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3rd International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics

An Interdigitated Split Ring Resonator for Low Frequency Metamaterials

Sung-Min Sohn, J. Thomas Vaughan*, and Anand Gopinath
Department of Electrical and Computer Science Engineering, University of Minnesota 200 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA Email: *Center for Magnetic Resonance, University of Minnesota, 2021 Sixth Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Abstract
An interdigitated split ring resonator (IR) has been proposed to obtain negative magnetic permeability () and also negative refractive index (n) by itself. Its electromagnetic properties have been characterized using a numerical simulator (HFSS). The experimental results show that the resonators exhibit a negative permeability and refractive index and may be used for planar metamaterial structures at low frequency ranges below a few GHz.

1. Introduction
A new design of a split ring resonator for generating metamaterials at low frequencies is discussed in this paper. Metamaterials require simultaneously thin metallic strips for the negative permittivity () and ring resonators with a gap for a negative permeability [1],[2]. Resonances at RF low frequencies, from a few tens of megahertz to a few gigahertz frequencies, require high capacitance and/or inductance which determine resonant frequencies. The Ozbay group has proposed planar spirals as resonators for low frequency metamaterials, because they provide a split ring resonator with high inductive values [3]. These spiral resonators (SRs), however, require additional metallic strips behind the substrate for negative indices. When constraints such as size and operating bandwidth in RF regions are defined, increasing capacitive and/or inductive values by changing the geometry should be carried out. It, therefore, brings about the miniaturization of resonators for use at RF regions. However, the incident wave magnetic field must be oriented perpendicular to the plane of resonator, and the electric field must be oriented parallel to the metallic strip [2],[4]. If small planar structures that resonate under a few GHz range can be designed, the scope of metamaterial applications will be enormously enlarged, and this paper provides a miniaturization technique.

2. Novel interdigitated split ring resonator structure

An interdigitated split ring resonator (IR) is proposed to miniaturize the structure for resonant operation at the desired RF frequency by increasing capacitance of the structure. Furthermore, the proposed resonator is a planar structure and possesses negative refractive index without a metallic strip behind the substrate. Fig. 1 (a): shows the proposed IR which is composed of pairs of fingers and a frame on a substrate that has the thickness (h). This resonator lines have width (w), thickness (t), and a square frame length of a unit cell (l). Each pair of fingers has spacing (s1) and overlapped length (s2) creating capacitance between fingers. The distance between pairs of fingers (s3) depends on the number of pairs (n) and the length of the frame. Comparing the proposed structure with other planar resonators (a) (b) [3], the primary difference is that there are Fig. 1: (a) Unit cell diagram of IR (b) A manufacpairs of fingers which are evenly distributed tured unit cell inside the frame. It is possible to obtain reso-

ISBN 978-0-9551179-6-1


2009 Metamorphose-VI

3rd International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics

nant frequencies which have a more linear variation with changing design parameters. A time varying magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the IR will induce circulating currents. This circulating current will result in a buildup of charge across the space between fingers with the energy stored as a capacitance [5]. Thus this structure is similar to a simple LC circuit with a resonant frequency (fLC) due to the capacitance between the fingers and the inductance from the current path of the loop of the resonator.

3. The properties of interdigitated split ring resonator structure

A. Resonance frequency Fig. 2: shows that the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to parameters of the size of the unit cell and the number of finger pairs. Among several design parameters, the side of the square unit cell (l) is the primary variable affecting the resonant frequency, as shown in Fig. 2 (a). The number of fingers also affects the resonant frequency as shown in Fig. 2 (b), but the effect is smaller. The variation in resonant frequency is larger with a smaller number of finger pairs. As the number of finger pairs increase, the response becomes linear. The resonant frequency of spiral resonator varies sharply with a few turns, and then remains almost constant [3]. To design a resonator for a particular frequency, the unit cell side is chosen first, followed by the number of pairs of fingers, and finally s1 and s2 are chosen. B. Negative index The metallic strip behind a split ring resonator behaves as a medium with negative effective permittivity if the electromagnetic wave propagates with electric field, E, parallel to the strip. The proposed IR has increased capacitance within the loop frame due to the added finger pairs which create negative permittivity without the metallic strip on back side of substrate. When designing a metamaterial, the proper characteristics are not obtained if a thick substrate is used, as the presence of the strip on the back side of the thick substrate does not couple the negative permittivity to the negative permeability of the split ring resonator. The proposed structure with a frame and fingers creates negative permittivity as well as negative permeability without the strip. This statement is supported by the results of the simulation discussed above and experiment.

(a) (b) Fig. 2: Properties of IR; (a) resonant frequency vs. the square unit cell side (l) as the number of pairs of fingers (n=6, 10, 14, w=0.1mm); (b) resonant frequency vs. the number of pairs of fingers (n) for a fixed side of unit cell (l=8, 10, 12mm, w=0.1mm) on Rogerss RT/duroid 5880 substrate (=2.2).

4. Experimental results
The fabricated IRs (w=0.2mm, n=2, t=18 of copper foils on Rogerss RT/duroid 5880 substrate, =2.2 ) are evaluated as shown in Fig. 3 (a). The measured amplitude of scattering parameters is plotted in Fig. 3 (b), and Fig. 3 (c) plots the effective phase shifts calculated using a reference plane shift from the antennas to the plane at the center of the resonator. The interdigitated split ring resonator has indices of negative refraction, shown in Fig. 3 (d), without the need of a metallic strip. Parameters

ISBN 978-0-9551179-6-1


2009 Metamorphose-VI

3rd International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics





Fig. 3: (a) experimental setup (b) measured scattering parameters with single and array structure (c) the phase shift and (d) reflective index and permeability

including refractive index and permeability have been calculated from measured scattering parameters by the equations in reference [6]. The negative index band is formed in the resonance frequency region with the change in phase shift. These results correspond to the dip in the phase of S21, which indicates the presence of a negative index band [6].

5. Conclusion
In conclusion, this paper has proposed the interdigitated split ring resonator (IR). Simulation results show that resonant frequencies are linearly varied by increasing capacitance with increased number of finger-pairs. Experimental results have shown that negative refractive indices have been obtained with a planar structure without metal strip behind the substrate.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Metamaterials and negative refractive index, Science. vol. 305, pp. 788-792, August 2004. P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, Wave propagation, New Jersey: J. Princeton University Press, 2008. K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, Miniaturized negative permeability materials, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, 071121, 2007. M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Lefthanded metamaterials: detailed numerical studies of the transmission properties, J. Opt. A., S12, No2.,2005. D. R. Smith, Willie J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 4184-4187, May 2000. D.R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny,and C. M. Soukoulis, Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials, Phys. Rev. E. vol. 71, 036617, 2005.

ISBN 978-0-9551179-6-1


2009 Metamorphose-VI