HPEP,RC Puram

Speedtronic® Mark V Turbine Control System

Gas Turbine Rotating Blow Torch Designed to Run at the Ragged Edge of Self Destruction

C

T

G

Control System for Gas Turbine
 Gas

turbine is controlled Speedtronic control system  Control loops includes
     

Start-up Acceleration Speed Temperature Shutdown and Manual Control functions

Speedtronic Control loops

Major Control loops
  

Secondary control loops
Acceleration Manual FSR and Shutdown

Start-up Speed and Temperature

Output of these control loops is fed to a minimum value gate Display Fuel circuit
Temperature Display Speed

Acceleration Rate Display Start Up Shut Down Manual

M I N

FSR

To Turbine

Speedtronic Control loops
 Fuel

Stroke Reference (FSR)

Command signal for fuel flow

 Controlling

FSR

Lowest of the six control loops  Establishes the fuel input to turbine @ rate required by system which is in control
 Only

ONE control loop will be in control at anytime.

The control loop which controls FSR is displayed in operator friendly CRT.

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control
 Startup

control brings the gas turbine

Zero speed up to Operating speed.

 Allows

proper fuel to establish

Flame & Accelerate the turbine in such a manner as to minimize the Low cycle Fatigue of the hot gas path parts during the sequence

 Software

Sequencing involves

Command signals to Turbine Accessories, Starting device and Fuel control system

 Safe

and successful start-up

depends on proper functioning of GT equipment.

Software Sequencing ensures safe operation of Turbine

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control
 Control

logic circuitry is associated not only with actuating control devices, but enables protective circuits and obtains permissive conditions before proceeding. settings play a vital role in determining the proper sequencing.

 Control

Actual site specific control settings are generated by M/s GEICS,USA.

 Speed
   

detection - by magnetic pickups

L14HR Zero-Speed (Approx. 0% TNH) L14HM Min Speed (Approx.. 16% TNH) L14HA Accelerating Speed (Approx. 50% TNH) L14HS Operating speed (Approx..95% TNH)

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control
 Actual

settings of speed relays are listed in Control

specification.
 The

control constants are programmed in <RST>

processors EEPROM.
 Always

ensure correct site specific, machine

specific control specification.
 Consult

your system designer for any queries.

Start-up Control - FSRSU
 Open

loop control Fuel levels

Uses preset levels of fuel command

 Various

Zero, Fire, Warm-up, Accelerate and Max.

Typical values for Frame-6
   

Fire Warm-up Accelerate Maximum

15.62% 11.62% 19.82% 100%

Open Loop Control

Start-up Control - FSRSU
 Startup

control FSR (FSRSU) signal operates through the MIN value gate to ensure other control functions can limit FSR as required.

FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN

FSR MIN
FSR = FSRSU

Start-up Control - FSRSU
 Speedtronic

Control Start-up software generates Fuel command signal (FSR). Control Software also sets the MAX and MIN limits for FSR for Manual Control FSR
[ FSRMIN < FSRMAN < FSRMAX ]

 Speedtronic

 When

Turbine Breaks away (starts to rotate)

L14HR pick-up Starting clutch solenoid 20CS de-energizes Shuts down the hydraulic ratchet motor (88HR)

Acceleration Control - FSRACC
 Acceleration

control software

compares the present value of Speed signal with the value at the last sample time. Difference between these two numbers is a measure of acceleration.

 When

actual acceleration is greater acceleration reference, FSRACC is reduced, which reduces FSR, thus reduction in fuel supply to turbine. startup-acceleration reference is a function of turbine speed. control takes over after Warm-up state.

 During

 Acceleration

Acceleration Control - FSRACC
 Acceleration

reference is a Control constant programmed in <RST> EEPROMS
Typical

0.35 %/sec

0.10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100%

TNH

Acceleration Control - FSRACC
FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN

FSR MIN

FSR = FSRACC

Speed Control - FSRN
 Speed

Control System software

controls the speed and load of the gas turbine generator in response to the actual turbine speed signal (TNH) and the called-for speed reference(TNR)

TNH

FSRN

TNR

Speed/Load Control
 Speed/Load

Reference:

Speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference the actual turbine generator speed (TNH) and the called-for reference (TNR)

 Reference

Speed (TNR) range

95% (min) to 107% (max) for a generator drive turbine

 Start-up

speed reference is 100.3%. follows 100.3% TNH for synchronization

This is preset when START signal is initiated.

 Turbine

Speed/Load Control
 Turbine

Speed is held constant when Generator

Breaker is closed onto Power grid
 Fuel

flow in excess of the necessary to maintain

FSNL will result in increased power produced by the generator.
 Thereby  Speed

Speed control becomes Load control loop

Control:

Isochronous Speed control Droop Speed Control

Isochronous Speed Control

TNH TNR
FSRSU FSRACC

FSRNI

FSRN (or FSRNI) FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN

MIN

FSR
FSR = FSRN

Droop Speed Control
 Droop

Control is a proportional control.

Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a proportional change in unit load. This proportionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or ‘Droop’ 104 %
Droo p 104 % set ting

Speed Reference TNR

Full Speed No Load FSR

100 %

FSNL
100% Setp

oint

95% Min TNR

Low Speed Stop

FSR

Rated FSR

Speed/Load Control loop
Raise Lower Rate Rate Speed Ref. Command Preset Ememrgency Os SPEED CONTROL Speed Target MANUAL SETPOINT

Power Speed Error

LOG SETPOIINT

Primary Os

Mechanical Os Load Raise Load Lower Rate Load Ref. Cmd MANUAL
SET POINT

Speed Load Setpoint

LOG SET POIINT

Load Rate

Preset

Speed Control Schematic
SPEED CONTROL
FSNL TNR SPEED REF.

<RST>

+ -

ERROR + SIGNAL

+

FSRN

TNH SPEED DROOP

<RST> RST>

SPEED CHANGER LOAD SET POINT
MAX. LIMIT

L83SD RATE L70R RAISE

L83PRES PRESET LOGIC

L70L LOWER

MEDIAN SELECT

PRESET
OPERATING L83TNROP MIN. SELECT LOGIC

TNR SPEED REF.

MIN.

START-UP

or SHUT DOWN

Synchronising - FSRSYN
 Automatic

synchronization software

Algorithms programmed into <RST> controller and <P> software.

 Bus

and Generator voltage are input signals to Protective core <P>.

Isolation transformers are built into <P> core

 <RST>

software drives the synch check and system permissive relays.

Sequencing and algorithms are programmed into <RST> EEPROM

 <P>

hardware and software sends voted command to actual breaker closure.

Auto Synchronisation
Speed Speed Matching Lower Speed Speed Raise Volts Generator Volts Voltage Matching Lower Volts System Volts Raise Speed

System Frequency

Synchronising Scheme
<RST>
AUTO SYNCH PERMISSIVE Gen Volts
REF A A>B B AND

L83AS Auto Synch Permissive

<XYZ> AUTO SYNCH

Line Volts
REF

A A>B B

Calculated Phase within Limits Calculated slip within Limits Calculated Acceleration Calculated Breaker Lead Time

AND

L25
Breaker Close

Temperature Control - FSRT
 Temp.Control

software/algorithms

limit fuel flow to the turbine to maintain internal operating temperatures within design parameters of turbine hot gas path parts.

 Highest

temperature is in the flame zone of combustion chambers.

TTXM TTREF

FSRT

Firing Temperature
 Firing

temperature - temperature of gas as it exits the first stage nozzle.  Speedtronic limits this firing temperature.  Firing temperature is calculated by
   

thermodynamic relation ships GT performance calculations, and site conditions as a function of Exhaust Temp(Tx) and CPD
Exhaust temperature (Tx)

fuel air

C

T

Co ns t

Isothermal
Fir ing T em

p(

Li n

ea

riz

ed

)

ISO FIRING TEMP TC

Compressor Discharge Pressure (CPD)

Firing Temperature
 Firing
  

temperature can also be approximated as

a function of Tx and Fuel flow (FSR) and as a function of Tx and Generator MW output Line of constant firing temperature are used in control software to limit the gas turbine operating temp whereas the constant exhaust temperature limit protects the exhaust system during start-up. TA TB TC
Exhaust temperature (Tx)

Co ns

tF irin gT

Isothermal
em

p(

L in

ea

riz

ed )

TA > TB > TC

Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR)

Exhaust Temp control software
 Series

of application programs written to

perform critical exhaust temperature control and monitoring.

Major function is

Exhaust temperature control.

Software is Programmed for
  

Temperature control command Temperature control bias calculations Temperature reference selection.

Temperature Control Schematic
<RST>

If ONE Controller should fail, this TTXDR program ignore the readings from the TTXDS TTXDT failed Controller. TTXM is based on remaining controllers thermocouples.  Alarm will be generated

TTXD2
SORT HIGHEST TO LOWEST

To Comb. Monitor

<RST> Temp Control Ref
CORNER

QUANTITY of TC’s Used

REJECT LOW TC’s

REJECT HIGH AND LOW

AVERAGE REMAINING

TTXM

Temperature Control <RST>
+ +

CPD

SLOPE SLOPE MIN. SELECT

FSRMIN FSRMAX TTRXB

FSR
CORNER

+ -

+

TTXM
GAIN

+ -

+ +

MEDIAN SELECT

FSRT

ISOTHERMAL

FSR

The temp-control-command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temp control setpoint (calculated in the temp-control-bias program and stored in computer memory) TTRXB to the TTXM value to determine temp error. The software program converts the temp error to a FSRT

Temperature Control Bias program
DIGITAL INPUT DATA COMPUTER MEMORY

TT Kn _B

TT Kn _M

Exhuast Temperature

SELECTED TEMPERATURE REFERANCE TABLE

TEMPERATURE CONTROL BIAS PROGRAM

TTKn_I TTKn_C

TTKn_K

Isothermal

COMPUTER MEMORY

CP D

FS R

BI AS

BI AS

CONSTANT STORAGE

Temperature Control Bias
Temp control Bias program calculates the Exhaust temp control setpoint TTRXB based on CPD data stored in computer memory and constants from the selected temp-reference table. This Program also calculates another setpoint based on FSR and constants from another temperaturereference table.

Exhaust Temp Control Setpoints
TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope) are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD bias exhaust temperature setpoint. TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope) are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR bias exhaust temperature setpoint. Program also selects isothermal setpoint

CPD FSR

Final temp control Ref=MIN(FSR bias, CPD bias, Isothermal setpoint (TTKn_I)

Temperature Control Bias Program

This Program selects the minimum of the three set points, CPD bias, FSR bias, or isothermal setpoint for the final exhaust temperature control reference. During normal operation with Gas or light Distillate fuels, this selection results in a CPD bias control with an isothermal limit.

CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm occurs when the CPD setpoint exceeds the FSR bias setpoint.

During normal operation with Heavy fuels, FSR bias setpoint will be selected to minimize the turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature.

FSR bias setpoint is compared with CPD bias setpoint and an alarm occurs when the FSR bias setpoint exceeds the CPD bias setpoint.

A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate of setpoint change. Both Max (TTKRXR1) and Min (TTKRXR2) change in ramp rates (slopes) are programmed.Typical rate change limit is 1.5deg F. The output of this ramp function is the Exhaust temp.control setpoint which is stored in the computer memory.

Temperature Reference Select Program
Exhaust temperature control function selects control set points to allow GT operation at firing temperatures.  Temperature-control-select program determines the operational level for control set points based on Digital input information representing temperature control requirements.  Three digital input signals are decoded to select one set of constants which defines the control set points necessary to meet the demand.

Typical digital signals are BASE SELECT, PEAK SELECT and HEAVY FUEL SELECT
Digital Input Data Temperature Reference Select

Selected Temperature Reference Table

• When appropriate set of constants are selected they are stored in the selected-temperature-reference memory.

Constant Storage

Temperature Reference Select Program

Fuel Control system

Turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors in response to the fuel stroke reference signal(FSR).

 FSR

actually consists of two separate signals added together. FSR = FSR1 + FSR2
FSR1 = Called-for liquid fuel flow FSR2 = Called-for gas fuel flow

 Standard

fuel systems are designed for operation with Liquid fuel and/or gas fuel.

Servo Drive System

Servo drive System

The heart of Fuel Control System

3 coil Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve

Servo valve is the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems  Servo valve controls the direction and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo.  Servo valve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor.  Each coil is connected to one of the three controllers <RST>, thereby redundancy is ensured if one of the controller fails.  A null-bias spring positions the servo so that actuator goes to the fail safe position when ALL power and/or control signal is lost.

Liquid Fuel System
 Liquid

Fuel system consists of

Fuel handling components
– – – – – –

Primary fuel oil filter (low pressure) Fuel oil stop valve - Fuel pump Fuel bypass valve - Fuel oil pressure relief valve Secondary fuel oil filter (High pressure) Flow dividers - Combined Selector valve False start drain valve - Fuel lines & fuel nozzles Liquid fuel press sw (upstream) 63FL-2 Fuel oil stop valve limit sw 33FL Fuel pump clutch solenoid 20CF Liquid fuel pump bypass valve Servo valve 65FP Flow divider magnetic pickups 77FD-1,2,3 and Speedtronic Control cards TCQC and TCQA

Electrical Control components
– – – – – –

Liquid Fuel System P&ID
FSR1 <RST> FQ1 FQROUT TNH L4 L20FLX TCQA TCQC <RST> <RST> TCQA Flow Divider 77FD-1 PR/A Typical Fuel Nozzles Combustion Chamber Conn.For Purge When Required AD

By-pass Valve Asm 65FP 63FL-2 Diff Press Guage Fuel Stop Valve OF Main Fuel Pump 33FL OLTControl Oil Accessory Gear Drive

OFV VR4 Atomizing Air

77FD-2 77FD-3

False Start Drain Valve Chamber OFD

To Drain

Fuel oil Control - Software

Control system checks the permissive L4 and L20FLX to allow FSR1 for closing the Bypass valve
(closing bypass valve sends fuel to the combustors)

These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve.  Fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF) is energised to drive the pump when the Stop valve opens.  Fuel splitter algorithm ensures requisite FSR when FSR1 is active  FSR1 is multiplied by TNH - to make it a function of speed (an important parameter of Turbine)

  

to ensure better resolution at the lower, more critical speeds where air flow will be low. Net result is FQROUT- a digital liquid fuel flow command At Full speed, TNH does not change Therefore FQROUT ~~ FSR

Fuel oil Control - Software
 Analog

signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the controllers’ software to compare to certain limits as well as for display in CRT. checks performed by software program
- Loss of LVDT position feedback
  

 The

L60FFLH - Excessive fuel flow on start-up L3LFLT L3LFBSQ - Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop valve is closed L3LFBSC - Servo Current is detected when stop valve is closed L3LFT - Loss of flow divider feedback

(L60FFLH persists for 2 sec and this fault initiates trip, L3LFT also initiates trip during start-up)

Fuel Gas System
 Fuel
 

gas is controlled by

Gas Speed ratio/stop valve (SRV) Gas Control Valve (GCV)

(Both are servo controlled by signals from Speedtronic control panel and actuated by spring acting hydraulic cylinders moving against springloaded valve plugs)

GCV controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the FSR command signal. SRV is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2) at the inlet of the GCV as a function of turbine speed

P1

P2
SRV GCV

P3
To Turbine

Fuel Supply

Fuel Gas System
 Gas

Fuel System consists of
Gas Strainer Control valve assembly Three pressure gauges - Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv assembly - Dump valves -

Fuel handling components
– – – –

Gas manifold with ’pigtails’ to respective fuel nozzles

Electrical control components
– – – –

Gas supply press sw 63FG

- Fuel gas press xducer(s) 96FG

Gas fuel vent sol valve 20VG -LVDTs 96GC-1,2 & 96SR-1,2 Electro hydraulic servo vlv 90SR & 65GC Speedtronic control cards TBQB and TCQC

Fuel Gas System P&ID
FPRG POS2 FPG TCQC SPEED RATIO VALVE CONTROL POS1 FSR2 TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE SERVO TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION FEEDBACK

TBQB

96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C TRANSDUCERS

20 VG

VENT Gas Control Valve

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

63FG-3

Stop Ratio Valve

GAS

P2
LVDT’S 96SR-1.2 TRIP Vh5-1 Dump Relay 90SR SERVO Hydraulic Supply 90GC SERVO LVDT’S 96GC-1.2

GAS MANIFOLD

Gas Control Valve
 Gas

Control Valve

GCV position is proportional to FSR2 GCV will open only when permissive L4, L20FGX and L2TVX (purge complete) are true.

(Actuation of spring-loaded GCV is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an Electro-hydraulic servo valve)

Stroke of the valve is proportional to FSR
OFFSET GAIN

<RST> <RST> HI SEL

FSR2 L4 L3GCV

TBQC

  

FSR2 goes through Fuel splitter algorithm. TCQC converts FSROUT to an analog signal. GAS P2 GCV stem position is sensed by LVDTs and fed back to an op-amp on TCQC card to compare with FSROUT input signal at summing junction. Op-amp on TCQC converts error signal and sends to servo valve to drive GCV accordingly.

FSROUT GCV

Analog I/O

GCV Position Loop Calibration
LVDT’S 96GC -1,-2

Servo Valve

LVDT Position

FSR

Speed Ratio/Stop Valve

It is dual function valve As a Stop Valve
- integral part of protection system

TNH
GAIN OFFSET
+ -

<RST>

<RST>

(It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a desired fuel gas pressure ahead of GCV)

FPRG FPG

D A HI SEL

L4 L3GCV

Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv has Two control loops  Position loop similar to GCV  Pressure control loop
• Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet of GCV is controlled by the pressure loop as a function of turbine speed (in proportion to the turbine speed TNH) to become Gas fuel press Ref FPRG • TCQC card converts FPRG to analog signalP2 (FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error signal is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT feedback to reposition the valve as in GCV loop

POS2

SRV
GAS

96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C

Op Cyl Posn
Trip Oil

96SR-1,2 LVDTs
Dump Relay

Analog I/O Module

TBQB

During a trip or no-run condition, a posive voltage bias is placed on servo coils holding them in the “valve closed” position

Servo Valve

Hydraulic Oil

SRV Pres Calibration

P2 TNH

P2 = (FPKGNG x TNH) + FPKGNO

GCV & SRV schematic
GAS FUEL CONTROL VALVE GAS CONTROL FQROUT SERVO GAS CONTROL VALVE VALVE OUTPUT COMMAND OUTPUT

GAS FUEL REFERENCE

GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION

GAS RATIO VALVE CONTROL GAS REQUIRED PRESSURE SPEED CONTROL VALVE` OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE SERVO COMMAND MIDVALVE GAS FUEL PRESSURE OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE POSITION

Duel Fuel Control
 Turbines

designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel systems are equipped with Control software accordingly.

Control software performs the following:
– – – –

Transfer of one fuel to other on command Allow time for filling lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being transferred. Mixed fuel operation Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel.

 Software
    

programming involves:

Fuel splitter Fuel transfer- Liquid to Gas Liquid fuel purge Fuel transfer-Gas to Liquid Mixed fuel operation logics and algorithms

Fuel splitter - software
 FSR

is splitter into two signals FSR1 & FSR2 to provide dual fuel operation. <RST>
FUEL SPLITTER

FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel fraction FX1 to produce FSR1signal FSR1 is then subtracted from the FSR signal to generate FSR2 signal

A=B A=B

L84TG Total Gas L84TL Total LIQ

MAX.LIMIT MIN.LIMIT L83FZ Permissives
RAMP

MEDIAN SELECT

Rate

L83FG Gas Select

FSR = FSR1 + FSR2

L83FL Liquid Select FSR

LIQ Ref FSR1 FSR2 GAS Ref

Fuel Transfer - Liquid to Gas, Gas to Liquid

Fuel transfer from Liquid to Gas
GT running on Liquid (FSR1) and GAS transfer selected. FSR1 will remain at its initial value, FSR2 will step-up to slightly greater than Zero value (0.5%). This opens the GCV slightly to bleed down the inter valve volume. The presence of a high pressure than that required by the SRV would cause slow response in initiating gas flow. After delay of 30 sec to bleed down the P2 pressure and fill the gas supply line, the software program ramps the fuel commands FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease at a programmed rate through median select gate. Fuel transfer completes in 30 sec.
UNITS

FSR2

Transfer from Full Gas to Full Liquid

FSR1 PURGE SELECT DISTILLATE FSR1 TIME

Transfer from Full Liquid to Full Gas.
UNITS

FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS FSR1 TIME

Transfer from Full Liquid to Mixture.
UNITS

FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS SELECT MIX TIME

Fuel Control System
 Liquid

fuel Purge fuel Operation

To prevent the coking of the liquid fuel nozzles

 Mixed

Gas Turbine can be operated on both GAS & LIQ in any proportion when operator choses to be on MIX mode. Limits of fuel mixture are required to ensure proper combustion, gas fuel distribution and gas nozzle flow velocities. % of gas flow must be increased as load is decreased to maintain the minimum pressure ratio across the fuel nozzle.

Modulated Inlet Guide Vane System
 IGV
 

system

Bang-Bang type (2 position) Modulated acceleration of turbine at rated speed., loading and unloading of the generator deceleration of gas turbine proper flows and pressures, and thus the stresses in the compressor. Maintains minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles in Combined cycle operations maintains high exhaust temperatures at low loads.

IGV modulates during
  

IGV modulation maintains
  

Modulated Inlet Guide Vane Control
IGV Operation:
During start-up IGV is fully closed (34º) from 0% to 83% of corrected speed. Turbine speed is corrected to reflect the air conditions at 80ºF, this compensates for changes in air density as ambient conditions change. HYD.
SUPPLY

<RST> CSRGV CSRGV

<RST> IGV REF
D/A HIGH SELECT

CSRGVOUT

Analog I/O

CLOSE

HM 3-1

At Amb.Temp >80ºF TNHCOR < TNH At Amb.Temp <80ºF TNHCOR > TNH Above 83% IGV open at 6.7º per % increase in TNHCOR.

I FH6 O N -1 U T

R

P

OPEN

90TV-1
2 1 A C OLT-1

TRIP OIL

VH3-1

IGV open to minimum full speed angle 57º and stop opening at 91% TNH

D OD

C2

ORIFICES (2)

Inlet Guide Vane Operation
By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than than the min full speed angle at 100%TNH, a min press drop is maintained across the fuel nozzles, thereby lessening combustion system resonance.
) IGV ANGLE - DEG (CSRGV)

For Simple Cycle operation IGV move to full open position at pre-selected exhaust temperature, usually 700ºF. For Combined Cycle operation, IGV begins to move to full open pos. as exh.temp approaches Temp. Control ref. temperature
(Normally IGVs begin open when Tx is within 30ºF of temp control Ref.) 0

Fuel Open Max. Angle Combined Cycle (TTRX)

Simple Cycle (CSKGVSSR) MIN Full Speed Angle Startup Program

Region Of Negative 5th Stage Extraction Pressure

100 100 BASE LOAD EXHUAST TEMPERATURE

Corrected Speed -% 0 (TNCHOR) FSNL

IGV Control Schematic
Temp. Control Feedback Temp. Control Reference Manual Command IGV Position

Compressor Inlet Temp.

Inlet Guide Vane Ref.

Servo IGV Output Command
IGV Reference

Speed

IGV Part IGV Part Speed Ref. Speed Ref.

Wet Low NOx Control
Gas dP Gas Press Gas Gas Fuel Flow Gas Temp Basic Injection Flow + _

Flow

Liq Fuel Flow Humidity Power Augmentation Flow

Required Injection Injection Flow Flow

Dead band Controller Lower

Injection Flow

Water Flow

Steam Steam Press Steam Temp

Select Steam Flow

Injection Flow

Protection Systems
 Turbine

protection system consists of number of subsystems
 

which operate during each normal start-up and shutdown Few operate strictly during emergency and abnormal operating conditions.

 Protection
 

systems are set up to

Detect and alarm the failure. If the failure is of serious nature, protection system will trip the turbine.

 Protection

system responds to:

Simple trip signals like
– –

low lube oil press switch high gas compressor discharge pressure etc….

Protection Systems

More Complex parameters like
– – – – –

Over speed Over temperature High Vibration, Combustion monitor Loss of flame etc…..

 To

ensure the safety and safe operation of turbine

Speedtronic system is equipped with master control and protection circuit

Protection Systems
 Turbine

Protection systems includes:

Trip Oil
– – –

Inlet orifice, Check Valves & Orifice network Pressure switches Dump valves

 Over
 

speed Protection

Electronic Over speed trip Mechanical Over speed bolt Over temperature alarm (L30TXA) Over temperature Trip (L86TXT)

Over temperature Protection
 

Flame Detection and Protection System

Protection Systems
 Vibration
 

Protection

High Vibration Alarm & Trip Vibration transducer fault Alarm Spread calculations Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm Combustion Trouble Alarm High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip Spread monitor enable

Primary OS Over temp Vibra tion Comb Monitor

Master Prot. Circuit <RST>

GCV

Gas Fuel Control Valve Gas Fuel Speed Ratio/ Stop Valve

SRV

Combustion monitoring
 

Relay Voting Module

20 FG

 

Sec OS Loss Of Flame

Master Prot. Circuit <XYZ>

Bypass Valve Servo valve

FUEL PUMP

Relay Voting Module

20 FL

Liquid Fuel Stop Valve

Trip Oil System
It is a primary protection interface between the turbine control and protection system and the components of the turbine which admit or shut-off, fuel.  System devices are electrically operated by Speedtronic control system as well as some totally mechanical devices.

Protective Signals Master Protection L4 Circuits Orifice And Check Valve Network

Manual Trip (When Provided)

20 FG

20 FL

Liquid Fuel

Liquid Fuel Stop Valve

63HL

INLET ORIFICE OVERSPEED TRIP 12HA 63HG RESET Manual Trip

Gas fuel

Gas Fuel Speed Ratio/ Stop Value

Gas Fuel Dump Relay Valve

OH

Over Speed Protection

Electronic Over speed function is performed in <RST> and <XYZ>.
 

TNH TNKHOS TNKHOST LK3HOST L86MR1

<RST> <XYZ> High Pressure Over Speed Trip HP Speed A Trip Setpoint Test Test Premissive Master Reset
A>B

TNH is compared with TNKHOS. When TNH>TNKHOS, turbine is tripped and latched till Reset. “ELECTRICAL OVERSPEED TRIP” is displayed in CRT.

B

L12H To Master Set Prot And And Latch Alarm Msg

Reset

OLT 12HP Manual Reset Manual Trip

Mechanical Over speed system Consists of

OD Overspeed Bolt

 

Over speed bolt assembly in accessory gear box. Over speed trip mechanism in the assessory gear. Position limit switch 12 HA. Acts as a back-up control Trip setting > Electronic Setting

Over Temperature Protection
Protects GT against possible damages against Over firing.
1090º F
OVER-TEMP. TRIP & ALARM. TTXM TTXOT3 ALARM A A>B B L30TXA ALARM To Alarm Message And Speed Setpoint Lower

ISO TRIP 40ºF

TTRXB TTXOT2

A A>B B A A>B B

O R Set And Latch Reset

TTREF
1030ºF

TTXOT1 L86MR1

TRIP Isothermal

To Master Prot. And Alarm Msg

25ºF

TRIP ALARM CONTROL

CPD

It is a backup protection system, operates only after the failure of temperature control system.

Flame Detection & Protection
 Speedtronic

Mark-V flame detectors perform two

functions
 

One in the Sequencing system other in Protective system

 

Flame detected by UV radiation. Speedtronic control furnish +350VDC to drive the UV detector tube. In the presence of UV radiation, the gas in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current. counts the no.of current pulses/sec through UV sensor.

 Speedtronic

 Typically

300 pulses/sec when strong UV signal is

present.

Flame Detection & Protection
Speedtronic MK-V Flame Detection 28FD UV SCANNER TUEBINE PROTECTION LOGIC

<P>
ANALOG I/O (Flame Detection Channes)

28FD UV SCANNER

28FD UV SCANNER

FLAME DETECTION LOGIC

CRT DISPLAY

28FD UV SCANNER

TURBINE CONTROL LOGIC

NOTE: Excitation for the sensor and signal processing is performed by SPEEDTRONIC Mk V circuits

Vibration Protection
Turbine unit comprises
30V <RST>

 Gas

Several independent vibration channels Each channel detects excessive vibration by a seismic pickup Each channel includes one vibration pickup (velocity type) and a Speedtronic Mark-V amplifier circuit. Vibration detectors generate a relatively low voltage by the relative motion of a permanent magnet suspended in a coil and therefore no excitation is required. Vibration protection system trips the turbine when vibration level exceeds predetermined level.

L30TEST OR FAULT L39VF

FAULT

A VF A<B B A VA A>B B A VT A>B B AND TRIP

ALARM TRIP

ALARM L39VA
SET AND L39VT LATCH RESET

Auto Or Manual Reset

Speedtronic control generates
High Vibration Trip Vibration Transducer Fault

Combustion Monitoring
 Primary

function
CTDA
TTKSPL1 TTKSPL2

<RST>
Combustion Monitor Algorithm

to reduce the likelihood of extensive damage to the gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. Continuously examines the exhaust temperature and compressor discharge temperature thermocouples Reliability of combustion monitor depends on condition of exhaust thermocouples. Several software programs are written to achieve this

Median Select Calculate Allowable Spread Median Select

TTXSPL

TTXC
TTKSPL5 TTKSPL7 Constants

TTXD2
Calculate Actual Spreads

A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B A A>B B

L60SP1 L60SP2 L60SP3 L60SP4

Combustion Monitoring
Speedtronic Control Software performs

1 High

18 Low

 ALARM

- TTXSP1 => TTXSPL  TRIP - TTXSP1 > TTXSPL and TTXSP2 > 80% of TTXSPL and Low TC is physically next to the second to low TC  TRIP - TTXSP2 > 80% of TTXSPL and one TC is failed and 2nd lowest TC next to 3rd to lowest TC (a failed TC is defined as TTXSP1 > 5 x TTXSPL)  TRIP - TTXSP3 > 80% of TTXSPL

Actual Spreads TTXSP1 = High - Low TTXSP2 = High - 2nd Low TTXSP3 = High - 3rd Low Allowable Spread (Spread Limit) TTXSPL = Based on CTD & TTXM

Trip Functions
Primary Over speed Detected Emergency Over speed Detected Loss Of Speed Signal Vibration Trip Exhaust Over temp Trip Differential Expansion Trip Low Lube Oil Level Trip Low Lube Oil Pressure Trip Low Servo Pressure Trip Axial Position Trip Generator Differential Fault Manual Trip Customer Trip

OR

TRIP TURBINE

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