHILDREN IN CARE”, “OUR CHOICE”), others applied and tested this approach in practice (“A DAY TOGETHER”, “FACE ROMA”, “HOME AND AWAY”).

Table 10. Relative effectiveness of social innovation projects

Indicators How Funds allocated for each project participant, in Lt (budget/participants) 2.470 Funds allocated for each employed person, in Lt(budget/employed) 9.175

Children in care 2.753 10.869

A Day Together 5.047 14.022

Our Choice 9.045 25.376

Home and Face Roma Away 5.912 29.757 15.027 51.173

On the average 4.812 16.742

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Assessment of the practical implementation of multifaceted approach in projects, whereby innovative social practice models were adapted and tested under Lithuanian conditions, shows that many of them have proved worthwhile at project localities and would have been useful for reducing social exclusion in the country, in case of their broader application. Such innovative social solutions as community involvement applied in Multigenerational Homes, on-the-job-training of ethnic minorities or groups at risk of social exclusion and mediation for employment, the outcome-oriented technique in helping services to focus on the needs, potential and development of each client, supervisory professional assistance to social workers, social mentorship for rural unemployed should be analysed encouraging the MSSL to initiate their use throughout the country. Drafting of necessary legislation and continuous funding would promote their expansion. The new EU programming period might serve well for continued application of the tested employability solutions. On the other hand, the positive changes already taking place while integrating project experience into the social policy should be mentioned as well. For example, community involvement model in providing social services is included in the Strategic Guidelines on Deinstitionalization of Social Care Homes for Disabled Children Having Lost their Parents and Adult Persons with Disability, approved by the decree of the Minister of Social Security and Labour. The guidelines aim to form a coordinated care and service system by 2030, which would involve the variety of social services into the care institutions network. Several innovative components of UNDP projects or activity, which could have ensured greater sustainability of results, were not funded due to inflexibility of the ESF rules applied at national level for the particular call of consideration. For example, in “FACE ROMA” or “HOME AND AWAY” projects, the funding for implementation of the activities on improving Roma or homeless’ living conditions was not allowed, despite the fact that this

was particularly important for resolving their problems. In addition, when in the mid-project ESFA reduced the wage rates for social workers, it became complicated to find motivated and competent people, especially in rural areas, capable to actively apply the innovations planned. But it can also be said that some projects did not test the newly developed models in practice (“CHILDREN IN CARE”) for other reasons as well, like the changed local conditions.

Promotion of individualized multi-services provision through training and methodological tools
The effect of methodological tools and training activities designed for social workers aiming to enhance their knowledge and skills on effective ways to addressing social exclusion should not be underestimated. It should be noted that the activities carried out in UNDP projects were based of application on new methods, which proved to be successful in other countries and were adapted to Lithuanian conditions and presented through the development of methodological guidance. In principle, all the products developed (methodologies, guidelines, model descriptions, training materials, activity guidelines and research) were meant to promote still relatively new approach towards addressing multifaceted problems preventing vulnerable groups’ integration into the labour market through individualized assistance/teamwork of specialists. Methods and descriptions are particularly necessary for expansion of applied practice in other organizations, hence creating conditions for their broader use. As a result of tools used and training carried, the social workers’ capacities and competences to assist and provide quality services to vulnerable persons have increased, and thus the motivation, knowledge and skills of the latter to look for a job and to get employed have increased as well. Using the methodological guidance developed, local NGOs and other UNDP partners have

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gained experience in implementing larger projects and working with business when integrating particularly vulnerable groups as Roma or homeless. The MSSL highlighted the determination of UNDP to engage in addressing the multidimensional problems of particularly vulnerable target groups while bringing together local partners not having sufficient capacities as well as promoting cooperation between NGOs and municipality social centres (interview with Artūras Bytautas, MSSL). Although most of the results were disseminated aiming at scalability of used methodologies, only a few developed products were approved at the national level: “Home-Start Manager’s/Organiser’s Programme” (approved by MES as informal adult education programme), improved “Au pair and Social Worker’s Assistant Training Programme” (approved as 2nd level formal education programme). The “Order for organizing and carrying out voluntary activities” so far has been approved in partner organizations only, and can be used by social area organizations, which aim to work more effectively with volunteers.

Equality Advancement), in this respect single NGO efforts are usually hopeless and do not pay back due to the neglectful and formal attitude of ministerial officials towards participatory democratic governance processes (interview with Margarita Jankauskaitė). It should be noted that several projects contributed to the formulation of national level decisions. As a result of “FACE ROMA”, UNDP and its partner “SOPA” submitted proposals for improvement of the “Action Plan on Roma Integration into Lithuanian Society for 2012-2014”. In 2011, an international Roma conference organized in the framework of the Roma inclusion project implemented by the UNDP Lithuania brought together the main institutions and organizations working with Roma. The conference launched not only EU recommendations on developing Roma integration policy, but also concrete policy improvement recommendations based on the project experience. Similarly, the results of “HOME AND AWAY” were also launched and discussed at the Committee on Social Affairs and Labour of the Seimas (Parliament). Social service plans developed by “CHILDREN IN CARE” project and reviewed by foreign experts are used as feasibility studies while preparing other projects and pursuing expansion of social services. These plans assist the rural communities integrate into the National Programme of Multifaceted Assistance to Families Bringing up Children and into developing multifunctional centres in rural areas. As a result of continuous dialogue with ESFA and MSSL, some recommendations of other UNDP projects were integrated into revised ESF funding rules (for example, due to successful methodology and experience while providing on-the-job training). According to UNDP, policy advice should be provided after the completion of the project, when the experience of implementing and testing the models is codified. Such codification of experience is the goal of this publication.

Evidence based experience for policy advice
Because of UNDP’s role as a partner with the government, it aimed at evidenced-based policy advice through the implementation of ESF projects. According to the MSSL representatives, the ESF measure under which UNDP and its partners executed projects, did not pursue the aim to influence the social policy, but rather to test new ideas and ways of action without regulating these initiatives “top down” (interview with A. Bytautas, MSSL). This in itself limited UNDP’s possibility to provide policy-level recommendations. Hence UNDP social innovation projects were oriented towards accumulation of practical experience in testing new methods and creating new models, which could later be turned into policy recommendations. It should be noted that UNDP was in a position to provide policy advice, as according to the opinion of some UNDP partners (e.g., Centre for

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Sustainability
Project sustainability (i.e. continuation of project activities, replication, up-scaling, and sustainability of results) depends on many factors. The sustainability of local projects is first determined by the motivation and capacities of project implementer and project manager, relevant partnership and the need for the results and proposed activity (Leonavičiūtė, 2009). The sustainability of strategic national projects can be ensured still during programming period, when projects are encouraged to apply relevant impact sustainability and scalability mechanisms. These are as follows: 1) income generation system is created (e.g., effective payable service system), 2) legal basis to continue activity is drafted (e.g., favourable legal acts and regulations to continue activity are adopted); 3) financial basis is created (i.e., the budgetary resources to continue activities after the end of the project are foreseen), etc. UNDP projects planned to further scale up or replicate in other localities the social innovations practically tested and successful. Social innovation projects achieved this aim so far only to a certain extent: • Four pilot communities that participated in the project “A DAY TOGETHER” succeeded to ensure continuity of Multigenerational Homes activity in different ways. Although Kančėnai community did not succeed in raising local government funds to maintain the premises, but thanks to active community leaders, Multigenerational Homes organize sales of self-made handicraft and other articles produced by local community members, which were trained during the project. Part of generated funds is allocated to finance Multigenerational Homes activity. Meanwhile in other pilot communities, Multigenerational Homes are more actively supported by local governments, which allocate at least partial financing (interviews with Vilma Venta Jankūnienė, Monika Ražanauskienė). Lithuanian communities are interested in the activities of Multigenerational Homes

and visit them, hence the dissemination and expansion is carried out on the basis of good practice examples. • The continued use of Home-Start method is fore seen in Klaipėda Social Support Centre’s subdivision in Plungė (partner of “OUR CHOICE”) (interview with Skaidrė Račkauskienė). This initiative was born inside the organization. • The products created in “CHILDREN IN CARE” – de tailed and multidimensional development plans for childcare institutions prepared for municipalities can further be used for project pipeline development under other ESF measures in order to implement these plans in the future. • In almost all UNDP projects municipal social institutions were engaged in the project team, thus from the point of view of institutional approach favourable conditions were created for project continuity. With the end of project funding, these partners are obliged to provide social services according to the objectives of their organizations and their terms of reference, but as a result of the projects and improved competences, the quality of service is higher. This institutional continuity of practically tested social services is mentioned in all the reports. In addition, attention should be drawn to the challenges related to sustainability and replication of social innovations tested by UNDP. Firstly, in some cases the implementation of ESF projects at national level have limitations in terms of result-orientation and sustainability, as these are perceived as the responsibility of the project performers, and there is a tendency to focus on sustainability issue only during the early stages of project planning, but not throughout the project cycle. It is therefore recommended to apply Results Based Management (RBM) within the scope of ESF programming at national level throughout the project cycle in order to ensure results orientation and its sustainability (the culture of results orientation and RBM principles are embraced by UNDP). This would encourage ESF project performers to think in advance about the future sustainability and

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replication/scaling up of project results not only when they are at the planning stage of the projects but also throughout the project cycle. Secondly, having implemented the projects it was expected that UNDP partners would continue activities, and UNDP would seek to increase visibility and sharing with other countries via UNDP network. NGO activities are usually continued by mobilizing additional resources, if the organization is motivated to pursue the project and its activity matches up with its long-term strategy and existing capacities in the field of the project. The challenge of sustained funding as the main obstacle to continue Roma employment activities was mentioned by SOPA (interview with Jurgita Kuprytė). It should be noted that having completed the projects several UNDP partners continue using the methodology tested during the projects, and some of them drafted new project proposals and received funding for continuation of social services provision for the most vulnerable employing the working methods practiced during the UNDP projects’ implementation. For example, Marijampolė district Women’s Home Crisis Centre continues carrying out individual counselling, general skills and vocational training for persons at risk of social exclusion. Vilnius City Mother and Child Pension uses the methodology of tackling social exclusion in multifaceted ways in everyday social work by providing social services, which are financed by Vilnius municipality and expanding the network of clients (not only to women facing domestic violence, but also establishes children and family crisis centres) and actively disseminates the methodology of multifaceted approach in social work both at social workers’ vocational training in Lithuania and while implementing projects in the neighbouring countries. However, it sometimes happens that in cases when projects are implemented by budgetary institutions, these institutions go back to traditional methods after the end of the project, as no funding is later allocated for application of innovative approaches in daily work practices and the motivation system of state social workers does not exist or is not sustained, not to speak of particularly

low wages/low prestige of the profession. For example, the application of newly introduced and tested work methodology – integrated assistance for the employment of homeless residing at shelter homes (project “HOME AND AWAY”) in other Lithuanian shelter homes is yet constrained. The reasons is that shelter homes are not interested to perform more functions or transform their organizational activity model, if this is not required by the laws, while the new activity related to the employment of homeless is not additionally remunerated (interview with Vilma Venta Jankūnienė). Within the limits of their financial possibilities, project performers disseminated good practice in other regions: organized round tables, conferences and meetings. However, the real expansion to other areas is expected only after additional funding for implementing these new projects or performing new or additional functions at budgetary institutions is allocated, or in case the adjusted social policy and legislation would start promoting broader application of practically tested proven innovations. In some cases, entrusting part of the social services to private sector would be in line with the good practice examples of foreign countries, which promote cooperation among public, NGO and private sectors. The multi-tier project structure combined with variety of services provided in individualized ways contributed towards ensuring the project sustainability, however, this requires long-term and coordinated participation of all the stakeholders at various levels, thus it cannot be expected that single organizations could be able to achieve that during the implementation of the project.

Strategic national projects
Considering that these projects fell under national strategic priority already at the stage of their preparation, it was natural that the number of the above-mentioned

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challenges in ensuring sustainability of their results and planned impact was not relevant. Due to abundant experience in promoting CSR principles in Lithuania, UNDP Lithuania was chosen as a strategic national partner to implement CSR measures (VP1-1.1-SADM-03-V). Also, UNDP was a relevant organization for the creation of International Partners Network in the field of international internships for students and lecturers aiming to bring closer education and employment (measure VP12.2-SMM-08-V “Promoting the Internationalization of Higher Education”) due to its status as an international organization, which enables the involvement of many major international organizations and companies more effectively and thus ensures the quality and expansion of such international network. It is important to mention that regional CSR projects and other UNDP corporate activities in the country have significantly contributed to the development of democratic processes, public policy and responsible business not only in Lithuania, but in Central and Eastern European countries as well. UNDP was a key motivator for state institutions, business and NGO sectors to implement CSR principles: it cooperated actively and submitted proposals in drafting CSR related policy documents and disseminated Lithuanian experience in the region. Two strategic national and two international – regional CSR projects in the analysed period significantly contributed towards CSR promotion activities and achieved tangible results in Lithuania (the main results and impact on policy are described in chapter “Policy advice”). It should be noted that various products created and results achieved, in particular methodology for assessment of CSR progress at country level, various useful methodological and training materials for different businesses and the public sector, CSR conferences, National Network of Responsible Business, were significant in view of their impact not only on practical promotion of CSR among companies, but to CSR policy formulation in the country as well. The innovative and timely NGO-business partnership model implemented under

the “GATES” project really opened the gateways for NGO and business companies’ cooperation and blew away the doubts concerning the equality and benefits of such partnerships. The project implementation process and results create the conditions to achieve the planned impact in the future. The projects in CSR field were implemented with partners who already during the project took over good CSR practice and knowledge, and currently continue disseminating CSR approaches and good practices. Thus there is a hope and belief that these actions will be continued and the methodologies developed will be adopted by the NNRB and newly established informal network of CSR practitioners. At the same time, it is essential that the NNRB, MSSL and other organizations taking over some areas of activity and results would follow UNDP recommendations regarding continuity of CSR activity in the country. Although “PARTNERS 4 VALUE” project has not been finished yet at the time of preparing this publication, its national significance and planned impact to increase competitiveness and quality of studies at the Lithuanian higher education through internationalization of activities can be highlighted already now. Numerous methodological materials provide well-grounded recommendations concerning organization of process of international internships, which are already applied by some higher education institutions participating in the project. In addition, rather large number of specialists was trained, who apply the principles of organizing international internships in their work. Prepared model guidelines for the subject of international internships have been approved in some higher education institutions and they are already followed in practice. Software created by the project to facilitate the processes is currently also being used by some of the project partners. The main sustainability issue is related to further maintenance of international partners’ network, as this requires cooperation among Lithuanian higher education

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institutions and expansion of “Partners 4 Value” brand, working with international partners on “one channel” principle. During the preparation of this review, the final decision on the coordinating agency for the National System for International Internships after the end of the project has not yet been taken. It is recommended to seek the approval of MES to continue maintaining the network and system created, as this would correspond to the Lithuanian actions implementing the latest EC policy guidelines, where quality internships are particularly emphasized by the Commission Youth Employment Package launched in December 2012. Thus, the sustainability of project’s results highly depends on national higher education policy formulation and on higher education institutions’ motivation to cooperate with the view to ensuring successful relationships with international partners and paying sufficient attention to international internships as one of the study methods. There is a strong belief that the model tested will create a solid foundation for further coordinated cooperation both among higher education institutions and with the international partners.

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Main conclusions and recommendations
This chapter provides both conclusions and recommendations, which assess the UNDP’s work experience in Lithuania from 2006-2012. In order to help the reader to find the necessary information, conclusions and recommendations are formulated and categorised in terms of national and regional levels. Regional level recommendations and conclusions might be most relevant to governmental institutions and NGOs of other countries, regional centres, as well as other UNDP offices, while national level recommendations and conclusions might be relevant to the Government of Lithuania and ministries (such as the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Finance). To a certain extent it could also be useful to the ESF National Agency as well as to any other foreign institutions interested in Lithuania’s experience in the areas of social innovation, internationalization of education and the development of sustainable business. The conclusions and recommendations for local or organization level are presented at the end of each chapter. They could be applied to project initiators and implementers (NGOs, business, social service providers and governmental institutions) in Lithuania and elsewhere.

Conclusions
Regional level
• Drawing on the experience in Lithuania, UNDP has a proven track record in supporting countries address remaining development challenges. It has been able to do this through the transfer of considerable relevant experience to other countries in the region based on its international experience, knowledge network, accumulated experience with local NGOs, its role as a catalyst in bringing together innovative partnerships, and its neutrality and sustainable human development approach. • As evidenced in Lithuania, UNDP through its engagement and partnership approach can draw on its global network to bring solid development experiences and practices to a country – including an EU Member State or potentially an upper middle income country – while also supporting the country to share its own development experience with others through an ODA framework. • In the area of development cooperation, UNDP promoted the pooling of Lithuanian ODA together with other donors’ resources while programming and financing the implementation of the same objectives through joint projects, thus ensuring stronger impact and sustainability of the results. UNDP in Lithuania sought to initiate the interventions which would create the best opportunities for Lithuanian experts,

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in particular NGOs, to learn from the experience of traditional donor countries by working together. • UNDP Lithuania has been actively disseminating good practices in Lithuania to other countries undergoing a transition period. Through facilitation by UNDP, the following state and NGO delegations came to Lithuania to acquire experience: from Belarus (E-Governance, 2006; public administration and tax reform issues, 2007; national register and cadastre issues, 2008), from Armenia (corruption and public awareness issues, 2007), Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal and Kazakhstan (human rights issues, 2004, 2006, 2008), the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (application of employment and active labour market policy measures in Lithuania, 2009), Uzbekistan (Labour migration, 2008), Ukraine (equal opportunities for gender equality progress, 2010-2011). In addition, efforts were made to expand possibilities to transfer this experience to other countries as well. • This review of UNDP’s partnership work in Lithuania identifies UNDP’s importance as a regional player in facilitating the transfer of Lithuania’s experience to the countries in transition. Being familiar with Lithuania’s accumulated transitional experience, such as in the public sector, UNDP was well positioned to develop regional initiatives, whereby the knowledge, experience and funding of the EU-15 Member States is combined with the accumulated experience and expertise of the transition period of the new EU Member States. This experience is very much in demand in the Eastern Partnership framework. At the same time experts and NGOs in the new EU countries can learn from more established EU countries’ development cooperation when working on joint initiatives. However, this role and potential can only be fully realised if, at the political level, trilateral programming and implementation are prioritised and if activities have secure financial backing from ODA resources, which in the case of Lithuania was very modest in the period 2006-2012. • UNDP’s activity in Lithuania was particularly notable in certain thematic areas, for instance, in working

with corporate social responsibility and encouraging the internationalization of Lithuania’s higher education. UNDP’s regional and strategic national CSR projects have established Lithuania’s leadership among other new EU countries in this area and have also served as an excellence centre for joint initiatives and learning from best practices from other countries in the region. The UNDP international partnership model tested in the area of the internationalization of higher education and building closer links with employment could be extended to the Baltic Sea region in the framework of ESF transnational cooperation. This would best correspond to the needs of partner organizations and companies.

National level
• After Lithuania joined the EU, the government and national UNDP partners in Lithuania agreed to continue cooperating with the UNDP. Accordingly, efforts were invested in defining the priority areas for intervention and making UNDP’s new role and changed status in the country understood. Broad engagement of the partners in agreeing upon the areas of cooperation has made it easier for UNDP to focus on areas where it does not compete with others, but by way of innovation significantly contributes to the local partners’ actions in the country. One of UNDP’s roles was to bring together representatives of different sectors with the same aims for more significant results, while another role was to respond to newly emerging needs falling under the UNDP’s areas of competence. • During the 2006-2012 period UNDP in Lithuania and its partners successfully implemented 9 ESF funded projects worth 17.9 million Lt (6.9 million USD). Projects were implemented under the ESF Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources, including under the measures of: “Integration of people at risk of social exclusion into the labour market” (6 projects, 9.5 million Lt, 3.6 million USD), “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Promoting the

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Internationalization of Higher Education” (2 UNDP – MSSL projects and 3 strategic national projects, 8.4 million Lt, 3.2 million USD). UNDP also implemented national and regional CSR projects funded by the EU and other donors amounting to 955,000 Lt (367 025 USD), completed GEF projects and carried out UNDP corporate activity. • The partnership approach in Lithuania has a high level of subsidiarity: UNDP meets demands which local organizations need support in delivering, particularly in the areas which are relatively new to Lithuania such as CSR. UNDP can also play the role of neutral coordinator where partners from different sectors are pursuing common goals, as for instance in the case of NGO-business partnerships or international partnerships between businesses and higher education. • The objectives of UNDP’s cooperation with Lithuania for the period of 2006-2012 were the following: - Contributing to the reduction of social exclusion by introducing innovative methods and bringing in international experience; - Engaging the private sector in contributing to the well-being of society by implementing CSR principles; - Developing local organizations’ capacities, particularly those of NGOs, while effectively managing ESF funds; - Promotion of international partnerships in higher education, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs and business sectors with the aim of bringing employment and education closer together; - Policy advice based on practically tested solutions and project implementation experience; - Transfer of Lithuanian transitional experience and expertise to other countries undergoing transition. • In many cases UNDP introduced effective and significant social innovations, examples of good practice and methodological tools that other organizations providing social services in Lithuania and abroad will be able to use. Examples are: community activation

under the concept of Multigenerational Homes; onthe-job training for ethnic minorities and specific social groups, and mediation for employment; the outcome-oriented technique of helping services to focus on the needs, potential and development of each client, and education about personal responsibility; professional supervisory support to social workers; social mentorship for the vulnerable unemployed in rural areas, and others. • Despite the economic crisis, the social innovation projects implemented by UNDP Lithuania have reached the planned benchmarks: the ratio between the planned for involvement and actually involved persons was 111% 1,966 people were involved in the projects, and during the projects 29% (565 people) of people from target groups were employed. With the help of these projects social workers developed their skills and competences in assisting and providing quality services to vulnerable people, while as a result the latter have gained motivation, knowledge and skills in finding jobs. A particular feature of UNDP projects was that they addressed the problems of the most difficult target beneficiaries with regard to their integration into the labour market and society (Roma, the homeless, the long-term unemployed and others). • Provision of policy advice on the basis of successful forms of social innovation has so far been realised only partially and mostly through the strategic national level projects, which were clearly oriented towards developing and improving political decision making. Whether the models created during the social innovations projects, including the development of social services, continue will depend on the motivation of Lithuanian organizations, on funding opportunities, and on the legal environment. • Policy advice was particularly successful in the area of CSR. UNDP Lithuania was the government’s principal strategic partner in this area and initiated 16 out of a total of 28 strategic national CSR development measures. Innovative activity models were the first such initiatives in the country, and in some cases also

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in Europe. Although in the sphere of CSR in Lithuania there is still a lot to do, the legal, instrumental, capacity, knowledge and practice exchange foundation created by UNDP has been scaled up at many levels and opened the doors for advanced and wider implementation of CSR principles in the country. This, in turn enables Lithuania to share this accumulated experience and methodical solutions with other countries in the region. • The international partnership network for higher education, created by UNDP, is an advanced initiative that is carried out in parallel with similar initiatives in Europe. The system comprises international cooperation among 5 Lithuanian higher education establishments, international organizations and businesses. This will enable Lithuania’s higher education system to become more competitive with other countries in terms of quality. Whether the initiative continues, the sustainability of results and its scalability in Lithuania or across the region depend on the decision of the Ministry of Education and Science and the motivation of Lithuania’s higher education establishments. This involves maintaining effective international cooperation with the aim of bringing education and employment closer, facilitating youth employment, and enhancing Lithuania’s representation in intergovernmental organizations and multinational business. • In terms of developing partners’ administrative skills in absorbing and administering the EU funds, results were rather indirect apart from strategic national CSR and higher education internationalization projects. For most UNDP partners, these were the first ESF projects to be of such a large scale and scope, thus the experience acquired in these projects will help them to further develop similar initiatives. The inclusive role that UNDP played in bringing together partners to pursue common goals, rather than competing with each other, has marked UNDP out from other organizations. More people than originally planned took part in the projects, while the facilita-

tion of cooperation between NGOs and municipal institutions was significant for learning and exchanging experiences. • The management and administration of ESF projects in Lithuania can be further strengthened. Due to the limitations of funding regulations, there is a tendency in some projects towards planning and implementing standard, easily verifiable activities rather than focusing on the impact of measures. The lack of flexibility in adapting project activities and budgets to the changing situation; and the cumbersome procurement procedure for all organisations, partially decrease the opportunities to implement innovations, impact the quality of results and potential scalability of the projects, as the efforts are mostly concentrated on implementing and administering a project. • Although the ESF and UNDP main program goals overlap (such as eliminating poverty and social exclusion, etc.), UNDP’s approach to tackle these problems quite often was more innovative than envisaged by the funding frameworks. This situation highlighted the need for ensuring that during the programming of EU’s 2014-2020 structural funds, better conditions are secured for generating social innovations within the framework of the ESF programme at national level and ensuring that results-oriented management is included at the programming stage.

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Recommendations
Regional level

to ODA (that allow using the limited funding more effectively, with higher impact and visibility).

✓ UNDP’s comparative advantage lies in its ability to

✓ The partnership approach in Lithuania helps to

ensure changes at national level in areas where UNDP has know-how and experience through international networks. On the other hand, this partnership can create conditions for scaling-up tested solutions and accumulated experience at a national level into regional or development cooperation programmes. It would also be effective in facilitating the international exchange of experience.

✓ Going forward, UNDP and the Government of

Lithuania can engage in a mutually beneficial long term partnership on development cooperation. This partnership will build on UNDP’s experience in Lithuania in supporting the emerging donor process since 2001; on UNDP’s contributions to the development of national ODA policies and to the process of building public and political support for ODA. This will be done in the context of UNDP’s evolving partnerships with new donors in the European Union in the area of development cooperation. The focus of these partnerships is on supporting the next generation of east-east cooperation initiatives that benefit the Eastern Partnership and Southern Neighborhood countries. Such initiatives, primarily in the area of sharing of transition-related knowledge and experience, can benefit from a more coordinated approach of the new EU donors (especially on the ground in the partner countries); from pooling of funding and technical expertise (especially at the level of NGOs); from mechanisms to enhance and make more visible participation of new EU member states in implementing EU’s multilateral development assistance, especially in supporting sustainable transitions; and from introduction of innovative approaches

work across sectors and with a wide range of national and international partners, complementing their strengths (including, most recently, in a collaborative effort with the EC and the World Bank Institute). UNDP has a track record of supporting ODA capacities and facilitating east-east cooperation of the new EU Member States at an early stage after their accession. UNDP is also widely present with a programmatic base in all partner countries in both Eastern Partnership and Southern Neighborhood. While phasing out UNDP’s physical presence in Lithuania, following the completion of its current project portfolio as of end-June 2013, a longer term partnership with Lithuania focused on ODA issues could be undertaken through the UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and CIS, including its Regional Service Center.

✓ It would be useful to share with other countries of

the region the social innovations in response to social exclusion that were successful in Lithuania, as well as the experience in promoting internationalization of higher education, and implementing CSR principles at national level including, for example, the country level CSR progress measuring tool. This could facilitate the mobilisation of EC financing and generate projects for exchanging good practice in Lithuania and abroad, with UNDP’s support in exchanging experience and scaling-up innovations. Taking into account Lithuania’s role and experience in promoting CSR, it may wish to consider establishing a CSR Excellence Centre, and to initiate and test new CSR innovations.

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National Level

✓ For projects to have a cumulative effect and ensure
effective use of public funds, the national institutions responsible for EU structural assistance programming and administration should introduce result-based management principles application; encourage the emphasis on projects’ impact and replication possibilities; and the use of more diversified impact measuring indicators during the new EU structural support programming at national level. This could be done through inclusion of the above-mentioned issues in the programme description, measures and calls for project documentation. This would not only lead to the implementation of further programmes/projects, but also spread and develop innovative initiatives that focus on social problems.

institution responsible for the implementation of international internships, if favourable legal preconditions are not there to support it).

✓ Having evaluated the added value of tried and

✓ In order to encourage the spread of results of suc-

cessful social innovations, governmental bodies are encouraged to adapt or improve legislation or social policy provisions in a way that ensures swift and flexible reaction to the changing needs of a country, positive results of the projects and the EU policy developments. When collaborating with NGOs, municipalities and research institutions, it is necessary to analyse a variety of practices and models used in implemented projects, evaluate and codify them. The results obtained by this analysis, including an overview ofbest practices and lessons learned, should be brought to the attention of decision makers with a view to initiating and improving policy, legal frameworks, and ESF programming changes accordingly. New methods of social integration will not be able to be scaled up if the legal framework does not support it. For example, a shelter will not be interested in providing additional social integration services and effective care to homeless people, or schools of higher education will find it difficult to reach a consensus on the establishment of a national coordinating

tested social innovations and lessons learned it would be useful to secure continuous or additional financing from the budgetary funds or use UNDP’s grant system for application and scaling-up of the most significant and needed methods/initiatives. If legal and regulatory budgetary financing conditions at national level (which would create favourable conditions for scalability and further development) are not provided, then project-based financing is not safe as a way of ensuring the continuity of proven methods. Financial security and the continuity of initiatives launched is particularly relevant in case part of social services are to be outsourced to NGOs - for instance, providing a service of social mediation for employment of a difficult target group, such as Roma, drug addicts, and the homeless, and so forth. By applying effectively a multifaceted method of work in terms of multiple risk identification, NGOs could provide regular and good quality services. Thus the risk of the team dispersing after the end of the project would be minimized, while the NGOs would become effective partners in providing the social services. The same system of support could be applied in continuing a successful NGO-business partnership model implementation in the area of CSR.

✓ Lithuanian organizations, while collaborating with

local governments or mobilising EU financial support could take over and further develop new and tested social innovations in other regions of Lithuania or, using international cooperation, scale them up abroad. Examples of proven successful multifaceted social support practices are: the “Multigenerational Home” model, where community members mediate in providing social integration into the labour market; the development of

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working skills necessary for employment directly at the workplace for ethnic minorities or members from specific social groups and support in the process of employment; assessing the progress made by vulnerable people and encouraging their selfesteem and independent living; social mentorship for unemployed women in rural areas; alternative childcare services; the Home-Start volunteerbased programme for the socially excluded to help people integrate into the labour market, etc. These initiatives could be successfully implemented in other regions of Lithuania or elsewhere, thus providing organizations with stimuli to act and increase their social value.

tised already during the process of project planning. This is particularly relevant during periods of economic downturn. Employers in ESF projects should be recognised as one of the target groups, who should be actively involved in the project and in coordinating the content of vocational training programmes and their implementation. This activity is too significant to be left to the initiative of the project managers.

✓ It often happens in project implementation prac-

tice that while encouraging cooperation between different institutions, for example social support centres and the job centre, or between an independent social institution and NGOs, all parties involved lack necessary cooperation experience, and even lack legal and internal procedures to regulate such cooperation. In order to increase inter-institutional cooperation in the sphere of providing social services, a framework for cooperation, procedures and accountability should be created at the level of legislation and implementation of national measures. Social workers would then be more interested in cooperating and would be better informed as to where and how to direct/ accompany clients to the right service, and how to coordinate joint team work with other organizations, at the same time providing clients with individualized support.

✓ In the sphere of social integration of vulnerable

people into the labour market, the development of working skills and competences should be directly informed by the needs of the potential employer, therefore close cooperation with potential employers with regard to inclusion of people at social risk into the labour market should be priori-

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Annexes
List of ESF project partners
PROJECT PARTNERS CHILDREN IN CARE A DAY TOGETHER OUR CHOICE HOW HOME AND AWAY FACE ROMA PARTNERS 4 VALUE GATES PI Bendruomenių kaitos centras (Centre for Community Change) Kančėnai rural community Gedrimai rural neighbourhood Gedrimai rural community Gedrimai section of Telšiai secondary school „Džiugas“ Paneriai neighborhood Vilnius City Social Support Centre Aleksandrija community of Skuodas region Daugai city community organisation „Daugų kraštas“ Daugai city parish Klaipeda City Social Support Centre Klaipeda City Family and Child Welfare Centre Kaunas City Multigenerational Home Ukmerge City Non-Institutional Social Services Center Taurage City Social Services Centre Plunge City Shelter Home Telšiai District Administration Stonaičiai pension Kelme District Social Services Centre Center for Equality Advancement (CEA) Vilnius City Mother and Child Pension Marijampole County Women’s House-Crisis Centre Anyksciai City Social Services Centre Kelme District Municipality Social Services Centre Vilnius City Archbishopric Caritas Shelter Home Vilnius Shelter Home Public Institution „Roma Community Centre“ Public Institution “SOPA” Vilnius City Social Support Centre Vilnius University Mykolas Romeris University Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Vilniaus college/University of Applied Sciences Kauno college/University of Applied Sciences Lithuanian Confederation of Business Employers Lithuanian Trade Union „Solidarumas” Non-Governmental Organizations’ Information and Support Centre

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Interviewed People List
Lyra Jakulevičienė Rūta Svarinskaitė Ieva Labanauskienė Head of Office, UNDP Lithuania Programme Analyst, UNDP Lithuania Communications Officer, UNDP Lithuania

Adelė Wiman Partnerships’ Broker, UNDP Lithuania Vilma Venta Jankunienė Aušra Petrokienė Artūras Bytautas Asta Radzevičienė Margarita Jankauskaitė Skaidre Račkauskienė Jurgita Kuprytė Aiva Salatkienė Svetlana Novopolskaja Konstantin Stech Monika Ražanauskienė Irena Maževičienė Aldona Kvintufelienė Projects Associate, UNDP Lithuania Projects Associate, UNDP Lithuania Head of the Structural Support Management Unit, Ministry of Social Security and Labour of the Republic of Lithuania Vice-Rector, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Director, Center for Equality Advancement Director, Klaipeda City Social Support Centre Director, PI „SOPA“ Representative, PI „SOPA“ Representative, NGO “Roma Community Centre” Representative, NGO “Roma Community Centre” Head, Kančėnai Multigenerational Home Representative, Kančėnai Multigenerational Home Representative, Kelmė District Municaipality Social Services Centre

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SOCIAL INNOVATIONS THROUGH NEW PARTNERSHIPS: UNDP experience in Lithuania 2006-2012 | Analytical review | 2013

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