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Safety Factor against Joint Separation

If a force Pj pulls on the joint, then the safety factor against separation is
nsj = Pi Pj (1 Ck )

( 15.32)

Pi = preload (Eq 15.33) Pj = external load Ck = joint constant (dimensionless stiffness parameter)

Ck =

(More on this later) kb ( 15.17) kb + k j

kb = bolt stiffness kj = joint stiffness

Figure 15.15, page 690

Connection Simulated as Bolt and Joint Springs

bolt joint

Preload Pi = Tension force in bolt = compression force in joint.

Text Reference: Figure 15.9, page 680

Force vs. Deflection with External Load

Load P increases tension in bolt from Pi to Pb = Pi + Ck P Ck = kb/(kb + kj) = stiffness parameter.

Figure 15.11, page 681

Bolt tension Pb.

Contributions of preload Pi and external load P on bolt tension Pb.
Force vs. Deflection with External Load

Load P increases tension in bolt from Pi to Pb = Pi + Ck P Ck = k b/(kb + kj) = stiffness parameter.

Fi gure 15.11, page 681

Only a fraction of external load contributes to bolt tension.

Text Reference: Figure 15.16, page 691

Cyclic (fatigue) loading

Common loading: External load varies between 0 and P. Therefore, bolt tension Pb = Pi + Ck P varies between Minimum bolt tension = Pbmin = Pi ( = preload) Maximum bolt tension = Pbmax = Pi + CkP Therefore, Mean bolt tension = Pbm = Pi + 0.5 CkP Alternating bolt tension = Pba= 0.5 CkP Alternating bolt stress = a = Pba/At = 0.5 CkP/At . Mean bolt stress = m = Pbm/At = Pi/At + 0.5 CkP/At m= i + a .

(Non-Modified) Goodman diagram

Alternating a = 0.5 CkP/At . Mean m = i +a = Pi/At + a . a Preload is not overloaded. So i = Pi/At is constant External load P is overloaded, increasing a andm equally. So load line has a slope of 450.


a= m-i i m m Sut

Safety factor against bolt fatigue

Safety factor against fatigue = (Length of AB)/(Length of BC). At point A, m i = a
Se Se K f m Kf S ut
m = Se +i Kf Se K f 1 + S ut


aA a

A C B i m m Sut

Fatigue Stress Concentration Factors

Safety factor against fatigue: Non-modified Goodman diagram results in S e K f S ut i n fatigue = a S ut + S e K f a = Alternating bolt stress = Pba/At ; m= Mean bolt stress = Pbm/At i = Bolt prestress = Pi /At At = effective tensile area

Kf = Fatigue stress concentration factor from table below:

SAE grade 0-2 4-8 Metric g rade 3.6-5.8 6.6-10.9 Ro lled threads 2.2 3.0 Cut threads 2.8 3.8 Fillet 2.1 2.3

Table 15.8 Fatigue stress concentration factors for threaded elements.


m - i

Se K f S a = e m Kf S ut

n fatigue =

aA S e K f S ut i = a a S ut + S e K f

Effect of Preload on Fatigue Safety Factor

n fatigue = Se K f a S ut i S ut + S e K f

Preload stress i may lower the safety factor. However, the safety factor can be much worse without adequate preload. Example showing relationship between preload and fatigue: Minimum external load = 0. Maximum external load = 3000 lb. Bolt and joint stiffnesses kb = 0.6Mlb/in. kj = 1.8Mlb/in. Tensile cross section area At = 0.0775 in2. Ultimate strength Su = 120 kpsi. Modified endurance limit Se/Kf = 14.21 kpsi. Calculate factor of safety against fatigue for: a)Preload = 4941 lb. b)Preload = 1200 lb (Remember joint separation).

Adequate preload P, lb 4.94k 3k 1.2k Defl, in Pmax = 4.94 + 0.25(3) = 5.69 klb. Pmin = 4.94 klb. Minimum bolt stress i = _____ Altern bolt stress a = _______
n fatigue = a

Inadequate preload P, lb

3k Defl, in Pmax = 3.0 klb. Pmin = 1.2 klb. Minimum bolt stress i = _____ Altern bolt stress a = ______
S ut i S ut + S e K f

Se K f

nfatigue = ________

nfatigue = ________

Safety factor against static failure

If a force P pulls on the bolt in addition to the preload, then the safety factor is
Bolt proof strength Preload

nsb =

At S p Pi PCk
Stiffness parameter

( 15.31)

Bolt loading

Preload reduces the safety factor against static failure. However, static failure seldom matters, and less important than joint separation. What is more important than static failure is fatigue.

Effect of joint constant Ck on safety factors

Against joint separation:
n sj = Pi P (1 C k )

Against static failure:

nsb =

At S p Pi PCk
aA S e K f S ut i = a a S ut + S e K f

Against fatigue:

n fatigue =

Text Reference: Figure 15.17, page 694

Specifying Bolts. Example: Ball hitch bracket

Fy Fx 40 50 20 20 40 70 Two bolts, one behind

All materials are steel. 1. Determine loads on bolts. 2. Choose bolt grade (5 or higher). 3. Choose bolt diameter based on load and strength. 4. Determine preload and pretorque. 5. Calculate joint stiffness parameter. 6. Determine safety factor against joint separation. 7. Determine safety factor against fatigue. 8. Go back to 3 until safety factors are good.