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BASIC PRINCIPLES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING QE===E=EeE=E=E=E=E=E=E=__—_ I. i oe “ama Any Contents CHAPTER OO WPAGE Preface ix 1 The transformer: some stumbling blocks in elementary theory explained 1 H_ Polyphase A.C. travelling and_rotating fields: methods and conception v IH Voltage rise on load: a ‘first principles’ explanation 15 IV Alternators in parailel: the student's approach 19 V_ The torque of a single-phase motor 33 VI__Ward-Leonard speed control: its uses and principles 39 VIL Smoothing circuits: their simple bases 48 VIET Arccontrol: some elementary considerations _58 IX Starting rotary converters on A.C.2 source of synchronizing torque 71 X__Elementary power system studies: an ¢ntroduction to basic principles 78 XI Alternator reactance: some elementary considerations with reference to short- cireutt tions on power systems 95 Indem v Diagrams FIGURE 1 CHNAUAWL 10 12 13 4 Is 16 17 I8 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Paths of leakage flux Choking coil vector diagram Elementary unloaded transformer diagram Loaded transformer diagram Disposition of 3-phase poles Relationship of coils and currents Individual and resultant m.m.f.s Terminal voltage and e.m.f. relationships Varying effect of armature m.m-f. on the alter- nator field Paraileling D.C. machine Paraileling A.C. machine Synechronism of 3-phases Representation of D.C. generators in parallel Representation of A.C. generators in parallel Relative polarities Generator and bus-bar polarities Effect of alternator field variation Aliernating vector represented by two rotating vectors Torque-slip curves Elementary circuit Elementary ‘line-bucking’ circuit Layout for A.C. mains Full wave rectification and showing the characteristic ripple of the output voltage of a D.C. generator A typical single-stage smoothing circuit Input voltage, single-stage smoothing circuit vii PAGE Daane ll 16 17 20 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 34 36 42 44 46 49 53