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Resonance Circuits

Resonance In Electric Circuits


Any passive electric circuit will resonate if it has an inductor and capacitor

Resonance is characterized by the input voltage and current


being in phase. The impedance (or admittance) is completely real when this condition exists. Basically ,there are two types of resonant circuits : (a) series resonance, and (b) parallel resonance.

Series Resonance
Consider the series RLC circuit shown below.

The input impedance is given by:

Z= R + j ( wL

1 ) wC

The current in the circuit is:

The magnitude of the circuit current is;

Variation of inductive and capacitive reactance as the frequency f of the source is varied:

When f = 0 , XL = 0 and XC = .

As f increases , the XL increases and the XC decreases till at a frequency fr the two reactances become equal . With further increase in f , XL > XC At fr

the net reactance of the circuit = 0


The impedance of the circuit z= R and the current in the circuit = V/R

fr is known as resonance frequency and the circuit , is said to be in resonance.


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Therefore resonance occurs when,

1 wL = wC

r 1 fr = = 2 2 LC

This is an important equation to remember. It applies to both series and parallel resonant circuit

The following figure shows the variation in the impedance of the circuit as the frequency varies from 0 to

At low frequency Xc >XL and the circuit is capacitive . As f goes on increasing , the net reactance goes on decreasing , and the impedance also goes on decreasing . At f = fr , the net reactance = 0, and the circuit impedance is the min. Z = R . XL >XC and the circuit is When f >fr inductive. As f incr. , Z is incr. too.

The variation in the magnitude is plotted in the following fig. :

Since the current is proportional to Z, the current incr. with increasing of f . At f = fr (Imax). the current is max.

As f incr. beyond f r

I decr.

The voltages across XL and XC are : VL = I XL , VC = I XC At fr XL = XC VL =VC

Series Circuit Current at Resonance

The frequency response curve of a series resonance circuit shows that the magnitude of the current is a function of frequency. Since the current is proportional to Z, the current incr. with increasing of f . At f = fr the current is max. (Imax). I decr.

As f incr. beyond f r

The voltages across XL and XC are : VL = I XL , VC = I XC At fr


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XL = XC

VL =VC

example
A series RLC circuit has : R = 80 , L = 100 H and C = 300 pF

Find the resonance frequency and the current at resonance if E = 10v

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solution
a

fr =
=

1 2 LC
1

[2 (100 10

300 10

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1 2

= 0.919 10 6 Hz = 0.919 MHz

current at resonance E / R = 10 / 80 = 0.125A

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Bandwidth of a Series Resonance Circuit

The bandwidth (B) of a series RLC circuit is : BW = f = f2 - f1 Where f1 and f2 are the frequencies of which the power delivered to the circuit is power delivered at resonance . These known as half power points. The power delivered at resonance is : Therefore , Thus the currents I1 and I2 ,at half power point are: 12

From the eq.

We can write

It is seen that at hpp :

(XL XC) / R = 1

At resonance XL XC = 0 ,then when freq. incr. from fr to f2 , XL must incr. by 0.5 R and XC must decr. by 0.5R to satisfy the eq. thus : 2 f2 L - 2 fr L = 0.5R or Similarly when freq. decr. from fr to f1 , XC incr. by 0.5R and XL decr. by the same value ,thus : 2 fr L - 2 f1 L = 0.5R or

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Bandwidth of a Series Resonance Circuit

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Q Factor
The ratio of the resonance frequency to the BW is known as factor Q: f Q= r f
from eq. f = R/ 2L and from eq. f = r

1 2 LC

Q=

2L 1 ( ) R 2 LC

Thus Q can be incr. by decr. R or by incr. L/C ratio .

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The following fig. shows the current versus frequency graphs for circuits with different values of Q : A circuit with high Q has a narrow B

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Exercise 1
A series RLC circuit has L = 50H , C = 2000 pF and R = 50 . a Calculate Q factor of the circuit b Find the new value of C required for resonance at the same frequency if the inductance is doubled . c Find the new value of Q factor

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Exercise 2
A constant voltage at frequency of 1 MHz is applied to a coil in series with a variable capacitor . when the capacitor is set at 500 pF, the current in the circuit is maximum. When the capacitor is set at 600 pF, the current is half the maxi. value . Find Resistance , Inductance , and Q factor of the coil .

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Exercise 3
A series resonance network consisting of a resistor of 30, a capacitor of 2uF and an inductor of 20mH is connected across a sinusoidal supply voltage which has a constant output of 9 volts at all frequencies. Calculate: The resonant frequency, The current at resonance, The voltage across the inductor and capacitor at resonance, The quality factor The bandwidth of the circuit. Also sketch the corresponding current waveform for all frequencies.

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Exercise 4
A series circuit consists of a resistance of 4, an inductance of 500mH and a variable capacitance connected across a 100V,50Hz supply. Calculate: - The capacitance require to give series resonance - The voltages generated across both the inductor and the capacitor .

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Parallel Resonance
The admittance of the circuit is :

If the source frequency is adjusted so as to make XL = XC ,then : Y =1/R and Z = R , I = V/R This is the condition of the parallel resonance . The frequency f r at which parallel resonance take place :

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Parallel Resonance
Consider the circuits shown below:
V

1 1 I = V + jwC + R jwL

R V I

L C

1 V = I R + jwL + jwC

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Duality

1 1 I = V + jwC + R jwL

1 V = I R + jwL + jwC

We notice the above equations are the same provided:

R
L
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1 R
C

If we we make makethe theinner-change, inner-change, If then one oneequation equation becomes then becomes thesame same as the other. the as the other. For such suchcase, case, we say the one For we say the one circuit is the thedual dualof of the other. circuit is the other.

Parallel Resonance

What is that for all the equations we What Whatthis this thismeans means means is is that that for for allall the the equations equations wehave we have have derived for the parallel resonant circuit, we use derived derived for for the the parallel series resonant resonant circuit, circuit, wecan we can can useuse for the series circuit provided we for for the the parallel seriesresonant resonant resonant circuit circuit provided provided wemake we make make the substitutions: the the substitutions: substitutions:

replaced be

1 R

L replaced by C replaced by
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C L

Serial Resonance

Parallel resonance

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When a parallel circuit at resonance , the following characteristics can be noted :


1. The total current in the circuit is MIN.

2. The current is in phase with the supply voltage and the circuit acts as pure resistive circuit . 3. Admittance of the circuit is MIN. ,therefore the impedance of the circuit is MAX.

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Exercise 5:
A coil of 20 resistance has an inductance of 0.2 H and is connected in parallel with a 100 F capacitor. Calculate - The resonance frequency. - The quality factor - The bandwidth of the circuit

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