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# 1/22/12 3.

3 Linearity
1/3 www-math.mit.edu/djk/calculus_beginners/chapter03/section03.html
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3.3 Linearit
A iea fci, e hae ee i a fci he gah ie a aigh ie, ad hich ca be decibed b giig i e ad
i iece.
Thee i a ecia id f iea fci, hich ha a def ad ia e ha i fe ef. Thee ae linear
functions whose y intercepts are 0 (f eae fci ie 3 5). Thi ea hei gah a igh hgh he igi,
(he i ih cdiae (0, 0)). Sch fci ae caed homogeneous linear functions. The hae he e ha hei
ale a an combinaion of o agmen i he ame combinaion of hei ale a hoe agmen. I b hi aee
i:
f(a + b) = af() + bf()
Do ordinary linear functions have any such property?
The d. Any linear function at all has the same property when b is 1 - a. Th f a iea fci a a e hae
f(a + (1 - a)) = a f() + (1 - a) f()
B be caef, iea fci ha ae hgee d not be he geea ieai e aed eea ie abe.
Peie ie hee ea ha ce he ae f a iea fci a age ca eai fid i ae ahee
ee i i defied.
The e hee decibed i fe caed he e f ieai. Thi i ea a eibe a decibe i becae efec
gd iea fci hich hae iece ha i 0 d be he e geea ei f he e (he fi e abe.)
Aa, eaie ha most fci DO NOT hae eihe f hee eie.
3A Describing Linear Functions on a Spreadsheet
Se e hae a iea fci, a, f() = 5 + 3.
1. Ho can e ealae hi fncion a an abia agmen, , on a peadhee?
2. Ho can e ealae i a a hole lo of agmen?
3. Ho can e plo i?
Wi ee ha ce he fi f hee ei i addeed, he e ae ie ea d. The ee hade i he d da.
Oe ice feae f ha ca d i ha if e hi ce, ca chage he iea fci a i ad ach h he
chage ia, a i he ae.

1/22/12 3.3 Linearity
2/3 www-math.mit.edu/djk/calculus_beginners/chapter03/section03.html

J i cae a ee ha ae dig i be ie gie i abe a e fe ie i ha
hae.
S a a eiia, igh ee i b A1 he ie: Linear Functions.
Se e eiiaie: i A2 ie he d slope, ad i B2 ee he be 5 (ae ca chage hi ahig ee
a)
I A3 ee he d: intercept, ad i B3 ee he be 3.
I A4 ee: starting argument ad i B4 ee -1
I A5 ee: spacing ad i B5 ee .01.
(Whe a fci, ca d i e a fiie iea, ad hee a ie ae ef f ceaig a
iea.)
I A9 ee he b ad i B9 ee f(). Thee ae abe f he c be he.
I A10 ee =B4
I B10 ee =B\$2*A10 +B\$3
Y hae he ae he fi ei. The be ha aea i b B10 i be he ae f fci a he
age gie i B4 (a hi i ha age i -1, ad ih fci 5 + 3 he ae i B10 hd be -2.)
Y ca eaae hi fci ahee ee eae, b chagig he e i B4 haee eae.
Suppose I want to change the slope or the intercept of m function?
Y ca d ha b chagig he eie i B2 B3. The ae f he chaged fci a he age i A10 i aea i B10.
What are these funn dollar signs that I have put in A10 and B10?
T ae he ecd ad hid ei abe e ae gig c he ici i B10 i he be a e. Whe e d
1/22/12 3.3 Linearity
3/3 www-math.mit.edu/djk/calculus_beginners/chapter03/section03.html
that, the reIerences which do NOT have dollar signs in Iront oI them will change . Those with dollar signs will stay the same.
Ho do he efeence change? Wha do o mean?
Suppose we copy B10 to B11. Then what will appear in B11 will not be exactly what is in B10, but instead it will be B\$2*A11
B\$3. Because the A10 had no dollar sign in it, when we copied it down one row the 10 turned into an 11. The other terms did not
change because we put dollar signs in Iront oI them.
Wha happen if o cop o a diffeen colmn?
The same kind oI thing will happen. That is, iI you copy what is in B10 to C11, you will get C\$2*B11 C\$3. All the column indices
that do not have dollar signs in Iront oI them will shiIt over one column, because you shiIted over one column. The same goes Ior
shiIting any number oI rows or columns.
This property is what allows us to look at a Iunction over a range and plot it by copying. Our plan is: have the argument increase by
d Irom row to row, which can be accomplished by putting one entry in A11 and copying it down the A column Then copying B10
down the B column. That is all there is to answer the second question.
OK, ha goe ino A11?
We can enter A10B\$5. This will increase the entry in column A in each row we copy it to by the amount in B5 over what it was
in the previous row. II we do this in Column A, say down to row 500, and copy B10 also down to row 500, you will have a set oI
OK, ho do I cop?
This varies somewhat Irom spreadsheet to spreadsheet. For many or most you do the Iollowing:
1. Highlight the box you want to copy.
2. Press |Ctrl| and c at the same time
3. Highlight the boxes you want to copy to.
4. Press |Ctrl| and v at the same time.
There is another way that is easier iI you are copying several columns down Irom the same row at once; it is called fill or fill don
on the edit menu. Try it. You can also Iill sidewise. (Here you could copy B10 into B11 and then Iill A11 and B11 both together
down to A500 and B500.) Experiment with these things until you get them to work. II you can't get them to work on your