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If a force Pj pulls on the joint, then the safety factor against separation is

nsj = Pi Pj (1 Ck )

( 15.32)

Pi = preload (Eq 15.33) Pj = external load Ck = joint constant (dimensionless stiffness parameter)

Ck =

Figure 15.15, page 690

bolt joint

Figure 15.11, page 681

Contributions of preload Pi and external load P on bolt tension Pb.

Force vs. Deflection with External Load

Fi gure 15.11, page 681

Common loading: External load varies between 0 and P. Therefore, bolt tension Pb = Pi + Ck P varies between Minimum bolt tension = Pbmin = Pi ( = preload) Maximum bolt tension = Pbmax = Pi + CkP Therefore, Mean bolt tension = Pbm = Pi + 0.5 CkP Alternating bolt tension = Pba= 0.5 CkP Alternating bolt stress = a = Pba/At = 0.5 CkP/At . Mean bolt stress = m = Pbm/At = Pi/At + 0.5 CkP/At m= i + a .

Alternating a = 0.5 CkP/At . Mean m = i +a = Pi/At + a . a Preload is not overloaded. So i = Pi/At is constant External load P is overloaded, increasing a andm equally. So load line has a slope of 450.

Se/Kf

a= m-i i m m Sut

Safety factor against fatigue = (Length of AB)/(Length of BC). At point A, m i = a

Se Se K f m Kf S ut

m = Se +i Kf Se K f 1 + S ut

Se/Kf

aA a

A C B i m m Sut

Safety factor against fatigue: Non-modified Goodman diagram results in S e K f S ut i n fatigue = a S ut + S e K f a = Alternating bolt stress = Pba/At ; m= Mean bolt stress = Pbm/At i = Bolt prestress = Pi /At At = effective tensile area

SAE grade 0-2 4-8 Metric g rade 3.6-5.8 6.6-10.9 Ro lled threads 2.2 3.0 Cut threads 2.8 3.8 Fillet 2.1 2.3

a=

m - i

Se K f S a = e m Kf S ut

n fatigue =

aA S e K f S ut i = a a S ut + S e K f

n fatigue = Se K f a S ut i S ut + S e K f

Preload stress i may lower the safety factor. However, the safety factor can be much worse without adequate preload. Example showing relationship between preload and fatigue: Minimum external load = 0. Maximum external load = 3000 lb. Bolt and joint stiffnesses kb = 0.6Mlb/in. kj = 1.8Mlb/in. Tensile cross section area At = 0.0775 in2. Ultimate strength Su = 120 kpsi. Modified endurance limit Se/Kf = 14.21 kpsi. Calculate factor of safety against fatigue for: a)Preload = 4941 lb. b)Preload = 1200 lb (Remember joint separation).

Adequate preload P, lb 4.94k 3k 1.2k Defl, in Pmax = 4.94 + 0.25(3) = 5.69 klb. Pmin = 4.94 klb. Minimum bolt stress i = _____ Altern bolt stress a = _______

n fatigue = a

Inadequate preload P, lb

3k Defl, in Pmax = 3.0 klb. Pmin = 1.2 klb. Minimum bolt stress i = _____ Altern bolt stress a = ______

S ut i S ut + S e K f

Se K f

nfatigue = ________

nfatigue = ________

If a force P pulls on the bolt in addition to the preload, then the safety factor is

Bolt proof strength Preload

nsb =

At S p Pi PCk

Stiffness parameter

( 15.31)

Bolt loading

Preload reduces the safety factor against static failure. However, static failure seldom matters, and less important than joint separation. What is more important than static failure is fatigue.

Against joint separation:

n sj = Pi P (1 C k )

nsb =

At S p Pi PCk

aA S e K f S ut i = a a S ut + S e K f

Against fatigue:

n fatigue =

Fy Fx 40 50 20 20 40 70 Two bolts, one behind

All materials are steel. 1. Determine loads on bolts. 2. Choose bolt grade (5 or higher). 3. Choose bolt diameter based on load and strength. 4. Determine preload and pretorque. 5. Calculate joint stiffness parameter. 6. Determine safety factor against joint separation. 7. Determine safety factor against fatigue. 8. Go back to 3 until safety factors are good.

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