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Abrasive Jet Machining

INTRODUCTION Abrasive water et !achine t""#s are s$%%en#& being a hit in the !ar'et since the& are ($ic' t" )r"gra! an% c"$#% !a'e !"ne& "n sh"rt r$ns* The& are ($ic' t" set $)+ an% ",,er ($ic' t$rn-ar"$n% "n the !achine* The& c"!)#e!ent e.isting t""#s $se% ,"r either )ri!ar& "r sec"n%ar& ")erati"ns an% c"$#% !a'e )arts ($ic'#& "$t ", virt$a##& "$t ", an& !ateria#* One ", the !a "r a%vantage is that the& %"n"t heat the !ateria#* A## s"rts ", intricate sha)es are eas& t" !a'e* The& t$rns t" be a !"ne& !a'ing !achine* /" $#ti!ate#& a !achine sh") with"$t a water et + is #i'e a car)enter with "$t a ha!!er* /$re the car)enter can $se the bac' ", his cr"w bar t" ha!!er in nai#s+ b$t there is a better wa&* It is i!)"rtant t" $n%erstan% that abrasive ets are n"t the sa!e thing as the water et a#th"$gh the& are near#& the sa!e* Water Jet techn"#"g& has been ar"$n% since the ear#& 0123s "r s"+ an% abrasive ets e.ten%e% the c"nce)t ab"$t ten &ears #ater* 4"th techn"#"g& $se the )rinci)#e ", )ress$ring water t" e.tre!e#& high )ress$re+ an% a##"wing the water t" esca)e thr"$gh ")ening t&)ica##& ca##e% the "ri,ice "r ewe#* Water ets $se the bea! ", water e.iting the "ri,ice t" c$t s",t st$,,s #i'e can%& bars+ b$t are n"t e,,ective ,"r c$tting har%er !ateria#s* The in#et water is t&)ica##& )ress$ri5e% between 63333 an% 73333 P"$n%s Per /($are Inch 8P/I9* This is ,"rce% thr"$gh a tin& wa## in the ewe# which is t&)ica##& *332: t" *30;: %ia!eter 83*0< t"3*= !!9 * This creates a var& high ve#"cit& bea! ", water* Abrasive ets $se the sa!e bea! ", water t" acce#erate abrasive )artic#es t" s)ee%s ,ast en"$gh t" c$t thr"$gh !$ch ,aster !ateria#*

COMPONENT/ OF A4RA/I>E JET MACHININ? CENTER The c"!)"nents ", AJM centre inc#$%e @

Abrasive De#iver& /&ste! C"ntr"# /&ste! P$!) N"55#e M"ti"n /&ste!

2.1 Abrasive Delivery System A si!)#e ,i.e% abrasive ,#"w rate is a## thatAs nee%e% ,"r s!""th+ acc$rate c$tting* M"%ern abrasive ,ee% s&ste!s are e#i!inating the tr"$b#e-)r"ne vibrat"r& ,ee%ers an% s"#i%s !etering va#ves ", ear#ier s&ste!s an% $sing a si!)#e ,i.e%-%ia!eter "ri,ice t" !eter the abrasive ,#"w ,r"! the b"tt"! ", a s!a## ,ee% h"))er #"cate% i!!e%iate#& a% acent t" the n"55#e "n the B-a.is carriage* An "ri,ice !etering s&ste! is e.tre!e#& re#iab#e an% e.tre!e#& re)eatab#e* Once the ,#"w ", abrasive thr"$gh the "ri,ice is !eas$re% %$ring !achine set-$)+ the va#$e can be entere% int" the c"ntr"# c"!)$ter )r"gra! an% n" a% $st!ent "r ,ine-t$ning ", abrasive ,#"w wi## ever be nee%e%* The s!a## abrasive h"))er #"cate% "n the B-a.is carriage t&)ica##& h"#%s ab"$t a =;-!in$te s$))#& ", abrasive an% can be re,i##e% with a han% sc"") whi#e c$tting is $n%erwa&* 2.2 Control System Fundamental limitation of traditional CNC control systems.

Hist"rica##&+ water et an% abrasive et c$tting tab#es have $se% tra%iti"na# CNC c"ntr"# s&ste!s e!)#"&ing the ,a!i#iar !achine t""# C?-c"%e*C H"wever+ there is a ra)i% !"ve!ent awa& ,r"! this techn"#"g& ,"r abrasive et s&ste!s+ )artic$#ar#& th"se ,"r sh"rt-r$n an% #i!ite%)r"%$cti"n !achine sh") a))#icati"ns* ?-c"%e c"ntr"##ers were %eve#")e% t" !"ve a rigi% c$tting

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t""#+ s$ch as an en% !i## "r !echanica# c$tter* The ,ee% rate ,"r these t""#s is genera##& he#% c"nstant "r varie% "n#& in %iscrete incre!ents ,"r c"rners an% c$rves* Each ti!e a change in the ,ee% rate is %esire% )r"gra!!ing entr& !$st be !a%e* A water et "r abrasive et %e,inite#& is n"t a rigi% c$tting t""#D $sing a c"nstant ,ee% rate wi## res$#t in severe $n%erc$tting "r ta)er "n c"rners an% ar"$n% c$rves* M"re"ver+ !a'ing %iscrete ste) changes in ,ee% rate wi## a#s" res$#t in an $neven c$t where the transiti"n "cc$rs* Changes in the ,ee% rate ,"r c"rners an% c$rves !$st be !a%e s!""th#& an% gra%$a##&+ with the rate ", change %eter!ine% b& the t&)e ", !ateria# being c$t+ the thic'ness+ the )art ge"!etr& an% a h"st ", n"55#e )ara!eters*

The c"ntr"# a#g"rith! that c"!)$tes e.act#& h"w the ,ee% rate sh"$#% var& ,"r a given ge"!etr& in a given !ateria# t" !a'e a )recise )art* The a#g"rith! act$a##& %eter!ines %esire% variati"ns in the ,ee% rate ever& 3*333;C 83*306 !!9 a#"ng the t""# )ath t" )r"vi%e an e.tre!e#& s!""th ,ee% rate )r",i#e an% a ver& acc$rate )art* Using ?-C"%e t" c"nvert this %esire% ,ee% rate )r",i#e int" act$a# c"ntr"# instr$cti"ns ,"r the serv" !"t"rs w"$#% re($ire a tre!en%"$s a!"$nt ", )r"gra!!ing an% c"ntr"##er !e!"r&* Instea%+ the )"wer an% !e!"r& ", the !"%ern PC can be $se% t" c"!)$te an% st"re the entire t""# )ath an% ,ee% rate )r",i#e an% then %irect#& %rive the serv"!"t"rs that c"ntr"# the E-B !"ti"n* This res$#ts in a !"re )recise )art that is c"nsi%erab#& easier t" create than i, ?-c"%e )r"gra!!ing were $se%* 2. !ump" #ntensifier pumps Ear#& $#tra-high )ress$re c$tting s&ste!s $se% h&%ra$#ic intensi,ier )$!)s e.c#$sive#&* At the ti!e+ the intensi,ier )$!) was the "n#& )$!) ca)ab#e ", re#iab#& creating )ress$res high en"$gh ,"r water et !achining* An engine "r e#ectric !"t"r %rives a h&%ra$#ic )$!) which )$!)s h&%ra$#ic ,#$i% at )ress$res ,r"! 0+333 t" =+333 )si 87+133 t" 62+733 'Pa9 int" the intensi,ier c&#in%er* The h&%ra$#ic ,#$i% then )$shes "n a #arge )ist"n t" generate a high ,"rce "n a s!a##-%ia!eter )#$nger* This )#$nger )ress$ri5es water t" a #eve# that is )r")"rti"na# t" the re#ative cr"ss-secti"na# areas ", the #arge )ist"n an% the s!a## )#$nger* Cran$shaft pumps The cent$ries-"#% techn"#"g& behin% cran'sha,t )$!)s is base% "n the $se ", a !echanica# cran'sha,t t" !"ve an& n$!ber ", in%ivi%$a# )ist"ns "r )#$ngers bac' an% ,"rth in a c&#in%er* Chec' va#ves in each c&#in%er a##"w water t" enter the c&#in%er as the )#$nger

,ig@6 8cran'sha,t )$!)9 retracts an% then e.it the c&#in%er int" the "$t#et !ani,"#% as the )#$nger a%vances int" the c&#in%er*Cran'sha,t )$!)s are inherent#& !"re e,,icient than intensi,ier )$!)s beca$se the& %" n"t re($ire a )"wer-r"bbing h&%ra$#ic s&ste!* In a%%iti"n+ cran'sha,t )$!)s with three "r !"re c&#in%ers can be %esigne% t" )r"vi%e a ver& $ni,"r! )ress$re "$t)$t with"$t nee%ing t" $se an atten$at"r s&ste!* Cran'sha,t )$!)s were n"t genera##& $se% in $#tra-high )ress$re a))#icati"ns $nti# ,air#& recent#&* This was beca$se the t&)ica# cran'sha,t )$!) ")erate% at !"re str"'es )er !in$te than an intensi,ier )$!) an% ca$se% $nacce)tab#& sh"rt #i,e ", sea#s an% chec' va#ves* I!)r"ve!ents in sea# %esigns an% !ateria#s+ c"!bine% with the wi%e avai#abi#it& an% re%$ce% c"st ", cera!ic va#ve c"!)"nents+ !a%e it )"ssib#e t"

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")erate a cran'sha,t )$!) in the =3+333 t" ;3+333 )si 86<3+333 t" F=;+333 'Pa9 range with e.ce##ent re#iabi#it&* This re)resente% a !a "r brea'thr"$gh in the $se ", s$ch )$!)s ,"r abrasive et c$tting*

T&)ica# 63GF3 h"rse)"wer cran'sha,ts %riven tri)#e. )$!)* E.)erience has sh"wn that an abrasive et %"es n"t rea##& nee% the ,$## 73+333 )si 8=0=+333 'Pa9 ca)abi#it& ", an intensi,ier )$!)* In an abrasive et+ the abrasive !ateria# %"es the act$a# c$tting whi#e the water !ere#& acts as a !e%i$! t" carr& it )ast the !ateria# being c$t* This great#& %i!inishes the bene,its ", $sing $#tra-high )ress$re* In%ee% !an& abrasive et ")erat"rs with 73+333 )si 8=0=+333 'Pa9 intensi,ier )$!)s have #earne% that the& get s!""ther c$ts an% !"re re#iabi#it& i, the& ")erate their abrasive ets in the =3+333 t" ;3+333 )si 8627+333 t" F=;+333 'Pa9 range* N"w that cran'sha,t )$!)s )r"%$ce )ress$res in that range+ an increasing n$!ber ", abrasive et s&ste!s are being s"#% with the !"re e,,icient an% easi#& !aintaine% cran'sha,t-t&)e )$!)s* 2.% No&&les A## abrasive et s&ste!s $se the sa!e basic tw"-stage n"55#e as sh"wn in the FI?* First+ water )asses thr"$gh a s!a##-%ia!eter ewe# "ri,ice t" ,"r! a narr"w et* The water et then )asses thr"$gh a s!a## cha!ber where a >ent$ri e,,ect creates a s#ight vac$$! that )$##s abrasive !ateria# an% air int" this area thr"$gh a ,ee% t$be* The abrasive )artic#es are acce#erate% b& the !"ving strea! ", water an% t"gether the& )ass int" a #"ng+ h"##"w c&#in%rica# cera!ic !i.ing t$be* The res$#ting !i. ", abrasive an% water e.its the !i.ing t$be as a c"herent strea! an% c$ts the !ateria#* ItAs critica# that the ewe# "ri,ice an% the !i.ing t$be be )recise#& a#igne% t" ens$re that the water et )asses %irect#& %"wn the center ", the !i.ing t$be* Otherwise the ($a#it& ", the abrasive et wi## be %i,,$se%+ the ($a#it& ", the c$ts it )r"%$ces wi## be )""r+ an% the #i,e ", the !i.ing t$be wi## be sh"rt*

FI?@ T&)ica# abrasive et n"55#e

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The t&)ica# "ri,ice %ia!eter ,"r an abrasive et n"55#e is 3*303C t" 3*30=C 83*6; !! t" 3*F; !!9* The "ri,ice ewe# !a& be r$b&+ sa))hire "r %ia!"n%+ with sa))hire being the !"st c"!!"n** The vent$ri cha!ber between the ewe# "ri,ice an% the t") ", the !i.ing t$be is an area that is s$b ect t" wear* This wear is ca$se% b& the er"sive acti"n ", the abrasive strea! as it enters the si%e ", the cha!ber an% is entraine% b& the water et* /"!e n"55#es )r"vi%e a carbi%e #iner t" !ini!i5e this wear* Precise a#ign!ent ", the ewe# "ri,ice an% the !i.ing t$be is critica# t" !i.ing t$be #i,e* This is )artic$#ar#& tr$e ,"r the re#ative#& s!a## %ia!eter 3*3F3C 83*2; !!9* 'i(in) *ube The !i.ing t$be is where the abrasive !i.es with the high-)ress$re water* The !i.ing t$be sh"$#% be re)#ace% when t"#erances %r") be#"w acce)tab#e #eve#s* F"r !a.i!$! acc$rac&+ re)#ace the !i.ing t$be !"re ,re($ent#&* The si5e ", the 'er, an% c$tting )er,"r!ance are the best in%icat"rs ", !i.ing t$be wear*

Fig@ Mi.ing T$be 2.+ 'otion System " E-B Tab#es In "r%er t" !a'e )recisi"n )arts+ an abrasive et s&ste! !$st have a )recisi"n E-B tab#e an% !"ti"n c"ntr"# s&ste!* Tab#es ,a## int" three genera# categ"ries@

o o o

F#""r-!"$nte% gantr& s&ste!s with se)arate c$tting tab#es Integrate% tab#eGgantr& s&ste!s F#""r-!"$nte% canti#ever s&ste!s with se)arate c$tting tab#es

Each t&)e ", s&ste! has its bene,its an% %rawbac's* 1.Floor,mounted )antry with separate cuttin) table A ,#""r-!"$nte% gantr& with a se)arate c$tting tab#e is the !"st c"!!"n a))r"ach $se% b& water et s&ste! !an$,act$rers* A ,ra!ew"r' that s$))"rts the E-B !"ti"n s&ste! is sec$re% %irect#& t" the ,#""r an% stra%%#es a se)arate c$tting tab#e an% catcher tan'* The n"55#e8s9 is !"$nte% t" a carriage which !"ves a#"ng a gantr& bea! that stra%%#es the tab#e* The gantr& bea! is s$))"rte% "n each en% b& a g$i%e s&ste! an% is !"ve% b& ba## screws+ rac' an% )ini"n asse!b#ies "r %rive be#ts #"cate% at each en%* The )ara##e# %rive !echanis!s are either ")erate% b& tw" e#ectr"nica##&-c"$)#e% %rive !"t"rs "r b& a

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sing#e !"t"r %riving a !echanica##&-c"$)#e% %rive s&ste!*

2.#nte)ratedtable-)antrysystem The integrate% tab#eGgantr& s&ste! is ver& si!i#ar t" the tra%iti"na# gantr& s&ste! )revi"$s#& %escribe%+ e.ce)t that the g$i%es ,"r the gantr& bea! are integrate% int" the c$tting tab#e* 4eca$se ", this the E-B !"ti"n s&ste! an% the !ateria# s$))"rt tab#e are )art ", the sa!e "vera## str$ct$re an% $nwante% re#ative !"ti"n between the! is e#i!inate%* In this t&)e ", s&ste!+ the ,#""r is n"t a vita# )art ", the s&ste! str$ct$re* This s&ste! is t&)ica##& !"re acc$rate than the !"re tra%iti"na# se)arate gantr& an% tab#e*

Integrate% tab#eGgantr& s&ste!* F*Floor,mounted cantilever system with separate cuttin) table

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This t&)e ", s&ste! $ses a ,#""r-!"$nte% E-a.is an% a canti#evere% B-a.is !"$nte% t" the E-a.is carriage* The n"55#e !"$nts t" a carriage "n the B-a.is* The c$tting tab#e is t"ta##& se)arate ,r"! the E-B !"ti"n str$ct$re*

../01#N2 A t&)ica# abrasive et !achining center is !a%e $) ", the ,"##"wing c"!)"nents@

High )ress$re water starts at the )$!)+ an% is %e#ivere% thr"$gh s)ecia# high )ress$re )#$!bing t" the n"55#e* At the n"55#e+ abrasive is 8t&)ica##&9 intr"%$ce%+ an% as the abrasiveGwater !i.t$re e.its+ c$tting is )er,"r!e%* Once the et has e.ite% the n"55#e+ the energ& is %issi)ate% int" the catch tan'+ which is $s$a##& ,$## ", water an% %ebris ,r"! )revi"$s c$ts* The !"ti"n ", the c$tting hea% is t&)ica##& han%#e% b& an E G B-a.is str$ct$re* C"ntr"# ", the !"ti"n is t&)ica##& %"ne via a c"!)$ter ,"##"wing the #ines an% arcs ,r"! a CAD %rawing*

=*AJM FEATURE/

8A9Obtainab#e t"#erances" B"$ nee% a !achine with g""% )recisi"n t" get )recisi"n )arts+ b$t there are !an& "ther ,act"rs that are $st as i!)"rtant* A )recise !achine starts with a )recise tab#e+ b$t it is the c"ntr"# ", the et that brings the )recisi"n t" the )art* A $ey factor in precision is software - n"t har%ware* This is a#s" tr$e ,"r c$tting s)ee%* ?""% s",tware can increase c$tting s)ee%s %ra!atica##&* This is beca$se it is "n#& thr"$gh s")histicate% s",tware that the !achine can c"!)ensate ,"r a C,#"))& t""#C !a%e ,r"! a strea! ", water+ air+ an% abrasive* Obtainab#e t"#erances var& great#& ,r"! !an$,act$rer t" !an$,act$rer* M"st ", this variati"n c"!es ,r"! %i,,erences in c"ntr"##er techn"#"g&+ an% s"!e ", the variati"n c"!es ,r"! !achine c"nstr$cti"n* /igni,icant a%vances are !a%e in the c"ntr"# ", the )r"cess a##"wing ,"r higher t"#erances*

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345'aterial to machine Har%er !ateria#s t&)ica##& e.hibit #ess ta)er+ an% ta)er is a big ,act"r in %eter!ining what 'in% ", t"#erances &"$ can h"#%* It is )"ssib#e t" c"!)ensate ,"r ta)er b& a% $sting the c$tting s)ee%+ an%G"r ti#ting the c$tting hea% "))"site ", the ta)er %irecti"n* 3C5'aterial thic$ness As the !ateria# gets thic'er+ it bec"!es !"re %i,,ic$#t t" c"ntr"# the behavi"r ", the et as it e.its "$t the b"tt"!* This wi## ca$se b#"w-"$t in the c"rners+ an% ta)er ar"$n% c$rves* Materia#s thinner than 0G=C 87!!9 ten% t" e.hibit the !"st ta)er 8which is )erha)s the "))"site ", what &"$ !ight e.)ect*9+ an% with thic'er !ateria#s+ the c"ntr"##er !$st be ($ite s")histicate% in "r%er t" get %ecent c$ts ar"$n% c"!)#e. ge"!etr&* 3D5Accuracy of table Obvi"$s#&+ the !"re )recise is the )"siti"ning the et + the !"re )recise wi## be the !achine )art* 365Stability of table >ibrati"ns between the !"ti"n s&ste! an% the !ateria#+ )""r ve#"cit& c"ntr"#+ an% "ther s$%%en variances in c"n%iti"ns can ca$se b#e!ishes in the )art 8Cwitness !ar'sC9+ The har%ware that is "$t there varies great#& in stabi#it& an% s$sce)tibi#it& t" vibrati"ns* I, the c$tting hea% vibrates re#ative t" the )art +the )art wi## be $g#&*

3F5Control of the abrasive 7et 4eca$se &"$r c$tting t""# is basica##& a bea! ", water+ it acts #i'e a C,#"))& t""#C* The et #ags between where it ,irst enters &"$r !ateria# an% where it e.its*

;*'AC8#N#N2 AS!6C*S 1.Around curves As the et !a'es its wa& ar"$n% a ra%i$s+ the et %"wn+ an% #et the tai# catch $) with the hea%* 8An% G "r ti#t the c$tting hea% t" c"!)ensate9

2.#nside corners As the et enters the c"rner+ the traverse s)ee% !$st s#"w %"wn t" a##"w the ets tai# t" catch $)* Otherwise the tai# #ag wi## ca$se the c"rner t" Cb#"w "$tC a #itt#e* As the et e.its the c"rner+ the ,ee% rate !$st n"t be increase% t"" ($ic'#&+ "therwise the et wi## 'ic' bac' an% %a!age the )art* .Feed rate" When the et s#"ws %"wn+ its 'er, wi%th gr"ws s#ight#&* %.Acceleration" An& s$%%en !"ve!ent 8#i'e a change in ,ee% rate9 wi## ca$se a s#ight b#e!ish as we##* Th$s ,"r highest )recisi"n it is necessar& t" c"ntr"# the acce#erati"n as we## as ,ee% rate* +.No&&le Focus /"!e n"55#es )r"%$ce !"re ta)er than "thers* L"nger n"55#es $s$a##& )r"%$ce #ess ta)er* /!a##er %ia!eter n"55#es a#s" )r"%$ce #ess ta)er* H"#%ing the n"55#e c#"se t" the w"r' )iece )r"%$ces #ess ta)er as we##* 9.Speed of cuttin)

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T&)ica##&+ the s#"wer the c$tting+ the higher the t"#erance* This is beca$se as the c$tting is s#"we% %"wn+ the s$r,ace ,inish i!)r"ves+ an% the ta)er begins t" %isa))ear* H"wever in s"!e cases it is )"ssib#e t" s#"w the c$tting %"wn s" !$ch that t"#erances begin t" get w"rse %$e t" reverse ta)er* :.Active taper compensation /"!e newer !achines n"w have the ")ti"n ", ti#ting the c$tting hea% against the ta)er* This can be $se% t" virt$a##& e#i!inate the ta)er+ "r t" )$r)"se#& a%% ta)er int" a )art* The big a%vantage t" active ta)er c"!)ensati"n is that ta)er can be re%$ce% with"$t having t" s#"w the c$tting %"wn* 8CTa)erC is when the e%ge ", the )art is n"t 033H )er)en%ic$#ar*9 I have an entire )age %e%icate% t" this t")ic e#sewhere in this web site* I, &"$ want t" g" there n"w* ;.1erf width Ier, wi%th+ which is the wi%th ", the c$tting bea!+ %eter!ines h"w shar) ", an insi%e c"rner &"$ can !a'e* Ab"$t the s!a##est )ractica# abrasive et n"55#e wi## give &"$ a 'er, wi%th ", *363C 83*;!!9 in %ia!eter* Higher h"rse)"wer !achines re($ire #arger n"55#es+ %$e t" the a!"$nt ", water an% abrasive that the& ,#"w thr"$gh* /"!e water et 8water "n#&9 n"55#es have ver& ,ine 'er, wi%ths 8#i'e *33FC G 3*327!!9* Li'ewise+ it is )"ssib#e t" !a'e $#tra-s!a## abrasive et n"55#es+ b$t the& are )r"b#e!atic* <.Consistency of !ump !ressure >ariati"ns in water et )$!) )ress$re can ca$se !ar's "n the ,ina# )art* It is i!)"rtant that the )$!) )ress$re var& as #itt#e as )"ssib#e whi#e !achining is in )r"gress t" )revent these* 8This bec"!es an iss$e "n#& when #""'ing ,"r better than J-*33;C 83*06;!!9 t"#erances+ h"wever9* T&)ica##& it is "#%er Intensi,ier t&)e )$!)s that e.hibit this )r"b#e!* /"!e newer intensi,iers+ an% as ,ar as I 'n"w a## cran'sha,t %riven )$!)s have s!""ther )ress$re %e#iver&+ an% this is n"t an iss$e* 03*C$tting s)ee%s@ #deally= you want to ma$e the most precise part possible in the least amount of time= and for the least amount of money. Cuttin) speeds are a function of the the material to cut= the )eometry of the part= the software and controller doin) the motion= the power and efficiency of the pump ma$in) the pressure= and a few other factors such as the abrasive used"

8ere are the primary factors that determine cuttin) speed" 'aterial bein) cut 3And how thic$ it is5 8ardness" ?enera##& s)ea'ing+ har%er !ateria#s c$t s#"wer than s",t !ateria#s* H"wever+ there are a #"t ", e.ce)ti"ns t" this* F"r e.a!)#e+ granite+ which is ($ite har%+ c$ts signi,icant#& ,aster than C"))er+ which is ($ite s",t* This is beca$se the granite easi#& brea's $) beca$se it is britt#e* It is a#s" interesting t" n"te that har%ene% t""# stee# c$ts a#!"st as ($ic'#& as !i#% stee#* 8Th"$gh Cabs"#$te b#ac'C granite+ which is t"$gh as nai#s+ act$a##& c$ts a bit s#"wer than c"))er*9 *hic$ness" The thic'er the !ateria#+ the s#"wer the c$t* F"r e.a!)#e+ a )art that !ight ta'e 0 !in$te in 0G<C 8F!!9 stee#+ !ight ta'e a ha#, h"$r in 6C 8;3!!9 thic' stee#+ an% !a&be 63 h"$rs in 03 inch 86;3!!9 thic' stee#* 2eometry of the part It is necessar& t" s#"w the c$tting %"wn in "r%er t" navigate shar) c"rners an% c$rves* It a#s" ta'es a%%iti"na# ti!e t" )ierce the !ateria#* There,"re+ )arts with #"ts ", h"#es an% shar) c"rners wi## c$t !$ch s#"wer than si!)#er sha)es* Desired 0esult I, &"$ want a high t"#erance )art an% G "r a s!""th s$r,ace ,inish+ then the )art wi## ta'e #"nger t" !a'e* N"te that &"$ can !a'e s"!e areas ", a )art high t"#erance an% "ther areas ,ast+ s" &"$ can !i. an% !atch t" get the ")ti!a# ba#ance between c$tting s)ee% an% ,ina# )art ($a#it&* Software controllin) the motion This is )r"bab#& "ne ", the !"st "ver#""'e% as)ects ", abrasive et !achining b& n"vice $sers* B"$ w"$#% n"t thin' that s",tware w"$#% have !$ch t" %" with the s)ee% ", c$tting* In ,act+ this is tr$e i, a## &"$ are

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%"ing is c$tting in a straight #ine* H"wever+ as s""n as &"$ intr"%$ce an& c"!)#e.it& t" the )art+ s$ch as a c"rner+ there is great "))"rt$nit& ,"r s",tware t"")ti!i5e the c$tting s)ee%* The %i,,erence+ as it t$rns "$t+ is a## thr"$gh s",tware that a$t"!atica##& ")ti!i5es the t""# )ath t" )r"vi%e the %esire% )recisi"n in the #east a!"$nt ", ti!e* 4asica##&+ what the s",tware %"es+ is #""'s at the ge"!etr& ", the )art+ an% then !"%i,& the ,ee% rates an% a%% Ctwea'sC t" the c$tting in "r%er t" s($ee5e the !a.i!$! a!"$nt ", s)ee%* It %"es this b& ,in%ing the ")ti!a# s)ee%s an% acce#erati"ns ,"r a## c$rves an% c"rners+ setting the ")ti!a# #ength an% ,ee% rate ,"r a## )ierce )"ints+ a%%ing s)ecia# Cc"rner )assC e#e!ents at c"rners t" a##"w the c$tting t" g" right )ast the c"rners where it can+ etc* It was ,"$n% that b& si!)#& ")ti!i5ing the c"rners that we c"$#% get ab"$t a ,act"r ", tw" in c$tting s)ee% "ver a han%-")ti!i5e% )art* Then+ "ver the ne.t 03 &ears "r s"+ we a%%e% a #"t !"re ")ti!i5ati"ns in ter!s ", ,aster )iercing+ c"rner )assing+ i!)r"ve% c$tting !"%e#s an% s$ch+ an% were ab#e t" get an"ther ,act"r ", 6 in c$tting s)ee% ,"r s"!e )arts+ whi#e at the sa!e ti!e increasing the )recisi"n* /"+ s",tware !attersK An% "ne ", the !"st bea$ti,$# things ab"$t ")ti!i5ing in s",tware is that it %"es n"t c"st an& !"ne&* In ,act+ it saves !"ne&+ beca$se i, &"$ c$t ,aster thr"$gh s",tware+ &"$ $se #ess abrasive an% )$t #ess wear an% tear "n a## the high-)ress$re c"!)"nentsK !ower at the no&&le 3pressure and water flow rate5 The !"re h"rse)"wer at the n"55#e+ the ,aster &"$ can c$t* H"w !$ch h"rse)"wer !a'es it t" the n"55#e is a ,$ncti"n ", the )ress$re an% the "ri,ice that itAs being s($ee5e% thr"$gh* 8N"te@ %" n"t c"n,$se Ch"rse)"werC with Ch"rse)"wer at the n"55#eC* It is the )"wer that act$a##& !a'es it t" the n"55#e that is !"st i!)"rtant* Having a big !"t"r !a'es n" %i,,erence+ i, the )"wer a## g"es int" waste% heatK9 /i!)#& )$t+ the higher the )ress$re+ the ,aster the c$t* The !"re water &"$ ,#"w+ the ,aster the c$t* Un,"rt$nate#&+ as the )ress$re increases+ s" %"es the c"st an% !aintenance+ s" this is n"t as si!)#e as it see!s* A g""% wa& t" #earn !"re ab"$t h"w )ress$re an% ewe# si5e e,,ect-c$tting rates+ an% t" ca#c$#ate Cn"55#e h"rse)"werC is t" r$n the Abrasive et Fee% Rate Ca#c$#at"r+ which &"$ can %"wn#"a% ,r"! this web site* *ype of abrasive" In the in%$str&+ )rett& !$ch ever&"ne $ses <3 !esh garnet ,"r their abrasive* H"wever+ it is )"ssib#e t" c$t s#ight#& ,aster with har%er abrasives* H"wever+ the har%er abrasives a#s" ca$se the !i.ing t$be "n the n"55#e t" wear ra)i%#&* /"+ )rett& !$ch ever&"ne $ses garnet* It is w"rth !enti"ning that n"t a## garnet is the sa!e* There are big variati"ns between )$rit&+ har%ness+ shar)ness+ etc+ that can a#s" e,,ect the c$tting s)ee% an% ")erating c"st* >uality of abrasive" T&)ica##&+ abrasive ets c"ns$!e between 3*; an% 0 Lb 83*6; an% 3*;Ig9 ", abrasive )er !in$te* There is a sweet s)"t ,"r ever& n"55#e si5e an% )ress$re as t" what a!"$nt ", abrasive ,#"w rate wi## c$t the ,astest+ an% what a!"$nt wi## c$t the chea)est*

9.C/'!A0#S/N */ /*860 'AC8#N#N2 !0/C6SS6S 1.Comparison with 6D' 1ey .ire 6D' stren)ths

o o o

E.tre!e#& )recise )arts are )"ssib#e LM3*3330C 8M3*36;!!9N >er& thic' )arts L"ver 06C 8F3 c!9N can be !a%e Intenti"na# ta)er can be )$t int" a )art ,"r %ie c#earance an% "ther $ses

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1ey !recision Abrasive 7et stren)ths

o o o o o o

Five t" ten ti!es ,aster in )arts #ess than 0C 86*; c!9 thic' Lb$t+ at M3*33FC 8M3*0 !!9+ #ess )recise as we## N" Heat A,,ecte% O"ne 8HAO9+ s" n" nee% ,"r sec"n%ar& ")erati"ns t" re!"ve the HAO "r a%%iti"na# heat-treating t" c"!)ensate ,"r it W"r's we## in n"n-c"n%$ctive !ateria#s 8s$ch as g#ass+ st"ne+ )#astic9 as we## as c"n%$ctive !ateria#s Can )ierce !ateria# %irect#& with"$t the nee% ,"r a )re-%ri##e% starter h"#e Can )r"%$ce #arge )arts at reas"nab#e c"sts /i!)#e an% ra)i% )r"gra!!ing an% set-$) with !ini!a# ,i.t$ring

6*C"!)aring abrasive et t" #aser 1ey laser stren)ths

o o

>er& ,ast )r"%$cti"n in thin+ n"n-re,#ective !ateria#s s$ch as sheet stee#* Acc$rac& t" M3*330C 8M3*36; !!9 "r better in thin !ateria#*

1ey precision abrasive 7et stren)ths

o o o o

Can )r"%$ce )arts $) t" 6C 8;*0 c!9 thic' in virt$a##& an& !ateria# whi#e h"#%ing t"#erances "n the "r%er ", M3*33FC t" M3*33;C 8M3*3< t" M3*0 !!9* Can !achine re,#ective+ c"n%$ctive an% thic'er !ateria#s s$ch as stain#ess stee# an% a#$!in$!+ c"))er an% brass* C$ts with"$t !e#ting+ )r"vi%ing a s!""th $ni,"r! s$r,ace with ver& #itt#e b$rr "r %r"ss* N" heat-a,,ecte% 5"ne 8HAO9+ which !a& e#i!inate the nee% ,"r a sec"n%ar& ")erati"n t" re!"ve HAO an% !a'es c"nventi"na# sec"n%ar& ")erati"ns+ s$ch as rea!ing "r ta))ing+ easier t" )er,"r!* N" n".i"$s gas "r va)"rs )r"%$ce% %$ring c$tting* /i!)#e an% ra)i% )r"gra!!ing an% set-$) ,"r sh"rt-r$n )arts*

o o

F*C"!)aris"n ", )recisi"n abrasive et t" !i##ing 1ey mill or machinin) center stren)ths

o o o

A we##-$n%erst""% ,a!i#iar techn"#"g&* Ab#e t" !a'e three-%i!ensi"na# )arts* Ra)i% )r"%$cti"n i, set $) an% )r"gra!!e% ,"r #"ng-r$n )arts*

1ey precision abrasive 7et stren)ths

o o

>er& ra)i% )r"gra!!ing an% set-$) %"es n"t re($ire a high#& traine% ")erat"r* >er& #"w c$tting #"a%s !eans that ,i.t$ring is easier an% a#s" !eans that intricate an% %e#icate )arts can be !achine%*

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One c$tting t""# )er,"r!s a## !achining ,$ncti"ns in a## !ateria#s+ s" there is n" nee% t" )$rchase an% ca#ibrate !$#ti)#e c$tting t""#s*brP Large c$tting enve#")e c"!)are% t" a !achining center ", c"!)arab#e )rice* Mini!a# b$rr c"!)are% t" c"nventi"na# !achining* Envir"n!enta##& ,rien%#&D n" "i#-s"a'e% chi)s an% !ini!a# scra)* The 'e& reas"ns tra%iti"na# "b sh")s b$& a )recisi"n abrasive et is t" get new )r" ects+ bec"!e !"re c"!)etitive+ an% !a'e !"re !"ne&*

=*C"!)aris"n ", )recisi"n abrasive et t" !i##ing 1ey mill or machinin) center stren)ths

o o o

A we##-$n%erst""% ,a!i#iar techn"#"g&* Ab#e t" !a'e three-%i!ensi"na# )arts* Ra)i% )r"%$cti"n i, set $) an% )r"gra!!e% ,"r #"ng-r$n )arts*

1ey precision abrasive 7et stren)ths

o o o o o o

>er& ra)i% )r"gra!!ing an% set-$) %"es n"t re($ire a high#& traine% ")erat"r* >er& #"w c$tting #"a%s !eans that ,i.t$ring is easier an% a#s" !eans that intricate an% %e#icate )arts can be !achine%* One c$tting t""# )er,"r!s a## !achining ,$ncti"ns in a## !ateria#s+ s" there is n" nee% t" )$rchase an% ca#ibrate !$#ti)#e c$tting t""#s*brP Large c$tting enve#")e c"!)are% t" a !achining center ", c"!)arab#e )rice* Mini!a# b$rr c"!)are% t" c"nventi"na# !achining* Envir"n!enta##& ,rien%#&D n" "i#-s"a'e% chi)s an% !ini!a# scra)* The 'e& reas"ns tra%iti"na# "b sh")s b$& a )recisi"n abrasive et is t" get new )r" ects+ bec"!e !"re c"!)etitive+ an% !a'e !"re !"ne&*

:.'AC8#NA4?6 'A*60#A?S >irt$a##& an& !ateria# can be c$t b& $sing AJM !eth"% i*e* har%er !ateria#s #i'e titani$! t" stee# A#$!in$!+ /tee#+ Titani$! La!inates F#a!!ab#e !ateria#s C$t thin st$,,+ "r thic' st$,, 4ritt#e !ateria#s #i'e g#ass+ cera!ic+ ($art5+ st"ne* La!inates F#a!!ab#e !ateria#s C$t thin st$,,+ "r thic' st$,,

<*PROCE// AD>ANTA?E/ Q LIMITATION/" AD@AN*A26S /F A40AS#@6 A6*"

3a5 E.tre!e#& ,ast set$) an% )r"gra!!ing N" t""# changes re($ire%+ s" there is n" nee% t" )r"gra! t""# changes "r )h&sica##& ($a#i,& !$#ti)#e t""#s* F"r s"!e s&ste!s+ )r"gra!!ing si!)#& inv"#ves %rawing the )art* I, &"$ c$st"!er gives &"$ that %rawing

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"n %is'+ ha#, the batt#e is w"n* This !eans that 8,"r s"!e !achines9 &"$ can !a'e g""% !"ne& ",, sing#e )art an% #"w v"#$!e )r"%$cti"nK 3b5@ery little fi(turin) for most parts F#at !ateria# can be )"siti"ne% b& #a&ing it "n the tab#e an% )$tting a c"$)#e ", 03 #b weights "n it* Tin& )arts !ight re($ire tabs+ "r "ther ,i.t$ring* At an& rate+ ,i.t$ring is t&)ica##& n"t an& big %ea#* 'achine virtually any 2D shape 3and some D stuff5

Inc#$%ing tight insi%e ra%ii+ Ma'e a carb$ret"r ,#ange with h"#es %ri##e% an% ever&thing* 8c9>er& #"w si%e ,"rces %$ring the !achining This !eans &"$ can !achine a )art with wa##s as thin as *36;C 83*; !!9 with"$t the! b#"wing "$t* This is "ne ", the ,act"rs that !a'e ,i.t$ring is s" eas&* A#s"+ #"w si%e ,"rces a##"w ,"r c#"se nesting ", )arts+ an% !a.i!$! !ateria# $sage*

8%9A#!"st N" heat generate% "n &"$r )art

B"$ can !achine with"$t har%ening the !ateria#+ generating )"is"n"$s ,$!es+ recasting+ "r war)ing* B"$ can !achine )arts that have a#rea%& been heat treate% with "n#& a tin&+ tin& %ecrease in s)ee%* On )iercing 6C 8;3!!9 thic' stee#+ te!)erat$res !a& get as high as 063 %egrees F 8;3 C9+ b$t "therwise !achining is %"ne at r""! te!)erat$re* Aer"s)ace c"!)anies $se abrasive ets a #"t beca$se ", this* 8e9N" start h"#e re($ire% Wire EDM+ eat &"$r heart "$t* /tart h"#es are "n#& re($ire% ,"r i!)"ssib#e t" )ierce !ateria#s* 8/"!e )""r#& b"n%e% #a!inates are ab"$t the "n#& !ateria#s I can thin' ", ",, han%9 8,9Machine thic' st$,, This is "ne h$ge a%vantage Abrasive ets have "ver #asers* Whi#e !"st !"ne& wi## )r"bab#& be !a%e in thic'nessA $n%er 0C 86;!!9 ,"r stee#+ It is c"!!"n t" a#s" !achine $) t" =C 8033!!9* I %"nAt 'n"w the act$a# #i!it t" thic'ness+ b$t c$tting s)ee% is a ,$ncti"n ", thic'ness+ an% a )art twice as thic' wi## ta'e !"re than twice as #"ng* I have hear% ", )e")#e !a'ing #"w t"#erance )arts an% r"$ghing "$t !eta# $) t" ;-03C thic' 806;!!-6;3!!9+ b$t th"se )e")#e are ver& )atient+ an% )r"bab#& have n" "ther wa& t" %" it* T&)ica##&+ !"st !"ne& is !a%e "n )arts 6C 8;3!!9 thic' "r thinner* 8g9Envir"n!enta##& ,rien%#&

?reen Peace %"es n"t #i'e s"!e ", th"se "ther t""#s in &"$r sh")* N"t !$ch ", an iss$e n"w+ b$t in the ,$t$re I w"$#% e.)ect the )ress$re wi## be "n* /h"rt ", han% t""#s+ abrasive ets )r"vi%e the !"st envir"n!enta##& ,rien%#& !achining ar"$n%* 8/"!e ", the )$!)s even $se vegetab#e "i# ,"r asse!b#& #$be beca$se water ets are $se% in the ,""% in%$str&9* As #"ng as n" ha5ar%"$s !ateria# is !achine%+ the s)ent abrasive an% waste !ateria# bec"!e s$itab#e ,"r #an%,i##* The re% c"#"r ", garnet abrasive a#s" #""'s nice in &"$r gar%en* I, #"ts ", #ea% "r "ther ha5ar%"$s !ateria#s are !achine%+ &"$ wi## sti## nee% t" %is)"se ", &"$r waste a))r")riate#&+ an% rec&c#e &"$r water* >er& #itt#e !eta# is act$a##& re!"ve% in the c$tting )r"cess* This 'ee)s the envir"n!enta# i!)act re#ative#& #"w+ even i, &"$ %" !achine the "ccasi"na# ha5ar%"$s !ateria#* 8h9B"$r c#i))ings are va#$ab#e When !achining "r r"$ghing "$t e.)ensive !ateria#s s$ch as titani$!+ &"$r scra) sti## has va#$e* This is beca$se &"$ get ch$n's+ n"t chi)s* B"$ can a#s" get !"re )arts ,r"! the sa!e !ateria# beca$se ", the abrasive ets #"w 'er, wi%th*

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8i9There is "n#& 0 t""# There is n" nee% t" ($a#i,& !$#ti)#e t""#s+ "r %ea# with )r"gra!!ing t""# changes* Pr"gra!!ing+ /et$) an% C#ean $) ti!e is re%$ce% signi,icant#&+ !eaning &"$ !a'e !"re !"ne& beca$se &"$ can t$rn !"re )arts ,aster* ?#'#*A*#/NS /F A40AS#@6 A6*"

Des)ite their si!)#e %esign+ abrasive et n"55#es can be tr"$b#es"!e at ti!es* There are !an& %esigns+ b$t the& share the sa!e )r"b#e!s@ /h"rt #i,e ", an e.)ensive wear )art@ The !i.ing t$be* Li'e I sai%+ the abrasive et can c$t thr"$gh $st ab"$t an&thing - inc#$%ing itse#,* This wi## be a #arge )art ", &"$r ")erating c"st* 8M"re "n ")erating c"st #ater9 Occasi"na# )#$gging ", !i.ing t$be@ Us$a##& ca$se% b& %irt "r #arge )artic#es in abrasive* 8This $se% t" be a big )r"b#e! with abrasive et n"55#es+ b$t n"t s" !$ch an& !"re*9 Wear+ !isa#ign!ent+ an% %a!age t" the ewe#*

<.C/NC?BS#/N The better )er,"r!ance+ an% the a))#icati"ns )resente% ab"ve state!ents c"n,ir! that A40AS#@6 A6* 'AC8#N#N2 3AJM9 wi## c"ntin$e t" e.)an%* In%$str& is c"nvince% that the #arge aer"s)ace seg!ent wi## ta'e ",, in near the ,$t$re+ t"gether with "ther seg!ents that are c$rrent#& sh"wing interest in AJM !eth"%* Fr"! ")erat"r e.)eriences the abrasive ets are ca)ab#e ", an&where ,r"! 3*;!!-3*36;!! )recisi"n* High )recisi"n !an$,act$ring nee%s can be !et b& $sing AJM !eth"%* Newer !achines are ca)ab#e ", FD !achining th$s !a'ing it an i!)"rtant in s)ecia#t& !an$,act$ring* The new s",twareRs $se% wi## !ini!i5e ti!e an% invest!ents+ thereb& !a'ing it )"ssib#e ,"r !"re !an$,act$rers ", )recisi"n )arts t" insta## AJM centers* 06F606NC6S 0* Pr"cesses an% Materia#s ", Man$,act$re b& R*A* LIND4ER? /EMINAR TOPIC FROM @@ www*e%$,ive*c"!Gse!inart")ics*ht!# www*)c!ag*c"!Genc&c#")e%ia

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